WorldWideScience

Sample records for increase energy efficiency

  1. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  2. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  3. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  4. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  5. Do increases in energy efficiency improve environmental quality and sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Nick [Department of Economics, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland (United Kingdom); McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim; Turner, Karen [Fraser of Allander Institute and Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Governments world-wide increasingly see energy efficiency as an important aspect of sustainability. However, there is a debate in the literature as to whether the impact of improved energy efficiency on reducing energy use might be partially, or more than wholly, offset through 'rebound' and 'backfire' effects. This paper clarifies the theoretical conditions under which such effects would occur and explores their likely significance using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Scottish economy. We find that for Scotland a general improvement in energy efficiency in the production sectors of the economy initially produces rebound effects that eventually grow into backfire. Energy use ultimately increases in response to an efficiency gain and the ratio of GDP to CO{sub 2} emissions falls. The economic factors underpinning rebound effects are straightforward: energy efficiency improvements result in an effective cut in energy prices, which produces output, substitution, competitiveness and income effects that stimulate energy demands. However, the presence of strong rebound or even backfire does not mean that efficiency-enhancing policies are irrelevant: rather it suggests that such policies operating alone are insufficient to generate environmental improvements. The implication is that a co-ordinated portfolio of energy policies is required. (author)

  6. RATIONAL INCREASING OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SACRAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra REPELEWICZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency of sacral buildings. Churches in the Zawiercie pastoral district of the Archdiocese of Czestochowa have been used as examples of typical sacral buildings of low energy efficiency. Such structures need to be thermally insulated during their use. Certain possibilities of raisingthe energy efficiency of churches have been presented. The paper describes different systems: increasingof wall and roof insulation, installation of new windows, and modern heating systems. Installation of a new heating system has been considered the most effective and the easiest to be implemented one.

  7. The Impact of Increased Efficiency in the Transport Sectors‟ Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    efficient by 2016 and are the largest energy-consumers. ... factors motivating the investigation of the effects of energy efficiency ...... Hotels & Restaurants .... some existing empirical evidence indicating that the choice of model closures affects ...

  8. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  9. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  10. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  11. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in un- known terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et. la [3...

  12. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J. C.; Stoy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et al. [1...

  13. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  14. CONTROLLING AS A MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISES OF FUEL-ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ostashkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibility of application of controlling as mechanism of increasing the efficiency of management of enterprises of fuel- energy complex. The research was conducted on the materials of the JSC «Gazprom».

  15. Efficiency increase in ship's primal energy system using a multistage compression with intercooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeka Petar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an analysis of the potential increase of efficiency in ship's primal energy system using a turbocharger with multistage compression with intercooling, and diverting a greater flow of exhaust gases to power turbine of waste heat recovery system (WHR. Analysis of potential efficiency increase has been made for various stages of compression for a 100 % main engine load, and an analysis of five stage compression with intercooling for a main engine load between 50% and 100%.

  16. Increasing the energy-efficiency in the production of bricks; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Backsteinproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurche, J.-P. [Kiefer und Partners AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gubler, Ch. [Ziegelei Fisibach AG, Bauma (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a research project that defined a universally valid concept for the analysis of potential for the reduction of the energy consumption of the installations in older brick-manufacturing facilities. The brick manufacturing process is described and the energy-households of the ovens and dryers are analysed. Methods used for the measurement of energy flows are described and the development of a simulation tool is discussed. Various possibilities for increasing energy-efficiency are looked at. The paper is rounded off with graphically-illustrated listings of the results obtained.

  17. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  18. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  19. REDESIGN OF COMMONLY USED TOBACCO CURING BARNS IN ZIMBABWE FOR INCREASED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPECIAL MUSONI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zimbabwe two types of barns are commonly used for tobacco curing, namely the traditional and Rocket barns. The traditional barn and the Rocket Barn loose 98.5% and 55.6% of the energy supplied respectively. The latter is 43.6% more thermally efficient than the traditional barn. There is, however, potential of increasing the energy efficiency of both barns. In this study, a design that incorporates structural changes to reduce heat loss as well as recovery of heat was developed. The design is a combination of commercially available components, and allows for ventilation heat re-use and increased heat transfer from furnace ducts to the drying chamber. The structure was found to be 54.7% more thermally efficient than the Rocket barn and 74.2% more efficient than the traditional barn. The new design needs to be field-tested so that it can be adopted by tobacco farmers.

  20. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  1. Application Of Sustainable Design Principles To Increase Energy Efficiency Of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoury B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing residential buildings. Based on the research findings, the most effective and practical method of retrofitting has been proposed in order to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings. In order to achieve this goal, an existing residential building has been simulated in FirstRate 5 software so as to determine the existing thermal performance of the building. Afterwards, considering sustainable design principles, different insulation layers, glazing, and construction materials have been employed to conduct a comprehensive thermal performance study. Based on the research outcomes, the best technique for increasing energy efficiency of existing buildings and reducing their environmental impact and footprint has been identified and proposed for practical purposes.

  2. Application of energy and exergy analysis to increase efficiency of a hot water gas fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milena N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice exergy can be used for technical and economic optimization of energy conversion processes. The problem of increasing energy consumption suggests that heating plants, i.e. hot water boilers, as energy suppliers for household heating should be subjected to exergy and energy analysis. Heating plants are typically designed to meet energy demands, without the distinguished difference between quality and quantity of the produced heat. In this paper, the energy and exergy analysis of a gas fired hot water boiler is conducted. Energy analysis gives only quantitative results, while exergy analysis provides an insight into the actually available useful energy with respect to the system environment. In this paper, a hot water boiler was decomposed into control volumes with respect to its functional components. Energy and exergy of the created physical model of the hot water boiler is performed and destruction of exergy and energy loss in each of the components is calculated. The paper describes the current state of energy and exergy efficiency of the hot water boiler. The obtained results are analyzed and used to investigate possibilities for improvement of availability and reliability of the boiler. A comparison between the actual and the proposed more reliable solution is made.

  3. New Operational Modes to Increase Energy Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Soria, Jorge; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2016-06-07

    In order for capacitive deionization (CDI) as a water treatment technology to achieve commercial success, substantial improvements in the operational aspects of the system should be improved in order to efficiently recover the energy stored during the deionization step. In the present work, to increase the energy efficiency of the adsorption-desorption processes, we propose a new operational procedure that utilizes a concentrated brine stream as a washing solution during regeneration. Using this approach, we demonstrate that by replacing the electrolyte during regeneration for a solution with higher conductivity, it is possible to substantially increase round-trip energy efficiency. This procedure was experimentally verified in a flow cell reactor using a pair of carbon electrodes (10(2) cm geometric area) and NaCl solutions having concentrations between 50 and 350 mmol·L(-1). According to experimental data, this new operational mode allows for a better utilization of the three-dimensional structure of the porous material. This increases the energetic efficiency of the global CDI process to above 80% when deionization/regeneration currents ratio are optimized for brackish water treatment.

  4. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  5. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...... power injected into the grid and the amount of reactive power absorbed by PV inverters are estimated using the PV generation forecast and load consumption forecast, and the dynamic operating points for energy storage management are determined for a specific period of time by solving a linear...... grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV...

  6. A solution for increasing the efficiency of diesel - electric locomotives with super capacitive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destraz, B.; Barrade, P.; Rufer, A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Lab. of Industrial Electronics, CH Lausanne EPFL (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Diesel - electric traction is a well established technology in railways systems, mainly for lines with a low traffic potential. In those conditions, a diesel powered locomotive is chosen because the infrastructure costs are lower in comparison to a standard electric train. The main inconvenience of that technology is the primary energy source: oil resources are not infinite, prices are difficult to forecast and CO{sub 2} production increases global warming. It is therefore important to develop new strategies to increase the energy efficiency of diesel - electric trains. To reach that goal, a system with super-capacitive energy storage will be proposed in this paper. The aspects of production and exploitation costs are going to be presented in more details. The proposed solution will reduce diesel consumption and therefore also CO{sub 2} and other pollutant emissions while being economically viable. (authors)

  7. Shifts in the myosin heavy chain isozymes in the mouse heart result in increased energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Kirsten; Krenz, Maike; Robbins, Jeffrey; Ingwall, Joanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac-specific transgenesis in the mouse is widely used to study the basic biology and chemistry of the heart and to model human cardiovascular disease. A fundamental difference between mouse and human hearts is the background motor protein: mouse hearts contain predominantly the αα-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isozyme while human hearts contain predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme. Although the intrinsic differences in mechanical and enzymatic properties of the αα- and ββ-MyHC molecules are well known, the consequences of isozyme shifts on energetic of the intact beating heart remain unknown. Therefore, we compared the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (|ΔG~ATP|) determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy in isolated perfused littermate mouse hearts containing the same amount of myosin comprised of either >95% αα-MyHC or ~83% ββ-MyHC. |ΔG~ATP| was ~2 kJ mol−1 higher in the ββ-MyHC hearts at all workloads. Furthermore, upon inotropic challenge, hearts containing predominantly ββ-MyHC hearts increased developed pressure more than αα-MyHC hearts whereas heart rate increased more in αα-MyHC hearts. Thus, hearts containing predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme are more energy efficient than αα-MyHC hearts. We suggest that these fundamental differences in the motor protein energy efficiency at the whole heart level should be considered when interpreting results using mouse-based cardiovascular modeling of normal and diseased human heart. PMID:17054980

  8. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  9. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  10. Making energy efficiency happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  11. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  12. Increasing efficiency of a wireless energy transfer system by spatial translational transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shichao; An, Di; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    An optical translational projector (OTP) designed by transformation optics is applied to improve the energy transfer efficiency in a wireless energy transfer (WET) system. Numerical simulation results show our OTP can greatly enhance the energy transfer efficiency (e.g. nearly 2 orders, compared to the case without our OTP) in WET systems, which is much larger than previous methods (e.g. magnetic super-lens). A 3D reduced OTP composed by layered isotropic magnetic materials is designed, whose performance has been verified by 3D numerical simulations in 10MHz. We also study the influence of loss of metamaterials on the performance of proposed OTP.

  13. Application of energy and exergy analysis to increase efficiency of a hot water gas fired boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Milena N.; Živković Dragoljub S.; Mančić Marko V.; Ilić Gradimir S.

    2014-01-01

    In engineering practice exergy can be used for technical and economic optimization of energy conversion processes. The problem of increasing energy consumption suggests that heating plants, i.e. hot water boilers, as energy suppliers for household heating should be subjected to exergy and energy analysis. Heating plants are typically designed to meet energy demands, without the distinguished difference between quality and quantity of the produced heat. In t...

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  15. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...

  16. Increasing innovation in home energy efficiency: Monte Carlo simulation of potential improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Marriott, Joe [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, 3700 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Despite the enormous potential for savings, there is little penetration of market-based solutions in the residential energy efficiency market. We hypothesize that there is a failure in the residential efficiency improvement market: due to lack of customer knowledge and capital to invest in improvements, there is unrecovered savings. In this paper, we model a means of extracting profit from those unrecovered energy savings with a market-based residential energy services company, or RESCO. We use a Monte Carlo simulation of the cost and performance of various improvements along with a hypothetical business model to derive general information about the financial viability of these companies. Despite the large amount of energy savings potential, we find that an average contract length with residential customers needs to be nearly 35 years to recoup the cost of the improvements. However, our modeling of an installer knowledge parameter indicates that experience plays a large part in minimizing the time to profitability for each home. Large numbers of inexperienced workers driven by government investment in this area could result in the installation of improvements with long payback periods, whereas a free market might eliminate companies making poor decisions. (author)

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Disparities in the production structure, moral and physical obsolescence and depreciation offixed assets in economics, low-effective use fuel and energy resources (FER and water demands excessiveuse of energy, requiring substantial imports of energy resources (over 50% of needs. The resultingdependence of the basic branches of economy of Ukraine, primarily fuel and energy complex, from theexporting countries of fuel resources and, consequently, increasing the threat to energy safety. Meanwhile,such situation is in contrudiction of the principles of sustainable developments, adopted on the Summit inRio-de-Janeiro (1992. Ukraine needs the more active energy efficient policy.Keywords: energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy intensity of gross domestic product, energysafety state, fuel and energy resources, innovative development, structural changes ineconomy.

  18. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chusak, Jared Daiber, Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a an all-air overhead system, (b a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling, (c an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation, and (d a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room. Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  19. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  20. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  1. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  2. Perspectives of increasing energy efficiency on designing new and reconstruction of present city districts: World experiences and local recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With 20th century along came a significant increase of energy consumption and a serious ecological crisis caused by the extensive usage of fossil fuels (oil, coal. Because of that, many countries have declared regulations to lower the traditional energy consumption and to stimulate usage of renewable energy sources. This problem is particularly evident in residential buildings sector, because over 50% of the overall energy produced is slinked in this way. This paper gives methodological recommendations regarding the principles of energy efficient housing and general comfort improvement as well as evident advantages of passive solar panels compared to traditional energy sources (fossil fuels. These possibilities are considered in two different scenarios: reconstruction of already built city blocks, and energy efficient implementation in case of brand new structures. This paper considers two different case studies, one reconstructive - a city block in France, built in the mid 60’s and the other of energy efficient settlement in Greece "Solar Village", built in the 80’s, which was designed by bioclimatic principles from the very beginning. Energy efficient planning and design methodological recommendations based on these two examples are regarding the New Belgrade block 7/3, which has been built in the 50’s.

  3. Increasing energy efficiency by geometric modification of hoe-type furrow opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimzadeh

    2016-09-01

    grain and biological yield was measured. ANOVA test, uniformity test and mean comparison were conducted by using Genstat software. Results and Discussion The soil bin test results showed that opener design and forward speed both have significant influences on the horizontal force (p<0.01. Horizontal force was increased with increasing of forward speeds. The same result was reported by Wheeler and Godwin, 1996 and Astafford, 1979. The lowest horizontal force (average 1.66 kN occurred at 1 m.s-1 and the highest (average 1.94 kN occurred at 2 m.s-1 forward speeds. Horizontal force increased in O2 (2.8% and decreased in O1 (3.4% compared with the control (average 1.77 kN. Moreover, openers had significant influence on the vertical force (p<0.01. Vertical force values were negative in O1 (average -0.05 kN and O2 (average -0.07 kN in comparison with positive value in the control (average +0.01 kN. The effect of forward speed on vertical force was not statistically significant. The field results showed that there were significant differences among the openers in the numbers of seedling, grain and biological yield (p<0.01. The O2 opener (with the average of 48 seedlings per one meter row had 33% and 24% more seedlings in comparison with O1 and check furrow openers, respectively. Probably, using dick bald in O2 design leads to increased seed germination. Increasing of seed germination by using disk furrow opener as an advantage is reported by Kushwaha and Foster, 1993. The O2 furrow opener would also increase grain yield about 36% compared with both O1 and check furrow openers. Conclusions It can be concluded that the newly designed furrow opener (O2 could improve the energy efficiency with increasing crop yield. Hence, O2 furrow opener could be recommended for direct planting in rain-fed farming.

  4. Increasing energy efficiency by geometric modification of hoe-type furrow opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimzadeh

    2016-09-01

    grain and biological yield was measured. ANOVA test, uniformity test and mean comparison were conducted by using Genstat software. Results and Discussion The soil bin test results showed that opener design and forward speed both have significant influences on the horizontal force (p<0.01. Horizontal force was increased with increasing of forward speeds. The same result was reported by Wheeler and Godwin, 1996 and Astafford, 1979. The lowest horizontal force (average 1.66 kN occurred at 1 m.s-1 and the highest (average 1.94 kN occurred at 2 m.s-1 forward speeds. Horizontal force increased in O2 (2.8% and decreased in O1 (3.4% compared with the control (average 1.77 kN. Moreover, openers had significant influence on the vertical force (p<0.01. Vertical force values were negative in O1 (average -0.05 kN and O2 (average -0.07 kN in comparison with positive value in the control (average +0.01 kN. The effect of forward speed on vertical force was not statistically significant. The field results showed that there were significant differences among the openers in the numbers of seedling, grain and biological yield (p<0.01. The O2 opener (with the average of 48 seedlings per one meter row had 33% and 24% more seedlings in comparison with O1 and check furrow openers, respectively. Probably, using dick bald in O2 design leads to increased seed germination. Increasing of seed germination by using disk furrow opener as an advantage is reported by Kushwaha and Foster, 1993. The O2 furrow opener would also increase grain yield about 36% compared with both O1 and check furrow openers. Conclusions It can be concluded that the newly designed furrow opener (O2 could improve the energy efficiency with increasing crop yield. Hence, O2 furrow opener could be recommended for direct planting in rain-fed farming.

  5. Increased energy efficiency of a steel foundry plant by using a cleaner production quick-E-scan methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmeni, Zelda; Pan, Xiaowei

    2017-07-01

    The Quick-E-Scan methodology is a simple and quick method that is used to achieve operational energy efficiency as opposed to detailed energy audits, which therefore offers a no cost or less cost solutions for energy management programs with a limited budget. The quick-E-scan methodology was used to assesses a steel foundry plant based in Benoni through dividing the foundry into production sections which entailed a review of the current processes and usage patterns of energy within the plant and a detailed analysis of options available for improvement and profitable areas in which energy saving measures may be implemented for an increase energy efficiency which can be presented to management of the company.

  6. From Goals to Action: The Efforts for Increasing Energy Efficiency and Integration of Renewable Sources in Eskilstuna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Vassileva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources in the areas of transportation, buildings and consumers’ awareness, as stated in the Climate action plan, for the municipality of Eskilstuna, Sweden. The efforts of the municipality to successfully reach their energy efficiency goals, are described in this paper including future perspectives. The results show that although the municipality counts with the advantage of owning and working together with the local housing company and energy provider, in order to reach the established goals, additional strategies need to be considered. For an increased use of renewable energy sources, analysis of rooftops suitable for photovoltaic (PV installation should be carried out as well as the integration of goals for self-consumption. In the transport field, the city needs to prepare for large-scale electric vehicle (EV market penetration and to consider different bike or car sharing options. Finally, more specific awareness campaigns are needed to engage the citizens in reducing their energy consumption and living a more sustainable life.

  7. Monitoring applications of power generators for the increase of energy efficiency using novel fiber optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villnow, Michael; Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    To verify optimization measures of power generators to improve the energy efficiency and to monitor critical parameters, fiber optical sensors have been developed and investigated. A fiber optical hot wire anemometer based on the thermooptic effect of Fiber Bragg Gratings was investigated to measure the flow distribution along the stator core. Fiber optical magnetic field sensors, based on the strain-optic effect of FBGs, were used to measure the magnetic field distribution on the end windings of a power generator. A novel fiber-optical accelerometer was used to measure the end winding vibrations. In this paper the functionality of each sensor is described and results of field test under real conditions are shown and discussed.

  8. Wind energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Badger, J.; Rasmussen, Flemming; Soerensen, Poul

    2012-11-15

    As we have shown above, wind energy can help to secure energy efficiency in power generation, and research results and tools are being developed that will increase the role of wind energy in the global energy supply. An important instrument is the development of wind turbine technology to reduce capital and operational costs. This has not been the emphasis in this chapter, though; instead we have focused on equally important instruments, namely making best use of the wind resource and available sites, adapting wind farm layout and technology to the increased exploitation of wind, and improving the interaction between wind farms and the power system. With these developments we expect that wind energy can become the backbone of the power system globally and play a major role in creating an efficient and sustainable power system. (Author)

  9. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  10. Guided design of heating and cooling mains for lower water and energy consumption and increased efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling towers efficiency. This indicates the importance of the system structure, the possibility of mixing of heating or cooling water; recycling and reuse of heating...

  11. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, T.; Dykstra, J.E.; Porada, S.; Wal, van der A.; Yoon, J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, ¿, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for ¿ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less

  12. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, T.; Dykstra, J.E.; Porada, S.; Wal, van der A.; Yoon, J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, ¿, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for ¿ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less

  13. Active flow control integrated diffuser (afcid) for increased energy efficiency in variable air volume systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Schijff, Hermanus P.

    Variable air volume (VAV) air terminals are designed to save energy by reducing airflow into a given space based on occupancy and required load. Systems are typically designed to operate at peak load, however as load is reduced, performance is compromised due to inadequate throw. As a result, fans are installed to adjust for the losses, negating many of the energy savings. Additionally flow is vectored by the use of vanes, a basic passive type of flow control. An experimental investigation was performed to study the application of flow control on that of a HVAC diffuser using synthetic jets distributed evenly along the diffuser edge parallel to the flow field. The study was conducted on a 1:3 scale typical office space (150 ft2), which included a simulated scale HVAC system supplied by compressed air. Two different jet blowing ratios were investigated for system loads of 60% and 90%. The flow field was established using hot wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of synthetic jet based active flow control at controlling airflow, showing ability to affect throw parameters for changing flow rates within the test chamber. Vectoring of up to 20% and improvement in jet spread of 200% was demonstrated. The use of such devices has the potential to improve air quality and air distribution in building while simultaneously lowering energy demands of HVAC systems.

  14. Engaging with ENERGY STAR[R]: How to Increase Student Involvement in Your Energy Management Plan Energy Efficiency in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grene, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that school budgets are growing smaller, forcing districts to make tough financial choices. Building operating costs drain a massive portion of most districts' budgets. As such, energy efficiency is a powerful tool to cut short- and long-term operating costs, and reductions in energy use. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  15. BTL: a solution to increase energy efficiency in the Brazilian alcohol business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Alves de Sousa, Sirlei Sebastiao; Barbosa de Oliveira, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    Brazil is the world largest producer of sugarcane, which has an energy potential of 1.2 barrels of petroleum per ton. On average, 55% of Brazilian sugarcane is converted into ethanol. When sugarcane is processed, the cane stalks are shredded and crushed to extract the cane juice while the fibrous outer residue (bagasse) is sent to the boiler to provide steam and electricity. With the availability of advanced cogeneration technologies, these units can nowadays employ the onsite bagasse resource to go beyond meeting their own energy requirements and produce surplus electricity. This work proposes a new route for 'green' diesel production. Gasification of biomass coupled with a high-conversion Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different chain lengths from a synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO). The large hydrocarbons can be further hydrocracked to form mainly a high-quality diesel. The fraction of short hydrocarbons is used in a Combined Cycle with the unconverted syngas. The perspectives for application of this route - production of FT synthesis fuels based on biomass residue - ate promising in Brazil. (auth)

  16. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  17. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  18. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  19. Tackling energy management by increasing efficiencies and changing the nature of work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, M.; Kabazo, A. [Telus, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Telus launched a pilot program in 2006 to reduce their environmental impact through the use of communications and information technology (IT) solutions. The Workstyles pilot program delivered sustainable solutions for flexible work styles, such as telework, video conferencing, paperless forms and managed data services. The pilot program provided an opportunity to track how often team members worked remotely and to calculate emissions savings. Results revealed that 13,865 hours of commute time were saved; approximately $125,000 in fuel and car maintenance costs were saved; greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 114 tons; air pollutants were reduced by 4 tons; and 82 per cent of the team members involved in the pilot expressed that teleworking had a very positive impact on their desire to stay with Telus. This presentation identified the benefits of shifting workstyles with respect to individual companies, departments, teams and individuals. It also described Telus's experiences, best practices and opportunities that exist for organizations to reduce their energy consumption and carbon footprint. Telus's managed IT and server virtualization take on the daily management of network and servers, allowing organizations to eliminate the need for additional data centre capacity. Telus has acquired many benefits by applying a range of data centre technologies such as virtualization and an integrated management and a technological approach for flexible work styles. tabs., figs.

  20. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  1. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  2. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy efficienc

  3. Human-centered sensor-based Bayesian control: Increased energy efficiency and user satisfaction in commercial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Jessica Ann

    2007-12-01

    The need for sustainable, efficient energy systems is the motivation that drove this research, which targeted the design of an intelligent commercial lighting system. Lighting in commercial buildings consumes approximately 13% of all the electricity generated in the US. Advanced lighting controls1 intended for use in commercial office spaces have proven to save up to 45% in electricity consumption. However, they currently comprise only a fraction of the market share, resulting in a missed opportunity to conserve energy. The research goals driving this dissertation relate directly to barriers hindering widespread adoption---increase user satisfaction, and provide increased energy savings through more sophisticated control. To satisfy these goals an influence diagram was developed to perform daylighting actuation. This algorithm was designed to balance the potentially conflicting lighting preferences of building occupants, with the efficiency desires of building facilities management. A supervisory control policy was designed to implement load shedding under a demand response tariff. Such tariffs offer incentives for customers to reduce their consumption during periods of peak demand, trough price reductions. In developing the value function occupant user testing was conducted to determine that computer and paper tasks require different illuminance levels, and that user preferences are sufficiently consistent to attain statistical significance. Approximately ten facilities managers were also interviewed and surveyed to isolate their lighting preferences with respect to measures of lighting quality and energy savings. Results from both simulation and physical implementation and user testing indicate that the intelligent controller can increase occupant satisfaction, efficiency, cost savings, and management satisfaction, with respect to existing commercial daylighting systems. Several important contributions were realized by satisfying the research goals. A general

  4. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  5. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  6. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  7. ICSC – Policy for energy saving and increase of efficiency in Russia in the spheres of construction, housing and community amenities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarinov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s GDP energy intensity today is approximately 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of economically developed countries. To increase its economic competitive ability, Russia needs to achieve energy efficiency in different spheres, including construction, housing and community amenities. Close examination of implemented management measures and world experience revealed that in order to achieve a further energy efficiency increase Russia needs to boost economic interest of the participants concerned and to form effective mechanisms of economic management, and this should be done along with improvement of administrative governance. The paper focuses on the barriers that hamper economic motivation and provides recommendations for energy efficiency increase. Even partial implementation of suggested measures, in our opinion, will increase energy efficiency in the spheres of construction and housing accommodation, which is illustrated through the example of a residential building located in Yekaterinburg (Russia, Middle Urals.

  8. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  9. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  10. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  11. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  12. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  13. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J; Kopchick, John J

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  15. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  16. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  17. Innovation-enabling policy and regime transformation towards increased energy efficiency: The case of the circulator pump industry in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2015-01-01

    When new energy efficient products are struggling with their commercialisation and diffusion into widespread applications you would typically expect policy-makers and green lead-users to guide the way. This paper examines the case of the hot water circulator pump industry in Europe, where parts o...

  18. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  19. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...

  20. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study......The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...

  1. Energy efficiency and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses energy efficiency and conservation in the light of what is termed 'least cost planning'. It is explained how the normal market economy scenario of producing and purchasing in terms of supply and demand are not sufficient to describe the energy market. Seven market imperfections and barriers which hinder optimal investment in energy efficiency are listed. Much of the article is devoted to explaining the meaning of least cost planning and compares energy bills with energy prices. Sub-headings in the article include: (i) Integrated Resource Planning as an Instrument of Strategic Resource Planning; (ii) Accounting for the Environmental Externalities of Electricity Production in the USA; (iii) Monetization Using Damage Costs; (iv) Monetization Using Control Costs; (v) Damage Costs versus Control Costs for Policy Purposes and (vi) Unpriceable Environmental Costs.

  2. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  3. Automation solutions for increased energy efficiency in both existing thermo processing plants; Automatisierungsloesungen fuer mehr Energieeffizienz in vorhandenen Thermoprozess-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Peter [Heitec AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    By 2020, the emission of the climate-damaging greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is to be reduced by 20 % as required by the Government of the European Union. Within the same time frame, 20 % of EU energy consumption is to come from renewable resources as well as a 20 % reduction in primary energy use is to be achieved through improved energy efficiency. Environmental protection and the increase of energy efficiency are challenges we must collectively face. These tasks can only be accomplished by adopting innovative and intelligent, wholistic industrial systems solutions. The rise of energy efficiency is today, and increasingly in the future, an integral part of the business success of any firm. (orig.)

  4. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  5. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able......Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...

  6. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  7. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...

  8. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  9. Peltier- and energy saving refrigerating devices increase efficiency and lower energy consumption; Peltier- und Energiespar-Kuehlgeraete steigern Wirkungsgrad und senken Energieverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maage, M. [Rittal GmbH und Co. KG, Herborn (Germany)

    2008-08-25

    Energy efficiency is a central future theme for industrial production processes as in the IT-infrastructures. In the sector of systems climatization distinct energy saving can be achieved. Advanced air conditioning and software tools and the know-how of competent manufacturers are presented in this contribution. Presented are in special Peltier components being used as heat pump and generator. (GL)

  10. Energy efficiency initiatives: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Dipankar [ICFAI Business School, Kolkata, (IBS-K) (India)

    2007-07-01

    India, with a population of over 1.10 billion is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. As domestic sources of different conventional commercial energy are drying up, dependence on foreign energy sources is increasing. There exists a huge potential for saving energy in India. After the first 'oil shock' (1973), the government of India realized the need for conservation of energy and a 'Petroleum Conservation Action Group' was formed in 1976. Since then many initiatives aiming at energy conservation and improving energy efficiency, have been undertaken (the establishment of Petroleum Conservation Research Association in 1978; the notification of Eco labelling scheme in 1991; the formation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency in 2002). But no such initiative was successful. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changing importance of energy conservation/efficiency measures which have been initiated in India between 1970 and 2005.The present study tries to analyze the limitations and the reasons of failure of those initiatives. The probable reasons are: fuel pricing mechanism (including subsidies), political factors, corruption and unethical practices, influence of oil and related industry lobbies - both internal and external, the economic situation and the prolonged protection of domestic industries. Further, as India is opening its economy, the study explores the opportunities that the globally competitive market would offer to improve the overall energy efficiency of the economy. The study suggests that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) - the newly formed nodal agency for improving energy efficiency of the economy may be made an autonomous institution where intervention from the politicians would be very low. For proper implementation of different initiatives to improve energy efficiency, BEE should involve more the civil societies (NGO) from the inception to the implementation stage of the programs. The paper also

  11. Restoration and conversion to re-use of historic buildings incorporating increased energy efficiency: A case study - the Haybarn complex, Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper approach to restoration of historic buildings is crucial for monumental heritage protection. The objective of the paper is to define a methodology for historic buildings restoration in order to increase energy efficiency and re-usability in accordance with modern standards. The main method used in the paper is the observation of historic buildings during their restoration and exploitation, analysis and evaluation of achieved results regarding energy efficiency and energy saving, through the examples of the buildings belonging to Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos, in Greece. Mount Athos was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for its cultural and natural values. This case study discusses the abandoned and dilapidated historic buildings of the Haybarn Complex (Stable, Mulekeepers’ House and Haybarn, the achieved results regarding the restoration of these buildings, their energy efficiency and turning into the premises for occasional stays. The research results are recommendations for increasing energy efficiency while performing the restoration of historic buildings, so that these buildings could be re-used in a new way. The most significant contribution of the paper is the practical test of energy refurbishment of these historic buildings conducted using the principles and methods of energy efficiency, in compliance with conservation requirements and authenticity of historic buildings.

  12. Nuclear energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Nuclear energy already today plays an important role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector while providing energy security and being economically competitive. Nuclear energy is characterized by its very high energy density and is well suited for large-scale, baseload electricity supply. Similar to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or biomass, nuclear power is characterized by an abundant supply of its primary energy source, uranium, but is not limited to the same extent as these renewable energy sources from being an intermittent energy supply or imposing severe restrictions on land-use. Improving energy efficiency of nuclear power plants has contributed to a better utilization of the uranium resources and has helped improving the economic performance of nuclear power plants. This is to a large degree accomplished through optimisation of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as renewing turbines and generators. More importantly however, the overall economy of nuclear power has improved though better plant management leading to higher capacity factors and by extending the lifetimes of existing nuclear power plants. Provided that improved safety, economics and successful waste management can be demonstrated nuclear power is likely to grow in the future. Non-electricity applications may further boost the growth of nuclear energy, especially with the development of new reactor systems allowing for cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen or biofuels for transport. (Author)

  13. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  14. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  15. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload...

  16. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-06-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  17. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  18. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L F; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-21

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  19. Routes to increase the conversion and the energy efficiency in the splitting of CO2 by a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, A.; Bogaerts, A.; Reniers, F.

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present routes to increase CO2 conversion into CO using an atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge. The change in conversion as a function of simple plasma parameters, such as power, flow rate, but also frequency, on-and-off power pulse, thickness and the chemical nature of the dielectric, wall and gas temperature, are described. By means of an in-depth electrical characterization of the discharge (effective plasma voltage, dielectric voltage, plasma current, number and lifetime of the microdischarges), combined with infrared analysis of the walls of the reactor, optical emission spectroscopy for the gas temperature, and mass spectrometry for the CO2 conversion, we propose a global interpretation of the effect of all the experimental parameters on the conversion and efficiency of the reaction.

  20. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  1. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  2. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  3. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for

  4. Wind Energy in the United Kingdom: Modelling the Effect of Increases in Installed Capacity on Generation Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    The decision by the United Kingdom (UK) government in 2007 that the country should build a 33GW wind fleet, capable of generating 25 percent of the UK electricity requirement, was controversial. Proponents argued that it was the most attractive means of lowering the UK greenhouse gas emissions, whereas opponents noted that it would result in an unnecessary and burdensome additional expense to industry and households. Subsequently there have been calls for the wind fleet target to be further increased to perhaps 50 percent of demand. Although the National Grid has had little difficulty in accommodating the current output of about 10 percent of the total demand on the grid, this will not be the case for a substantially larger wind fleet. When the wind blows strongly, turbines shed wind which is surplus to demand, leading to significant reductions in generating efficiency. The purpose of the research described in this paper has been to develop a method for investigating the likely performance of future large win...

  5. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  6. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  7. SPECIFIC ALLOCATION FUND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO INCREASE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDONESIA (Mekanisme Dana Alokasi Khusus Efisiensi Energi dalam Mendukung Perbaikan Lingkungan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Related to the climate change and economic development of environmentally friendly (green economy issues, the President has committed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG by 26% on their own sources (BAU, and up to 41% with international support in 2020 through Presidential Decree No. 61 in 2011 about the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK. In addition to regulating the sectors that are considered to be the largest contributor to GHG emissions, the regulation also establishes funding sources RAN-GRK either through the APBN, APBD, as well as a variety of other sources constituted under the legislation. The main research question are; Is specific allocation fund (DAK can be used to fund energy efficiency?; if so, what procedure should be done? and how monitoring and evaluating of the energy efficiency of the use of DAK ? To answer those questions, researcher using qualitative library research, cross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, interviews to some leading experts in the field and a number of Focused Group Discussions were also conducted to construct the policy analysis. Based on the analysis of the mechanism of transfer to the regions in Indonesia, it is possible to enlarge of DAK field for energy efficiency by asking Line Minister to proposed mechanism and send to the Ministry of Finance. This can be addressed to support the achievement of environmental friendly activities and reduce the burden of state budget subsidies. Some of things that must be done is to propose the allocation of DAK EE into government programs and to develop a variety of specificized and technical indicators related. ABSTRAK Terkait dengan komitmen dalam mengatasi dampak perubahan iklim serta isu pengembangan ekonomi rendah karbon, Pemerintah telah mengesahkan Peraturan Presiden (Perpres Nomor 61 Tahun 2011 tentang rencana Aksi Nasional Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca Nasional (RAN-GRK tahun 2020

  8. Increase of energy efficiency in horticultural tissue culture with high-power-LED lighting systems; Energieeffizienzsteigerung pflanzlicher In-vitro-Kulturverfahren mit Hochleistungs-LED-Belichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornwasser, Thorsten

    2011-07-01

    The lighting of tissue cultures is one of the main cost factors in growing rooms due to the high energy need. A lighting system with high-power light-emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) was tested as an alternative to the conventionally used fluorescent tubes. Therefore the HP-LED-types royal-blue, red, and cool white were used to create different spectral outputs. The photon flux yield, level of efficiency, and spectral shift of the single HP-LEDs were measured beforehand at different operating conditions (i.e. increasing current and junction temperature). The energy efficiency of the HP-LED lighting system was determined at 0.83 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} with the same shelf board distance (300 mm) and average PPFD on the exposed surface as compared to the control lighting system. The energy efficiency of the fluorescent lighting system could reach a maximum value of 0.68 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In addition to the reduced energy needs, HP-LED lighting systems reduce the need for cooling energy in culture rooms to regulate the room temperature. HP-LED lighting systems allow the reduction of the shelf board distance due to the small mass volume of LEDs and diminished radiant heat output towards the plant. The lower shelf board distance led to an additional increase of the energy efficiency up to 1.16 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} at a distance of 210 mm. Simultaneously the PPFD distribution was more regular than under the exposure with a fluorescent tube. Beside the increase of energy efficiency, HP-LEDs facilitate the control of the spectral composition. The spectral output can be adjusted to the plants' needs and thereby permit a more optimal production and influence the plant morphology (Nhut und Na, 2010; Morrow, 2008). Various plant tissue cultures and their response to different spectral compositions were investigated with the developed HP-LED lighting system. For none of the tested cultures could a preference for one of the spectral compositions be determined

  9. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...

  10. Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of industrial electricity demand and the role of energy efficiency policy. An important context for the study is the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs in which different types of tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. Paper 1 conceptually analyses the cost-effectiveness of voluntary ...

  11. Combining gait optimization with passive system to increase the energy efficiency of a humanoid robot walking movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ana I. [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); ALGORITMI,University of Minho (Portugal); Lima, José [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); INESC TEC (formerly INESC Porto) Porto (Portugal); Costa, Paulo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (Portugal); INESC TEC (formerly INESC Porto) Porto (Portugal)

    2015-03-10

    There are several approaches to create the Humanoid robot gait planning. This problem presents a large number of unknown parameters that should be found to make the humanoid robot to walk. Optimization in simulation models can be used to find the gait based on several criteria such as energy minimization, acceleration, step length among the others. The energy consumption can also be reduced with elastic elements coupled to each joint. The presented paper addresses an optimization method, the Stretched Simulated Annealing, that runs in an accurate and stable simulation model to find the optimal gait combined with elastic elements. Final results demonstrate that optimization is a valid gait planning technique.

  12. Reducing exciton binding energy by increasing thin film permittivity: an effective approach to enhance exciton separation efficiency in organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebici, Sibel Y; Chen, Teresa L; Olalde-Velasco, Paul; Yang, Wanli; Ma, Biwu

    2013-10-23

    Photocurrent generation in organic solar cells requires that excitons, which are formed upon light absorption, dissociate into free carriers at the interface of electron acceptor and donor materials. The high exciton binding energy, arising from the low permittivity of organic semiconductor films, generally causes low exciton separation efficiency and subsequently low power conversion efficiency. We demonstrate here, for the first time, that the exciton binding energy in B,O-chelated azadipyrromethene (BO-ADPM) donor films is reduced by increasing the film permittivity by blending the BO-ADPM donor with a high dielectric constant small molecule, camphoric anhydride (CA). Various spectroscopic techniques, including impedance spectroscopy, photon absorption and emission spectroscopies, as well as X-ray spectroscopies, are applied to characterize the thin film electronic and photophysical properties. Planar heterojunction solar cells are fabricated with a BO-ADPM:CA film as the electron donor and C60 as the acceptor. With an increase in the dielectric constant of the donor film from ∼4.5 to ∼11, the exciton binding energy is reduced and the internal quantum efficiency of the photovoltaic cells improves across the entire spectrum, with an ∼30% improvement in the BO-ADPM photoactive region.

  13. A Systems Approach to High Performance Buildings: A Computational Systems Engineering R&D Program to Increase DoD Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Screening 3.1.1 Objectives and Background 3.1.1a) Background: Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Process The key steps (see Figure 3.1.1) in the...current building energy efficiency retrofit, include 1) Facility Audit to collect building information such as: Building type (climate, usage...building. To further benefit the performance of the building, tools were developed for tractable design optimization which trades off building energy efficiency and

  14. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  15. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  16. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  17. Mathematical simulation of the operating emergency conditions for the purpose of energy efficiency increase of thermal power plants management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizova, O. V.; Malafeyev, A. V.; Kondrashova, Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    The regulations of the energy saving policy, being implemented at present, require an enhanced reliability of the power supply systems and operations of the motive loading, actuating machines and mechanisms, for the purpose of reduction of power inputs under operating emergency conditions. The development of industrial units of the distributed generation enables putting the generators, equipped with motors of the comparable power, into the operation, which is non-parallel to a power system. To provide static stability under such conditions the complex approach is required since it allows estimating the stability of the generators and the load during parallel and non-parallel operations with the power system and a complex circuit configuration. The mathematical models of units of the distributed generation and motive loading considering the character of the given mechanism are developed. They are implemented in the software package allowing the operative-dispatch personnel of the industrial power stations to forecast similar modes and develop special measures to provide a stable operation of electrical machines.

  18. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies have the potential to significantly reduce household electricity consumption. But adoption of many technologies has been slow. This paper employs a unique dataset of German households to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The 'rebound' effect of increased light luminosity during the transition to energy efficie...

  19. Energy efficiency in refrigerated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Sluis, S.M. van der; Schiphouwer, H.

    1998-01-01

    In refrigerated road transport, 10 to 40 `)/0 of the total energy consumption is related to refrigeration. However, energy consumption and energy efficiency of refrigerated transport equipment is rarely mentioned in the discussions about energy saving, potentials in road transport. Two main approach

  20. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  1. Energy Efficiency Approach to Intelligent Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Birangal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has nowadays become one of the most challenging tasks and this has boosted research on fresh fields, such as Ambient Intelligence. Energy consumption in the housing and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under restoration. However, to achieve a significant diminution in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, pioneering technologies should be implemented, including renewable energy. Now, buildings are increasingly anticipated to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is renowned as an international goal to promote energy sustainability. Different approaches have been adapted to concentrate on this goal, the most up to date relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. Energy efficiency is keywords that can be originate these days in all domains in which energy demand exists. A significant aspect that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings is the use of building automation systems. Alternatively, building automation systems are usually not considered for energy conservation, as they are mostly used for comfort and safety. This consistently causes immense problems due to an fruitless use of these systems and unawareness of energy consumption. It is therefore essential that the existing system solutions are adapted to focus on energy conservation. Our research approach in developing an intelligent system to improve energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, which takes into account the different technical infrastructures of building

  2. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  3. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    2000-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse

  4. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  5. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus of this....... Furthermore, a comparative analysis of best available technology and conventional technologies implies that the standard for the environmental performance of TVs has been driven by technology push rather than a regulatory pull....... of this paper is on the Implementing Measures (IM) for televisions. The ambition level of the IM for televisions is investigated and it is argued that the IM have not succeeded in setting up sufficient ecodesign requirements, as only one life cycle phase and one environmental impact category is addressed...

  6. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review subcommittee reports on...

  7. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  8. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  9. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...... on the state of energy use in an advanced economy as well as its transition towards more sustainable energy patterns. An important question in this context is how cities (i.e. municipalities) actually can work towards being more energy efficient. Many municipalities have an increasing focus on sustainable...... and efficient use of resources and energy as well as renewable energy production. However, the role and potential contribution of municipalities to this transition is still unclear as many aspects of energy generation, distribution and use are going far beyond municipal competences (Rutherford & Coutard 2014...

  10. Energy Efficient Housing for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Farshad; Wehage, Philipp; Shahriari, Effatolsadat; Tarkashvand, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der Technischen Universität Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2528-9, ISSN 2193-6099 This volume introduces a cost-neutral method to reduce the energy demand of residential buildings in the climatic conditions of the Tehran region. "Architectural Energy Efficiency" describes how the energy demand of residential buildings can be lowered through a conscious and intelligent design. It indicates the high energy saving potential that can be achie...

  11. Energy Efficient Housing for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Farshad; Wehage, Philipp; Shahriari, Effatolsadat; Tarkashvand, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der Technischen Universität Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2528-9, ISSN 2193-6099 This volume introduces a cost-neutral method to reduce the energy demand of residential buildings in the climatic conditions of the Tehran region. "Architectural Energy Efficiency" describes how the energy demand of residential buildings can be lowered through a conscious and intelligent design. It indicates the high energy saving potential that can be achie...

  12. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  13. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of

  14. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  15. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Purcell, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  16. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Purcell, C.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  17. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  18. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  19. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  20. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  1. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  2. Increase of efficiency and cost reduction. Intelligent energy conservation during utilization of electric filters; Wirkungsgrad steigern und Kosten reduzieren. Intelligentes Energiesparen beim Einsatz von Elektrofiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Michael [Siemens AG (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    High separation efficiencies and plant availability at minimum energy consumption - these are the requirements which now have to be met by electric filters. This requires a constant optimization of the filter operation taking into account changing process parameters and variables. In the coal-fired power plant of Voerde OHG (Voerde, Federal Republic of Germany), Evonik STEAG GmbH (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) and RWE AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) the energy consumption was reduced dramatically due to a modernization of electric filters. The result consists of lower operating costs, high efficiency of the entire system and a lower environmental impact due to the operation of electric filters.

  3. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of

  4. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  5. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  6. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable urban development. Despite agendas set on national and international level, local authorities are the key actors in this transformation (Lewis et al. 2013). European initiatives as the Covenant of Mayors or Energy Cities are closely following this development...... the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...... on the state of energy use in an advanced economy as well as its transition towards more sustainable energy patterns. An important question in this context is how cities (i.e. municipalities) actually can work towards being more energy efficient. Many municipalities have an increasing focus on sustainable...

  7. Energy efficient drivepower: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    Energy efficiency is a major concern to industry for a variety of reasons. Operating expenses and public relations are just two of these. While a lot of effort has been expended in the area of electrical energy efficiency, the area of concern in the report, most papers use a limited approach when examining the opportunities for efficiency improvement. However, use of a systems approach--examining the entire power train system from when electrical power first enters a facility to the final output is presented. This type of approach to electrical energy efficiency can improve the overall efficiency by a significant amount. There are many methods of driving mechanical loads such as waste steam (steam turbine), centralized hydraulic systems, and compressed air. Only electric-drive systems were analyzed. Depending on the application and facilities, these other methods may be a viable alternative to electric drivepower systems. The document assumes that the reader has an understanding of the basic concepts, practices, and terminology used in electrical and mechanical engineering. The reader should be familiar with terms such as voltage, current, dc power, ac power, power factor, horse power, torque, angular velocity, kilowatt-hours, efficiency, harmonics, and gear ratio.

  8. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  9. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model.......This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... development are one of the main causes for the very diverging results which have been obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analysing the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. One of the objectives for studies comparing model results have been to create comparable model assumptions regarding...

  10. Voluntary agreements for increasing energy-efficiency in industry: Case study of a pilot project with the steel industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  12. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  13. Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Lodewijk Theodoor

    2003-01-01

    This thesis provides a general framework to build an energy-efficient wireless link. The central idea is to determine the exact amount of effort that is necessary to obtain the required quality given a current wireless medium. So the key is to be effective, only doing the work that is really

  14. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  15. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    in understanding the impact that different options can have on the energy consumption of their networks. This paper investigates the possible energy gains of evolving a mobile network through a joint pico deployment and macro upgrade solution over a period of 8 years. Besides the network energy consumption, energy...... efficiency in Mbps/kWh is also analyzed. Furthermore, a cost analysis is carried out, to give a more complete picture of the different options being considered. Focusing on the last year of the evolution analysis, results show that deploying more pico sites reduces the energy consumption of the network......, by a maximum of 30%. With regards to the energy efficiency, high deployment of pico sites allowed the network to carry 16% more traffic for the same amount of energy. This, however, results in an increase in cost, specifically operational costs....

  16. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  17. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE... CONTACT: Christine Platt-Patrick, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), (202)...

  18. Energy conservation and energy efficiency; Energiebesparing en energie-efficientie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossevoort, H.

    2013-07-15

    The author discusses the important role of the concepts of energy conservation and energy efficiency in the design and construction of buildings [Dutch] De auteur bespreekt hoe belangrijk de rol is van de begrippen energiebesparing en energie efficientie bij het ontwerpen en bouwen van gebouwen.

  19. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  20. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  1. Reliability and energy efficiency of zero energy homes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being installed increasingly on residential homes to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix. The ultimate goal is to attain sustainability without subsidy. The prices of PV modules and systems have declined substantially during the recent years. They will be reduced further to reach grid parity. Additionally the total consumed energy must be reduced by making the homes more energy efficient. FSEC/UCF Researchers have carried out research on development of PV cells and systems and on reducing the energy consumption in homes and by small businesses. Additionally, they have provided guidance on PV module and system installation and to make the homes energy efficient. The produced energy is fed into the utility grid and the consumed energy is obtained from the utility grid, thus the grid is assisting in the storage. Currently the State of Florida permits net metering leading to equal charge for the produced and consumed electricity. This paper describes the installation of 5.29 KW crystalline silicon PV system on a south-facing tilt at approximately latitude tilt on a single-story, three-bedroom house. It also describes the computer program on Building Energy Efficiency and the processes that were employed for reducing the energy consumption of the house by improving the insulation, air circulation and windows, etc. Finally it describes actual consumption and production of electricity and the installation of additional crystalline silicon PV modules and balance of system to make it a zero energy home.

  2. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  3. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  4. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  5. Energy efficiency in manufacturing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiede, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology - with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element - is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  6. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  7. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries....

  8. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries....

  9. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  10. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  11. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  12. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  13. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  14. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  15. Tools for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Aden, Nate; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    With growing urbanization, our cities are playing an increasingly important role in accelerating energy efficiency improvements and mitigating climate change (REN21 2016). Cities are one of the biggest consumers of energy in the world, representing almost two-thirds of global primary energy demand...... and accounting for 70 per cent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector (IEA2016). Therefore, with urbanization forecast to continue cities will be a critical driver in the sustainable energy transition. Typically city governments have direct decision powers to implement policy actions, which have...... (Holder 2016). Population growth and urbanization are together expanding global building stocks that are increasing the urgency to reduce GHG emissions from the buildings sector by at least a quarter by 2030, in order to have a chance of limiting average global temperature increase to less than 2 degrees...

  16. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  17. Complex photonic structures for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiersma D. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Photonic structures are playing an increasingly important role in energy efficiency. In particular, they can help to control the flow of light and improve the optical properties of photovoltaic solar cells. We will explain the physics of light transport in such structures with a special focus on disordered materials.

  18. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  19. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  20. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  1. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  2. Energy efficiency and barriers towards meeting energy demand in industries in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unachukwu, Godwin O.; Zarma, I.H.; Sambo, A.S.

    2010-09-15

    Energy is an important production factor and therefore should be managed in parallel with land, labor and capital. Energy efficient production should be seen as a quick and cheaper source of new energy supply as the cost of providing energy can be several times the cost of saving it. Increasingly energy efficiency is deemed to include not only the physical efficiency of the technical equipment and facilities but also the overall economic efficiency of the energy system.

  3. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  4. Analysis of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDeying; FANYun; HAOBin

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the matter of building energy efficiency and heating system, and puts forward the measure of heating innovation, aiming at the improvement of Chinese building energy efficiency and heating innovation, which exceeds some possible advice for future development.

  5. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  6. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  7. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  8. Effectiveness of instruments for increasing energy efficiency and promoting the use of renewable forms of energy; Wirksamkeit von Instrumenten zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz und zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien. Studie im Auftrag des Energie Trialog Schweiz und des Bundesamtes fuer Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Walker, D.

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made for the Swiss Energy Trialogue and the SFOE on the effectiveness of instruments for increasing energy efficiency and for the promotion of the use of renewable forms of energy. The results of a literature analysis are presented and discussed. Four basic questions are looked at: Under which conditions are state instruments effective, what influence do concepts and implementation have, which combinations of various instruments are most effective and which recommendations can be made to public authorities for the use of energy-policy instruments. Regulative, financial, persuasive and structural instruments are reviewed. The report is augmented with a comprehensive appendix which lists the literature sources used.

  9. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  10. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  11. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  12. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  13. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to... programs and policies to expand the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  14. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  15. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and...

  16. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  17. Indoor environment and energy efficiency in schools

    CERN Document Server

    Bellia, Laura; Boerstra, Atze; Dijken, Froukje van; Ianniello, Elvira; Lopardo, Gino; Minichiello, Francesco; Romagnoni, Piercarlo; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel Carlos

    2010-01-01

    School buildings represent a significant part of the building stock and also a noteworthy part of the total energy use. Indoor and Energy Efficiency in Schools Guidebook describes the optimal design and operation of schools with respect to low energy cost and performance of the students. It focuses particularly on energy efficient systems for a healthy indoor environment.

  18. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  19. Green energy and efficiency an economic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansuategi, Alberto; Galarraga, Ibon

    2014-01-01

    Directed toward informing and assisting academics and policymakers with a general interest in energy, climate change and environmental economics, this book discusses and analyzes the major issues surrounding regarding green energy and energy efficiency.

  20. Worldwide trends in energy use and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency over the past three decades have played a key role in limiting global increases in energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. For IEA countries, energy efficiency gains since 1990 have led to annual energy savings of more than 16 EJ in 2005 and 1.3 Gt of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the recent rate of efficiency improvement has been much lower than in the past. The good news is that a large potential remains for further energy and CO{sub 2} savings across all sectors. In industry alone, the application of proven technologies and best practices on a global scale could save between 1.9 Gt and 3.2 Gt of CO{sub 2} emissions per year. In public power generation, if all countries produced electricity at current best practice levels, CO{sub 2} savings would be between 1.8 Gt and 2.5 Gt. 40 figs., 5 tabs., 3 annexes.

  1. Energy-efficient quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Joni; Salmilehto, Juha; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-04-01

    In the near future, one of the major challenges in the realization of large-scale quantum computers operating at low temperatures is the management of harmful heat loads owing to thermal conduction of cabling and dissipation at cryogenic components. This naturally raises the question that what are the fundamental limitations of energy consumption in scalable quantum computing. In this work, we derive the greatest lower bound for the gate error induced by a single application of a bosonic drive mode of given energy. Previously, such an error type has been considered to be inversely proportional to the total driving power, but we show that this limitation can be circumvented by introducing a qubit driving scheme which reuses and corrects drive pulses. Specifically, our method serves to reduce the average energy consumption per gate operation without increasing the average gate error. Thus our work shows that precise, scalable control of quantum systems can, in principle, be implemented without the introduction of excessive heat or decoherence.

  2. Increased accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate in divergent cyanobacteria under nutrient-deprived photoautotrophy: An efficient conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to polyhydroxybutyrate by Calothrix scytonemicola TISTR 8095.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewbai-Ngam, Auratai; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Monshupanee, Tanakarn

    2016-07-01

    The cellular PHB content was determined in 137 strains of cyanobacteria representing 88 species in 26 genera under six photoautotrophic nutrient conditions. One hundred and thirty-four strains were PHB producers. The PHB contents of these 134 strains were subtle under normal growth condition, but were significantly increased in 63 strains under nitrogen deprivation (-N), a higher frequency than with phosphate and/or potassium and all-nutrient deprivation. A high PHB accumulation was not associated with any particular evolutionary groups, but was strain specific. The filamentous Calothrix scytonemicola TISTR 8095 produced 356.5±63.4mg/L PHB under -N from a biomass of 1396.6±66.1mg/L, giving a PHB content of 25.4±3.5% (w/w dry weight). This PHB productivity is equivalent to the CO2 consumption of 729.2±129.8mg/L. The maximum energy conversion from solar energy to PHB obtained by C. scytonemicola TISTR 8095 was 1.42±0.30%.

  3. Who should administer energy efficiency programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen

    2003-08-01

    The restructuring of the U.S. electricity industry created a crisis for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities-utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations-that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: Compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved.We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition.

  4. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes.

  5. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  6. The energy efficiency directive; Die Energieeffizienzrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Benedicte [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet - Recht, Oekonomie und Politik e.V. (IKEM)

    2012-12-13

    The present article gives an overview of the recently adopted European Energy Efficiency Directive. The Directive is to take effect in early December 2012 and will supersede the Energy Services Directive and the Cogeneration Directive. The Energy Efficiency Directive is dedicated to current European energy saving goals. To this end it contains regulations that are to lead to savings in primary energy as well as final energy use. One that deserves particular mention is Art. 7, which provides a framework for the introduction of energy saving engagement systems, on the strength of which transmission system operators and/or energy suppliers can be obligated to encourage final customers to implement energy saving measures.

  7. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  8. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    In order to reduce climate change, resource scarcity and other global environmental issues major increases in energy efficiency are necessary throughout our energy system. Despite this daunting outlook and the fact that energy efficiency in most instances makes economic and environmental sense, t...

  9. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  10. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  11. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a... administration of programs and policies to enhance the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable...

  12. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ]...

  13. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  14. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  15. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit level

  16. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  17. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  18. Improvement treatments and criteria assessing banks the energy efficiency projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anna Vladimirovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stimulate bank lending to businesses for energy efficiency projects is possible by increasing the accuracy of the valuation the project and the effect of its implementation. The paper presents a sequence of procedures and appropriate assessment criteria for energy efficiency projects, which will increase the chances of success of the investment project and to ensure the financial stability of the bank.

  19. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  1. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  2. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , and will require unique energy efficient solutions. For instance, an MS may be battery-powered, and the relevant energy efficient solution would include switching-off the display and minimizing signalling overhead (e.g. sleep mode). Meanwhile energy efficient... solution for the BS may include the intelligent sleep mode policies when the number of users and the traffic load decreases [3]. Due to the growing demand for advanced broadband wireless technologies and services, research in green radio solutions...

  3. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  4. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  5. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  6. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  7. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts.

  8. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Accelerating Adoption of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The DOE/EERE Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) increases awareness and accelerates adoption of practices and technologies that cost-effectively increase energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy, and oil displacement.

  9. Energy efficiency in small and medium scale foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Patange

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research results of surveys which were conducted in an Indian foundry cluster which are potential members of such sectors are presented. These results indicate that there is an enough potential improvement in the energy use. The use of energy efficient practices can result in their energy use effectively as well as cost reduction. The key findings about the energy pattern are a lack of energy efficient practices. The suggested recommendations can contribute to an increase in energy efficiency in such cluster.

  10. Energy efficient perlite expansion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, K.L.

    1982-08-31

    A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.

  11. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  12. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  13. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  14. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  15. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between en

  16. Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Sandra; Broberg, Sarah; Ottosson, Mikael; Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments ...

  17. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-17

    Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. IX International congress “Energy efficiency. XXI century”

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Yakubson

    2015-01-01

    The congress “Energy efficiency. XXI century. Engineering methods for reducing the energy consumption in buildings” took place in St. Petersburg on 11 November 2015. The article describes the main reports of the plenary meeting, primarily devoted to the Russian laws in the energy saving field. Furthermore, the summary of reports of the section “Building thermophysics: increasing the energy efficiency of residential and public buildings during the major repairs and reconstruction” is given....

  19. IX International congress “Energy efficiency. XXI century”

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Yakubson

    2015-01-01

    The congress “Energy efficiency. XXI century. Engineering methods for reducing the energy consumption in buildings” took place in St. Petersburg on 11 November 2015. The article describes the main reports of the plenary meeting, primarily devoted to the Russian laws in the energy saving field. Furthermore, the summary of reports of the section “Building thermophysics: increasing the energy efficiency of residential and public buildings during the major repairs and reconstruction” is given....

  20. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  1. Towards energy efficient mobile communications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available to the power saving class (PSC) of Type I in IEEE 802.16. Our numerical results show that more energy can be saved if the listening interval is considered under non-sleep or awake mode....

  2. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICY IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the dominant factor that determines the country’s welfare and influences all activity segments of society.To achieve continuous and sustainable economic development, energy sources must be adequate and safe, reasonably priced and ensure economic competitiveness of the country. This article will examine the essence ofenergy policy, stages of development and perspective directions for Moldova, oriented towards joining the European Union and cooperation with the CIS countries.

  4. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  5. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  6. The benefits of energy efficiency - why wait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; Breevoort, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency globally leads to many benefits. First and foremost, improved energy efficiency of equipment, buildings, vehicles and industrial processes will lead to a reduction of the use of electricity, heat and fuels. This will save large amounts of money. Moreover,

  7. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  8. Enhancing Energy Efficient TCP by Partial Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a study on the effects on a mobile system's energy efficiency of enhancing, with partial reliability, our energy efficient TCP variant (E/sup 2/TCP) (see Donckers, L. et al., Proc. 2nd Asian Int. Mobile Computing Conf. - AMOC2002, p.18-28, 2002). Partial reliability is beneficial for mult

  9. Energy-efficient adaptive wireless network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides quality of service (QoS) support for diverse

  10. Increasing awareness among fluid milk processors of the economic feasibility of energy efficiency projects, and encouraging their adoption through access to benchmarking and other decision-support tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study done by Thoma et al. (2010) the energy used in fluid milk processing in the United States of America is responsible for approximately 2 million metric tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the total life cycle of milk. These emissions come from electricity use (about 75 perc...

  11. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  12. Energy efficiency and conservation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, O.M.; Yunez Naude, A.; Wionczek, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Comparing the degree of efficiency in energy production and the uses to which energy resources are allocated in Mexico with that in other countries, this book addresses three basic questions: What are the major reasons for differences in energy efficiency between industrial economies and a newly industrializing country like Mexico. To what extent is energy conservation possible in the Mexican economy. And what are the social and economic benefits of more efficient use and conservation of energy in comparison with their costs. Using the history and operations of two state-owned energy agencies, PEMEX and the Federal Electricity Commission, as case studies, the contributors explore the patterns of energy use in all major sectors of the economy and discuss the prospects for energy-saving policies between the mid-1980s and the end of the century.

  13. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  14. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  15. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... the authorities fail to mobilise the stakeholders to implement energy efficient technologies in local building practices. This points towards a need to reframe policy initiatives in order to take the complexity of the challenge of dissemination of energy efficient technologies in practice into account......; acknowledging that singular instruments are seldom sufficient to boost a wider transition in building practices, since no simple cause or driver for change exists. The municipal level is essential in facilitating change within energy efficient technologies, since municipals have strong interrelations...

  16. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  17. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns. Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States); Lan, Wang [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    The study documented in this report was initiated in order to conduct an energy assessment and to identify the relationship between combustion issues and emissions from cement kilns. A new suspension preheater/precalciner (NSP) rotary cement kiln at one cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 1 in this report) and a vertical shaft kiln (VSK) at another cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 2 in this report), which are both in Shandong Province, were selected to conduct the energy and emission assessments through collection of data. Based on analysis of the data collected during this assessment, several actions are suggested that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction in emission of gaseous pollutants from the system.

  18. Energy Efficiency Vital for Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The world is hoping the Chinese economy will continue to be the engine of global growth after growing by about 9 percent in 2011. This relentless economic expansion comes at a high price, and China finds itself well short of immediate solutions on how to rein in its vast energy consumption and, consequently, the environmental pollution that threatens its progress. In 2010 China's electricity consumption grew 13.7 percent, outstripping its GDP growth of 10.4 percent. It used 3.2 trillion tons of coal equivalent, or about 20 percent of the world's energy consumption, overtaking the US to become the world's largest energy consumer.

  19. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  1. A Three-Step Methodology to Improve Domestic Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. Next to large scale technologies such as windturbine parks, domestic technologies are dev

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  3. Improving Energy Efficiency Cable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iashutina Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the energy calculation is made at different temperatures of the heating surface. The influence of the speed of pulling on the cost of the finished products of cable products. The interrelation of speed broaching and temperature of the heating surface.

  4. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  5. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  6. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions.

  7. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role...... the v impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power...... network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile...

  8. Outsourcing Marketing Activities - a strategic option for energy suppliers. Increasing efficiency and reducing costs; Netzvertraeglichkeitspruefungen nach dem Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz. Verpflichtung zur Vorlage der Netzdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenborn, C. [Bereich Recht und Umwelt, Verband der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft - VDEW - e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-03

    The transfer or certain functions in a company which do not belong to the originary core of the business to specialists has becom a normal attitude in economy nowadays. Thus it is no longer something special to decide for outsourcing facturing, personnel, legal or IT service departments. Up to now, marketing was not included in such considerations, not in energy industry at least. The following article shows that this might change in the years to come and explains which advantages could be achieved by outsourcing marketing activities and transferring them to third parties.

  9. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T.; Vesterager Christensen, D.; Andersen, Hans (Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Dam, M. (NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark)); Thorndahl, M. (Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark)); Weldingh, P. (Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark)); Maagoee, P.; Kristensen, Kenneth T. (Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Kirketerp Friis, A. (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  10. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is pot

  11. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... understanding of and involvement in local building processes. Through such planning approaches with a strong local contex-tual rooting, the municipalities are capable of facilitating changes in local building practices, leading to the implementation of energy efficient technologies in local building projects...

  12. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  13. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  14. Promoting the energy efficiency advantages of distributed generation/cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency were discussed with reference to district energy and distributed generation/cogeneration. The Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a leading independent organization which promotes energy efficiency and its benefits to the economy and the environment. Members include utilities, manufacturers, energy consultants, consumers and environmental groups across Canada. The Alliance mobilizes support for government policies, programs and standards. It also monitors and reports on government activities to raise a public profile of energy efficiency. This presentation includes a report card of the environmental performance of the provincial and federal governments in Canada which provides an indication of the level of their commitment to incorporate energy efficiency measures in their policy processes. Quebec and the Yukon share top honours for their initiatives on energy efficiency. The direct benefits of energy efficiency include reduced energy bills for customers, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and greater efficiency of the supply system. Indirect benefits include job creation, the advancement of new technologies and enhanced energy security. Between 1990 and 1999 energy efficiency initiatives in Canada resulted in an 8 per cent reduction. Overall energy usage increased 12 per cent. Distributed generation consists of small-scale, modular power generation units located in proximity to where the energy is used. Cogeneration is the combined production of heat (usually as steam) and electricity, where both products are used. Since district energy often makes use of steam or hot water it can be part of a cogeneration system and a cogeneration-based district energy qualifies as distributed generation. Cogeneration produces about one third of the carbon dioxide emissions compared to power produced from coal and heat from natural gas. Distributed generation results in reduced electricity transmission and

  15. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  16. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D. [and others

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  17. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  18. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  19. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve O' Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  20. Linking quality improvement and energy efficiency/waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Moore, N.L.

    1995-04-01

    For some time industry has recognized the importance of both energy efficiency/waste reduction (ee/wr) and quality/manufacturing improvement. However, industry has not particularly recognized that manufacturing efficiency is, in part, the result of a more efficient use of energy. For that reason, the energy efficiency efforts of most companies have involved admonishing employees to save energy. Few organizations have invested resources in training programs aimed at increasing energy efficiency and reducing waste. This describes a program to demonstrate how existing utility and government training and incentive programs can be leveraged to increase ee/wr and benefit both industry and consumers. Fortunately, there are a variety of training tools and resources that can be applied to educating workers on the benefits of energy efficiency and waste reduction. What is lacking is a method of integrating ee/wr training with other important organizational needs. The key, therefore, is to leverage ee/wr investments with other organizational improvement programs. There are significant strides to be made by training industry to recognize fully the contribution that energy efficiency gains make to the bottom line. The federal government stands in the unique position of being able to leverage the investments already made by states, utilities, and manufacturing associations by coordinating training programs and defining the contribution of energy-efficiency practices. These aims can be accomplished by: developing better measures of energy efficiency and waste reduction; promoting methods of leveraging manufacturing efficiency programs with energy efficiency concepts; helping industry understand how ee/wr investments can increase profits; promoting research on the needs of, and most effective ways to, reach the small and medium-sized businesses that so often lack the time, information, and finances to effectively use the hardware and training technologies available.

  1. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  2. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  3. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  4. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics......The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  5. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  6. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  7. Implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zīgurs, A.; Sarma, U.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions in Latvia are ongoing regarding the optimum solution to implementing Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC (Directive 2012/27/EU). Without a doubt, increased energy efficiency contributes significantly to energy supply security, competitive performance, increased quality of life, reduced energy dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, Directive 2012/27/EU should be implemented with careful planning, evaluating every aspect of the process. This study analyses a scenario, where a significant fraction of target energy efficiency is achieved by obliging energy utilities to implement user-end energy efficiency measures. With implementation of this scheme towards energy end-use savings, user payments for energy should be reduced; on the other hand, these measures will require considerable investment. The energy efficiency obligation scheme stipulates that these investments must be paid by energy utilities; however, they will actually be covered by users, because the source of energy utilities' income is user payments for energy. Thus, expenses on such measures will be included in energy prices and service tariffs. The authors analyse the ways to achieve a balance between user gains from energy end-use savings and increased energy prices and tariffs as a result of obligations imposed upon energy utilities. Similarly, the suitability of the current regulatory regime for effective implementation of Directive 2012/27/EU is analysed in the energy supply sectors, where supply tariffs are regulated.

  8. Evaluating energy efficiency policies with energy-economy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundaca, L.; Neij, L.; Worrell, E.; McNeil, M.

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems, and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyz

  9. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  10. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  11. Energy efficient outdoor lighting: an implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Farahat, Ahmed; Florea, Anna; Martínez Lastra, José Luis; Brañas Reyes, Christian; Azcondo Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Lighting strongly influences human daily activities. Smart lighting emerged as new generation of lighting system, able to precisely address the specific needs. Under conditions of shortage in fossil fuels and high prices for energy, smart lighting enables design of lighting systems, which can efficiently use power resources without compromising the user experience. The paper describes implementation of outdoor lighting solution targeting energy efficiency. The proposed approach takes holistic...

  12. An energy efficient platform for mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonali; Tiwari, Ritu; Shukla, Anupam

    2012-11-01

    Exploration of an unknown environment by autonomous mobile robot is a fundamental concern in mobile robotics. Today most of the mobile robots are powered by batteries so their energy and operation times are limited. Therefore, how to minimize energy consumption and obstacle avoidance becomes an important problem. Frontier-based method is known to be most efficient for robot exploration system. In this paper, we propose a novel energy efficient platform based on the notion of frontiers for mobile robot. The robot selects the next frontier to visit based on the robot's current direction and relative location of frontier cells. Our frontier selection method can reduce duplicate coverage and thus save energy and reduce the distance also. Distance to frontier are computed using energy efficient A* algorithm. We estimate the energy consumption and choose the most energy-efficient route to move to that frontier considering energy of stop and turnings. We tested the algorithm on various types of environment maps. The experiments were conducted assuming equal velocity for the robot during whole exploration. All paths generated were optimal in terms of energy consumption and turns. The robot was easily able to escape a variety of obstacles and reach the goal in an optimal manner.

  13. Energy efficiency the definitive guide to the cheapest, cleanest, fastest source of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fawkes, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Energy risk has reappeared on the corporate and social agenda with a bang and the complexity of the issues has increased many-fold since the days of the last great wave of concern following the oil crises of the 1970s. Steven Fawkes' Energy Efficiency is a comprehensive guide for managers and policy-makers to the fundamental questions underpinning energy-efficiency and our responses to it: ¢ what do we really mean by energy efficiency? ¢ what is the potential (in different dimensions)? ¢ why it is important? ¢ what management processes lead to optimisation of energy efficiency? ¢ what technolo

  14. Francois Loos is presenting the 2005 energy accounting: the energy consumption stayed stable and the energy efficiency increased; Francois Loos presente le bilan energetique 2005: la consommation d'energie est restee stable et l'efficacite energetique a progresse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The major characteristics of the 2005 situation are: the whole primary energy consumption arises 276,5 Mtoe; the french energy intensity decreases of 1,6 %; the fossil fuels prices increase leads to the consumption decrease in the transportation sector; the energy independence is under 50%; the wind power expansion; the energy bill increase and the carbon dioxide emissions little increase. (A.L.B.)

  15. ON INCREASING ENERGY SECURITY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is provided by the minimum required ratio of domestic and imported energy resources. Therefore, in the energy sector energy efficiency should be increased through the use of its own energy resources. Over the last hundred years of development of geological science a preferential distribution of oil and gas fields to areas (blocks of geological faults, many of which reach the surface of the foundation of our planet, has been determined. The complex process of oil and gas formation is predetermined by geological, geochemical, hydrogeological and other factors. The concepts of organic and inorganic origin of oil and gas are also relevant in the context under consideration. The formation of sufficient oil and gas fields is possible in the presence of highly porous and fractured rocks (for oil or so-called gas traps. Promising for the discovery of sufficient oil and gas fields are the central and southern areas of the Pripyat trough and the areas on the borders Mikashevichsi-Zhitkovichi ledge. The geological conditions of the areas in the Southern part of the Podlaska-Brest and the North-Eastern part of the Orsha troughs require most thorough investigations. In the area of the Belarusian anteclise, especially near the Baltic syneclise, at great depths in porous rocks the presence of oil and gas deposits of inorganic origin is possible. The use of plasma-pulse impact (that is a very effective one on the oil and gas underground reservoirs requires a study of the feasibility of their use in new and existing waste deposits. In the exploration of minerals such “exotic” methods, as the assessment of the discharge of helium, radon, radioactive analysis, etc. should also be applied. It is necessary to detect a possible fault zones and prospective search of hydrocarbon energy resources. To ensure energy security of Belarus, the evaluation of the possibility of using associated gas to supply with it a significant part of the country should

  16. 平房仓储存进口大豆降能增效方法探究%Method Exploration for Energy Reduction and Efficiency Increase of Imported Soybeans in Horizontal Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学娣; 何立军

    2015-01-01

    In horizontal warehouse, a control test of ventilation and cooling with different types of centrifugal fan and different methods was carried out. We should be to reduce energy consumption of cross-database transportation and energy reduction and efficiency increase of imported soybeans as the goal.%通过利用不同型号离心风机,采用不同方式对进口大豆进行通风降温试验,并且把控跨库运输环节,减少损耗、降低能耗,实现粮库储存进口大豆降本增效作为目标.

  17. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  18. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    of a super energy efficient house in which the normal hydronic heating system can be omitted. The savings in investment for a traditional hydronic heating system are spent on energy conserving components such as increased insulation in a super airtight building shell, super efficient windows to produce...... usage of an extreme energy efficient building in the Arctic. The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to determine the optimal use of an energy efficient house in the Arctic derived from the fundamental definition of a passive house, investigations of building parameters including the building envelope...... in the Arctic needs to take into account also different socioeconomic conditions, building traditions and use of buildings, survival issue, sustainability and power supply, among others. In the Arctic, the energy efficient house based on a passive house concept offers a sustainable solution to the operation...

  19. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  20. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  1. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  2. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP...

  3. Efficient Use of Energy: as a Life Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Sabry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Early Eighties of the last Century, the Egyptian Government considered Energy Conservation as one of the main pillars of Energy Planning in Egypt, based on the fact that investing in Energy Efficiency is more cost effective than in constructing new Power Plants.Energy Efficiency (EE Programs financed by International Financing Institutions focused at that time, on Energy Audits in Industrial Buildings, Power Plants, Electricity Transmission and in some other Governmental Buildings. Recommendations for Efficient Use of Energy and reducing energy consumption at those entities were implemented by the Use of Efficient Lamps, Improving Power Factor, Waste Heat Recovery, Thermal Insulation, Efficient Firing in Boilers…. Consequently, High Quality Energy Efficient Products were competing in the market with others not having the same advantage.Although the above mentioned EE Programs included Awareness Campaigns for all sectors but the consumption in Residential Sector remained high and increased more and more ,exceeding even the consumption in Industrial Sector specially that the prices of electricity were highly subsidized.For that reason, more awareness campaigns (Lectures, Brochures, Audio and visual advertisement and more incentives were offered by Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MoERE to consumers in the Residential Sector. Meanwhile, a Program to reduce gradually subsidies on electricity prices started aiming to push consumers to follow energy efficiency instructions and buy efficient appliances especially while they were suffering from electricity cut for about two years.To prepare for Market Transformation to efficient appliances the Government, issued the Standard Specifications and Labeling for Energy Efficient Appliances (lamps, refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, air conditioners, dish washers and others. Meanwhile, these Standards are supported with Accredited Testing Labs in National Entities (NREA

  4. Lightweight and Energy Efficient Heat Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Spacecraft from the JPL will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. A need exists for efficient, lightweight Vapor Compression Cycle...

  5. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  6. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  7. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true st...... storage density is then equivalently smaller. Systems covered include compressed and liquid hydrogen, reversible and irreversible metal hydrides, and methanol and ammonia.......A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  8. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  9. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  10. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Kazakevicius, E. [Kazakevicius (Eduardas), Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  11. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  12. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  13. Towards a More Energy Efficient Future: Applying indicators to enhance energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is a shared policy goal of many governments around the world. The benefits of more efficient use of energy are well known. Not only does it reduce energy costs and investments in energy infrastructure, it also lowers fossil fuel dependency and CO2 emissions, while at the same time increasing competitiveness and improving consumer welfare. Yet many questions remain unanswered. What are the latest trends in global energy use and CO2 emissions? How do factors such as demography, economic structure, income, lifestyle and climate affect these trends? Where are the greatest potentials to further improve energy efficiency, and which data are required to support energy efficiency policy development? This publication answers these questions using the latest insights from the IEA energy indicators work. The goal is to show policy makers how in-depth indicators can be used to track the progress in efficiency and identify new opportunities for improvements.

  14. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  15. Enhancemenent of the energy efficiency by means of the energy efficiency commitment system. Brief: Energy efficiency commitment system (EnEffVSYS); Steigerung der Energieeffizienz mit Hilfe von Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssystemen. Kurz: Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssysteme (EnEffVSys)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Joest, Steffen; Czernie, Marc; Heuke, Reemt; Kalinowska, Dominika; Peters, Sebastian [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Perner, Jens; Bothe, David [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The origin of the contribution under consideration is the new EU energy efficiency regulation (EU-EnEff-RL) which is valid since 4th December 2012. This regulation emphasizes the increase of the energy efficiency in Europe. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on (a) the framework conditions for energy efficiency and energy consumption in Europe; (b) the development of the energy consumption and energy efficiency in the past; (c) the economic potentials of energy efficiency in Germany up to the year 2020; (d) whether the advancement of the German, market based approach or the implementation of the energy efficiency commitment system in Germany would be the better way in order to reach the energy efficiency targets derived from the EU energy efficiency regulation.

  16. 75 FR 35450 - Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for Member Nominations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and request member nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  17. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  18. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , such as in the applications of adjustable speed drives and solid-state lighting systems. Power electronics gives also a high flexibility when renewable power production is introduced to electrical energy systems. Future research opportunities and challenges will finally be discussed.......In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling...

  19. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  20. Implications of building energy standard for sustainable energy efficient design in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham [University of West Indies, W. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Augustine Campus (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, has raised concerns over problems of energy supply, energy sustainability and exhaustion of energy resources. While most of the developed countries are implementing building energy standard rapidly to reduce building energy consumption and moving aggressively to achieve sustainable energy efficient building; the position of developing countries respect to energy standard implementation for this purpose is either poorly documented or not documented at all. Presently, there exists a gap between existing building designs and the increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building design in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries and its implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building. The present implementation status of building energy standard in 60 developing countries around the world, were analyzed using online survey. Hence, this study revealed the present implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries, implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building and how building energy standards can be used to fill the gap between existing building designs and increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building.

  1. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    existing macro base station sites together with the deployment of outdoor or indoor small cells (heterogeneous network) provide the best compromise between performance and power consumption. Focusing on one of the case studies, it is noted that the upgrade of both HSPA and LTE network layers results in the power consumption of the network increasing by a factor of 4. When coupled with the growth in capacity introduced by the various upgrades (x50), the efficiency of the network is still greatly improved. Over the evolution period, the stated increase in power consumption does not consider improvement in base station equipment. By considering a number of different equipment versions, the evolution study is further extended to also include the impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power consumption by enabling a number of power saving features. These features often exploit redundancies within the network and/or the variation in traffic over a daily period. An example of such feature is sleep mode, which allows for base station sites to be systematically powered down during hours with low network traffic. While dependent on the traffic profile, within an urban area sleep mode can reduce the daily energy consumption of the network by around 20%. In addition to the different variances of sleep mode, the potential savings of other features are also described. Selecting a power efficient network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile network operators to boost network capacity by a

  2. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  5. Industrial Energy Efficiency Practices in Indonesia: Lesson Learned from Astra Green Energy (AGen) Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaga, A. S.; Hartanto, I. D.

    2017-03-01

    Many countries have used award system to promote energy efficiency practices in industry. The award system has been found to have significant impact to increase energy conservation and sustainability adoption in companies. Astra International (AI) as a holding company of more than 200 companies also organised Astra green energy (AGen) award to all affiliated companies (AFFCO) in Astra group. The event has been used to share energy efficiency best practices among AFFCO in Astra group. AFFCOs of Astra International are among the biggest and the leader in their industrial sectors Therefore, analyses from AFFO’s energy efficiency case studies represents current practices in Indonesia industrial sectors. Analyses are divided into industry, building, and renewable energy. The results from analyses found that AFFCOs already aware of energy conservation and have implemented projects to promote energy efficiency. However, the AFFCOs do not optimally use monitoring data for energy reduction.

  6. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  7. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  8. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  9. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  10. Increasing induction motors efficiency by reducing electromagnetic loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivian Chiver; Liviu Neamt; Eleonora Pop

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of any device is a major problem today. The design and construction of high efficiency motors is strongly required from the viewpoint of reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment...

  11. Management of projects for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Miodrag M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to lower operating costs and improve competitiveness, many organizations today are preparing projects in the field of energy saving. On the other hand, companies that provide energy services and implement these projects, need to build competences in this area to well manage the projects which are subject to energy savings and by this to justify the confidence of investors. This paper presents research that shows the most important factors for the development of local capacity in project management in the field of energy efficiency.

  12. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  13. Policies and programs for sustainable energy innovations renewable energy and energy efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jisun; Iskin, Ibrahim; Taha, Rimal; Blommestein, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs, and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability, and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems.  For example, shifting away from conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run.  Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global...

  14. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is designed to help state and local governments connect with EPA programs that can help them expand or develop their own energy efficiency/renewable energy (EE/RE) and climate initiatives in ways that benefit low-income communities.

  15. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  16. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    assumptions, we used the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) 5.3 application to model the economics and determine the comparative economics. The resulting...public release; distribution is unlimited. N/A This demonstration project evaluated the performance, economic models and efficiency implications of using...installation cost for the unit, and performance in terms of electricity generation that determine operating costs. Building life cycle cost, Organic

  17. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    installation without the need for further demonstration. This project both (1) allows us to roll out this solution to other installations, and (2...While the requirements of our system are not that demanding, i.e. we have 4 hoses and a wire that connect to the outside world, the ease with which...was limited run time. This precluded any steady state running that allows for more reliable efficiency results. The ORCA system draws more power

  18. Energy Efficiency, Food Consumption Influence on China's Economy based on Energy and Agricultural Food Price Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available External shocks have significant effects on China's economy, as energy and agriculture food price. In recent years, the increasing of energy price will promote energy efficiency; also increasing prices of agricultural products will impact on production efficiency and economy. In this study, we make a statistical analysis on the impact of energy and agricultural food prices to domestic economy. The result shows that energy price will influence the energy efficiency in the short time, LnEP at lag 1 period increased one percentage can drive LnEE growth by 0.627 percentage, at the same time, agricultural food price will impact on the production efficiency, LnAFP at lag 1 period and the 2 period increased 1 percentage will drive the LnPE increased by 0.245 and 0.016 percentage respectively. Therefore, agricultural food prices have direct mutual promotion effect. Also, there exist at least one direct co-integration relationship between energy price and energy efficiency, which means that there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between energy price and energy efficiency.

  19. Energy-efficient procurement in state and local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.W. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    As the prices of domestically produced and imported energy continue to skyrocket, the need for increased efforts to save energy grows. While states and their political subdivisions can encourage energy conservation in a variety of ways, they can set an example for their citizens and save energy themselves by becoming more conscious of the energy impacts of government purchasing and more committed to energy-efficient procurement. This report examines the progress made by states in this area since the enactment in 1975 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). One part of this law authorizes Federal assistance to states for the preparation and implementation of energy-conservation plans to include, among other elements, energy-efficient procurement standards and policies. Three and a half years after EPCA's passage, state and local energy-efficient procurement programs, with a few exceptions, have barely advanced beyond infancy. The major reasons for this are a lack of reliable energy-efficiency information on many energy-consuming products, a resistance to change on the part of purchasing officials or their superiors, and a reluctance in the tax-revolt era to spend money in order to save money as well as energy. To overcome these obstacles, states and localities should consider mandating energy-efficient procurement practices through either executive orders or legislation. In addition, states and localities should consider adopting institutional arrangements, such as centralized purchasing and joint or cooperative purchasing that will facilitate energy-efficient procurement. To further state and local efforts in this area, the Federal government should provide technical and financial assistance to an organization or purchasing officials to establish an information clearinghouse.

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    2013-01-01

    . Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy efficient renovation housing sector strategy. All in all, our project contributes to the building sector by testing new methods and suggesting methods for meeting challenges concerning energy efficient renovation. It also......This paper presents a case study which investigates a strategic and methodological approach to future proofed renovations of social housing in an environmental, economically and socially sustainable way. In years to come the social housing sector must undergo major renovation. The housing sector...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value...

  1. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-27

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality.

  2. Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihao Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an energy-input based directional distance function, we calculated the shadow price of four types of energy (i.e., coal, oil, gas and electricity among 30 areas in China from 1998 to 2012. Moreover, a macro-energy efficiency index in China was estimated and divided into intra-provincial technical efficiency, allocation efficiency of energy input structure and inter-provincial energy allocation efficiency. It shows that total energy efficiency has decreased in recent years, where intra-provincial energy technical efficiency drops markedly and extensive mode of energy consumption rises. However, energy structure and allocation improves slowly. Meanwhile, lacking an integrated energy market leads to the loss of energy efficiency. Further improvement of market allocation and structure adjustment play a pivotal role in the increase of energy efficiency.

  3. Commercial mortgages: An underutilized channel for scaling energy efficiency investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Wallace, Nancy; Alschuler, Elena; Kolstad, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Commercial mortgages currently do not fully account for energy factors in underwriting and valuation, particularly as it relates to the impact of energy costs and volatility on an owner’s net operating income. As a consequence, energy efficiency is not properly valued and energy risks are not properly assessed and mitigated. Commercial mortgages are a large lever and could be a significant channel for scaling energy efficiency investments. A pilot analysis of loans with different mortgage contract structures and locations showed that when energy cost volatility was included in mortgage valuation, a 20% reduction in energy use resulted in a 1.3% average increase in mortgage value. This suggests that the explicit inclusion of energy use and volatility in mortgage valuation can send a strong price signal that financially rewards and values energy efficiency in commercial properties. This paper presents findings from a scoping study addressing energy factors in commercial mortgages. First, we present a review of current practices as it relates to incorporating energy factors into commercial mortgage underwriting and valuation. Next, we detail the impacts of energy factors on property values, net operating income and mortgage valuation. Building operational practices alone can result in energy use variations from -17% to 87%. Finally, we present a set of proposed interventions to properly address energy factors in commercial mortgages, based on extensive discussions with stakeholders including mortgage originators, underwriters, building owners and regulators.

  4. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    -General for Energy and The Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs have the leadership of the main adopted product groups within the Ecodesign Directive. DG Environment is involved in the process and has a shared leadership of the preparatory study on washing machines...... significant environmental impact. For the introduction of resource efficiency requirements into the Ecodesign Directive, these requirements have to be included in the preparatory study. It is therefore recommended to broaden the scope of the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-related products and the Eco......Report tool and to develop the necessary resource efficiency indicators. A continued pressure from the stakeholders is also important, and a recommendation is therefore to continue the open ecodesign process and strengthen stakeholder consultations during the preparatory study. The Directorate...

  5. Energy Efficient Design for Body Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hardware requirements and design constraints that derive from unique features of body sensor networks (BSNs. Based on the BSN requirements, we examine the tradeoff between custom hardware and commercial off the shelf (COTS designs for BSNs. The broad range of BSN applications includes situations where either custom chips or COTS design is optimal. For both types of nodes, we survey key techniques to improve energy efficiency in BSNs and identify general approaches to energy efficiency in this space.

  6. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  7. Energy absorbing efficiency of various aluminum foam filled tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Man; Lee, Won Sik; Ko, Se Hyun [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    In this study various types of A1 foam filled tubes were fabricated using foam of A1-12wt.%Si by powder metallurgical process. Their energy absorbing efficiencies were investigated with compression test, focusing on the structure and bonding effects between tube and foam. The results show that the energy absorption is affected by structure of A1 foam filled tube. Among fully foam filled tube, partially foam filled tube and A1 hollow tube with the same weight, fully foam filled tube seems to have superior potential for industrial application to energy absorption parts. Also energy absorption efficiency is increased by interaction between tube and foam and especially, bonding between tube and metallic foam gives rise to increase the energy absorption efficiency up to above 1.2 times. This results from the arrest of folding of tube by metallic foam and the change of stress mode from uni-axial to multi-axial during compression.

  8. Durability of future energy-efficient building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Diana

    Over the last decade, there has been a goal-oriented focus in the European Union on energy efficiency in the building sector to free it from the use of fossil fuels. Increases in the energy efficiency of building components means increased initial costs, for both new buildings and renovations...... tools. The method includes both energy analysis compared to current and future energy requirements, and analysis of possible failures in the building design (Failure Mode and Effects analysis). The method also includes an economic perspective (Net present value) given that the choice of a specific...... that the maintenance is already thought into the solution, so that the work can be done fast and easily with a minimum of expense. Minimizing costs is an important aspect in the complete solution so that we not only develop energy-efficient solutions, but also solutions that are economical. Two case studies were...

  9. Open-access, cogeneration and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous implementation of cogeneration systems and energy efficient investments were presented, together with the factors which must be present before implementing a cogeneration system. Cogeneration has been shown to be a cost-effective investment, with significant environmental benefits such as reduction of carbon emissions. It was suggested that it would be a good opportunity for businesses which have sizeable heat energy requirements to combine the concept of cogeneration, energy efficiency and open access. The combination would allow the business to sell excess electrical energy to a power pool. When planning, the electricity generation capability should be large enough to meet the needs not only of the existing facility, but also current and future electricity needs. 10 refs.

  10. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  11. Designing an energy-efficient quick service restaurant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.; Spata, A.J.; Turnbull, P.; Allen, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    Food service operators typically focus on controlling labor and food costs in order to increase profits. Energy, which typically represents 2% to 6% of the total cost to operate, is often a lower priority due to the complexity of food service operations and the lack of practical information. However, in an increasing competitive market, operators are actively seeking opportunities to further reduce overhead, and energy represents a good candidate. This paper presents an overview of the design and application of energy-efficient technologies to a quick service restaurant (QSR) and the resulting energy savings. Included in the discussion are the relevance of energy efficiency in a QSR, the criteria for choosing appropriate energy-efficient technologies, the replication of results to other restaurants, and the performance of the individual energy-saving technologies. Three different techniques were used to estimate energy savings of the energy-efficient technologies, with results in the range of 12% to 18% savings in overall annual restaurant energy costs.

  12. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  13. Energy efficiency in public buildings; Eficiencia energetica em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, Asher; Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto; Vianna, Luis Gustavo; Freitas, Daniela; Oliveira, Braulio; Azevedo, Alexandre; Alves, Igor; Fagundes, Vitor Lacerda [Universidade Federal da Bahia (TECLIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Rede de Tecnologias Limpas

    2010-07-01

    The implementation process of a energy management system in buildings of the Bahia state administration is presented. Completed a first phase, with a prior knowledge of the characteristics of the energy use in buildings and the implementation of a daily consumption monitoring system (the Vianet), a second phase begins with the definition of consumption targets and mobilization actions of the people, both the whole of the users, and more strongly the 'eco team', group which shall be responsible for the management. This paper makes a theoretical consideration on the use of energy in buildings, showing the room for energy management in addition to the simple exchange by efficient equipment, estimates the reduction obtained by the energy efficiency program of the electric utility with the exchange of light fixtures and air conditioners, shows the targeting process and difficulties found and identifies measures that will be implemented to achieve increasingly efficient patterns of energy use. (author)

  14. Energy Efficient Military Mobile Base Station Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ray

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an energy efficient network for military mobile base station placement. Theproposed method is based on minimizing the energy loss of military communication networks where thebase station is moving along a preset path and the users are constantly moving in an independent speedand direction. It takes into account the free space loss and the knife edge effect for the energy loss toestablish a path weight for the shortest path model. Then, it evaluates the neighboring points to the basestation for the energy loss of the network in order to find the position at which the minimum energy lossoccurs. The results show a clear energy saving advantage when compared to Lloyd-Max’s method

  15. Policies for improving energy efficiency in the European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    According to EC forecasts, if energy efficiency could be increased 1% annually until 2010, two-thirds of the potential energy saving in the EU could be achieved. This would comply with 40% of the EU's Kyoto obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% on the 1990 level by 2010-12, by cutting

  16. Meeting the Energy Challenge: New Standards for Industrial Motor Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    ’s “Total Cost of Ownership” (TCO) philosophy. This is important for Grundfos, as important pump improvements address the energy performance and service cost in the product’s operation period. These improvements include energy savings and increased overall pump efficiency. TCO can, therefore, be used...

  17. Holistic Approach to Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This presentation discusses NREL's Energy System Integrations Facility and NREL's holistic design approach to sustainable data centers that led to the world's most energy-efficient data center. It describes Peregrine, a warm water liquid cooled supercomputer, waste heat reuse in the data center, demonstrated PUE and ERE, and lessons learned during four years of operation.

  18. Energy-efficient Localization for Virtual Fencing

    OpenAIRE

    Jurdak, Raja; Corke, Peter; Dharman, Dhinesh; Salagnac, Guillaume; Crossman, Chris; Valencia, Philip; Bishop-Hurley, Greg

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This poster addresses the tradeoff between energy consumption and localization performance in a mobile sensor network application. It focuses on combining GPS location with more energy-efficient location sensors to bound position estimate uncertainty in order to prolong node lifetime. The focus is on an outdoor location monitoring application for tracking cattle using smart collars that contain wireless sensor nodes and GPS modules. We use empirically-derived models to...

  19. Energy Efficiency Studies of Mont Blanc Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the performance and energy efficiency of four different implementations of matrix multiplication, written in OmpSs and OpenCL, is tested and evaluated. The benchmarking is done using an Intel Ivy Bridge Core i7 3770K. The results are evaluated and discussed with regards to different optimization configurations, like vectorization and multi-threading. Energy measurements are taken using PAPI, which in turn uses the Running Average Power Limit interface in the Intel processor to...

  20. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  1. Policy instruments force climate protection by increasing the energy efficiency of electric appliances and electrical systems in private households and the commercial and small-scale sector; Politikinstrumente zur Effizienzsteigerung von Elektrogeraeten und -anlagen in Privathaushalten, Bueros und im Kleinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik; Griessmann, Benjamin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The implementation of new, more market-oriented instruments represents an additional starting point for future developments. This path was started on in the EU in 2005 with the CO{sub 2} emission trade. The price signals that could be expected for end customers in households and trade from this alone would most likely be too low to be a sufficient motivation for exhausting the electricity efficiency potential. At this point, we must again point out that only rarely are there economic hindrances to the complete use of potential, but rather a lack of information and organization leads to increased transaction costs in the implementation. This must be corrected by accompanying efficiency instruments and programs. However, implementing these programs does not (yet) represent an economic alternative to the efficiency measures in their own systems for the industry and power company involved in the emission trade due to such transaction costs. Otherwise there would be initiatives in the meantime for this type of privately organized program, as these have been suggested in this report as tasks for a national electricity fund. Therefore, the instrument of the EU emission trade must be supplemented in the foreseeable future with the instruments presented here. There is not much evidence as to how much a comparable implementation of tradable energy efficiency certificates (often referred to as ''white certificates'') is a suitable start for concluding efficiency potential at the level of the very inhomogeneous group of end consumers. We still see a need for research before such an instrument can be recommended as a guide for Germany or even Europe. The questions still to be clarified include, among other things, the ability of standardizing the assignment rules as well as the amount of the transaction costs to be expected, even in dependency on the market level at which the trade is started (end consumer, energy service provider, electronic equipment

  2. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  3. 76 FR 6605 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of... of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law......

  4. Status and prospects of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGWeiding; ZHOUHui

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly describes situation of building energy consumption in China. The authors indicate some relations in building energy efficiency should be dealt with properly: energy saving and energy efficiency, envelopes and building services systems, energy use and indoor environment, electric power saving and energy saving, devices and system, energy efficiency at stable state and at dynamic state. The authors suggest to use Coefficient of Energy Consumption as a Indicator of building energy efficiency.

  5. Energy efficiency development possibilities in public transport; Joukkoliikenteen energiatehokkuuden kehittaemismahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteniemi, J.; Pasanen, P.; Latvala, M.; Pohjola, T. (Bionova Consulting, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Environmental values, energy efficiency and climate impact have taken an essential role in the public affairs in the past years, and their weight in decision making is constantly increasing. One of HSL strategic goals is to promote low emissions transport. Public transport energy efficiency is good when compared to passenger cars today. However, the car energy and climate efficiency is improving substantially and the development is set to continue at least until 2020, supported by the EU directive on new car sales emission limits. The rapid development of passenger car emissions poses an increasing challenge for the energy and climate efficiency of public transport services. There are national and international binding goals for energy and climate efficiency development until the year 2020, and non-binding goals until the year 2050. The goals which impact public transport sector are 9 % improvement in energy efficiency by 2016 when compared to 2005 level, and national binding goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % and using 20 % of renewables in transport sector by 2020. By 2050, the targeted greenhouse gas reduction goals are up to 80 % of all emissions when compared to the 1990 emission levels. The public transport services provided by HSL use 628 GWh energy annually, which produces about 314 million public transport trips. The diesel and natural gas used by the buses represents two thirds of the energy consumption, whereas their share of the produced trips is about one half. The rail rolling stock energy consumption is one seventh of the whole. Circa one fifth of the energy is used by the transport infrastructure, such as stations, rail switch heating and the depots. In energy efficiency terms metro and train are clear leaders. One kilowatt hour of energy takes a passenger 10 km in metro and 29,9 km in a train. Correspondingly the passenger could travel in a tramway 4,4 km, in a diesel bus 2,7 km and in a natural gas bus 2,1 km and in a passenger car

  6. From energy plant to energy-efficient museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-11-01

    A former coal-fired heating plant at Marieberg, north of Kristinehamn in Sweden, has been converted, by the municipality, into a museum for contemporary art. Christer Nordstoem Arkitektkontor AB designed the conversion, in cooperation with WSP Environment. The focus is on energy efficiency, the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), optimising daylighting, environmental acceptability and thermal comfort. The building's predicted energy consumption for heating has been calculated at 90 kWh/m{sup 2} per year. This is only 42% of the energy used before conversion. The use of electricity has been calculated at 25 kWh/m{sup 2} per year, 30% less than that used before conversion. Aspects briefly discussed are solar air heating and hybrid ventilation, insulation and energy efficiency and optimised daylighting. (UK)

  7. Overall assessment of the energy efficiency in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Світлана Вікторівна Шастун

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to investigation of the energy efficiency in Ukraine. The author aims to establish the current state of Ukraine energy efficiency and identify the potential of energy efficiency development. The object of research are following areas of energy efficiency in Ukraine: energy efficiency of the regions (including analysis of energy efficiency of the fields of activity, which is within the territorial units, namely agriculture, industry, services, housing sector and determin...

  8. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  9. Promoting Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This pilot project is the first attempt to address the lack of rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit. The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time. A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by Cas. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.

  10. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design o...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  11. Energy Efficiency in Cloud Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccianti, G.; Bevini, S.; Lago, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud-based software is often considered as providing a greener, more energy-efficient solution. At the same time, it introduces more complexity and demands for new investments in cloud services, technologies, and competencies for migration, maintenance, and evolution of the underlying software arch

  12. Scaled–up sonochemical microreactor with increased efficiency and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Liu, Youlin; Galdames Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    Bubbles created with ultrasound from artificial microscopic crevices can improve energy efficiency values for the creation of radicals; nevertheless it has been conducted so far only under special laboratory conditions. Limited reproducibility of results and poor energy efficiency are constraints fo

  13. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by...

  14. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  15. Energy efficiency of consecutive fragmentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fontbona, Joaquin; Martinez, Servet

    2010-01-01

    We present a ?rst study on the energy required to reduce a unit mass fragment by consecutively using several devices, as it happens in the mining industry. Two devices are considered, which we represent as different stochastic fragmentation processes. Following the self-similar energy model introduced by Bertoin and Martinez, we compute the average energy required to attain a size x with this two-device procedure. We then asymptotically compare, as x goes to 0 or 1, its energy requirement with that of individual fragmentation processes. In particular, we show that for certain range of parameters of the fragmentation processes and of their energy cost-functions, the consecutive use of two devices can be asymptotically more efficient than using each of them separately, or conversely.

  16. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  17. Energy Conversion Efficiency of Rainbow Shape Piezoelectric Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiangjian; CHEN Renwen; ZHU Liya

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of the rainbow shape piezoelectric transducer,an analysis model of energy conversion efficiency is established based on the elastic mechanics theory and piezoelectricity theory.It can be found that the energy conversion efficiency of the rainbow shape piezoelectric transducer mainly depends on its shape parameters and material properties from the analysis model.Simulation results show that there is an optimal length ratio to generate maximum energy conversion efficiency and the optimal length ratios and energy conversion efficiencies of beryllium bronze substrate transducer and steel substrate transducer are (0.65,2.21%) and (0.65,1.64%) respectively.The optimal thickness ratios and energy conversion efficiencies of beryllium bronze substrate transducer and steel substrate transducer are (1.16,2.56%) and (1.49,1.57%) respectively.With the increase of width ratio and initial curvature radius,both the energy conversion efficiencies decrease.Moreover,beryllium bronze flexible substrate transducer is superior to the steel flexible substrate transducer.

  18. ROOT: Energy Efficient Routing through Optimized Tree in Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mitra, Swarup Kumar; Naskar, Mrinal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    Due to limitation of battery power, wireless sensor nodes are highly energy constrained. So, to enhance the network lifetime, the protocols which are used in wireless sensor network should be energy efficient. The LEACH and PEGASIS protocols which are elegant solutions to this problem try to minimize the overall energy dissipation by the nodes in the network. While the LEACH protocol randomizes cluster heads to achieve equal energy dissemination, the PEGASIS protocol forms a chain of cluster heads taking rounds in transmitting to the base station. In this paper we propose an energy efficient protocol which combines and thus enhances the performance of LEACH and PEGASIS. Here the base station is located at variable distances from each node due to the random deployment of the sensor nodes. So, each node actually dissipates a different amount of energy during its turn of transmission to the base station. This energy difference between the various nodes keeps on increasing with resulting in poorer network perform...

  19. Node Heterogeneity for Energy Efficient Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    The energy of the node in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is scare and causes the variation in the lifetime of the network. Also, the throughput and delay of the network depend on how long the network sustains i.e. energy consumption. One way to increase the sustainability of network...... is the introduction of heterogeneous nodes regarding energy, and the other is to synchronize the local clock of the node with the global clock of the network. In this context, the paper proposes Node Heterogeneity aware Energy Efficient Synchronization Algorithm (NHES). It works on the formation of cluster...... of the sources of delay and energy consumption. To minimize the energy consumptions and delay, NHES synchronizes the time slots using TDMA based MAC protocol. The results show that level by level synchronization used in NHES is energy efficient and has less delay as compared to the state-of-the-art solutions...

  20. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  1. Topological insulator-based energy efficient devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have emerged as a new class of quantum materials with many novel and unusual properties. In this article, we will give a brief review of the key electronic properties of topological insulators, including the signatures for the unusual electronic transport properties of their characteristic topological surface states (TSS). We will then discuss how these novel properties and physics may be utilized for TI-based energy efficient devices, such as lowpower- consumption electronics and high performance thermo-electrics. Furthermore, going beyond conventional singleparticle, charge-based transport, to utilize coherent many-body coherent ground states such as excitonic condensates (EC), new and intriguing functionalities previously unexplored in electronic and energy devices may be realized with the potential to dramatically improve the energy efficiency.

  2. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  3. Fact sheets energy efficiency. Meat processing industry; Factsheets energie-efficiency. Vleesverwerkende industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    To support the activities of the Dutch industry, carried out within the framework of the long-range agreements between the Dutch government and the industry to improve the energy efficiency by 20% in the year 2000, energy efficiency fact sheets have been drafted. Based on the information in the fact sheets specific industries can gain insight into and learn about energy saving options. The information in the fact sheets concerns data about a specific industrial sector, schematic presentation of processes and energy carriers, and technical and economical aspects of energy saving options and how they can be realized. This fact sheet concerns the meat processing industry. 28 refs.

  4. Energy-Efficient Probabilistic Routing Algorithm for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future network with Internet of Things (IoT, each of the things communicates with the others and acquires information by itself. In distributed networks for IoT, the energy efficiency of the nodes is a key factor in the network performance. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient probabilistic routing (EEPR algorithm, which controls the transmission of the routing request packets stochastically in order to increase the network lifetime and decrease the packet loss under the flooding algorithm. The proposed EEPR algorithm adopts energy-efficient probabilistic control by simultaneously using the residual energy of each node and ETX metric in the context of the typical AODV protocol. In the simulations, we verify that the proposed algorithm has longer network lifetime and consumes the residual energy of each node more evenly when compared with the typical AODV protocol.

  5. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  6. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  7. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  9. Behaviours, transmissions, generations: why is energy efficiency not enough?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabuau-Moussaoui, Isabelle (Electricite de France, Research and Development (France))

    2009-07-01

    Energy use is nowadays a very important question, in the context of global warming and expensive prices of energy. 'Energy conservation' is a paradox: environmental awareness increases, but also energy demand. Sociological knowledge concerning energy uses and energy savings remains important to understand the possible evolutions of practices and values and thus the possible future energy policies. Can the 'consumer society' become a 'less energy-intensive' society? This paper proposes to innovate with a 'new' way to analyse behaviours and to help policy makers to break the walls of 'the behavioural complexity'. We argue that energy efficiency, energy-using products and activities are socially embedded. More specifically, they depend on the 'social age' of people (children, teenagers, young adults, parents, old age people) and on their generation (events, experiences that people did live). The demonstration is based on the analysis of several qualitative studies carried out in France, showing that the generational and social ages analysis could be very efficient and innovative to understand: How are information, policies and energy-efficient technologies understood and embodied by people according to their age and their 'life story'? What kind of 'energy-related material culture' have people, and how does it evolve during the life? In a context of increasing energy demand, is it possible to change the energy-intensive 'socio-technical' mainstream towards a more sustainable way of life? What are the best moments during life for a behavioural change towards a less energy intensive way of life? Can we count on the new generation, to be more aware and less 'energy-intensive'?

  10. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amy

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  12. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  13. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  14. Analysis on energy efficiency in healthcare buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz-Calcedo, Justo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze and quantify the average healthcare centres' energy behavior and estimate the possibilities of savings through the use of concrete measures to reduce their energy demand in Extremadura, Spain. It provides the average energy consumption of 55 healthcare centres sized between 500 and 3,500 m². The analysis evaluated data of electricity and fossil fuel energy consumption as well as water use and other energy-consuming devices. The energy solutions proposed to improve the efficiency are quantified and listed. The average annual energy consumption of a healthcare centre is 86.01 kWh/m², with a standard deviation of 16.8 kWh/m². The results show that an annual savings of €4.77/m² is possible. The potential to reduce the energy consumption of a healthcare centre of size 1,000 m² is 10,801 kWh by making an average investment of €11,601, thus saving €2,961/year with an average payback of 3.92 years.

  15. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    lightweight block ciphers, and thereby try to predict the optimal value of r at which an r-round unrolled architecture for a cipher is likely to be most energy efficient. We also try to relate our results to some physical design parameters like the signal delay across a round and algorithmic parameters like......In the last few years, the field of lightweight cryptography has seen an influx in the number of block ciphers and hash functions being proposed. One of the metrics that define a good lightweight design is the energy consumed per unit operation of the algorithm. For block ciphers, this operation...... is the encryption of one plaintext. By studying the energy consumption model of a CMOS gate, we arrive at the conclusion that the energy consumed per cycle during the encryption operation of an r-round unrolled architecture of any block cipher is a quadratic function in r. We then apply our model to 9 well known...

  16. Design guidelines for energy-efficient hotels in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bodach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is predicted that the major increase in energy consumption and, thus, carbon emissions, will happen in the developing world. However, in most developing countries the knowledge about energy efficiency, particularly in the building sector, is quite low. Strategies developed for industrialised countries might not be suitable or must be adapted for the very different context of developing countries. This research aims to find energy-efficient and cost-effective building design options for the case of Nepal. Energy-efficient building design is a non-trivial issue involving a number of interdependent design criteria. Particularly, in composite climates, passive design strategies might conflict each other leading to an inefficient building design. This paper explores the energy conservation potential in hotel design for all bioclimatic zones of Nepal using building energy simulation with parametric analysis. Based on extensive field studies, reference models for typical hotel buildings ranging from small-scale resort hotels to large-scale multi-storey hotels were developed. These reference designs were optimised by varying design parameters such as window-to-wall ratio, glazing material, shading devices, glazing type and insulation levels. During the design optimisation, energy demand as well as cost effectiveness were evaluated. Finally, recommendations for energy-efficient and cost-effective hotel design solutions were suggested. In addition, the bioclimatic zoning for Nepal was consolidated leading to five elevation-based zones that can be used to introduce building energy regulations in the future.

  17. Energy efficient for refrigeration and air conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows.

  18. End-to-end energy efficient communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars

    Awareness of energy consumption in communication networks such as the Internet is currently gaining momentum as it is commonly acknowledged that increased network capacity (currently driven by video applications) requires significant more electrical power. This paper stresses the importance...

  19. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    existing macro base station sites together with the deployment of outdoor or indoor small cells (heterogeneous network) provide the best compromise between performance and power consumption. Focusing on one of the case studies, it is noted that the upgrade of both HSPA and LTE network layers results in the power consumption of the network increasing by a factor of 4. When coupled with the growth in capacity introduced by the various upgrades (x50), the efficiency of the network is still greatly improved. Over the evolution period, the stated increase in power consumption does not consider improvement in base station equipment. By considering a number of different equipment versions, the evolution study is further extended to also include the impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power consumption by enabling a number of power saving features. These features often exploit redundancies within the network and/or the variation in traffic over a daily period. An example of such feature is sleep mode, which allows for base station sites to be systematically powered down during hours with low network traffic. While dependent on the traffic profile, within an urban area sleep mode can reduce the daily energy consumption of the network by around 20%. In addition to the different variances of sleep mode, the potential savings of other features are also described. Selecting a power efficient network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile network operators to boost network capacity by a

  20. Compatibility of the SE4ALL Energy Efficiency Objective with Renewable Energy, Energy Access, and Climate Mitigation Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Balyk, Olexandr; Solér, Ola

    in the global energy mix (United Nations, 2011; SE4ALL, 2013a). The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent the energy efficiency objective supports the other two objectives, and to what extent the SE4ALL objectives support the climate target of limiting the global mean temperature increase to 2° C....... Meeting any of the objectives also requires increased investment in the transportation sector. While achieving the SE4ALL objectives does not limit warming to 2° C on its own, it makes a substantial contribution toward that goal, particularly if the renewable energy and energy efficiency objectives......The objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL), a United Nations (UN) global initiative, are to achieve, by 2030: 1) universal access to modern energy services; 2) a doubling of the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency; and 3) a doubling of the share of renewable energy...

  1. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  2. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  3. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  4. Energy Efficiency Optimization for MIMO Broadcasting Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the energy efficiency (EE) for the MIMO broadcasting channels (BC) is addressed in this paper, taking into account the transmit independent power which is related to the active transmit antenna number. A new optimization framework is proposed, in which transmit covariance optimization under fixed active transmit antenna sets is first performed and active transmit antenna selection (ATAS) is utilized then. To optimize the EE under a fixed transmit antenna set, we propose an energy efficient iterative waterfilling scheme according to the block-coordinate ascent algorithm, through transforming the problem into a concave fractional optimization via uplink-downlink duality. It is proved that the proposed scheme converges to the global optimality. After that, ATAS is employed to determine the active transmit antenna set and to turn off the rest inactive antennas. ATAS can balance the active transmit antenna number related EE gain with higher capacity gain and the EE loss with more transmit independent po...

  5. Energy-efficient wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntlatlapa, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available ­deficient areas such as rural areas in  Africa.  Index   Terms—Energy   efficient   design,   Wireless  Mesh networks, Network Protocols I. INTRODUCTION The  objectives  of   this   research  group   are   the  application   and   adaptation   of   existing   wireless  local   area...   networks,   especially   those   based   on  802.11 standard, for   the energy­efficient  wireless  mesh network (EE­WMN) architectures, protocols  and   controls.   In   addition   to   the   WMN   regular  features   of   self...

  6. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  7. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  8. Liquid pressure amplifier increases refrigeration efficiency at Canada Safeway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Canada Safeway Limited is a food retail store that operates some 80 stores in British Columbia. The company was interested in improving the energy efficiency and performance of their refrigeration systems. The store`s largest electrical load is refrigeration for produce, meat, deli, dairy and frozen foods. Safeway installed a liquid pressure amplifier (LPA) at one of their stores. LPA is a small magnetically-coupled pump which is installed in the liquid refrigerant line between the condenser outlet and the expansion valve. The LPA reduces the compressor`s work load. The technology works best with systems that use fluorinated hydrocarbon-based refrigerants and not ammonia-based systems. Total cost of the retrofit was estimated to be $7,000. The modification reduced the load on the compressor and increased the refrigeration capacity, resulting in reduced energy consumption. Annual energy savings were estimated to be $2,000 per year. Other potential applications for LPA technology, including air conditioning systems, thermal energy cold storage systems, skating rinks, and refrigerated warehouses, were also mentioned briefly. 1 fig.

  9. The Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Victoria [Building Industry Research Alliance, Stockton, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency. The report covers critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  10. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebel Matthias M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the “energy and buildings” topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  11. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  12. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  13. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  14. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  15. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  16. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  17. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The U... manufactured homes with higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards....

  18. Metabolic efficiency and energy expenditure during short-term overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bakker, Arjen H F; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2005-08-07

    To investigate whether efficiency of weight gain during a short period of overfeeding is related to adaptive differences in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity. Fourteen healthy females (age 25+/-4 years, BMI 22.1+/-2.3 kg/m2). Subjects were overfed with a diet supplying 50% more energy than baseline energy requirements for 14 days. Overfeeding diets provided 7% of energy from protein, 40% from fat and 53% from carbohydrates. Body composition was determined using hydrodensitometry and isotope dilution, total energy expenditure (TEE) with doubly labeled water and basal metabolic rate (BMR) with indirect calorimetry. Physical activity (PA) was recorded with a tri-axial accelerometer. Body weight increased by 1.45+/-0.86 kg (mean+/-S.D.) (P<0.0001), fat mass increased by 1.05+/-0.75 kg. Energy storage was 57.0+/-17.9 MJ, which is the difference between energy intake (207.2 MJ) and energy expenditure (150.2 MJ) during overfeeding. There was no difference between metabolically efficient and metabolically inefficient subjects in changes in BMR and PA. These results indicate that the metabolic efficiency of weight gain was not related to adaptive changes in energy expenditure.

  19. The role of energy advisors on adoption of energy efficiency measures in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif (Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)). e-mail: leif.gustavsson@miun.se

    2009-07-01

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. Currently, all municipalities offer energy advisers' service. The success of such service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in 2008 summer. We found that majority of owners' of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had actually contacted energy advisers. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy adviser service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  20. Energy efficiency assessment for the Antalya Region hotels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onut, S.; Soner, S. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Faculty

    2006-08-15

    The hotels in the Antalya Region of Turkey have become a major consumer of energy, water and other resources. However, at present, there are no existing guidelines for the efficient use and management of these resources. Energy management includes increasing in profitability due to the reduced operational costs and it is also a potential for improved market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in energy management literature. However there have been not so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision-making units. An evaluation of energy efficiency in 32 five-star hotels in the Antalya Region has been carried out and the results are discussed in this paper. According to this study eight hotels are efficient and twenty-four hotels are inefficient. Also for these 24 inefficient hotels, ideal energy consumptions (electricity, water and liquefied petroleum gas consumptions) are proposed to make these hotels efficient. In this study data envelopment analysis models are evaluated by using a linear programming package LINGO 5.0. (author)

  1. Energy efficiency assessment for the Antalya Region hotels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenuet, S.; Soner, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Mechanical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-07-01

    The hotels in the Antalya Region of Turkey have become a major consumer of energy, water and other resources. However, at present, there are no existing guidelines for the efficient use and management of these resources. Energy management includes increasing in profitability due to the reduced operational costs and it is also a potential for improved market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in energy management literature. However there have been not so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision-making units. An evaluation of energy efficiency in 32 five-star hotels in the Antalya Region has been carried out and the results are discussed in this paper. According to this study eight hotels are efficient and twenty-four hotels are inefficient. Also for these 24 inefficient hotels, ideal energy consumptions (electricity, water and liquefied petroleum gas consumptions) are proposed to become efficient these hotels. In this study data envelopment analysis models are evaluated by using a linear programming package LINGO 5.0. (author)

  2. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  3. Overall energy efficiency trends in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B.

    2000-07-01

    This study presents some statistical data about the energy efficiency trends in the European countries: 1) - energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission trends (need for climate corrections, economic growth and the related energy growth); 2) - trends in primary and final energy intensities (energy consumption and economic activity, relative evolution rate of primary and final energy intensities); 3) - final energy intensity, climate variations and economic growth (energy intensity and GDP growth, energy prices and energy efficiency); 4) - economic structures and final energy intensity (changes in economic structures and in GDP structure, technical and behavioural factors); 5) - energy efficiency in the EU from an energy policy viewpoint (different contribution of the EU countries in the energy intensity change of the GDP, improvement of energy efficiency since 1993); 6) - industry (overall industrial energy consumption and intensity trends; energy intensities, efficiency and structural changes in the industry). (J.S.)

  4. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  5. Improving Building Energy Efficiency in India: State-level Analysis of Building Energy Efficiency Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Gordon P.; Vu, Linh D.; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  6. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  7. Energy Efficiency in Underwater Sensor Networks: a Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kanakaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an energy-constrained underwater system environment it is very important to find ways to improve the life expectancy ofthe sensors. Compared to the sensors of a terrestrial Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, underwater sensors cannotuse solar energy to recharge the batteries, and it is difficult to replace the batteries in the sensors. This paper reviews theresearch progress made to date in the area of energy consumption in underwater sensor networks (UWSN and suggestsfurther research that needs to be carried out in order to increase the energy efficiency of the UWSN system.

  8. Energy efficiency of buildings with phase-change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of energy efficient buildings using innovative building materials such as phase change materials, in addition to improving indoor comfort, energy savings and costs, can be achieved by increasing their market value. Because of its ability to absorb and release energy at predictable temperatures, phase change materials are effective in controlling and maintaining the thermal environment in the building. The use of phase changing materials, materials stored latent energy storage is an effective form of heat. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36016: Experimental and theoretical investigation of frames and plates with semi-rigid connections from the view of the second order theory and stability analysis

  9. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Submission for Office of... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  10. 75 FR 69655 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28640] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the...

  11. 2009 EnerQuality energy efficiency/green building study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    An energy efficiency/green building study was conducted in 2009 related to the perceptions of consumers in making energy efficiency decisions. This presentation provided information and analysis related to the importance of energy efficiency when deciding on a new home purchase; reasons why energy efficiency is important to buyers; energy efficiency features proposed by the builder; the perceived benefit of energy efficient features; and how well builders communicate the benefits of an energy efficient home. In addition, the presentation described energy efficient features purchased by new home buyers and related cost; the likelihood of buyers to search and pay for an energy efficient home; measuring the awareness of different energy efficient certification labels; the importance buyers place on energy efficient certification labels; the importance buyers place on other green building aspects, in addition to energy efficiency; and new home buyers' perceptions toward energy efficiency. The presentation concluded that almost 9 out of 10 homeowners perceive energy efficiency to be important. In addition, cost savings is perceived to be the most important energy efficiency benefit to buyers followed by a healthier indoor environment. figs.

  12. Economics and utility energy-efficiency programs: Energy-efficient manufactured housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    As utilities investigate ways to implement conservation programs, the differences between customer and utility economic perspectives become more important. Because utilities bear the cost of new energy sources, energy efficiency investments that are cost-effective to them may not be cost-effective to their customers who pay average energy prices and have different economic parameters. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other parties in the Pacific Northwest have initiated an innovative manufactured (mobile) home energy conservation program. Because manufactured homes are regulated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), are exempt from local regulations, and comprise up to 50% of new housing starts in some parts of the United States, utilities and energy planners need to find creative ways to make the economics of manufactured housing energy-efficiency investments more attractive. Differences between the economic criteria and perspectives of consumers and utilities can be used to design energy-efficiency programs. This paper discusses life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis as a framework for highlighting these differences and examines other economic criteria. It then presents information from the Pacific Northwest manufactured housing program to illustrate the application of this framework to a real-world program. Findings from this program should,be of interest to utility and government planners who are designing innovative energy-efficiency programs.

  13. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  14. Quantifying the savings of an industry energy efficiency programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.J. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Gallachoir, B.P.O. [Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2012-05-15

    In a developed economy, improving the energy performance of the industry sector can make an important contribution to achieving national energy efficiency goals. Policy measures aimed at increasing energy efficiency in industry must be proven to be effective. In Ireland one such measure is the Large Industry Energy Network (LIEN) programme. LIEN is a voluntary network of large energy users, facilitated by the national energy agency, working to maintain strong energy management practices. In this paper, we combine top-down methods for analysing national energy statistics with company-level figures supplied by LIEN participants to quantify the energy savings achieved by the companies and to determine the fraction of national savings that can be attributed to them. By comparing the collective performance of participant companies with the performance of the rest of industry we provide an indication of the effectiveness of the programme and quantify the savings that may be directly attributable to it. These figures when combined with national energy forecasts for industry help us assess the likely contribution of the programme to future national energy savings targets.

  15. Towards Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2016-07-14

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a cutting-edge wireless communication technology that adopts several existing communication concepts in order to efficiently utilize the spectrum and meet the users demands of high throughput and real-time systems. Conventionally, high throughput demands are met through adopting broadband and multi-antenna technologies such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Whereas, real-time application demands are met by analyzing metrics which characterize the delay limited channels, such as, outage probability over block-fading channels. Being an environmental friendly technology, energy efficiency metrics should be considered in the design of a CR application. This thesis tackles the energy efficiency of CR system from different aspects, utilizing different measuring metrics and constrains. Under the single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM we minimized the energy per goodbit (EPG) metric subject to several power and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. In this approach, the minimum EPG metric is optimized via proposing two optimal and sub-optimal resource allocation schemes. We consider several parameters as optimization variables, such as, power policy, sensing threshold, and channel quality threshold. We also captured the impact of involving the media access control (MAC) layers parameters, such as, frame length, in the minimization of a modified EPG metric. Also, a MAC protocol, i.e., hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and the associated power consumption of the retransmission mechanism is considered in the formulation of the problem. In this context, the optimal power and frame length are derived to minimize the modified EPG while considering several spectrum-sharing scenarios, which depend on sensing information. In MIMO based CR system, we maximized capacity to power ratio (CPR) (as an energy efficiency (EE) metric) subject to several power and QoS constraints. In this context, the

  16. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  17. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    . A comprehensive analysis on the trade-off between power consumption and capital expenditures (CAPEX) is also presented. The results confirmed that gross-grained designs (i.e., designs that account for high bandwidth technologies) are attractive from a cost perspective, however, power consumption needs...... with current traffic demands and this dissertation tackles the trade-off between energy efficiency and quality of service in terms of latency. Another important contribution of this thesis is the novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for internet protocol (IP) over wavelength division...... to be further improved. A second analysis for core networks is performed on a programmable networking platform, named software defined networking, to consolidate core network designs towards cost-efficient and flexible solutions. Results on jitter, latency, and power consumption for a novel south-bound protocol...

  18. Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, John H.; Randall, Brad

    2012-01-01

    By now the slogan of the National Trust for Historic Preservation that "the greenest building is the one already built" is widely known. In an era of increased environmental awareness and rising fuel prices, however, the question is how can historic building stock be made more energy efficient in a manner respectful of its historic integrity and…

  19. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  1. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). Efficiently managing and distributing electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. The power grid is evolving into the Smart Grid, which is being developed...... to distribute and produce electricity more efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS and the Smart Grid. Additionally, it provides an overview on how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is involved in the Smart Grid and how they help to achieve the emerging...... functionalities that the Smart Grid can provide....

  2. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). Efficiently managing and distributing electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. The power grid is evolving into the Smart Grid, which is being developed...... to distribute and produce electricity more efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS and the Smart Grid. Additionally, it provides an overview on how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is involved in the Smart Grid and how they help to achieve the emerging...... functionalities that the Smart Grid can provide....

  3. Magnetocaloric materials for energy efficient cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubina, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Solid-state magnetic cooling near room temperature has recently gained a prominent position among alternative cooling technologies that are deemed to have higher energy efficiency compared to vapour compression. This prospect has surged a rapid growth of the area of magnetocaloric materials. Although several breakthroughs were achieved, the extensive study revealed a number of challenges in the effective deployment of the magnetic refrigerants. This review focuses on fundamentally and technologically relevant aspects of the cooling with magnetocaloric materials. A critical evaluation of magnetic refrigerants and progress made in improvement of their performance is provided. Future development trends in the field of materials for the solid state cooling are highlighted.

  4. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand......, as there is a high potential for reducing the transmission power when resource utilization becomes low. The eNBs must be aware of conguration updates in neighboring cells and make automated decisions to respond to changes in the network. The effectiveness of the algorithm is represented as a number of powered off eNB...

  5. Energy efficiency in multi-story buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staritcyna Anastasiia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project a research on energy efficiency of Malta house was provided, it is a residential multi-story building in Helsinki, Jätkäsaari area. This project describes introduction with a new heating system for residential dwellings, which uses only heated air. To maintain air temperature in comfort level heat recovery and district heating is used in the same system. The task was to research efficacy of the enclosure structures. For research the 3D model has been created in the program the Revit 2015 and Lumion 13. Thermotechnical calculation for three types of a design has been executed in the program U-value.net.

  6. A novel energy efficient broadcast leader election

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet, Philippe; Milioris, Dimitrios; Muhlethaler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new algorithm to achieve a distributed leader election in a broadcast channel that is more efficient than the classic Part-and-Try algorithm. The algorithm has the adavantage of having a reduced overhead $\\log\\log N$ rather than $\\log N$. More importantly the algorithm has the a greatly reduced energy consumption since it requires $O(N^{1/k})$ burst transmissions instead of $O(N/k)$, per election, $k$ being a parameter depending on the physical propertie...

  7. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The

  8. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  9. Energy efficiency in air handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, P. [Australian Baldor (Australia)

    1995-07-01

    It is estimated that the cost of air handling in a typical office building is $25,000 to $60,000 per 10,000 sq metres. New technologies are now available to reduce this by 50 percent with an investment that is recoverable within two years. Old systems of air handling operated at full speed with flow rates changed by mechanical vanes or dampers. The excess capacity generated is wasting energy which could be saved using modern motor controls that match the system output with actual needs. Comparisons of relative energy consumptions of different fan flow control methods show that the more time a system spends throttled down, the better candidate it is for the more efficient Variable Speed Drive (VSD) device which matches the motor`s speed to actual needs. The use of VSD instead of vanes and dampers reduces operating costs which impacts directly on profitability. 2 tables, 1 fig.

  10. An Energy-Efficient MIMO Algorithm with Receive Power Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Andrés Alayón

    2012-01-01

    We consider the energy-efficiency of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with constrained received power rather than constrained transmit power. A Energy-Efficient Water-Filling (EEWF) algorithm that maximizes the ratio of the transmission rate to the total transmit power has been derived. The EEWF power allocation policy establishes a trade-off between the transmission rate and the total transmit power under the total receive power constraint. The static and the uncorrelated fast fading Rayleigh channels have been considered, where the maximization is performed on the instantaneous realization of the channel assuming perfect information at both the transmitter and the receiver with equal number of antennas. We show, based on Monte Carlo simulations that the energy-efficiency provided by the EEWF algorithm can be more than an order of magnitude greater than the energy-efficiency corresponding to capacity achieving Water-Filling (WF) algorithm. We also show that the energy-efficiency increases with b...

  11. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  12. Energy efficient Supermarket Refrigeration with Ejectors

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Hoyas, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of R744 or carbon dioxide has been increased as a working fluid in many refrigerant systems. Nevertheless, one disadvantage for use this refrigerant is the thermodynamic losses produced in the refrigerant system when the fluid is throttled. These losses are increased if the refrigerant system is working in transcritical operation conditions. But, there is an option and it consists of using an ejector instead of the conventional expansion valve in order to reduce the energy l...

  13. Let's stop wasting energy on efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew

    2000-09-01

    Energy efficiency is popular during times of energy surplus. We are living in one such time, and the historic debate about the relative value of improved energy efficiency has been occurring. This paper discusses the theory behind energy efficiency and summarizes that debate. (Author)

  14. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    options for how to evolve their networks, allowing them to carry the expected increase in traffic. The best solution is generally selected based on two main criteria, performance and cost. However, pushed by a variety of environmental and energy challenges, MNOs are now also showing interest...

  15. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  16. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  17. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  18. Innovations in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Recent IEA analysis highlights member countries' significant progress with developing energy efficiency policy (International Energy Agency 2009). The 28 member countries of the IEA are engaged in promoting innovative financial instruments, energy efficiency strategies and action plans. They are designing policies to promote energy efficiency in buildings, the adoption of standby power, the phase out of inefficient lighting, proper tyre-inflation and related policies, and energy efficiency in utilities.

  19. Impacts of energy efficiency on employment, growth and trade. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Jochem, E.

    2000-07-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that, although substantial improvements in energy efficiency have already been made, there still exist significant economic potentials - even in energy intensive sectors. Realising these potentials will reduce costs for energy services and improve overall economic efficiency, but employment gains are likely to be small. Technological progress in energy efficiency may foster economic growth, improve competitiveness and create new export markets. Above-average growth and export rates for energy efficient products can be expected to continue, in particular, if policies are appropriately designed to realise untapped efficiency potentials and to encourage innovation in energy efficient technologies. (orig.)

  20. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  1. Performance and energy efficiency in wireless self-organized networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C.

    2009-07-01

    Self-organized packet radio networks (ad-hoc networks) and wireless sensor networks have got massive attention recently. One of critical problems in such networks is the energy efficiency, because wireless nodes are usually powered by battery. Energy efficiency design can dramatically increase the survivability and stability of wireless ad-hoc/sensor networks. In this thesis the energy efficiency has been considered at different protocol layers for wireless ad-hoc/sensor networks. The energy consumption of wireless nodes is inspected at the physical layer and MAC layer. At the network layer, some current routing protocols are compared and special attention has been paid to reactive routing protocols. A minimum hop analysis is given and according to the analysis result, a modification of AODV routing is proposed. A variation of transmit power can be also applied to clustering algorithm, which is believed to be able to control the scalability of network. Clustering a network can also improve the energy efficiency. We offer a clustering scheme based on the link state measurement and variation of transmit power of intra-cluster and inter-cluster transmission. Simulation shows that it can achieve both targets. In association with the clustering algorithm, a global synchronization scheme is proposed to increase the efficiency of clustering algorithm. The research attention has been also paid to self-organization for multi-hop cellular networks. A 2-hop 2-slot uplink proposal to infrastructure-based cellular networks. The proposed solution can significantly increase the throughput of uplink communication and reduce the energy consumption of wireless terminals. (orig.)

  2. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  3. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Lia

    2012-09-30

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  4. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  5. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing

  6. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  7. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  8. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Genetic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Ayon; Naskar, Mrinal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The key parameters that need to be addressed while designing protocols for sensor networks are its energy awareness and computational feasibility in resource constrained sensor nodes. Variation in the distances of nodes from the Base Station and differences in inter-nodal distances are primary factors causing unequal energy dissipation among the nodes. Thus energy difference among the nodes increases with time resulting in degraded network performance. The LEACH and PEGASIS schemes which provided elegant solutions to the problem suffer due to randomization of cluster heads and greedy chain formation respectively. In this paper, we propose a Genetic algorithm inspired ROUting Protocol (GROUP) which shows enhanced performance in terms of energy efficiency and network lifetime over other schemes. GROUP increases the network performance by ensuring a sub-optimal energy dissipation of the individual nodes despite their random deployment. It employs modern heuristics like Genetic Algorithms along with Simulated Ann...

  9. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollini, R. [Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Viale Druso 1, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Danza, L.; Meroni, I. [ITC-CNR, Construction Technologies Institute - Italian National Research Council, Via Lombardia, 49 - 20098 San Giuliano Milanese (MI) (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  10. States Address Air Pollution from Energy through Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  11. An efficiency booster for energy conversion in natural circulation loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqing, E-mail: wangdongqing@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Jin, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Low driving power conversion efficiency of natural circulation loops is proved. • The low conversion efficiency leads to low heat transfer capacity of such loops. • An efficiency booster is designed with turbine to increase the efficiency. • Performance of the proposed booster has been numerically simulated. • The booster drastically enhances heat transfer capacity of such loops. - Abstract: In this paper, the capacity of a natural circulation loop for transferring heat from a heat source to a heat sink has been analyzed. It is concluded that the capacity of the natural circulation loop depends on the conversion efficiency of the thermal energy from the heat source to the driving force for the circulation of the flow. The low conversion efficiency leading to weak driving force in such loops has been demonstrated analytically and validated through simulation results. This issue has resulted in a low heat transfer capacity in the circulation loop. To increase the heat transfer capacity, one has to improve this efficiency. To meet such a need, a novel efficiency booster has been developed in this paper. The booster essentially increases the flow driving force and hence significantly improves the overall heat transfer capacity. Design and analysis of this booster have been performed in detail. The performance has been examined through extensive computer simulations. It is concluded that the booster can indeed drastically improve the heat transfer capacity of the natural circulation loop.

  12. An Energy Efficient Protocol For The Internet Of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Jusas, Nerijus; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Štuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. One of the most important challenges of IoT is security: protection of data and privacy. The SSL protocol is the de-facto standard for secure Internet communications. The extra energy cost of encrypting and authenticating of the application data with SSL is around 15%. For IoT devices, where energy resources are limited, the increase in the cost of energy is a very significant factor. In this paper we present the energy efficient SSL protocol which ensures the maximum bandwidth and the required level of security with minimum energy consumption. The proper selection of the security level and CPU multiplier, can save up to 85% of the energy required for data encryption.

  13. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  14. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-07-01

    East Asia has been the fastest growing region in the world since the early 1980's. Arguably, all countries in the region are set for a period of economic, to some extent demographic, and urban expansion. Since energy is a vital factor in driving economic growth, higher energy consumption can be expected in the coming decades in this part of the world. Although the strong growth is to a large extent due to China, Southeast Asian economies also record stellar economic performances and account for the dramatic rise in energy consumption. The Tokyo-based Asia-Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) projects that energy demand in the region (excluding Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) will double from 252 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) to 525 mtoe between 1999 and 2020. How to best meet this demand poses a range of policy challenges for the region's governments not only at the individual but also at the regional level (Symon 2004). In Southeast Asia (SEA), energy sector development has implications for inter-governmental relations for a number of reasons. First, the pursuit of domestic energy goals can affect neighboring countries, as exemplified for instance by the construction of dams for hydropower in shared river systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Secondly, domestic gas and power systems are expected to be increasingly supported by pipelines and transmission links with other countries, thus opening the possibilities of system integration to meet demand at lower cost. Lastly, with fossil fuels as the primary source of energy supply, problems of environmental degradation as well as of availability (associated in particular with high oil dependency) are doomed to loom large in this part of the world and could be better met through intra-regional cooperation. A major characteristic of the region is the presence of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is the only formal grouping of economic cooperation in Asia. Prima facie

  15. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  16. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SAVING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY ISSUES DURING OPERATION OF THE METRO ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Donchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Nowadays a problem of significant power consumption of the rolling stock during its operation is a current issue. In connection with staged electricity rates increase further development of the rail electric transport, including metro rolling stock is impossible without a use of modern energy saving solutions and energy-efficient systems. To solve the specified problem it is necessary to carry out analysis of measures and determine prospective directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency on the metro rolling stock. Methodology. Using methods of scientific analysis, generalization, comparative analysis, forecasting and using results of experimental studies, the authors determined main ways for reduction of energy consumption during operation of the metro rolling stock. Energy cost analysis for metro rolling stock of the public utility (PU «Kiev Metro» was carried out. A great number of research works of native and foreign authors concerning the above mentioned problem were analyzed. Findings. Principal directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency of the metro rolling stock are implementation of recuperation systems, energy storage systems and energy-efficient control systems. It was determined that implementation of recuperation and energy storage systems helps to save a considerable amount of energy, consumed for traction, but it involves substantial investments. It is pointed out that in current complicated conditions of economic development of Ukraine, use of energy-efficient control systems is a perspective direction in energy saving. Main advantage of this direction is the economic effect obtaining without significant investments. Originality. For the first time was performed potential assessment for energy saving as a result of energy-efficient control systems use at type routine rolling stock operation modes on sections «Khreschatik –Teatralnaya – Khreschatik» and «Shulyavskaya

  17. Efficient Energy use in Different Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lars

    2007-05-15

    There is a steadily growing awareness for environmental issues caused by the increased energy use, mainly in the industrial world. The use of fossil fuels has reached the point where it can not be looked at as an endless source. The resources are decreasing at a pace where alternative energy sources will be a necessity for this and future generations. Global warming, due to increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has become one of the most important issues on the political agenda at all levels. A widespread opinion is that energy conservation technologies are needed and a shift towards renewable energy sources is required to attain a sustainable development of our society and a progress in the developing countries. This thesis is focusing on two different energy conservation technologies in different applications. The open absorption system, a modification of an absorption heat pump is a promising technique in moist air processes, recovering the latent heat in the air and decreasing the total heat demand. The technology has been tested in two full scale pilot plants at a sawmill operating four timber dryers and another unit installed at an indoor swimming pool. The technique has had positive outcomes in both operational and energy conservation respects. It has been shown that the energy demand was decreased considerably in both applications. The investment cost has proved to be relatively high, but optimization of operational parameters shows a potential to decrease the initial investment and make the technology more competitive. Pressurized entrained-flow high temperature black liquor gasification (PEHT-BLG), developed by Chemrec AB, is another novel technique presented in this thesis. Black liquor is an important by-product in the papermaking process. Chemicals and energy is recovered in the conventional recovery boiler where superheated steam is produced to generate electricity and process heat. The cooking chemicals are recovered from the

  18. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  19. Buildings Energy Efficiency: Interventions Analysis under a Smart Cities Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriele Battista; Luca Evangelisti; Claudia Guattari; Carmine Basilicata; Roberto de Lieto Vollaro

    2014-01-01

    .... Smart cities can be a viable solution. The methodology traditionally adopted to evaluate building energy efficiency starts from the structure's energy demands analysis and the demands reduction evaluation...

  20. Energy use from 1973 to 1980: The role of improved energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.; Barnes, R. W.; Cohn, S. M.; Corum, K. R.; Greene, D. L.; Hamblin, D. M.; Kulp, G.; Reister, D. B.; Vineyard, T. A.

    1981-12-01

    The post-embargo period is examined in terms of energy use in each of the major sectors: residential and commercial buildings, transportation, and industry. The analysis deals with two issues: what changes occurred in energy use during this period relative to pre-embargo trends, and why these changes occurred. Energy use in 1980 (76 Quads) was substantially lower than pre-embargo trends would suggest (by roughly 20 Quads). About half of this 20 Quad reduction was due to slower growth in economic activity. The remainder was due to improvements in energy efficiency, spurred primarily by rising fuel prices and also by government and utility conservation programs. The 1980 increase in overall energy efficiency (ten Quads) was due primarily to technical efficiency improvements (60%) and secondarily to operational changes (40%).

  1. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  2. Radon safety in terms of energy efficiency classification of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2017-06-01

    According to the results of survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, indoor radon concentrations above city average level have been found in each of the studied buildings with high energy efficiency class. Measures to increase energy efficiency were confirmed to decrease the air exchange rate and accumulation of high radon concentrations indoors. Despite of recommendations to use mechanical ventilation with heat recovery as the main scenario for reducing elevated radon concentrations in energy-efficient buildings, the use of such systems did not show an obvious advantage. In real situation, mechanical ventilation system is not used properly both in the automatic and manual mode, which does not give an obvious advantage over natural ventilation in the climate of the Middle Urals in Ekaterinburg. Significant number of buildings with a high class of energy efficiency and built using modern space-planning decisions contributes to an increase in the average radon concentration. Such situation contradicts to “as low as reasonable achievable” principle of the radiation protection.

  3. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  4. Establishing strategic energy assessment indicators for Zimbabwe: A key to improving electrical energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Felix

    In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of energy assessments into Zimbabwean industry. This quantitative and qualitative study used a theoretic approach to develop indicators that identified industrial subsectors that should be targeted for DSM interventions. This may bring about reduction in energy demand in high power consuming Zimbabwean industrial companies, which were compared with energy utility performances of similar industrial companies in countries located in other parts of the world. This research used pattern-matching, categorical aggregation, and stochastic frontier regression analysis for data analysis. In maximizing electrical efficiency, the implications of this study may be used by individual companies in Zimbabwe to perform energy efficiency self-diagnoses, operational efficiency evaluations, and capital resource justifications. From a societal perspective, this study may benefit Zimbabwe because it provides opportunities for the alleviation of both shortages in power supply and the capital constraints of building new generating capacity. This study will also benefit ordinary Zimbabweans by lowering energy costs and providing reliable power. This promotes sustainable economic growth and lowers the need for foreign currency to import power.

  5. Renewable energy in energy efficient, low-pollution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1997-03-01

    Energy use accounts for the dominating fraction of total sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, different strategies for reducing these emissions are evaluated, using a bottom-up approach. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity and heat production in western Scania, Sweden, can be reduced by 25% and the emissions of acidifying gases (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) by 50% by the year 2010, compared with 1988 levels, using energy systems based on efficient end-use technologies, cogeneration of heat and electricity, renewable energy sources and low-pollution energy conversion technologies. Exhaust-pipe NO{sub x} emissions from the Swedish transportation sector can be reduced by 50 percent by the year 2015, compared with 1991, by implementing the best available vehicle technologies. Exhaust-pipe emissions of CO{sub 2} can be stabilized at the 1991 level. With further technical development and the use of fuels from renewable sources of energy, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by 75 percent and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80 percent compared with 1991 levels. Swedish biomass resources are large, and, assuming production conditions around 2015, about 200 TWh/year could be utilised for energy. Major reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved by substituting biomass for fossil fuels in heat, electricity and transportation fuel production. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass are likely to be less expensive than transportation fuels from conventional biomass feedstocks such as oil plants, sugar-beet and cereals. 90 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  7. 77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of the General Counsel... mechanisms by grantees of the State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  8. 76 FR 54224 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The purpose of the ERAC is to..., and deployment priorities within the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The...

  9. The German energy audit program for firms-a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Gruber, Edelgard; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We

  10. The German energy audit program for firms-a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Gruber, Edelgard; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We

  11. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  12. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  13. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Foutz

    Full Text Available The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  14. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  15. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  16. Role of local governments in promoting energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the incentives which influence the decisions by local governments to adopt energy-efficiency programs, either unilaterally or in partnership with the Federal government. It is found that there is significant potential for improved energy efficiency in urban residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and that exploiting these opportunities is in the interest of both Federal and local governments. Unless there is a unique combination of strong local leadership, a tradition of resource management, and external energy shocks, communities are unlikely to realize this potential. Conflicting demands, traditional perceptions, and lack of funding pose a major barrier to a strong unilateral commitment by local governments. A Federal-local partnership built upon and complementary to existing efforts in areas such as housing, social welfare, and economic development offers an excellent opportunity to realize the inherent potential of local energy-efficiency programs. At the local level, energy is not perceived as an isolated issue, but one which is part of a number of problems arising from the continuing increase in energy prices.

  17. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  18. Energy efficiency and renewable energy under extreme conditions: Case studies from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, Tina [Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, BP 80358, 45163 Olivet, CEDEX 3 (France); Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Blake, David [British Antarctic Survey (United Kingdom); Magill, Peter [Australian Antarctic Division (Australia); El Naggar, Saad [Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany); Lidstrom, Sven [Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (Sweden); Ishizawa, Kenji [National Institute of Polar Research (Japan); Berte, Johan [International Polar Foundation (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    This article showcases a range of small and large scale energy efficiency and renewable energy deployments at Antarctic research stations and field camps. Due to the cold and harsh environment, significant amounts of fuel are needed to support humans working and living in Antarctica. The purchase, transportation and storage of large amounts of fossil fuel entail significant economic costs and environmental risks and have motivated developments in energy efficiency and renewable energy deployment. Over the past three decades, improved building design, behavioral change, cogeneration, solar collectors, solar panels and wind turbines have been found to be effective in Antarctica, demonstrating that harsh environmental conditions and technological barriers do not have to limit the deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The ambition to run entire stations or field camps on 100% renewable energy is increasingly common and feasible. While the power requirements of Antarctic research stations are small compared to urban installations on other continents, these case studies clearly demonstrate that if energy efficiency and renewable energy can be deployed widely on the coldest, darkest and most remote continent of the world, their deployment should be more widespread and encouraged on other continents. (author)

  19. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  20. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration