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Sample records for incorporating material hardship

  1. Income, Poverty, and Material Hardship Among Older Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Levy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to analyze the determinants of material hardship among individuals ages sixty-five and older, I look at five self-reported hardships: food insecurity, skipped meals, medication cutbacks, difficulty paying bills, and dissatisfaction with one's financial situation. One-fifth of the elderly report one or more of these hardships. Although hardship is more likely for those with low incomes, most older Americans experiencing hardship are not poor. I analyze whether alternative measures of resources do a better job of predicting hardship than does income relative to the federal poverty threshold. I find that spending relative to the poverty threshold does a worse job predicting hardship than does income relative to poverty. Subtracting out-of-pocket medical spending from income yields a measure that is an even better predictor of hardship. In multivariate models, I find that self-reported health, activity limitations, and disability are significant predictors of hardship. Having reliable children (as assessed by the respondent or an able-bodied spouse reduces the likelihood of hardship. Poor health increases hardship through three channels: by lowering income, by increasing out-of-pocket medical spending, and through its direct effect on hardship. The first two of these—lower income and higher medical spending—are much less quantitatively important than the third; in a nutshell, poor health makes it harder to get by with less.

  2. Combined effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β = -8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66)) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β = -9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42)). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants

  3. Sibling Caregivers of People With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Sociodemographic Characteristics and Material Hardship Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Rosenthal, Eliana S

    2016-10-01

    In growing numbers, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are outliving their parents, or at least their parents' ability to care for them. Consequently, adult siblings without intellectual and developmental disabilities are increasingly taking on primary caregiving responsibilities. However, adult siblings have received little study generally, and sibling caregivers have received even less. We used nationally representative data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to describe the social characteristics and material hardship levels of sibling caregivers, in comparison to the general working age adult population. This study finds moderate material hardship to be pervasive among sibling caregivers, though extreme levels of hardship are possibly being abated somewhat through public benefit programs. Implications for greater service needs are discussed.

  4. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  6. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  7. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.

  8. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79 and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver, we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.

  9. Family Material Hardship and Chinese Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents’ problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents’ resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents’ problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256

  10. Material Hardship and Internal Locus of Control Over the Prevention of Child Obesity in Low-Income Hispanic Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Gross, Michelle B; Scheinmann, Roberta; Messito, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relations between household material hardships and having a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity in low-income Hispanic pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a third trimester prenatal visit from women participating in the Starting Early Study, a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a primary care-based family-centered early child obesity prevention intervention. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, we determined whether 4 domains of material hardship (food insecurity, difficulty paying bills, housing disrepair, neighborhood stress), considered individually and also cumulatively, were associated with having a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity. The sample included 559 low-income Hispanic pregnant women, with 60% having experienced at least 1 hardship. Food insecurity was independently associated with a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-3.77), controlling for other hardships and confounders. Experiencing a greater number of material hardships was associated in a dose-dependent relationship with an increased odds of having a low internal locus of control. Prenatal material hardships, in particular food insecurity, were associated with having a lower prenatal internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort is needed to determine how relations between material hardships and having a low internal locus of control will ultimately affect infant feeding practices and child weight trajectories. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children with Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence from Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A.; Parish, Susan L.; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. Method: We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National…

  12. Trajectory of Material Hardship and Income Poverty in Families of Children Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Kira; London, Wendy B; Guo, Dongjing; Frank, Deborah A; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is correlated with negative health outcomes in pediatric primary care, and is emerging as a negative prognostic indicator in pediatric oncology. However, measures of poverty amenable to targeted intervention, such as household material hardship (HMH)--including food, energy, and housing insecurity--have not been described in pediatric oncology. We describe the trajectory of family reported HMH and income poverty at a pediatric oncology referral center in New England with high psychosocial supports. Single site, prospective cohort study including 99 English-speaking families of children receiving chemotherapy for primary cancer. Families completed face-to-face surveys at two time-points: (1) Within 30 days of child's diagnosis (T1) (N = 99, response rate 88%); (2) 6-months following diagnosis (T2) (N = 93, response rate 94%). HMH was assessed in three domains: food, energy, and housing insecurity. Twenty percent of families reported low-income (≤200% Federal Poverty Level) and at least one HMH prior to their child's diagnosis. At T2, 25% of families lost >40% annual household income secondary to treatment-related work disruptions, and 29% of families reported HMH despite utilization of psychosocial supports. Low-income and HMH are prevalent in a significant proportion of newly diagnosed pediatric oncology families at a large referral center. Despite psychosocial supports, the proportion of families experiencing unmet basic needs increases during chemotherapy to nearly one in three families. HMH provides a quantifiable and remediable measure of poverty in pediatric oncology. Interventions to ameliorate this concrete component of poverty could benefit a significant proportion of pediatric oncology families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Neoliberalism, Grievances, and Democratization: An Exploration of the Role of Material Hardships in Shaping Mexico’s Democratic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Shefner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between neoliberalism and democratization in Mexico. For decades the Mexican state maintained the one-party rule of the PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional through a complex arrangement involving corporatist and clientelist practices. The onset of neoliberalism – including the 1982 peso crisis and the imposition of structural adjustment policies – realigned state policies with the result that the Mexican state transformed from a populist provider for many Mexicans to the instrument of their severe hardships. The state did little to protect people from nation-wide declines in wages and increases in unemployment, while withdrawing a range of subsidies necessary for daily survival. The size, scope and density of the resulting hardships, in turn, united a multi-class coalition that for the first time was able to work together to demand political change. Multiple demands emerged, corresponding to different sectors of society and different hardships, but in the end the demand for democracy became the unifying strategy. A decade after the end of one-party rule in Mexico, we can evaluate how hardships united people to demand change, even as that change has been more procedural than substantive.

  14. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  15. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  16. Hardships and personal strategies of Vietnam War nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, E A

    2000-08-01

    This study describes hardships faced in Vietnam and personal strategies used to deal with these hardships as defined by 24 female military nurses who served during the war. Purposive sampling was used, and data were generated using four core questions and in-depth interviews. The research methodology was phenomenology, incorporating data analysis procedures of Colaizzi, Lincoln and Guba, and Van Manen. Eight hardship and nine personal strategy themes were identified. This study found that caring for young, severely injured, and disfigured soldiers was a significant hardship and that nurses struggled with the moral dilemmas inherent in mass casualty situations, triage policies, and the practice of returning recovered soldiers to combat. Most nurses relied on personally proven and familiar strategies to reduce or buffer the effects of emotional hardships, whereas some discovered and used new strategies.

  17. 5 CFR 845.304 - Financial hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Considerations. Some pertinent considerations in determining whether recovery would cause financial hardship are... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial hardship. 845.304 Section 845....304 Financial hardship. Financial hardship may be deemed to exist in, but not limited to, those...

  18. Incorporating Local Culture in English Teaching Material for Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijaya Mahardika I Gusti Ngurah Agung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the incorporation of local cultural material in a teaching material developed for the students of the Hinduism Education Department of IHDN Denpasar. Teaching material plays an important part in teaching learning process, yet inappropriate teaching materials may become more harmful than useful. The unique nature of the HED students warranted the need for a tailor-made teaching material. The study found that the use of culturally familiar materials is beneficial for the students learning process. The result of the study also highlighted students’ needs and prior knowledge as the main factors to be considered when developing teaching material.

  19. Glass-crystalline materials for active waste incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichenko, V.V.; Krylova, N.V.; Vlasov, V.I.; Polyakov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the possibility and conditions for using glass-crystalline materials for the incorporation of radionuclides. Materials of a cast pyroxene type that are obtained by smelting calcined wastes with acid blast furnace slags are described. A study was also made of materials of a basalt type prepared from wastes with and without alkali metal salt. Changes in the structure and properties of materials in the process of storage at different temperatures have been studied

  20. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  1. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 433.3 Section 433.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND...) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations...

  2. 12 CFR 313.97 - Financial hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.97 Financial hardship. (a) A debtor whose... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial hardship. 313.97 Section 313.97 Banks..., divorce, or catastrophic illness which result in financial hardship. (b) A debtor requesting a review...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1404 - Financial hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial hardship. 831.1404 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1404 Financial hardship. Financial hardship... ordinary and necessary living expenses and liabilities. (a) Considerations. Some pertinent considerations...

  4. 22 CFR 17.5 - Financial hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Considerations. Some pertinent considerations in determining whether recovery would cause financial hardship are... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial hardship. 17.5 Section 17.5 Foreign... SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.5 Financial hardship. (a) Waiver of overpayment will not be allowed in any case prior...

  5. Integrated Photonic Devices Incorporating Low-Loss Fluorinated Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-loss polymer materials incorporating fluorinated compounds have been utilized for the investigation of various functional optical devices useful for optical communication and optical sensor systems. Since reliability issues concerning the polymer device have been resolved, polymeric waveguide devices have been gradually adopted for commercial application systems. The two most successfully commercialized polymeric integrated optic devices, variable optical attenuators and digital optical switches, are reviewed in this paper. Utilizing unique properties of optical polymers which are not available in other optical materials, novel polymeric optical devices are proposed including widely tunable external cavity lasers and integrated optical current sensors.

  6. Incorporation of an item/material attribute system into PAMTRAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspach, D.A.; Waddoups, I.G.; Fox, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) mission is changing due to the number of nuclear weapon reductions by the United States and the former Soviet Union with long-term storage requirements for DOE sites increasing. New technology to ensure the integrity of special nuclear material (SNM) in storage is available to sites to supplement manual physical inventories. This allows them to decrease operating costs while keeping radiation exposure at minimal levels. We have developed a generic, real time, personnel tracking and material monitoring system named PAMTRAK. Such a system can significantly reduce the number of required, manual physical inventories at DOE sites while increasing assurance that an insider has not diverted or stolen material. Until recently Pamtrak used only material monitoring devices that provided location/containment attributes. However, Westinghouse Electric Corp. and Metrox, Inc. have recently developed hard-wired item/material attribute systems that monitor both temperature and weight. We have incorporated both of these systems into PAMTRAK. If a site employed one of these item/material attribute systems, it could decrease its manual inventory frequency to three years. This paper describes how a site might implement such a system to meet the DOE's requirements

  7. Novel sintered ceramic materials incorporated with EAF carbon steel slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V.; Ntampegliotis, K.; Lamprakopoulos, S.; Papapolymerou, G.; Spiliotis, X.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, novel sintered clay-based ceramic materials containing electric arc furnace carbon steel slag (EAFC) as a useful admixture were developed and characterized. The environmentally safe management of steel industry waste by-products and their valorization as secondary resources into value-added materials towards circular economy have attracted much attention in the last years. EAF Carbon steel slag in particular, is generated during the manufacture of carbon steel. It is a solid residue mainly composed of rich-in- Fe, Ca and Si compounds. The experimental results show that the beneficial incorporation of lower percentages of EAFC up to 6%wt. into ceramics sintered at 950 °C is attained without significant variations in sintering behavior and physico-mechanical properties. Further heating up to 1100 °C strongly enhances the densification of the ceramic microstructures, thus reducing the porosity and strengthening their mechanical performance. On the other side, in terms of thermal insulation behavior as well as energy consumption savings and production cost alleviation, the optimum sintering temperature appears to be 950 °C.

  8. Monitoring of persons with injuries with incorporated radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, A.G.; Tauhata, L.

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of victims with injuries with incorporated radioactive material can be performed with portable detectors in initial evaluations, with unshielded measurements, collimation, often with the ignorance of the radionuclide, and also, in the posterior medical follow-up with whole-body detectors and HPGe, in measurements of body or urine activity in periodic measurements. Dosimetry in these situations is done using appropriate models, which surpass those of orthodox internal dosimetry, the biokinetic model described in the 2006 NCRP, such as the AIDE models, and the one developed by Deepesh for the 241 Am. Using tissue-equivalent material, measurements were made with portable detectors to obtain the values of the total attenuation coefficient for the 241 Am radiation and compared to the NIST tables. Measurements were also made with the fixed detectors for certification of the measurement procedure. The percentage deviations obtained in relation to the theoretical ones were: PRD (55%) and IdentiFINDER2 (72%). First-aid monitoring measurements may present great uncertainties and differences of accuracy, but are important data to guide the medical treatment of the victims of accidents

  9. The Application of the Hardship Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniela Suditu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical view of the concept of hardship as described in Art.79 CISG, Art.8:108 PECL and Art. 7.1.7 UNIDROIT Principles, in contrast with certain legal systems. The purpose of the article is to analyze the possibility of applying the provisions on hardship from the UNIDROIT Principles in order to release a party from its contractual obligations although the CISG is the governing law of the contract. The paper begins with the demarcation of the principle of pacta sunt servanda, or sanctity of the contract, in connection with the concept of hardship, thus being avoided the burden bearing of such a change of circumstances only by the party on which it falls. The paper goes on to describe the requirements and the consequences of the application of hardship according to the above mentioned international instruments, pointing out certain differences between four important legal systems.

  10. Development of ductile cementitious composites incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Lukovic, M.; Chaves Figueiredo, S.; de Mendoca Filho, Fernando Franca; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the past two decades, much research has been devoted to overcoming the inherent brittleness of cementitious materials. To that end, several solutions have been proposed, mainly utilizing fibres. One of the most promising classes of materials is strain hardening cementitious composite

  11. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of... through Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance... and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (610) 832-9500, or http://www...

  12. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  13. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  14. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... National Standard for Lamp Ballasts—Ballasts for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps—Methods of Measurement... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Test Procedures § 431.323 Materials... National Standard for electric lamps: Single-Ended Metal Halide Lamps, approved May 5, 2004, IBR approved...

  15. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This material is also available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th...

  16. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th...

  17. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND..._locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW...

  18. Biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) with incorporated graphene-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Artur Moreira; Moreira, Susana Margarida Gomes; Gonçalves, Inês; Gama, F. M.; Mendes, Adélio; Magalhães, Fernão D.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of graphene-based materials has been shown to improve mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this work, PLA films and composite PLA films incorporating two graphene-based materials – graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) – were prepared and characterized regarding not only biocompatibility, but also surface topography, chemistry and wettability. The presence of both fillers changed the films surface topography, increasing the roughness, and modif...

  19. Incorporation of plant materials in the control of root pathogens in muskmelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Mirne de Macêdo Dantas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant materials[Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea, Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L., Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and Neem (Azadirachta indica] and the times of incorporation of these materials in regards to the incidence of root rot in melon was evaluated in Ceará state, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial area with a history of root pathogens in cucurbitaceae. The randomized block design was used, in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of a combination of four plant materials (sunn hemp, castor beans, cassava and neem and a control with no soil incorporation of plant material and three times of incorporation (28, 21, and 14 days before the transplanting of the seedlings. Lower incidence of root rot was observed in practically all of the treatments where materials were incorporated at different times, with variation between the materials, corresponding with the time of incorporation, in relation to the soil without plant material. The pathogens isolated from the symptomatic muskmelon plants were Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Monosporascus cannonballus and Rhizoctonia solani, F. solani being encountered most frequently.

  20. Antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Kishore; Alla, Rama Krishna; Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Gupta, Lokendra; Upadhya Perampalli, Nagaraja

    2016-06-01

    Conventional spray and the immersion disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials may lead to dimensional changes. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity and properties of 2 commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials were evaluated after incorporating varying concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the disk diffusion method. The gel strength, permanent deformation, flow, and gelation time were measured according to American Dental Association specification #18. Analysis of variance was used to identify the significant differences within and across the groups (α=.05). Adding silver nanoparticles to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials resulted in superior antimicrobial activity without adversely affecting their properties. Adding silver nanoparticles to Zelgan significantly increased the gel strength compared with the control group, except at 5 wt%. However, the gel strength of Tropicalgin was unaffected except at 5 wt%. An increase in the permanent deformation was found with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in both Zelgan and Tropicalgin. The flow of Zelgan increased with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles, whereas a decrease in the flow of Tropicalgin was observed at 1 wt% and 2 wt%. An increase in the gelation time of both Zelgan and Tropicalgin was observed with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. Based on this in vitro study, silver nanoparticles can be incorporated into irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials as antimicrobial agents without adversely affecting their properties. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial vesicles with incorporated photosynthetic materials for potential solar energy conversion systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available WITH INCORPORATED PHOTOSYNTHETIC MATERIALS FOR POTENTIAL SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS J E Smit1, A F Grobler2, A E Karsten1, R W Sparrow3 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2 Unit for drug development and research, North...

  2. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare

  3. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO 2 -ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content. The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO 1.5 , the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 ±0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO 1.5 , a pyrochlore oxide - Cm 2 Zr 2 O 7 - is formed (a = 10.63 ±0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  4. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnendijk, Erika; Koren, Ruth; Dror, David M

    2012-01-27

    This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost) reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing.Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets) or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses). The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing.

  5. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnendijk Erika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Methods Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Results Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing. Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses. The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Conclusions Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing.

  6. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  7. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  8. Economic Hardship and Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Adjustment: Examining Adolescents’ Perceptions of Hardship and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents’ perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents’ perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers’ and fathers’ reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents’ reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents’ perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents’ perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment. PMID:23937419

  9. Antimicrobial Property of Hydrocolloid Impression Material Incorporated with Silver Nanoparticles Against Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangchuk Norbu Penden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental impressions can easily become contaminated with patient’s blood and saliva which are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to dental personnel. The addition of antimicrobial agents into impression materials could be effective in reducing the chances of cross-infection. Silver nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry as a potent antimicrobial agent. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles incorporated to irreversible hydrocolloid impression material against Staphylococcus aureus. Silver nanoparticles (AgZrPO4, National Direct Network Company, Thailand at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00% and 1.50% w/w were added to powder of impression materials (Kromopan, Lascod, Ilaty. Impression material samples were prepared on sterile plate in accordance with manufacturer’s instruction. After setting, a 100 microliter of S. aureus ATCC6538 suspension (106 cells/mL were inoculated on the surface of the impression sample and left for 10 minutes. The amount of S. aureus on the surface was quantified using imprint technique on Mannitol Salt agar. Impression materials incorporated with AgZrPO4 showed antimicrobial property against S. aureus (up to 95% reduction compared with control (impression material without AgZrPO4. Even though the mechanism of antimicrobial action was not clearly understood, AgZrPO4 incorporated to impression material was demonstrated to possess an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria. Further studies are needed to investigate physical properties of the material and the clinical usage.

  10. 76 FR 51324 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... through use of electronic data interchange (EDI). The IVOHMA states ``differences in hazard communication... and on the possible effects EDI may have on distributing hazardous materials shipping paper... consider the use of EDI in other modes of transport in a future rulemaking. Petition No. P-1567 PHMSA...

  11. Hypericum perforatum incorporated chitosan films as potential bioactive wound dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Seda; Tıhmınlıoğlu, Funda

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies in wound dressing applications offer new therapies and promote wound healing process. The aim of this study was to develop Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) oil incorporated chitosan films for wound dressing applications. H. perforatum oil as a potential therapeutic agent was encapsulated in chitosan film to achieve a better wound dressing material. Oil incorporated chitosan films were successfully prepared by solvent casting method in different oil concentrations (0.25-1.5%v/v). Water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical test, swelling behavior and surface hydrophobicity were performed in order to characterize the prepared films. Antimicrobial test was performed by disc diffusion method and the growth inhibition effects of the films including different amount of H. perforatum oil were investigated on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. WVP increased with oil incorporation and the highest value was obtained for 0.25% oil concentration.The highest strain value was obtained in 0.25% oil content films although tensile stress decreased with increasing oil content. H. perforatum oil incorporated films had antimicrobial effect on both microorganisms. Chitosan based films had no cytotoxic effects on NIH3T3fibroblast cells and provided a good surface for cell attachment and proliferation. The results showed that the H. perforatum incorporated chitosan films seems to be a potential and novel biomaterial for wound healing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic Hardship in Childhood: A Neglected Issue in ACE Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Rinki, Christine; Marchi, Kristen; Curtis, Mike

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with ill-health in adulthood, but ACE literature has focused on family disruption or dysfunction (e.g., child abuse, parental separation), with less attention to economic adversity. We examined whether a mother's economic hardship in childhood (EHC) was associated with women's hardships and health-risk behaviors during/just before pregnancy. Methods We analyzed population-based survey data on 27,102 postpartum California women. EHC included respondents' reports that during childhood they/their families experienced hunger because of inability to afford food or moved because of problems paying rent/mortgage and the frequency of difficulty paying for basic needs. We examined six maternal hardships/behaviors during/just before pregnancy, including four hardships (poverty, food insecurity, homelessness/no regular place to sleep, intimate partner violence) and two behaviors (smoking, binge drinking). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated from sequential logistic regression models estimating associations between EHC (categorized by level of hardship) and each maternal hardship/behavior, first without adjustment, then adjusting for other childhood and current maternal factors, and finally adding family disruption/dysfunction. Results Before adjustment for family disruption/dysfunction, the highest and intermediate EHC levels were associated with each maternal hardship/behavior; after full adjustment, those associations persisted except with smoking. Higher EHC levels generally appeared associated with larger PRs, although confidence intervals overlapped. Conclusions for Policy/Practice These findings link childhood economic hardship with women's hardships, binge drinking, and possibly smoking around the time of pregnancy. Without establishing causality, they support previous research indicating that childhood economic adversity should be considered an ACE.

  13. Effects of alpha radiation on plutonium incorporated in dosimetric materials by ESR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, M.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Mohapatra, Manoj; Godbole, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    The in situ alpha irradiation effects of some ESR dosimetric materials namely alanine, 2-methyl alanine and ammonium tartrate were studied by incorporating 1% plutonium by weight in them. The radical intensity was monitored as a function of alpha dose. It was found that in the dose region 1-35 kGy ammonium tartrate showed better signal intensity, linearity and dose response as compared to the other materials. This was attributed to the single radical produced in case of the tartrate giving a sharp spectrum and the fast relaxation times owing to less saturation of ESR signals. (author)

  14. Incorporation of Novel Nanostructured Materials into Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua; Holland, Andrew; Hunt, Alan; Bitterwolf, Thomas; Qiang, You; Bergman, Leah; Berven, Christine; Punnoose, Alex; Tenne, Dmitri

    2011-11-11

    Each of the investigators on this project has had significant accomplishments toward the production of semiconductor nanoparticles, particles, and thin films and attempts to incorporate these materials into photovoltaics or sensors; to use them for improving fluorescence diagnostics; or to employ them as cancer fighting agents. The synthesis and characterization of the nanomaterials, and more recently the device construction and testing of these materials, have been the subject of several publications and presentations by team members. During the course of the investigations, several students were fully involved as part of their graduate and undergraduate training. The nature of these projects in material development dictates that the students have gained significant experience in a diverse array of material-related topics.

  15. Review on factors influencing thermal conductivity of concrete incorporating various type of waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, Z.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.; Awal, A. S. M. A.; Desa, M. S. M.; Ghadzali, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Concrete is well-known as a construction material which is widely used in building and infrastructure around the world. However, its widespread use has affected the reduction of natural resources. Hence, many approached have been made by researchers to study the incorporation of waste materials in concrete as a substitution for natural resources besides reducing waste disposal problems. Concrete is basically verified by determining its properties; strengths, permeability, shrinkage, durability, thermal properties etc. In various thermal properties of concrete, thermal conductivity (TC) has received a large amount of attention because it is depend upon the composition of concrete. Thermal conductivity is important in building insulation to measure the ability of a material to transfer heat. The aim of this paper is to discuss the methods and influence factors of TC of concrete containing various type of waste materials.

  16. Monoolein lipid phases as incorporation and enrichment materials for membrane protein crystallization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wallace

    Full Text Available The crystallization of membrane proteins in amphiphile-rich materials such as lipidic cubic phases is an established methodology in many structural biology laboratories. The standard procedure employed with this methodology requires the generation of a highly viscous lipidic material by mixing lipid, for instance monoolein, with a solution of the detergent solubilized membrane protein. This preparation is often carried out with specialized mixing tools that allow handling of the highly viscous materials while minimizing dead volume to save precious membrane protein sample. The processes that occur during the initial mixing of the lipid with the membrane protein are not well understood. Here we show that the formation of the lipidic phases and the incorporation of the membrane protein into such materials can be separated experimentally. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of different initial monoolein-based lipid phase states on the crystallization behavior of the colored photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We find that the detergent solubilized photosynthetic reaction center spontaneously inserts into and concentrates in the lipid matrix without any mixing, and that the initial lipid material phase state is irrelevant for productive crystallization. A substantial in-situ enrichment of the membrane protein to concentration levels that are otherwise unobtainable occurs in a thin layer on the surface of the lipidic material. These results have important practical applications and hence we suggest a simplified protocol for membrane protein crystallization within amphiphile rich materials, eliminating any specialized mixing tools to prepare crystallization experiments within lipidic cubic phases. Furthermore, by virtue of sampling a membrane protein concentration gradient within a single crystallization experiment, this crystallization technique is more robust and increases the efficiency of identifying productive

  17. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  18. Financial Hardship and Subjective Norms as Predictors of Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... counsellors and personnel psychologists should develop intervention programmes aimed at helping the unemployed in coping with long-lasting unemployment, social isolation and financial deprivation. Counselling implications were also highlighted. Keywords: financial hardship, subjective norms, job seeking behaviour ...

  19. Coping with hardship through friendship: the importance of peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping with hardship through friendship: the importance of peer social capital among children affected by HIV in Kenya. ... The children were found to strategically establish formalised friendship groups that ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, P.E. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO{sub 2} content. The Cm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 {+-}0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, a pyrochlore oxide - Cm{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - is formed (a = 10.63 {+-}0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  1. Utilizing waste materials to enhance mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete incorporated with silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction and demolition wastes are increasing significantly due to augmented boom of modern construction. Although the partial cement replacement materials do promote the idea of sustainable construction, the use of construction and demolition waste can also be considered to be viable option to advance the sustainability in modern construction practices. This paper investigates the use of industrial waste materials namely marble dust and crushed bricks as replacement of natural fine aggregates along with the use of silica fume as a partial cement replacement on the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of concrete. Partial replacement levels of waste materials were 10 and 20 percent by volume while the partial replacement level of silica fume was kept to 20 percent at all concrete samples. The results reported in this paper show that the use of marble dust as a replacement material to the natural fine aggregates resulted in an increase in the mechanical properties of concrete. However, the use of crushed bricks did not substantially contribute in the development of strength. Water permeability of concrete incorporated with both silica fume and waste materials (marble dust and crushed bricks decreased significantly. The decrease in water permeability of concrete was attributed to the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume with calcium hydroxide of cement and the filler effect of the waste materials of marble dust and crushed bricks. The use of waste materials also enhance the freeze and thaw resistance of concrete. Authors strongly suggest that the pozzolanic reaction and the development of the microstructure of the concrete through the use of waste materials are largely responsible from the advances in the durability of concrete.

  2. Emerging boom in nano magnetic particle incorporated high-Tc superconducting materials and technologies - A South African perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, VV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With a strategy to establish and embrace the emerging nano particle incorporated superconductivity technology (based on the HTS materials and nano magnetic particles) in South Africa, the author has initiated the following research activity in South...

  3. Return to work, economic hardship, and women's postpartum health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jenna N; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Leng, Iris; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-10-01

    This study followed a sample of 217 new mothers in a North Carolina county as they returned to work full-time, measuring their mental and physical health-related quality of life through 16 months postpartum. In general, working mothers of infants had mental health scores that were comparable to the general population of U.S. women, and physical health that was slightly better than women in general. Using ANCOVA and controlling for important demographic characteristics, health-related quality of life was compared between mothers experiencing low and high levels of economic hardship. Across the study period, women with high economic hardship, who constituted 30.7% of the sample, had levels of mental and physical health below those of women with low economic hardship. Mothers with high economic hardship also had less stable health trajectories than mothers with low economic hardship. The findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the traditionally accepted postpartum recovery period of six weeks and extending benefits, such as paid maternity and sick leave, as well as stable yet flexible work schedules.

  4. Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

    2004-01-01

    Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows f or surface

  5. Effects of screenhouse cultivation and organic materials incorporation on global warming potential in rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Xiong, Ruiheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-03-01

    Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined. Relative to the traditional open-field cultivation (OFC), SHC decreased the CH 4 and N 2 O emissions by 6.58-18.73 and 2.51-21.35%, respectively, and the global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 6.49-18.65%. This trend was mainly because of lower soil temperature and higher soil redox potential in SHC. Although the rice grain yield for SHC were reduced by 2.51-4.98% compared to the OFC, the CH 4 emissions and GWP per unit of grain yield (yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP) under SHC were declined. Compared to use of inorganic fertilizer only (IN), combining inorganic fertilizer with wheat straw (WS) or wheat straw-based biogas residue (BR) improved rice grain yield by 2.12-4.10 and 4.68-5.89%, respectively. However, OM incorporation enhanced CH 4 emissions and GWP, leading to higher yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP in WS treatment. Due to rice yield that is relatively high, there was no obvious effect of BR treatment on them. These findings suggest that apparent environmental benefit can be realized by applying SHC and fermenting straw aerobically before its incorporation.

  6. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current robotic systems have been developed primarily for the automotive and electronic industry. The adaptation of these commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel requires the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated into a commercial robot. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem into the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  7. Stable material modication with polymers incorporation for broad application in microfabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mednova, Olga

    The aim of this thesis is to improve SU-8 fracture resistance in order to eliminate micro crack formation during fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS). An amphiphilic block copolymer incorporation, as an efficient method of material toughening without changing its original properties...... analytical techniques. The second part of the thesis describes modified SU-8 blends. Thermal stability, structural organization, components interaction, hardness and brittleness of the composites are described. Finally, lithographic properties of modified SU-8 blends have been tested. Commercial SU-8...... and the modified blends demonstrate identically patternability and high aspect ratio structures can be obtained regardless of PEE-b-P2VP content. In conclusion, a recommendation of SU-8 modification with as little as 5 wt.% of PEE30-b-P2VP69 is made in order to avoid micro crack formation and its growth during...

  8. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    The adaptation of commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel has required the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated in a commercial robot which was modified and with additional interlocks into the existing robotic control system. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem in the Secure Automated Fabrication facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  9. Antifungal, optical, and mechanical properties of polymethylmethacrylate material incorporated with silanized zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonkhantikul K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Krid Kamonkhantikul,1 Mansuang Arksornnukit,1 Hidekazu Takahashi2 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Oral Biomaterials Engineering, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Background: Fungal infected denture, which is typically composed of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, is a common problem for a denture wearer, especially an elderly patient with limited manual dexterity. Therefore, increasing the antifungal effect of denture by incorporating surface modification nanoparticles into the PMMA, while retaining its mechanical properties, is of interest. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate antifungal, optical, and mechanical properties of heat-cured PMMA incorporated with different amounts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOnps with or without methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane modification. Materials and methods: Specimens made from heat-cured PMMA containing 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (w/w nonsilanized (Nosi or silanized (Si ZnOnps were evaluated. Specimens without filler served as control. The fungal assay was performed placing a Candida albicans suspension on the PMMA surface for 2 h, then Sabouraud Dextrose Broth was added, and growth after 24 h was determined by counting colony forming units on agar plates. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color in L* (brightness, a* (red-green, b* (yellow-blue and opacity of the experimental groups. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test on universal testing machine after 37°C water storage for 48 h and 1 month. Results: The antifungal, optical, and mechanical properties of the PMMA incorporated with ZnOnps changed depending on the amount. With the same amount of ZnOnps, the silanized groups demonstrated a greater reduction in C. albicans compared with the Nosi groups. The color difference (ΔE and opacity of the Nosi groups were

  10. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges.

  11. Control and Management of Radioactive Material Inadvertently Incorporated into Scrap Metal. Proceedings of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive substances can become associated with scrap metal in various ways and if not discovered they can be incorporated into steel and non-ferrous metals through the melting process. This can cause health hazards as well as environmental concerns and there can be serious commercial implications. Numerous incidents have occurred in recent years involving the discovery of radioactive substances in scrap metal and, in some cases, in metal from the melting process. These incidents have proved to be very costly in relation to the recovery and cleanup operations required but also in terms of the potential loss of confidence of the industry in scrap metal as a resource. This has led the scrap metal industry to seek ways of managing the problem. In most countries, shipments of scrap metal are monitored but at different points in the distribution chain and to different extents and efficiencies. As yet, only limited efforts towards unifying and harmonizing monitoring strategies and methods in the context of scrap metal have been made at the international level. The Conference was organized into five sessions: the global perspective, national policies and strategies, compliance with radiological criteria, management of incidents with contaminated scrap metal, and improving confidence and protecting the interests of stakeholders. The aim of the first session was to present the views and perspectives of the different organizations concerned with radioactive material in scrap metal, scrap metal recycling, steel making, radiation source security and safety and international trade and economics. The second session covered some of the national policies and strategies being used to address the control of radioactive material that has been inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal were presented. In addition to the oral presentations, contributions describing the situation in many countries of the world in the form of posters were displayed. The many posters reporting national

  12. Control and Management of Radioactive Material Inadvertently Incorporated into Scrap Metal. Proceedings of an International Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    Radioactive substances can become associated with scrap metal in various ways and if not discovered they can be incorporated into steel and non-ferrous metals through the melting process. This can cause health hazards as well as environmental concerns and there can be serious commercial implications. Numerous incidents have occurred in recent years involving the discovery of radioactive substances in scrap metal and, in some cases, in metal from the melting process. These incidents have proved to be very costly in relation to the recovery and cleanup operations required but also in terms of the potential loss of confidence of the industry in scrap metal as a resource. This has led the scrap metal industry to seek ways of managing the problem. In most countries, shipments of scrap metal are monitored but at different points in the distribution chain and to different extents and efficiencies. As yet, only limited efforts towards unifying and harmonizing monitoring strategies and methods in the context of scrap metal have been made at the international level. The Conference was organized into five sessions: the global perspective, national policies and strategies, compliance with radiological criteria, management of incidents with contaminated scrap metal, and improving confidence and protecting the interests of stakeholders. The aim of the first session was to present the views and perspectives of the different organizations concerned with radioactive material in scrap metal, scrap metal recycling, steel making, radiation source security and safety and international trade and economics. The second session covered some of the national policies and strategies being used to address the control of radioactive material that has been inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal were presented. In addition to the oral presentations, contributions describing the situation in many countries of the world in the form of posters were displayed. The many posters reporting national

  13. Development of Composite PCMs by Incorporation of Paraffin into Various Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we focused on the development of composite phase-change materials (CPCMs by incorporation of a paraffin through vacuum impregnation in widely used building materials (Kaolin and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. The composite PCMs were characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA techniques. Moreover, thermal performance of cement paste composite PCM panels was evaluated using a self-designed heating system. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of paraffin retained by Kaolin and GGBS was found to be 18% and 9%, respectively. FT-IR results show that CPCMs are chemically compatible. The phase-change temperatures of CPCMs were in the human comfort zone, and they possessed considerable latent-heat storage capacity. TGA results showed that CPCMs are thermally stable, and they did not show any sign of degradation below 150 °C. From thermal cycling tests, it was revealed that the CPCMs are thermally reliable. Thermal performance tests showed that in comparison to the control room model, the room models prepared with CPCMs reduced both the temperature fluctuations and maximum indoor center temperature. Therefore, the prepared CPCMs have some potential in reducing peak loads in buildings when applied to building facade.

  14. Green options for anti-corrosion of high strength concrete incorporating ternary pozzolan materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yuan-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applied the densified mixture design algorithm(DMDA method by incorporating ternary pozzolans (fly ash, slag and silica fume; mix I and mix II to design high strength concrete (HSC mixtures with w/cm ratios from 0.24 to 0.30. Concrete without pozzolans was used as a control group (mix III, w/c from 0.24 to 0.30, and silica fume (5% was added as a substitute for part of the cement and set as mix IV. Experiments performed compressive strength, four-point resistance meter to measure the conductivity, and rapid chloride ion penetrability tests (ASTM C1202 were assessed the anti-corrosion. The life cycle inventory of LEED suggested by the PCA indicated the green options for cementitious materials. Results showed that mix I and II indicated cement used, CO2 reduction, raw materials and energy consumption all decreased more 50% than mix III, and mix IV was 5% less. The compressive strength and anti-corrosion levels showed that mix I and II were better than mix III and IV, and with ternary pozzolans could enhance the long-term durability (92 days due to a resistivity greater 20 KΩ-cm and a charge passed lower than 2000 Coulombs. HSC with an appropriate design could reduce the carbon footprint and improve the durability.

  15. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette; Katsarava, Zaza; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Herekar, Arif; Linde, Mattias; Mbewe, Edouard; Manandhar, Kedar; Risal, Ajay; Jensen, Rigmor; Queiroz, Luiz Paulo; Scher, Ann I; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2014-01-08

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. The Global Campaign against Headache is undertaking initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations in population-based studies in China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Zambia and 10 countries in the European Union. The resultant evolution of this instrument was reviewed by an expert consensus group drawn from all world regions. The final output was the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire, designed for application by trained lay interviewers. HARDSHIP is a modular instrument incorporating demographic enquiry, diagnostic questions based on ICHD-3 beta criteria, and enquiries into each of the following as components of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household partner and children; quality of life; wellbeing; obesity as a comorbidity. HARDSHIP already has demonstrated validity and acceptability in multiple languages and cultures. Modules may be included or not, and others (e.g., on additional comorbidities) added, according to the purpose of the study and resources (especially time) available.

  16. Evidence for the incorporation of lead into barite from waste rock pile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURTIN-NOMADE, ALEXANDRA; SOUBRAND-COLIN, MARILYNE; MARCUS, MATTHEW A.; FAKRA, SIRINE .C

    2008-01-21

    Because Pb is one of the most toxic elements and is found as a major contaminant in mining environments, this study aims to identify the distribution of this element in host phases issued from the alteration of mine wastes. The sampling location was a former mine near Oakland, California (USA). This mine was once a source of sulfide minerals from which sulfuric acid was made. The material discussed in this paper was collected in iron hardpans that were formed within the waste rock pile resulting from the excavation work. In most contaminated environments (soils, mine waste), secondary metal-bearing phases arising from alteration processes are usually fine-grained (from 10 {micro}m to less than 1 {micro}m) and highly heterogeneous, requiring the use of micron-scale techniques. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy, microscanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and microextended X-ray near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the relationships between Pb and a Ba/Fe-rich host phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy suggests that Pb is preferentially incorporated into barite rather than goethite. Results from micro-Raman experiments show the high sensitivity of this analytical tool to the incorporation of Pb into barite by being especially sensitive to the variations of the S-O bond and showing the characteristic bands due to the contribution of Pb. This association is confirmed and is well-illustrated by micro-SXRD mineral species maps showing the correlation between Pb and barite. Microfocused XANES indicates that Pb is present as Pb{sup 2+}, agreeing with the in situ physicochemical parameters.

  17. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  18. 23 CFR 710.503 - Protective buying and hardship acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective buying and hardship acquisition. 710.503 Section 710.503 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.503 Protective buying and...

  19. Heat transfer characteristics of liquid-gas Taylor flows incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J A; Walsh, P A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM

  20. Full of hardship: On the hardship clause in the renewable energies act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2003-01-01

    The German Federal Supreme Court (BGH) on June 11, 2003 ruled on cases in which operators of wind power plants had demanded that an electricity utility buy their wind power generated electricity. In line with earlier decisions, the BGH ruled that the legal requirement to buy this electricity was constitutional under the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and the Electricity Feeding Act. This ruling further cements the principle of private parties subsidizing third parties under the EEG. The legal minimum prices for wind power generated electricity under the EEG are considerably above the market price of conventional electricity and, thus, have caused a boom in the construction of more wind power plants. The volume of payments for feeding into the public grid electricity from wind power plants reached the amount of Euro 1.530 billion in 2002, which is an average extra cost of, at present, Euro cent 0.46 per kWh. Given a 20-year period of subsidizing individual plants, double-digit billions are expected to arise as financial burdens over the next few decades. The German federal government introduced a proposal of an EEG hardship clause. This is unlikely to relieve industries of EEG burdens on a broad basis. Besides present economic burdens, also the sustainability of this kind of energy policy is doubtful, both from economic and social points of view. (orig.)

  1. Behavior of thin-walled beams made of advanced composite materials and incorporating non-classical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librescu, Liviu; Song, Ohseop

    1991-11-01

    Several results concerning the refined theory of thin-walled beams of arbitrary closed cross-section incorporating nonclassical effects are presented. These effects are related both with the exotic properties characterizing the advanced composite material structures and the nonuniform torsional model. A special case of the general equations is used to study several problems of cantilevered thin-walled beams and to assess the influence of the incorporated effects. The results presented in this paper could be useful toward a more rational design of aeronautical or aerospace constructions, as well as of helicopter or tilt rotor blades constructed of advanced composite materials.

  2. Some Dosimetric and Radiation Protection Aspects of Cellular Irradiation from Incorporated Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1968-06-15

    In looking for any contribution of recoil or transmutation processes with internally deposited radioactive isotopes by comparison with the biological effects following gamma radiation exposure to produce the same absorbed dose, the various factors affecting local energy deposition must be carefully considered. For the same activity per unit volume of culture medium a higher specific activity results in increased nuclear incorporation and resultant cell lethality. Also for materials localized in the nucleus only (e.g. thymidine) the dimensions of the deposit may limit the nuclear dose, so that although {sup 14}C disintegrations release some ten times more energy than {sup 3}H, the biological effects demonstrated for the same nuclear activity (in {mu}Ci) are similar. Although the ICRP Recommendations give a QF of 1.7 for {sup 3}H beta particles, published results vary from 1.0 to about 2.0. Recent experiments using both mammalian cells in culture and bean roots have shown clearly that the RBE varies with dose rate, from unity for dose rates of 1 rad/min or above to 1.7 for dose rates of about 1 rad/h, a conclusion which is in fact in agreement with other published results. In this connection the local energy distribution is considered theoretically for {sup 3}H disintegrations and for gamma radiation, using in the latter case the data published by Rossi. If for a similar nuclear dose H beta particles have an RBE of unity relative to gamma radiation, it appears that there is no significant extra contribution to damage from recoil or transmutation processes. As {sup 14}C appears to be no more damaging than SH under similar conditions the same conclusion also applies for this nuclide. (author)

  3. Reinforced cassava starch based edible film incorporated with essential oil and sodium bentonite nanoclay as food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamareerat, Butsadee; Singh, Manisha; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable packaging in food materials is a green technology based novel approach to replace the synthetic and conventional packaging systems. This study is aimed to formulate the biodegradable cassava starch based films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and sodium bentonite clay nanoparticles. The films were characterized for their application as a packaging material for meatballs. The cassava starch films incorporated with sodium bentonite and cinnamon oil showed significant antibacterial potential against all test bacteria; Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial effect of films increased significantly when the concentration of cinnamon oil was increased. The cassava starch film incorporated with 0.75% (w/w) sodium bentonite, 2% (w/w) glycerol and 2.5% (w/w) cinnamon oil was selected based on physical, mechanical and antibacterial potential to evaluate shelf life of meatballs. The meatballs stored at ambient temperature in cassava starch film incorporated with cinnamon oil and nanoclay, significantly inhibited the microbial growth till 96 h below the FDA limits (10 6  CFU/g) in foods compared to control films that exceeded above the limit within 48 h. Hence cassava starch based film incorporated with essential oils and clay nanoparticles can be an alternate approach as a packaging material for food industries to prolong the shelf life of products.

  4. Economic hardship associated with managing chronic illness: a qualitative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic illness and disability can have damaging, even catastrophic, socioeconomic effects on individuals and their households. We examined the experiences of people affected by chronic heart failure, complicated diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inform patient centred policy development. This paper provides a first level, qualitative understanding of the economic impact of chronic illness. Methods Interviews were conducted with patients aged between 45 and 85 years who had one or more of the index conditions and family carers from the Australian Capital Territory and Western Sydney, Australia (n = 66. Content analysis guided the interpretation of data. Results The affordability of medical treatments and care required to manage illness were identified as the key aspects of economic hardship, which compromised patients' capacity to proactively engage in self-management and risk reduction behaviours. Factors exacerbating hardship included ineligibility for government support, co-morbidity, health service flexibility, and health literacy. Participants who were on multiple medications, from culturally and linguistically diverse or Indigenous backgrounds, and/or not in paid employment, experienced economic hardship more harshly and their management of chronic illness was jeopardised as a consequence. Economic hardship was felt among not only those ineligible for government financial supports but also those receiving subsidies that were insufficient to meet the costs of managing long-term illness over and above necessary daily living expenses. Conclusion This research provides insights into the economic stressors associated with managing chronic illness, demonstrating that economic hardship requires households to make difficult decisions between care and basic living expenses. These decisions may cause less than optimal health outcomes and increased costs to the health system. The findings support the necessity

  5. A Selection of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Materials Incorporating S-Nitrosothiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzke, Alec

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic radical that occurs as a crucial component of mammalian biochemistry. As a signaling molecule, NO participates in the regulation of vascular tone and maintains the natural antithrombotic function of the healthy endothelium. Furthermore, NO is produced by phagocytes as part of the immune response, and exhibits both antimicrobial and wound-healing effects. In combination, these beneficial properties have led to the use of exogenous NO as a multifunctional therapeutic agent. However, the comparatively short half-life of NO under physiological conditions often renders systemic administration infeasible. This limitation is addressed by the use of NO-releasing polymeric materials, which permit the localized delivery of NO directly at the intended site of action. Such polymers have been utilized in the development of antithrombotic or antibacterial materials for biointerfacial applications, including tissue engineering and the fabrication of medical devices. NO release from polymers has most frequently been achieved through the incorporation of functional groups that are susceptible to NO-forming chemical decomposition in response to appropriate environmental stimuli. While numerous synthetic sources of NO are known, the S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) functional group occurs naturally in the form of S-nitrosocysteine residues in both proteins and small molecule species such as S-nitrosoglutathione. RSNOs are synthesized directly from thiol precursors, and their NO-forming decay has generally been established to produce the corresponding disulfide as a relatively benign organic byproduct. For these reasons, RSNOs have been conscripted as practical NO donors within a physiological environment. This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of RSNO-based NO-releasing polymers derived from the polysaccharides chitin and chitosan, as well as the development of amino acid ester-based NO-releasing biodegradable poly

  6. Economic hardship and suicide mortality in Finland, 1875-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Marko; Puhakka, Mikko; Viren, Matti

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the determinants of suicide in Finland using annual data for consumption and suicides from 1860 to 2010. Instead of using some ad hoc measures of cyclical movements of the economy, we build our analysis on a more solid economic theory. A key feature is the habit persistence in preferences, which provides a way to measure individual well-being and predict suicide. We estimate time series of habit levels and develop an indicator (the hardship index) to describe the economic hardship of consumers. The higher the level of the index, the worse off consumers are. As a rational response to such a bad situation, some consumers might commit suicide. We employ the autoregressive distributed lags cointegration method and find that our index works well in explaining the long-term behavior of people committing suicide in Finland.

  7. The existence and persistence of household financial hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Ghosh, P.; Taylor, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the existence and persistence of financial hardship at the household level using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Our modelling strategy makes three important contributions to the existing literature on household finances. Firstly, we model nine different types of household financial problems within a joint framework, allowing for correlation in the random effects across the nine equations. Secondly, we develop a dynamic framework in order to model the persistence ...

  8. Financial Hardship Before and After Social Security's Early Eligibility Age

    OpenAIRE

    Richard W. Johnson; Gordon B.T. Mermin

    2009-01-01

    Although poverty rates for Americans ages 65 and older have plunged over the past half century, many people continue to fall into poverty in their late fifties and early sixties. This study examines financial hardship rates in the years before qualifying for Social Security retirement benefits at age 62 and investigates how the availability of Social Security improves economic well-being at later ages. The analysis follows a sample of adults from the 1937-39 birth cohort for 14 years, trackin...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of V, Mo and Nb incorporated micro-mesoporous MCM-41 materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmaz, Arzu, E-mail: arzu.solmaz@rshm.gov.tr [Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, 06570 Ankara (Turkey); Balci, Suna, E-mail: sunabalci@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, 06570 Ankara (Turkey); Dogu, Timur, E-mail: tdogu@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    Highly microporous metal-MCM-41 ordered mesoporous structure catalysts having different metal/Si (V, Mo, Nb) atomic ratios and combinations of metal sources were hydrothermally synthesized. The structural properties estimated using different techniques were found to be in agreement with each other. Metals were successfully incorporated into MCM-41 without deteriorating the ordered hexagonal structure. The metal ions in the synthesis solutions probably settled on the hydrophilic end of the template hence the metal incorporation resulted improvements in the micropore structure. Low loading of metals caused an increase in the surface area and pore volume values of the catalysts. The highest total (1310 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and micropore surface area values (1083 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) were obtained by Nb incorporation. The micro- and mesopore dimensions of MCM-41 increased from 0.5 to 1.1 nm and from 2.5 to 2.8 nm, respectively, with metal incorporation. Low V/Si ratios and presence of Nb in the starting solution enhanced narrow mesopore size distribution. The pore dimension and wall thickness values estimated from nitrogen adsorption and X-ray diffraction methods were consistent with the corresponding values obtained using transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Study of the incorporation of marble and granite wastes in the raw material to produce glass wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Girley Ferreira; Junca, Eduardo; Telles, Victor Bridi; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Alves, Joner Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize materials obtained from the melted mixture containing marble and granite wastes, and also chemical reagents. Using the characterization results was defined the feasibility of reuse of the marble and granite wastes, through the incorporation in the raw material to produce glass wool (a material with great consumer market as thermo-acoustic insulator). The batch was poured in a water-filled recipient and also in a Herty viscometer at temperatures of 1400, 1450 and 1500 °C. Samples of produced materials were characterized by morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy, by atomic structure using X-ray Diffraction, and by thermal behavior using Differential Thermal Analysis. The total amount of marble and granite wastes can reach about 79% replacement in relation to the total weight of the raw material used in the glass wool production. (author)

  11. The comparison of antimicrobial packaging properties with different applications incorporation method of active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, R. W.; Sugiarto; Warsiki, E.

    2018-03-01

    Contamination after the processing of products during storage, distribution and marketing is one of the main causes of food safety issues. Handling of food products after processing can be done during the packaging process. Antimicrobial (AM) active packaging is one of the concept of packaging product development by utilize the interaction between the product and the packaging environment that can delay the bacterial damage by killing or reducing bacterial growth. The active system is formed by incorporating an antimicrobial agent against a packaging matrix that will function as a carrier. Many incorporation methods have been developed in this packaging-making concept which were direct mixing, polishing, and encapsulation. The aims of this research were to examine the different of the AM packaging performances including its stability and effectiveness of its function that would be produced by three different methods. The stability of the packaging function was analyzed by looking at the diffusivity of the active ingredient to the matrix using SEM. The effectiveness was analyzed by the ability of the packaging to prevent the growing of the microbial. The results showed that different incorporation methods resulted on different characteristics of the AM packaging.

  12. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kirsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  13. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  14. Rethink, Reimagine, Reinvent: The Reggio Emilia Approach to Incorporating Reclaimed Materials in Children's Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela; Spearman, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    Introducing reclaimed materials into the art classroom provides students with unique opportunities to connect ordinary, discarded objects with unique, personal artistic creations. In an effort to better understand this connection, this article explores existing pedagogical precedents that support the role of the inclusion of reclaimed materials in…

  15. Spark plasma sintered bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials incorporating dispersed boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.R., E-mail: hugo.williams@leicester.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chen, K. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Friedman, U. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ning, H.; Reece, M.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Robbins, M.C.; Simpson, K. [European Thermodynamics Ltd., 8 Priory Business Park, Wistow Road, Kibworth LE8 0R (United Kingdom); Stephenson, K. [European Space Agency, ESTEC TEC-EP, Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Nano-B{sub 4}C reinforced Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} p-type thermoelectric produced by SPS. • Addition of B{sub 4}C up to 0.2 vol% to SPS’d material has little effect on zT. • Vickers hardness improved by 27% by adding 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C. • Fracture toughness of SPS material: K{sub IC} = 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by SEVNB. • Mechanical properties much better than commercial directionally solidified material. - Abstract: The mechanical properties of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric materials have received much less attention in the literature than their thermoelectric properties. Polycrystalline p-type Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} materials were produced from powder using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of nano-B{sub 4}C addition on the thermoelectric performance, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured. Addition of 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C was found to have little effect on zT but increased hardness by approximately 27% when compared to polycrystalline material without B{sub 4}C. The K{sub IC} fracture toughness of these compositions was measured as 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by Single-Edge V-Notched Beam (SEVNB). The machinability of polycrystalline materials produced by SPS was significantly better than commercially available directionally solidified materials because the latter is limited by cleavage along the crystallographic plane parallel to the direction of solidification.

  16. Incorporation of Collision Probability Method in STREAM to Consider Non-uniform Material Composition in Fuel Subregions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy

  17. Incorporation of Collision Probability Method in STREAM to Consider Non-uniform Material Composition in Fuel Subregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy.

  18. New methodology developed for the differential scanning calorimetry analysis of polymeric matrixes incorporating phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreneche, Camila; Solé, Aran; Miró, Laia; Martorell, Ingrid; Cabeza, Luisa F; Fernández, A Inés

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, thermal comfort needs in buildings have led to an increase in energy consumption of the residential and service sectors. For this reason, thermal energy storage is shown as an alternative to achieve reduction of this high consumption. Phase change materials (PCM) have been studied to store energy due to their high storage capacity. A polymeric material capable of macroencapsulating PCM was developed by the authors of this paper. However, difficulties were found while measuring the thermal properties of these materials by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymeric matrix interferes in the detection of PCM properties by DSC. To remove this interfering effect, a new methodology which replaces the conventional empty crucible used as a reference in the DSC analysis by crucibles composed of the polymeric matrix was developed. Thus, a clear signal from the PCM is obtained by subtracting the new full crucible signal from the sample signal. (paper)

  19. 75 FR 42364 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Cargo Tank Special Permits Into Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    .... Moveable fuel storage tenders are used to supply LPG fuel to farmers for crop drying, crop irrigation... vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. Control of soil- borne pests increases plant aesthetics, plant quality... liquid lacquer base. Paint related material including paint 3 UN1263 II thinning drying, removing, or...

  20. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Abkowitz, M. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort.

  1. 75 FR 27205 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Special Permits Into Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... specially designed radiation detectors containing a Division 2.2 (non-flammable gas) material under a new.... Radiation Detectors Radiation detectors are used for measuring the intensity of ionizing radiation. The... visual inspection of the rupture disc in a non-reclosing pressure relief device of a rail tank car...

  2. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M.; Abkowitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  3. Debris flow analysis with a one dimensional dynamic run-out model that incorporates entrained material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Remaître, Alexandre; van Asch, Theo; Malet, Jean-Philippe; van Westen, Cees

    2010-05-01

    Estimating the magnitude and the intensity of rapid landslides like debris flows is fundamental to evaluate quantitatively the hazard in a specific location. Intensity varies through the travelled course of the flow and can be described by physical features such as deposited volume, velocities, height of the flow, impact forces and pressures. Dynamic run-out models are able to characterize the distribution of the material, its intensity and define the zone where the elements will experience an impact. These models can provide valuable inputs for vulnerability and risk calculations. However, most dynamic run-out models assume a constant volume during the motion of the flow, ignoring the important role of material entrained along its path. Consequently, they neglect that the increase of volume enhances the mobility of the flow and can significantly influence the size of the potential impact area. An appropriate erosion mechanism needs to be established in the analyses of debris flows that will improve the results of dynamic modeling and consequently the quantitative evaluation of risk. The objective is to present and test a simple 1D debris flow model with a material entrainment concept based on limit equilibrium considerations and the generation of excess pore water pressure through undrained loading of the in situ bed material. The debris flow propagation model is based on a one dimensional finite difference solution of a depth-averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid motions. The flow is treated as a laminar one phase material, which behavior is controlled by a visco-plastic Coulomb-Bingham rheology. The model parameters are evaluated and the model performance is tested on a debris flow event that occurred in 2003 in the Faucon torrent (Southern French Alps).

  4. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots re...... mineral fertilizer was in the second and third barley crop similar to the recovery of N from incorporated plant residues.......The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots...... receiving (NH4NO3)-N-15-N-15 were included. Plant samples were taken every second week until maturity during the first growing season and at maturity in the two following years. Incorporation of plant material had no significant influence on the above-ground dry matter yield of the barley. The barley...

  5. New nanostructured silica incorporated with isolated Ti material for the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this work, new nanoporous silica (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology-6 (KIT-6)-dried or KIT-6-calcined) incorporated with isolated Ti materials with different Si/Ti ratios (Si/Ti = 200, 100, and 50) has been synthesized and investigated to establish photocatalytic reduction of CO2 in the presence of H2O vapors. The properties of the materials have been characterized through N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-vis, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS analysis techniques. The intermediate amount of the isolated Ti (Si/Ti = 100) has resulted to be more uniformly distributed on the surface and within the three-dimensional pore structure of the KIT-6 material, without its structure collapsing, than the other two ratios (Si/Ti = 200 and 50). However, titania agglomerates have been observed to have formed due to the increased Ti content (Si/Ti = 50). The Ti-KIT-6 (calcined) materials in the reaction showed higher activity than the Ti-KIT-6 (dried) materials, which produced CH4, H2, CO, and CH3OH (vapors) as fuel products. The Ti-KIT-6 (Si/Ti = 100) material also showed more OH groups, which are useful to obtain a higher production rate of the products, particularly methane, which was even higher than the rate of the best commercial TiO2 (Aeroxide P25, Evonik Industries AG, Essen, Germany) photocatalyst. PMID:24690396

  6. Family Financial Hardship and Adolescent Girls' Adjustment: The Role of Maternal Disclosure of Financial Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2002-01-01

    A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…

  7. 34 CFR 34.24 - Claim of financial hardship by debtor subject to garnishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... notice of garnishment would cause financial hardship to you and your dependents. (See § 34.7) (b) You may... employer must withhold causes financial hardship. (c)(1) We consider an objection to an outstanding... changed after the notice of proposed garnishment because of an event such as injury, divorce, or...

  8. Food Hardship and Obesity in a Sample of Low-Income Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Roberto, Christina A; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian C

    2017-02-01

    Very little work has examined the relationship between food hardship (having inconsistent financial resources to buy food) and obesity among immigrant groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a low-income, multi-racial/ethnic adult sample in greater Boston, MA (n = 828). Modified Poisson regression models estimated the association between food hardship obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among adults reporting food hardship; interactions were tested by place of birth. Body mass index (BMI) was based on anthropometric height and weight. In adjusted models, those experiencing food hardship were more likely to be obese (RR 1.17, CI 1.07, 1.29) than those not experiencing food hardship. Participants from Haiti reporting food hardship were more likely to be obese than those not reporting hardship (RR 1.58, CI 1.23, 2.04); this was not the case among other groups (US born, Puerto Rican, Latin American, Other). The relationship between food hardship and weight may vary among immigrant subgroups.

  9. The role of hardship in the association between socio-economic position and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Olesen, Sarah C; Leach, Liana S

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that socio-economic position is associated with depression. The experience of financial hardship, having to go without the essentials of daily living due to limited financial resources, may explain the effect. However, there are few studies examining the link between financial hardship and diagnosable depression at a population level. The current paper addresses this gap and also evaluates the moderating effect of age. Data were from 8841 participants aged 16-85 years in Australia's 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Measures of socio-economic position included: financial hardship, education, labour-force status, occupational skill, household income, main source of income, and area-level disadvantage. Financial hardship was more strongly associated with depression than other socio-economic variables. Hardship was more strongly associated with current depression than with prior history of depression. The relative effect of hardship was strongest in late adulthood but the absolute effect of hardship was greatest in middle age. The results demonstrate the critical role of financial hardship in the association between socio-economic disadvantage and 12-month depressive episode, and suggest that social and economic policies that address inequalities in living standards may be an appropriate way to reduce the burden attributable to depression.

  10. MORTAR INCORPORATING SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS: STRENGTH, ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETRY AND ACIDS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Senhadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs prove to be effective to meet most of the requirements of durable concrete and leads to a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. This research studies the effect different SCMs (natural pozzolan (PN/ limestone fine (FC at various remplacement levels on the physical and mechano-chemical resistance of blended mortar. The paper primarily deals with the characteristics of these materials, including heat of hydration, strength and effects of aggressive chemical environments (using sulphuric acid and nitric acid. Over 6 mixes were made and compared to the control mix. Tests were conducted at different ages up to 360 days. The experimental results in general showed that Algerian mineral admixtures (PN/FC were less vulnerable to nitric and sulphuric acid attack and improved the properties of mortars, but at different rates depending on the quantity of binder.

  11. Material Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Films Incorporated with Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Janifer Raj; Babusha, Sudalaimuthu Thangaraj; George, Johnsy; Ramana, Karna Venkata

    2015-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was produced by Bacillus mycoides DFC 1, isolated from garden soil. Antimicrobial (AM) films of PHB were prepared by incorporating vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) from 10 to 200 μg/g of PHB. The films were assessed for antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria comprising of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Staphylococcus aureus and fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium viridicatum, and Penicillium clavigerum. The minimum concentration of vanillin required to exhibit antimicrobial activity was ≥80 μg/g PHB for bacteria and ≥50 μg/g PHB for fungi. The PHB films with and without vanillin were studied for mechanical and thermal properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, percentage elongation to break, melting temperature, and heat of fusion. The thermal stability of the films was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The release kinetics of vanillin into food matrices was also checked using food stimulants. The study is intended to find applications for PHB films containing vanillin to enhance the shelf life of foods in the form of biodegradable wrapper.

  12. Incorporating 2D Materials with Micro-electromechanical Systems to Explore Strain Physics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Jason; Vutukuru, Mounika; Kohler, Travis; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna; Goldberg, Bennett

    2D materials can withstand an order of magnitude more strain than their bulk counterparts which can be used to dramatically change electrical, thermal and optical properties or even cause unconventional behavior such as generating pseudo-magnetic fields. Here we present micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) as a platform for straining 2D materials to make such novel phenomena accessible. Unlike other strain techniques, MEMS are capable of precisely controlling the magnitude and orientation of the strain field and are readily integrated with current technology facilitating a path from lab bench to application. In this study, we use graphene as our prototypical 2D material, and determine strain via micro-Raman spectroscopy making extensive use of graphene's well-characterized phonon strain response. We report on the strength of various techniques for affixing graphene to MEMS, and investigate the role of surface morphology and chemistry in creating a high friction interface capable of inducing large strain. This work is supported by NSF DMR Grant 1411008, and author J. Christopher thanks the NDSEG program for its support.

  13. Fundamental incorporation of the density change during melting of a confined phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ernesto M.; Otero, José A.

    2018-02-01

    The modeling of thermal diffusion processes taking place in a phase change material presents a challenge when the dynamics of the phase transition is coupled to the mechanical properties of the container. Thermo-mechanical models have been developed by several authors, however, it will be shown that these models only explain the phase transition dynamics at low pressures when the density of each phase experiences negligible changes. In our proposal, a new energy-mass balance equation at the interface is derived and found to be a consequence of mass conservation. The density change experienced in each phase is predicted by the proposed formulation of the problem. Numerical and semi-analytical solutions to the proposed model are presented for an example on a high temperature phase change material. The solutions to the models presented by other authors are observed to be well-behaved close to the isobaric limit. However, compared to the results obtained from our model, the change in the fusion temperature, latent heat, and absolute pressure is found to be greatly overestimated by other proposals when the phase transition is studied close to the isochoric regime.

  14. Incorporation of New Benzofulvene Derivatives Into Polymers to Give New NLO Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowens, Andrea D.; Bu, Xiu; Mintz, Eric A.; Zhang, Yue

    1996-01-01

    The need for fast electro-optic switches and modulators for optical communication, and laser frequency conversion has created a demand for new second-order non-linear optical materials. One approach to produce such materials is to align chromophores with large molecular hyperpolarizabilities in polymers. Recently fulvenes and benzofulvenes which contain electron donating groups have been shown to exhibit large second-order non-linear optical properties. The resonance structures shown below suggest that intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) should be favorable in omega - (hydroxyphenyl)benzofulvenes and even more favorable in omega-omega - (phenoxy)benzofulvenes because of the enhanced donor properties of the O group. This ICT should lead to enormously enhanced second-order hyperpolarizability. We have prepared all three new omega - (hydroxyphenyl)benzofulvenes by the condensation of indene with the appropriate hydroxyaryl aldehyde in MeOH or MeOH/H2O under base catalysis. In a similar fashion we have prepared substituted benzofulvenes with multipal donor groups. Preliminary studies show that some of our benzofulvene derivatives exhibit second order harmonic generation (SHG). Measurements were carried out by preparing host-guest polymers. The results of our work on benzofulvene derivatives in host-guest polymers when covalently bonded in the polymer will be described.

  15. Incorporation of hydrogel as a sensing medium for recycle of sensing material in chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yunjung; Park, Jeong Yong; Kwon, Oh Seok; Joo, Seokwon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Bae, Joonwon

    2018-01-01

    A hydrogel, produced with agarose extracted from seaweed, was introduced as a reusable medium in ultrasensitive sensors employing conducting polymer nanomaterials and aptamers. A basic dopamine (DA) sensor was constructed by placing a hydrogel, containing a sensing material composed of aptamer-linked carboxylated polypyrrole nanotubes (PPy-COOH NTs), onto a micropatterned gold electrode. The hydrogel provided a benign electrochemical environment, facilitated specific interactions between DA and the PPy-COOH NT sensing material, and simplified the retrieval of PPy-COOH NTs after detection. It was demonstrated that the agarose hydrogel was successfully employed as a sensing medium for detection of DA, providing a benign environment for the electrode type sensor. PPy-COOH NTs were recovered by simply heating the hydrogel in water. The hydrogel also afforded stable signal intensity after repeated use with a limit of detection of 1 nmol and a clear, stable signal up to 100 nmol DA. This work provides relevant information for future research on reusable or recyclable sensors.

  16. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  17. Ranking procedure based on mechanical, durability and thermal behavior of mortars with incorporation of phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, considering the high variety of construction products, adequate material selection, based on their properties and function, becomes increasingly important. In this research, a ranking procedure developed by Czarnecki and Lukowski is applied in mortars with incorporation of phase change materials (PCM. The ranking procedure transforms experimental results of properties into one numerical value. The products can be classified according to their individual properties or even an optimized combination of different properties. The main purpose of this study was the ranking of mortars with incorporation of different contents of PCM based in different binders. Aerial lime, hydraulic lime, gypsum and cement were the binders studied. For each binder, three different mortars were developed. Reference mortars, mortars with incorporation of 40% of PCM and mortars with incorporation of 40% of PCM and 1% of fibers, were tested. Results show that the incorporation of PCM in mortars changes their global performance.Actualmente, existen varios productos de construcción, siendo importante una adecuada selección, con base en sus principales propiedades y funciones. En esta investigación se aplicó un procedimiento de clasificación desarrollado por Czarnecki y Lukowski, en morteros con incorporación de materiales de cambio de fase (PCM. Este procedimiento transforma los resultados experimentales de las propiedades en un único valor numérico. Los productos se clasifican de acuerdo con sus propiedades individuales o en una combinación optimizada de diferentes propiedades. El principal objetivo de este estudio fue la clasificación de morteros basado en los diferentes aglutinantes con incorporación de diferentes cantidades de PCM. Los aglutinantes utilizados fueran la cal aérea, cal hidráulica, yeso y cemento. Para cada aglutinante se han desarrollado tres morteros, siendo morteros de referencia, con incorporación de 40% de PCM y con incorporaci

  18. Physical, thermal and mechanical study of MPC formulated with LG-MgO incorporating Phase Change Materials as admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Lacasta, A. M.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Chimenos, J. M.; Formosa, J.

    2017-10-01

    The high environmental impact generated by using of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has lead to the search for alternative materials in the field of civil and building engineering. In addition, there is a tendency to develop cements from industrial by-products, thus reducing pollution and emissions generated by their production. One of the best positioned cements to compete with OPC is Magnesium Phosphate Cement (MPC). The present work studies different dosages of MPC mortars formulated with low-grade MgO by-product (sustainable MPC) incorporating Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (MPCM) and air entraining additive (AEA) as admixtures (Thermal Sustainable MPC) to improve the thermal behaviour of the material. The aim is developed a new eco-friendly material that leads to reducing energy consumption in buildings. The study is focused on the physical, thermal, and mechanical characterization of TS-MPC mortars to assess their potential use as a thermal prefabricated panel. The results allow to relate the amount of the MPCM and the additive percentage with the thermal and mechanical properties of the TS- MPC. Furthermore, is important to highlight the influence of MPCM not only in the thermal behaviour but also on the increase of the porosity. The experimental results show that the addition of both additives contributes substantially to the improvement of the thermal behaviour of the mortars and converts them on a suitable material to reduce thermal oscillations in buildings.

  19. A strategy to synthesize graphene-incorporated lignin polymer composite materials with uniform graphene dispersion and covalently bonded interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Ma, Yifei; Sun, Yan; Hong, Sung Yong; Kim, Ye Chan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    Graphene-incorporated polymer composites have been demonstrated to have excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In the field of graphene-incorporated composite material synthesis, there are two main obstacles: Non-uniform dispersion of graphene filler in the matrix and weak interface bonding between the graphene filler and polymer matrix. To overcome these problems, we develop an in-situ polymerization strategy to synthesize uniformly dispersed and covalently bonded graphene/lignin composites. Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified by 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to introduce isocyanate groups and form the urethane bonds with lignin macromonomers. Subsequential polycondensation reactions of lignin groups with caprolactone and sebacoyl chloride bring about a covalent network of modified GO and lignin-based polymers. The flexible and robust lignin polycaprolactone polycondensate/modified GO (Lig-GOm) composite membranes are achieved after vacuum filtration, which have tunable hydrophilicity and electrical resistance according to the contents of GOm. This research transforms lignin from an abundant biomass into film-state composite materials, paving a new way for the utilization of biomass wastes.

  20. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating innovative and inexpensive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Lisa Jean

    The use of energy is going to continue to increase rapidly due to population and economic advances occurring throughout the world. The most widely used energies produce carbon dioxide during their combustion and have finite limits on how much of these resources are available. A strong push to utilizing renewable energy is necessary to keep up with the demand. The only renewable energy that has unlimited supply is solar. Our goal is to find cost-effective alternatives to historically the most extensively used materials in dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to rely on efficiency changes coinciding with the introduction of a new component, a standard baseline of performance is necessary to establish. A reproducible fabrication procedure composed of standard materials was instituted; the efficiency parameters exhibited a less than 10% standard deviation for any set of solar cells. Any modifications to the cell components would be apparent in the change in efficiency. Our cell modifications focused on economical alternatives to the electrolyte, the counter electrode and the chromophore. Solution-based electrolytes were replaced with a non-volatile ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide, and then a poly(imidazole-functionalized) silica nanoparticle. Solid-state electrolytes reduce or prevent leakage and could ease manufacturing in large-scale devices. Platinum has been the counter electrode catalyst primarily used with the iodide/triiodide redox couple, but is a rare metal making it rather costly. We reduce platinum loading by introducing a novel counter electrode that employs platinum nanoparticles embedded on a graphene nanoplatelet paper. The highly conductive carbon base also negates the use of the expensive conductive substrate necessary for the platinum catalyst, further reducing cost. We also study the differences in transitioning from ruthenium polypyridyls to iron-based chromophores in dye-sensitized solar cells. Iron introduces low-lying ligand

  1. Analysis of unsaturated clayey materials hydration incorporating the effect of thermo-osmotic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Arson, C.

    2012-01-01

    past, for example Soler (2001) studied the impact of coupled phenomena on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste repositories in saturated argillaceous rock. Bing (2006) proposed an analytical solution in the half-space for the thermal consolidation of layered saturated soils, including the influences of thermo-osmosis and thermal filtration. Chen et al. (2009) recently proposed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) formulation which accounts for the flow of water and air driven by temperature gradients. The aim of this work is to explore the impact of thermo-osmosis on the hydration of clayey soils and rocks generally used in the design of nuclear waste disposals. Both small scale experiments and large scale problems are analyzed. A coupled THM formulation has been extended to deal with thermal osmosis in porous media. Special emphasis is put on the study of thermo-osmotic flow in unsaturated low permeability clays. A simple model was implemented in Theta-Stock program to study thermo-osmotic effects in the performance of a nuclear waste repository. The thermo-osmotic conductivity K fT is assumed to be a scalar (k T ). The permeability of the liquid phase in the initial state is around 5*10-13 m.s -1 . The thermo-osmotic coefficient k T is taken 100 times higher than the typical permeability of the massif: k T = 5*10 -11 m.s -1 . Containers are assumed to be stored in a 100- meter depth horizontal gallery. The ground water is located at 500 meters depth. The initial saturation degree of the ground mass was 0.15. The response of the unsaturated tuff is studied over 1000 years. The material parameters, related to fluid and temperature effects, are taken from the data given by Pollock (1986). Up to 200 years of heating, the trends of the saturation degree are the same in both models. But the magnitudes are different around the heating source, between 80 meters and 140 meters deep. With the model accounting for thermo-osmotic effects, the saturation degree is

  2. Financial hardship, socio-economic position and depression: results from the PATH Through Life Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan; Windsor, Tim D

    2009-07-01

    There is a strong association between financial hardship and the experience of depression. Previous longitudinal research differs in whether this association is viewed as a contemporaneous relationship between depression and hardship or whether hardship has a role in the maintenance of existing depression. In this study we investigate the association between depression and hardship over time and seek to resolve these contradictory perspectives. We also investigate the consistency of the association across the lifecourse. This study reports analysis of two waves of data from a large community survey conducted in the city of Canberra and the surrounding region in south-east Australia. The PATH Through Life Study used a narrow-cohort design, with 6715 respondents representing three birth cohorts (1975-1979; 1956-1960; and 1937-1941) assessed on the two measurement occasions (4 years apart). Depression was measured using the Goldberg Depression Scale and hardship assessed by items measuring aspects of deprivation due to lack of resources. A range of measures of socio-economic circumstance and demographic characteristics were included in logistic regression models to predict wave 2 depression. The results showed that current financial hardship was strongly and independently associated with depression, above the effects of other measures of socio-economic position and demographic characteristics. In contrast, the effect of prior financial difficulty was explained by baseline depression symptoms. There were no reliable cohort differences in the association between hardship and depression having controlled for socio-demographic characteristics. There was some evidence that current hardship was more strongly associated with depression for those who were not classified as depressed at baseline than for those identified with depression at baseline. The evidence of the contemporaneous association between hardship and depression suggests that addressing deprivation may be an

  3. Effects of titanium incorporation on phase and electrochemical performance in LiFePO4 cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohui; Pang Quanquan; Deng Kejian; Yuan Lixia; Huang Fei; Peng Yunlong; Huang Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nominal LiFe 1−x Ti x PO 4 cathode materials were synthesized via solid-state reaction. ► A clear feature of Ti-doped LiFePO 4 has been clarified. ► The formation of impurity phases strongly depends on Ti doping level. ► Appropriate amount of Ti in LiFePO 4 can enhance the electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Ti-incorporated LiFe 1−x Ti x PO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) samples have been prepared via a two-step solid-state reaction route. The samples have systematically been investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge/discharge measurements. The incorporation of Ti in LiFePO 4 significantly enhances the electrochemical performance; the carbon-coated LiFe 0.9 Ti 0.1 PO 4 sample shows the best performance. It is confirmed that LiFe 1−x Ti x PO 4 with x ≤ 0.05 are of single phase while those with 0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 contain impurity phases: LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and TiP 2 O 7 . The impurities influence not only the electronic conductivity, but also the total specific capacity. Appropriate amount of titanium incorporation is favorable for the improvement in electrochemical performance.

  4. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. The product (Bioactive® [BA] was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC] and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC] counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS. Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p0.05. Ca (~110 ppm and hydroxide ions (pH 11 were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

  5. Fish scale collagen sponge incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract as a possible wound/burn dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Prabu, P; Ghosh, Kausik; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara

    2014-01-01

    Application of plant extracts for the burn/wound treatment is followed over the decades as a common practice and it is an important aspect in clinical management. In this study porous collagen sponges (CS) were prepared using fish scales and were incorporated with mupirocin (CSM) and extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum (CSPE) separately to impart antimicrobial activity to the sponges. The results showed that the addition of plant extract increased the tensile strength of CSPE and stability against collagenase enzyme. FTIR studies have shown the incorporation of plant extract in CSPE, SEM studies have revealed the porous nature of the sponges and XRD patterns have shown the retention of collagen triple helical structure even after the addition of plant extract. CSPE and CSM have exhibited antimicrobial properties. The sponges prepared were analysed for their in vitro biocompatibility studies using fibroblasts and keratinocyte cell lines and the results have shown their biocompatible nature. Based on the results obtained, CS, CSM and CSPE may be tried as a burn/wound dressing materials, initially, in small animals in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Porous glasses as a matrix for incorporation of photonic materials. Pore determination by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfeld, Pore determination by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy R.; Saraidarov, T.; Jasinska, B.

    2004-07-01

    Porous glasses prepared by the sol-gel technique have a variety of applications when incorporated by photonic materials: tunable lasers, sensors, luminescence solar concentrators, semiconductor quantum dots, biological markers. The known methods of pore size determinations, the nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry allow to determine the sizes of open pores. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) allows to determine pore sizes also of closed pores. As an example we have performed measurements of non-doped zirconia-silica-polyurethane (ZSUR) ormocer glasses and the same glasses doped with lead sulfide quantum dots. The pore radii range between 0.25-0.38 nm, total surface area 15.5-23.8 m 2/g.

  7. Compliance Study of Endovascular Stent Grafts Incorporated with Polyester and Polyurethane Graft Materials in both Stented and Unstented Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Compliance mismatch between stent graft and host artery may induce complications and blood flow disorders. However, few studies have been reported on stent graft compliance. This study aims to explore the deformation and compliance of stent graft in stented and unstented zones under three pressure ranges. Compliance of two stent grafts incorporated with polyurethane graft (nitinol-PU and polyester graft (nitinol-PET materials respectively were tested; the stents used in the two stent grafts were identical. For the circumferential deformation of the stent grafts under each pressure range, the nitinol-PET stent graft was uniform in both zones. The nitinol-PU stent graft was circumferentially uniform in the stented zone, however, it was nonuniform in the unstented zone. The compliance of the PU graft material was 15 times higher than that of the PET graft. No significant difference in compliance was observed between stented and unstented zones of the nitinol-PET stent graft regardless of the applied pressure range. However, for the nitinol-PU stent graft, compliance of the unstented PU region was approximately twice that of the stented region; thus, compliance along the length of the nitinol-PU stent graft was not constant and different from that of the nitinol-PET stent graft.

  8. Experiments on different materials (polyamide, stainless & galvanized steel) influencing geothermal CaCO3 scaling formation: Polymorphs & elemental incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedenig, Michael; Dietzel, Martin; Boch, Ronny; Hippler, Dorothee

    2016-04-01

    Thermal water is increasingly used for heat and electric power production providing base-load capable renewable and virtually unlimited geothermal energy. Compared to other energy sources geothermal facilities are less harmful to the environment, i.e. chemically and visually. In order to promote the economic viability of these systems compared to other traditional and renewable energy sources, production hindering processes such as corrosion and scaling of components arising from the typically high salinity thermal waters have to be considered as important economic factors. In this context, using proper materials being in contact with the thermal water is crucial and a playground for further improvements. Aim of the study presented, are basic experiments and observations of scaling and corrosive effects from hydrothermal water interacting with different materials and surfaces (stainless steel, polyamide, galvanized steel) and in particular the nucleation and growth effects of these materials regarding the precipitation of solid carbonate phases. The incorporation of Mg, Sr and Ba cations into the carbonate scalings are investigated as environmental proxy. For this purpose, hydrothermal carbonate precipitating experiments were initialized by mixing NaHCO3 and Ca-Mg-Sr-Ba-chloride solutions at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C in glass reactors hosting artificial substrates of the above mentioned materials. The experiments show a strong dependence of the precipitation behaviour of calcium carbonate polymorphs on the particular material being present. Stainless steel and polyamide seem to restrict aragonite formation, whereas galvanized steel supports aragonite nucleation. Vaterite formation is promoted by polyamide surfaces. Importantly, vaterite is more soluble (less stable) compared to the other anhydrous calcium carbonate polymorphs, i.e. vaterite can be more easily re-dissolved. Thus, the use of polyamide components might reduce the amount and durability of

  9. Impact of Economic Hardship and Financial Threat on Suicide Ideation and Confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Marjanovic, Zdravko; Greenglass, Esther; Garcia-Santos, Francisco

    2017-07-04

    The present study tested the extent to which perceived economic hardship is associated with psychological distress (suicide ideation and confusion) after controlling for personal characteristics. It also explored whether perceived financial threat (i.e., fearful anxious-uncertainty about the stability and security of one's personal financial situation) mediates the relationship between economic hardship and psychological distress outcomes. The theoretical model was tested in a sample of Canadian students (n = 211) and was validated in a community sample of employed Portuguese adults (n = 161). In both samples, the fit of the model was good. Parameter estimates indicated that greater experience of economic hardship increased with financial threat, which in turn increased with levels of suicide ideation and confusion. We discuss the practical implications of these results, such as for programs aimed at alleviating the burden of financial hardship, in our concluding remarks.

  10. Financial Hardship and Patient-Reported Outcomes after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gregory A; Albelda, Randy; Khera, Nandita; Hahn, Theresa; Salas Coronado, Diana Y; Odejide, Oreofe O; Bona, Kira; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Soiffer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative therapy for many advanced hematologic cancers, little is known about the financial hardship experienced by HCT patients nor the association of hardship with patient-reported outcomes. We mailed a 43-item survey to adult patients approximately 180 days after their first autologous or allogeneic HCT at 3 high-volume centers. We assessed decreases in household income; difficulty with HCT-related costs, such as need to relocate or travel; and 2 types of hardship: hardship_1 (reporting 1 or 2 of the following: dissatisfaction with present finances, difficulty meeting monthly bill payments, or not having enough money at the end of the month) and "hardship_2" (reporting all 3). Patient-reported stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-4, and 7-point scales were provided for perceptions of overall quality of life (QOL) and health. In total, 325 of 499 surveys (65.1%) were received. The median days since HCT was 173; 47% underwent an allogeneic HCT, 60% were male, 51% were > 60 years old, and 92% were white. Overall, 46% reported income decline after HCT, 56% reported hardship_1, and 15% reported hardship_2. In multivariable models controlling for income, those reporting difficulty paying for HCT-related costs were more likely to report financial hardship (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.8 to 12.3). Hardship_1 was associated with QOL below the median (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 4.9), health status below the median (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 3.6), and stress above the median (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 3.5). In this sizable cohort of HCT patients, financial hardship was prevalent and associated with worse QOL and higher levels of perceived stress. Interventions to address patient financial hardship-especially those that ameliorate HCT-specific costs-are likely to improve patient-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2016

  11. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. The Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Wamala, Sarah P

    2011-10-11

    Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i) independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii) associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12), severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness) logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves), were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators), while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  12. Poverty, near-poverty, and hardship around the time of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Marchi, Kristen; Egerter, Susan; Kim, Soowon; Metzler, Marilyn; Stancil, Tonya; Libet, Moreen

    2010-01-01

    To describe income levels and the prevalence of major hardships among women during or just before pregnancy. We separately analyzed 2002-2006 population-based postpartum survey data from California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (n = 18,332) and 19 states participating in CDC's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 143,452) to examine income and several hardships (divorce/separation, domestic violence, homelessness, financial difficulties, spouse/partner's or respondent's involuntary job loss or incarceration, and, in California only, food insecurity and no social support) during/just before pregnancy. In both samples, over 30% of women were poor (income poverty level [FPL]) and 20% near-poor (101-200% FPL); and around 60% of low-income (poor or near-poor) women experienced at least one hardship. While hardship prevalence decreased significantly as income increased, many non-low-income women also experienced hardships; e.g., in California, 43% of all women and 13% with incomes >400% FPL experienced one or more hardships. These findings paint a disturbing picture of experiences around the time of pregnancy in the United States for many women giving birth and their children, particularly because 60% had previous births. The high prevalence of low income and of serious hardships during pregnancy is of concern, given previous research documenting the adverse health consequences of these experiences and recognition of pregnancy as a critical period for health throughout the life course. Low income and major hardships around the time of pregnancy should be addressed as mainstream U.S. maternal-infant health and social policy issues.

  13. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  14. Monitoring of persons with injuries with incorporated radioactive material; Monitoração de pessoas com ferimentos com material radioativo incorporado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, A.G.; Tauhata, L., E-mail: amandglird@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes; Bertelli, L. [Radiation Protection Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of victims with injuries with incorporated radioactive material can be performed with portable detectors in initial evaluations, with unshielded measurements, collimation, often with the ignorance of the radionuclide, and also, in the posterior medical follow-up with whole-body detectors and HPGe, in measurements of body or urine activity in periodic measurements. Dosimetry in these situations is done using appropriate models, which surpass those of orthodox internal dosimetry, the biokinetic model described in the 2006 NCRP, such as the AIDE models, and the one developed by Deepesh for the {sup 241}Am. Using tissue-equivalent material, measurements were made with portable detectors to obtain the values of the total attenuation coefficient for the {sup 241}Am radiation and compared to the NIST tables. Measurements were also made with the fixed detectors for certification of the measurement procedure. The percentage deviations obtained in relation to the theoretical ones were: PRD (55%) and IdentiFINDER2 (72%). First-aid monitoring measurements may present great uncertainties and differences of accuracy, but are important data to guide the medical treatment of the victims of accidents.

  15. Improved Optical and Morphological Properties of Vinyl-Substituted Hybrid Silica Materials Incorporating a Zn-Metalloporphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Dudás

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on a novel class of hybrid materials exhibiting enhanced optical properties and high surface areas that combine the morphology offered by the vinyl substituted silica host, and the excellent absorption and emission properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphyrin-Zn(II tetrachloride as a water soluble guest molecule. In order to optimize the synthesis procedure and the performance of the immobilized porphyrin, silica precursor mixtures of different compositions were used. To achieve the requirements regarding the hydrophobicity and the porous structure of the gels for the successful incorporation of porphyrin, the content of vinyltriacetoxysilane was systematically changed and thoroughly investigated. Substitution of the silica gels with organic groups is a viable way to provide new properties to the support. An exhaustive characterization of the synthesized silica samples was realised by complementary physicochemical methods, such as infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis and photoluminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si-MAS-NMR transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, nitrogen absorption (BET, contact angle (CA, small angle X ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS. All hybrids showed an increase in emission intensity in the wide region from 575 to 725 nm (Q bands in comparison with bare porphyrin. By simply tuning the vinyltriacetoxysilane content, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic profile of the hybrid materials was changed, while maintaining a high surface area. Good control of hydrophobicity is important to enhance properties such as dispersion, stability behaviour, and resistance to water, in order to achieve highly dispersible systems in water for biomedical applications.

  16. Biocompatible nanocomposite of TiO2 incorporated bi-polymer for articular cartilage tissue regeneration: A facile material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiugen; Wang, Jiandong

    2018-01-01

    The development and design of polymeric hydrogels for articular cartilage tissue engineering have been a vital biomedical research for recent days. Organic/inorganic combined hydrogels with improved surface activity have shown potential for the repair and regeneration of hard tissues, but have not been broadly studied for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. In this work, bi-polymeric hydrogel composite was designed with the incorporation some quantities of stick-like TiO 2 nanostructures for favorable surface behavior and enhancement of osteoblast adhesions. The microscopic investigations clearly exhibited that the stick-like TiO 2 nanostructured materials are highly inserted into the PVA/PVP bi-polymeric matrix, due to the long-chain PVA molecules are promoted to physical crosslinking density in hydrogel network. The results of improved surface topography of hydrogel matrixes show that more flatted cell morphologies and enhanced osteoblast attachment on the synthesized nanocomposites. The crystalline bone and stick-like TiO 2 nanocomposites significantly improved the bioactivity via lamellipodia and filopodia extension of osteoblast cells, due to its excellent intercellular connection and regulated cell responses. Consequently, these hydrogel has been enhanced the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial pathogens. Hence it is concluded that these hydrogel nanocomposite with improved morphology, osteoblast behavior and bactericidal activity have highly potential candidates for articular cartilage tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Financial Hardship and Patient-Reported Outcomes after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gregory A.; Albelda, Randy; Khera, Nandita; Hahn, Theresa; Salas Coronado, Diana Y.; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Bona, Kira; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Soiffer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative therapy for many advanced hematologic cancers, little is known about the financial hardship experienced by HCT patients, nor the association of hardship with patient-reported outcomes. We mailed a 43-item survey to adult patients approximately 180 days post first autologous or allogeneic HCT at three high-volume centers. We assessed decreases in household income, difficulty with HCT-related costs such as need to relocate or travel, and two types of hardship: “hardship_1” (reporting one or two of the following: dissatisfaction with present finances, difficulty meeting monthly bill payments, or not having enough money at the end of the month), and “hardship_2” (reporting all three). Patient-reported stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), and seven-point scales were provided for perceptions of overall quality of life (QOL) and health. 325 of 499 surveys (65.1%) were received. The median days since HCT was 173; 47% underwent an allogeneic HCT, 60% were male, 51% were > 60 years old, and 92% were white. Overall, 46% reported income decline post-HCT, 56% reported “hardship_1” and 15% “hardship 2.” In multivariable models controlling for income, those reporting difficulty paying for HCT-related costs were more likely to report financial hardship (OR 6.9 [3.8, 12.3]). “Hardship_1” was associated with QOL below the median (OR 2.9 [1.7, 4.9]), health status below the median (OR 2.2 [1.3, 3.6]), and stress above the median (OR 2.1 [1.3, 3.5]). In this sizable cohort of HCT patients, financial hardship was prevalent, and associated with worse QOL and higher levels of perceived stress. Interventions to address patient financial hardship—especially those that ameliorate HCT-specific costs—are likely to improve patient-reported outcomes. PMID:27184627

  18. Financial hardship and self-rated health among low-income housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Harley, Amy E; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian G

    2013-08-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among residents of low-income housing. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Health in Common Study (N = 828), an observational study to investigate social and physical determinants of cancer risk-related behaviors among residents of low-income housing in three cities in the Boston metropolitan area. Modified Poisson regression models were used to obtain the relative risk of low SRH (fair or poor), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Unadjusted models revealed that the respondents reporting financial hardship were 53% more likely to report low SRH compared with those not reporting financial hardship. After controlling for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, and psychological distress, the results showed that those reporting financial hardship were 44% more likely to report low SRH. Our results suggest that financial hardship is a robust predictor of SRH; and over and above the influence of demographic and traditional socioeconomic indicators, and even psychological distress, financial hardship remains strongly associated with low SRH. Additional research needs to be conducted to further elucidate this pathway and to better understand the determinants of variability in financial hardship among low-income housing residents to ensure the most appropriate policy levers (e.g., housing-related policy, food-related policy) are chosen to improve health outcomes in this population.

  19. Financial hardship, unmet medical need, and health self-efficacy among African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Mitchell, Jamie A; Shires, Deirdre A; Modlin, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Health self-efficacy (the confidence to take care of one's health) is a key component in ensuring that individuals are active partners in their health and health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy among African American men and to determine if unmet medical need due to cost potentially mediates this association. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from a convenience sample of African American men who attended a 1-day annual community health fair in Northeast Ohio (N = 279). Modified Poisson regression models were estimated to obtain the relative risk of reporting low health self-efficacy. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, those reporting financial hardship were 2.91 times, RR = 2.91 (confidence interval [1.24, 6.83]; p financial hardship and low health self-efficacy was no longer statistically significant. Our results suggest that the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy can be explained by unmet medical need due to cost. Possible intervention efforts among African American men with low financial resources should consider expanding clinical and community-based health assessments to capture financial hardship and unmet medical need due to cost as potential contributors to low health self-efficacy. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. “FORCE MAJEUR CLAUSE” ATAU “HARDSHIP CLAUSE” PROBLEMATIKA DALAM PERANCANGAN KONTRAK BISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yudha Hernoko

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of contract is to secure a fair transaction of rights and obligations of the party to the contract, by which it creates a safely properly and beneficially contractual relation. Under no circumstances is the contract made to harm one or both of the parties. Despite fair formation, due to breach of contract or force majeure the contract is not performed as supposed to be. The stipulation of force majeur clause, in some cases, are not accomodative to the business activity because the dispute settlement is usually put in the court. Therefore, there is a new way to apply hardship doctrine which in the perspective of business is seen more flexible and accomodative to solve the dispute. The hardship characteristic, as mention above, is appropriate to the business character which needs both dynamic activity and the business continuity among parties. The implementation of hardship doctrine is a "win-win solution" model which benefits both parties.

  1. Proposal of a monitoring program of occupational exposure by incorporation of radioactive material for nuclear medicine services in the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badilla Segura, Mirta

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring program of the occupational exposure by incorporation of radioactive material is proposed. Nuclear medicine services of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS) are evaluated. The monitoring program is based on the provisions of the International Atomic Energy Agency and of study of nuclear medicine services of the CCSS. Radionuclides are determined for monitoring of the occupational exposure, according to the radioactive material that is worked in nuclear medicine services of the CCSS. The appropriate and alternative techniques are established for the monitoring of the occupational exposure by incorporation of radioactive material, depending on the type of radionuclide that is worked in nuclear medicine services. The worker occupationally exposed (TOE) should be subject of monitoring and how often should be realized the monitoring of the occupational exposure. The monitoring of the radiation by radioactive material must be applied to personnel working in radiopharmacies and the worker has carried out therapeutic procedures for handling of significant amounts of 13 1 I. The calculation of the committed effective dose is proposed by incorporation of radioactive material with the TOE [es

  2. Association of financial hardship with poor sleep health outcomes among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hyun Park, Su; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Goedel, William C; Chaix, Basile; Elbel, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between socioeconomic status and sleep health. While some research has studied this association among sexual minority groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM), they exclusively focused on US-based populations. The interplay between the two in shaping sleep health has not been previously examined on populations residing outside the US. This study considers both determinants, by investigating whether financial hardship is associated with sleep health among a sample of MSM in Paris, France. Broadcast advertisements were placed on a popular geosocial-networking smartphone application for MSM to direct users in Paris to a web-based survey measuring financial hardship and five dimensions of sleep health as well as socio-demographic characteristics. Modified Poisson models with robust error variance were computed to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between financial hardship and the following self-reported outcomes: 1) poor sleep quality, 2) short sleep duration; and 3) sleep problems. In total, 580 respondents completed the survey. In this sample, both financial hardship and poor sleep health were common - 45.5% reported that it was extremely, very, or somewhat difficult for them to meet their monthly payments on bills (referred to as "high financial hardship") and 30.1% rated their sleep as fairly bad or very bad (referred to as "poor sleep quality"). Multivariate models revealed that, compared to participants who reported low financial hardship, those who reported high financial hardship were more likely to report poor sleep quality (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.77), to report problems falling asleep (aRR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.49), and to report problems staying awake in the daytime (aRR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.83, 5.31). Future research should investigate whether this relationship is causal and determine whether interventions to reduce financial hardships could promote

  3. Hybrid conducting polymer materials incorporating poly-oxo-metalates for extraction of actinides; Materiaux polymeres conducteurs hybrides incorporant des polyoxometallates pour l'extraction d'actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racimor, D

    2003-09-15

    The preparation and characterization of hybrid conducting polymers incorporating poly-oxo-metalates for extracting actinides is discussed. A study of the coordination of various lanthanide cations (Ce(III), Ce(IV), Nd(III)) by the mono-vacant poly-oxo-metalate {alpha}{sub 2}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}]{sup 10-} showed significant differences according to the cation.. Various {alpha}-A-[PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}(RPO){sub 2}]{sup 5-} hybrids were synthesized and their affinity for actinides or lanthanides was demonstrated through complexation. The first hybrid poly-oxo-metallic lanthanide complexes were then synthesized, as was the first hybrid functionalized with a pyrrole group. The electro-polymerization conditions of this pyrrole remain still to be optimized. Poly-pyrrole materials incorporating {alpha}{sub 2}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}]{sup 10-} or its neodymium or cerium complexes as doping agents proved to be the first conducting polymer incorporating poly-oxo-metalates capable of extracting plutonium from nitric acid. (author)

  4. Correlating activity incorporation with properties of oxide films formed on material samples exposed to BWR and PWR coolants in Finnish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinov, M.; Kinnunen, P.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Buddas, T.; Halin, M.; Kvarnstroem, R.; Tompuri, K. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Loviisa Power Plant, Loviisa (Finland); Helin, M.; Muttilainen, E.; Reinvall, A. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The extent of activity incorporation on primary circuit surfaces in nuclear power plants is connected to the chemical composition of the coolant, to the corrosion behaviour of the material surfaces and to the structure and properties of oxide films formed on circuit surfaces due to corrosion. Possible changes in operational conditions may induce changes in the structure of the oxide films and thus in the rate of activity incorporation. To predict these changes, experimental correlations between water chemistry, oxide films and activity incorporation, as well as mechanistic understanding of the related phenomena need to be established. In order to do this, flow-through cells with material samples and facilities for high-temperature water chemistry monitoring have been installed at Olkiluoto unit 1 (BWR) and Loviisa unit 1 (PWR) in spring 2000. The cells are being used for two major purposes: To observe the changes in the structure and activity levels of oxide films formed on material samples exposed to the primary coolant. Correlating these observations with the abundant chemical and radiochemical data on coolant composition, dose rates etc. collected routinely by the plant, as well as with high-temperature water chemistry monitoring data such as the corrosion potentials of relevant material samples, the redox potential and the high-temperature conductivity of the primary coolant. We describe in this paper the scope of the work, give examples of the observations made and summarize the results on oxide films that have been obtained during one full fuel cycle at both plants. (authors)

  5. Descendants of Hardship: Prevalence, Drivers and Scarring Effects of Social Exclusion in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cok Vrooman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The social exclusion of children is problematic for two reasons. Young people typically inherit their marginal position from their family, and therefore cannot be held responsible for their hardship themselves; and social exclusion in childhood may affect their wellbeing and subsequent development, possibly leading to a “scarring effect” in later life. In this contribution we develop an instrument for measuring social exclusion among children. Social exclusion is regarded as a theoretical construct with four sub-dimensions: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to social rights, and a lack of normative integration. First we analyse data from a survey of 2,200 Dutch children, which contains a large set of social exclusion items. We applied nonlinear principal components analysis in order to construct a multidimensional scale. Measured in this way, the prevalence of social exclusion among children is 4.5%. Boys and children living in large families are more likely to experience social exclusion than girls and children with few siblings. The parental level of education and dependency on social security benefits are also important driving factors of childhood social exclusion. Subsequently we investigate the scarring effect. Longitudinal administrative income and household data covering 25 years were combined with a new survey of just under 1,000 Dutch adults, a third of whom were poor as a child. The survey assessed their past and current degree of social exclusion, and their health and psychosocial development, educational career, past family circumstances, etc. In an absolute sense scarring turns out to have been limited during this period: a very large majority of those who were poor or excluded as a child are above the threshold values in adult life. However, the “descendants of hardship” are still more likely to be socially excluded as adults than people who grew up in more favourable conditions. A

  6. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  7. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  8. Reduced employment and financial hardship among middle-aged individuals with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Beesley, Vanessa L; Mihala, Gabor; Koczwara, Bogda; Lynch, Brigid M

    2017-09-01

    Financial hardship may affect up to 30% of cancer survivors, however, little research has addressed the effect of employment change on financial hardship. This study compared the self-reported financial hardship of middle-aged (45-64 years) colorectal cancer survivors (n = 187) at 6 and 12 months following diagnosis with that of a matched general population group (n = 355). Colorectal cancer survivors were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry, Australia; data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used for the general population group. Pearson chi-square tests were used to assess the differences in proportions between the two groups and McNemar tests to assess differences across time among the same group. Generalised linear modelling was performed to produce prevalence ratios. A higher proportion of workers with colorectal cancer reported financial strain (money shortage for living essentials) at 6 months (15%) but eased and was comparable to the comparison group at 12 months (7%). Middle-aged working cancer survivors who ceased or reduced work were more likely to report not being financially comfortable, compared with those who had continued work (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.12, 2.44) at 12 months. Health professionals, employers and government services should address the impact of impaired employment on financial hardship among cancer survivors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Financial Hardship and Self-Rated Health among Low-Income Housing Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…

  10. Financial Hardship, Unmet Medical Need, and Health Self-Efficacy among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Mitchell, Jamie A.; Shires, Deirdre A.; Modlin, Charles S., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health self-efficacy (the confidence to take care of one's health) is a key component in ensuring that individuals are active partners in their health and health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy among African American men and to determine if unmet…

  11. 17 CFR 274.404 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... Forms for Electronic Filing § 274.404 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by any electronic filer who submits to the Commission, pursuant to a temporary...

  12. 17 CFR 239.65 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... Statements § 239.65 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...

  13. 17 CFR 259.604 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... OF 1935 Forms for Electronic Filing § 259.604 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by any electronic filer who submits to the Commission, pursuant to a...

  14. 17 CFR 249.447 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... § 249.447 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...

  15. 17 CFR 269.10 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of....10 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by any...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  16. Association of financial hardship with poor sleep health outcomes among men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have identified an association between socioeconomic status and sleep health. While some research has studied this association among sexual minority groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM, they exclusively focused on US-based populations. The interplay between the two in shaping sleep health has not been previously examined on populations residing outside the US. This study considers both determinants, by investigating whether financial hardship is associated with sleep health among a sample of MSM in Paris, France. Broadcast advertisements were placed on a popular geosocial-networking smartphone application for MSM to direct users in Paris to a web-based survey measuring financial hardship and five dimensions of sleep health as well as socio-demographic characteristics. Modified Poisson models with robust error variance were computed to estimate risk ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the associations between financial hardship and the following self-reported outcomes: 1 poor sleep quality, 2 short sleep duration; and 3 sleep problems. In total, 580 respondents completed the survey. In this sample, both financial hardship and poor sleep health were common - 45.5% reported that it was extremely, very, or somewhat difficult for them to meet their monthly payments on bills (referred to as “high financial hardship” and 30.1% rated their sleep as fairly bad or very bad (referred to as “poor sleep quality”. Multivariate models revealed that, compared to participants who reported low financial hardship, those who reported high financial hardship were more likely to report poor sleep quality (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.77, to report problems falling asleep (aRR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.49, and to report problems staying awake in the daytime (aRR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.83, 5.31. Future research should investigate whether this relationship is causal and determine whether interventions to reduce financial hardships

  17. Rural Disparities in Treatment-Related Financial Hardship and Adherence to Surveillance Colonoscopy in Diverse Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Jean A; Banegas, Matthew P; Wiggins, Charles L; Chiu, Vi K; Rajput, Ashwani; Kinney, Anita Y

    2018-03-28

    Cancer survivors increasingly report financial hardship as a consequence of the high cost of cancer care, yet the financial experience of rural cancer survivors remains largely unstudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential rural disparities in the likelihood of financial hardship and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy. Individuals diagnosed with localized or regional colorectal cancer (CRC) between 2004-2012 were ascertained by the population-based New Mexico Tumor Registry. Participants completed a mailed questionnaire or telephone survey about their CRC survivorship experience, including treatment-related financial hardship and receipt of surveillance colonoscopy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to urban CRC survivors (n=168), rural CRC survivors (n=109) were slightly older, more likely to be married (65% v. 59%) and have an annual income financial hardship (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.06-3.28) and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy guidelines (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.85). In addition, financial hardship was independently associated with nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.85). Substantial rural disparities in the likelihood of financial hardship and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy exist. Treatment-related financial hardship among rural CRC survivors may negatively impact adherence to guideline recommended follow-up care. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. A new experimental method to determine specific heat capacity of inhomogeneous concrete material with incorporated microencapsulated-PCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    PCM. This paper describes the development of the new material and the experimental set-up to determine the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete material. Moreover, various methods are proposed and compared to calculate the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete. Finally, it is hoped......The study presented in this paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the specific heat capacity as a function of the temperature Cp (T) of concrete mixed with various amounts of phase change material (PCM). The tested specimens are prepared by directly mixing concrete and microencapsulated...... that this work can be used as an inspiration and guidance to perform measurements on the various composite materials containing PCM....

  19. Evaluation of conceptual flowsheets for incorporating Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel materials in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.; Burch, W.D.; Collins, E.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Prince, B.E.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Delene, J.G.; Mailen, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    A preliminary study by a group of experts at ORNL has generated and evaluated a number of aqueous and non-aqueous flowsheets for recovering transuranium actinides from LWR fuel for use as fuel in an LMR and, at the same time, for transmutation of the wastes to less hazardous materials. The need for proliferation resistance was a consideration in the flowsheets. The current state of development of the flowsheets was evaluated and recommendations for additional study were made. 3 refs., 6 figs

  20. Evaluation of the physical properties of an endodontic Portland cement incorporating alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the physical and chemical properties of Portland cement (PC) loaded with alternative radiopacifying materials for use as root-end filling materials in a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-like system. Portland cement loaded with barium sulphate, gold and silver/tin alloy was mixed with water, and the physical and chemical properties of the hydrated cements were evaluated. MTA and intermediate restorative material (IRM) were used as controls. The radiopacity was compared to the equivalent thickness of aluminium, and the setting time of the cements was assessed using an indentation technique. The compressive strength and the stress-strain relationship were determined at 28 days. The stress-strain relationship was determined by monitoring the strain generated when the cement was subjected to compressive load. In addition, the pH was determined in water and simulated body fluid for a period of 28 days. The radiopacity of the cements using alternative radiopacifiers was comparable to MTA (P > 0.05). IRM demonstrated a higher radiopacity than all the materials tested (P cements with the exception of IRM exhibited an alkaline pH and had an extended setting time when compared to IRM. MTA had a longer setting time than the PC (P cement (P = 0.159). The addition of a radiopacifier retarded the setting time (P cements had comparable strength to PC (P > 0.05). IRM was the weakest cement tested (P cement loaded with gold radiopacifier had comparable strength to MTA (P = 1). The stress-strain relationship was linear for all the cements with IRM generating more strain on loading. Within the parameters set in this study, bismuth oxide in MTA can be replaced by gold or silver/tin alloy. The physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cement replaced with alternative radiopacifiers were similar and comparable to ProRoot MTA.

  1. The incorporation of wood waste ash as a partial cement replacement material for making structural grade concrete: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaptik Chowdhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing industrialization, the industrial byproducts (wastes are being accumulated to a large extent, leading to environmental and economic concerns related to their disposal (land filling. Wood ash is the residue produced from the incineration of wood and its products (chips, saw dust, bark for power generation or other uses. Cement is an energy extensive industrial commodity and leads to the emission of a vast amount of greenhouse gases, forcing researchers to look for an alternative, such as a sustainable building practice. This paper presents an overview of the work and studies done on the incorporation of wood ash as partial replacement of cement in concrete from the year 1991 to 2012. The aspects of wood ash such as its physical, chemical, mineralogical and elemental characteristics as well as the influence of wood ash on properties such as workability, water absorption, compressive strength, flexural rigidity test, split tensile test, bulk density, chloride permeability, freeze thaw and acid resistance of concrete have been discussed in detail.

  2. MATERIALS AND MEANS FOR THE INCORPORATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TO THE PEDAGOGIC PROCESS OF THE SCHOOLS IN THE VILLA CLARA´S CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavel Moré Estupiñán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the educational environmental for the sustainable development to pedagogic process constitutes a challenge for the educational systems at XXI century. This study pretent to show, in the de Villa Clara´s Cuba.  We asume as  theorist  and methodologic basics the research-action-participation and the  experiences systematization, it is elaborated a group of materials and means. These scientific results are introduced in selected educational institutions of the county, with positive impacts in the Environmental Education for the Sustainable Development of children, adolescents and youths and in the environmental formation of the professionals of the education.

  3. Does financial hardship account for elevated psychological distress in lone mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, S; Power, C; Rodgers, B

    1999-12-01

    Lone mothers have been shown to have higher levels of psychological distress than married mothers, but it is not clear how this difference arises. Using data from the 1958 British birth cohort followed to age 33, we investigated alternative explanations for the excess distress of lone mothers. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for distress (measured using the Malaise Inventory) in lone vs married mothers. Odds ratios were adjusted to assess the contribution of explanatory factors. At age 33, psychological distress was greater among lone than married mothers (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97, 3.41). The odds ratio decreased to 1.43 (95% CI 1.02, 2.01) after adjustment for all explanatory factors (prior psychological distress, age of youngest child and number of children in the household, and contemporary measures of financial hardship, employment, and social support). Attenuation of the odds ratio was most marked after taking account of financial hardship. Psychological distress was greater among divorced mothers than never married mothers, though not significantly (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 0.88, 3.28). This difference was not explained by the factors examined, and was not due to the immediate distress associated with a recent divorce. Elevated psychological distress of lone mothers appears to be related to financial hardship, while other explanations, including social support and selection, have a more modest impact. Not all of the elevated psychological distress among lone mothers was accounted for, particularly among divorced lone mothers.

  4. Tritium and other radionuclide labeled organic compounds incorporated in genetic material. NCRP report No. 63: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This book has as its subject the radiation dose to cells from incorporated radioactive material. According to the authors, NCRP Scientific Committee 24, the most sensitive cellular material is the genetic material of DNA and RNA in the nucleus. The biological effects of exposure are examined, since each cell line has its own sensitivities and hazards, which must be taken into account when a particular radioactive material is considered. The various kinds of radiation injury may lead to cell death, failure to mature, tumor genesis, transmutation of nuclides leading to DNA breaks, and gene mutation. Some of these injuries are no more potent when the source is external, whereas others, such as transmutation, occur only inside cells. The method for dose calculation is based upon the concern for doses coming from heterogeneously distributed beta emitters. The critical volume is the nucleus of stem cells, since injury to stem cells leads to late somatic and genetic effects. The dose at issue is that to labeled stem cells, not the whole population of stem cells. On this basis a maximum permissible intake of the material in question is calculated

  5. Self-healing of drying shrinkage cracks in cement-based materials incorporating reactive MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, T. S.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Excessive drying shrinkage is one of the major issues of concern for longevity and reduced strength performance of concrete structures. It can cause the formation of cracks in the concrete. This research aims to improve the autogenous self-healing capacity of traditional Portland cement (PC) systems, adding expansive minerals such as reactive magnesium oxide (MgO) in terms of drying shrinkage crack healing. Two different reactive grades (high ‘N50’and moderately high ‘92-200’) of MgO were added with PC. Cracks were induced in the samples with restraining end prisms through natural drying shrinkage over 28 days after casting. Samples were then cured under water for 28 and 56 days, and self-healing capacity was investigated in terms of mechanical strength recovery, crack sealing efficiency and improvement in durability. Finally, microstructures of the healing materials were investigated using FT-IR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. Overall N50 mixes show higher expansion and drying shrinkage compared to 92-200 mixes. Autogenous self-healing performance of the MgO containing samples were much higher compared to control (only PC) mixes. Cracks up to 500 μm were sealed in most MgO containing samples after 28 days. In the microstructural investigations, highly expansive Mg-rich hydro-carbonate bridges were found along with traditional calcium-based, self-healing compounds (calcite, portlandite, calcium silicate hydrates and ettringite).

  6. Incorporation of the Joule Heating of highly conducting materials into the Truchas code via an asymptotic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcay, Cihan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-21

    The EM module of the Truchas code currently lacks the capability to model the Joule (Ohmic) heating of highly conducting materials that are inserted into induction furnaces from time to time to change the heating profile. This effect is difficult to simulate directly because of the requirement to resolve the extremely thin skin depth of good conductors, which is computationally costly. For example, copper has a skin depth, δ ~ 1 mm, for an oscillation frequency of tens of kHz. The industry is interested in determining what fraction of the heating power is lost to the Joule heating of these good conductors inserted inside the furnaces. The approach presented in this document is one of asymptotics where the leading order (unperturbed) solution is taken as that which emerges from solving the EM problem for a perfectly conducting insert. The conductor is treated as a boundary of the domain. The perturbative correction enters as a series expansion in terms of the dimensionless skin depth δ/L, where L is the characteristic size of the EM system. The correction at each order depends on the previous. This means that the leading order correction only depends on the unperturbed solution, in other words, it does not require Truchas to perform an additional EM field solve. Thus, the Joule heating can be captured by a clever leveraging of the existing tools in Truchas with only slight modifications.

  7. Demonstrate Scale-up Procedure for Glass Composite Material (GCM) for Incorporation of Iodine Loaded AgZ.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garino, Terry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Croes, Kenneth James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR and 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.

  8. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  9. Development and studies of Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe thin films with varying band gaps to understand the Mg incorporation and the related material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomera, Roger C.; Martínez, Omar S.; Pantoja-Enriquez, J.; Mathews, N.R.; Reyes-Banda, Martín G.; Krishnan, B.; Mathew, X.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe films with band gap in the range 1.47–2.41 eV is obtained. • Cd substitution by Mg was confirmed with SIMS and XPS analysis. • Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe films maintained CdTe structural features but with higher band gap. • Mg incorporation in CdTe inhibited grain growth. - Abstract: In this paper we report a systematic work involving the development of Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe thin films by co-evaporation of CdTe and Mg. The evaporation rate of both materials were adjusted to obtain ternary films of varying stoichiometry and hence the band gap. We have deposited films with band gap ranging from 1.47 to 2.41 eV. The films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, opto-electronic, and spectroscopic properties. The film stoichiometry was studied across the thickness using SIMS data. SEM images showed that the grain size has a dependence on Mg content in the film, which inhibits the grain growth. The structural parameters showed a systematic dependence on Mg content in the film, however, there was no noticeable change in the XRD reflections with respect that of pure CdTe for lower concentrations of Mg. XPS analysis shed light on the incorporation of Mg further supporting the band gap variations observed with the UV–Vis spectroscopic studies. The photoresponse of the film was affected by Mg incorporation. Prototype devices of the type Cd_1_−_XMg_xTe/CdS were fabricated and the results are discussed.

  10. Efficient luminescent materials based on the incorporation of a Eu(III)tris-(bipyridine-carboxylate) complex in mesoporous hybrid silicate hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, M.B.S. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Queiroz, T.B. de [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Eckert, H. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Camargo, A.S.S. de, E-mail: andreasc@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The study of the photoluminescent characteristics of host–guest systems based on highly emissive trivalent rare earth complexes such as Eu{sup 3+} – tris-bipyridine-carboxylate, immobilized in solid state host matrices, is motivated by their potential applications in optoelectronic devices and bioanalytical systems. Besides offering the possibility of designing a favorable environment to improve the photophysical properties of the guest molecules, encapsulation in porous solids also serves to protect such molecules, prevents leakage (especially critical for bio-applications) and ultimately leads to more robust and versatile materials. Among the most interesting possible host matrices are mesoporous silica and hybrids (organo-silicates) in the form of powders (MCM-41 like) and transparent bulk or film xerogels. In this work we report the synthesis of highly efficient red emitting materials based on the wet impregnation of such host matrices with the new complex Eu[4-(4′-tert-butyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine-6-carboxyl]{sub 3} (“[{sup t}Bu–COO]{sub 3}Eu”) whose synthesis and photophysical characterization was recently reported. Prior to the incorporation, the host matrices were thoroughly characterized by solid state {sup 29}Si and {sup 1}H NMR, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Incorporation and retention of the complex molecules are found to be significantly higher in the phenyl-modified hybrid samples than in the regular mesoporous silica, suggesting efficient immobilization of the complex by π–π interactions. Long excited state lifetimes (up to 1.7 ms comparable to 1.8 ms for the complex in solution), and high quantum yields (up to 65%, versus 85% for the complex in solution) were measured for the bulk xerogel materials, suggesting the potential use of thin films for lighting and bioanalytical applications. - Highlights: • New Eu(III) complex in mesoporous hybrid matrices leads to highly

  11. Efficient luminescent materials based on the incorporation of a Eu(III)tris-(bipyridine-carboxylate) complex in mesoporous hybrid silicate hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, M.B.S.; Queiroz, T.B. de; Eckert, H.; Camargo, A.S.S. de

    2016-01-01

    The study of the photoluminescent characteristics of host–guest systems based on highly emissive trivalent rare earth complexes such as Eu 3+ – tris-bipyridine-carboxylate, immobilized in solid state host matrices, is motivated by their potential applications in optoelectronic devices and bioanalytical systems. Besides offering the possibility of designing a favorable environment to improve the photophysical properties of the guest molecules, encapsulation in porous solids also serves to protect such molecules, prevents leakage (especially critical for bio-applications) and ultimately leads to more robust and versatile materials. Among the most interesting possible host matrices are mesoporous silica and hybrids (organo-silicates) in the form of powders (MCM-41 like) and transparent bulk or film xerogels. In this work we report the synthesis of highly efficient red emitting materials based on the wet impregnation of such host matrices with the new complex Eu[4-(4′-tert-butyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine-6-carboxyl] 3 (“[ t Bu–COO] 3 Eu”) whose synthesis and photophysical characterization was recently reported. Prior to the incorporation, the host matrices were thoroughly characterized by solid state 29 Si and 1 H NMR, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Incorporation and retention of the complex molecules are found to be significantly higher in the phenyl-modified hybrid samples than in the regular mesoporous silica, suggesting efficient immobilization of the complex by π–π interactions. Long excited state lifetimes (up to 1.7 ms comparable to 1.8 ms for the complex in solution), and high quantum yields (up to 65%, versus 85% for the complex in solution) were measured for the bulk xerogel materials, suggesting the potential use of thin films for lighting and bioanalytical applications. - Highlights: • New Eu(III) complex in mesoporous hybrid matrices leads to highly emissive material • Matrix

  12. Understanding vulnerability to self-harm in times of economic hardship and austerity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M C; Gunnell, D; Davies, R; Hawton, K; Kapur, N; Potokar, J; Donovan, J L

    2016-02-17

    Self-harm and suicide increase in times of economic recession, but little is known about why people self-harm when in financial difficulty, and in what circumstances self-harm occurs. This study aimed to understand events and experiences leading to the episode of self-harm and to identify opportunities for prevention or mitigation of distress. Participants' homes or university rooms. 19 people who had attended hospital following self-harm in two UK cities and who specifically cited job loss, economic hardship or the impact of austerity measures as a causal or contributory factor. Semistructured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed cross-sectionally and as case studies. Study participants described experiences of severe economic hardship; being unable to find employment or losing jobs, debt, housing problems and benefit sanctions. In many cases problems accumulated and felt unresolvable. For others an event, such as a call from a debt collector or benefit change triggered the self-harm. Participants also reported other current or past difficulties, including abuse, neglect, bullying, domestic violence, mental health problems, relationship difficulties, bereavements and low self-esteem. These contributed to their sense of despair and worthlessness and increased their vulnerability to self-harm. Participants struggled to gain the practical help they felt they needed for their economic difficulties or therapeutic support that might have helped with their other co-existing or historically damaging experiences. Economic hardships resulting from the recession and austerity measures accumulated or acted as a 'final straw' to trigger self-harm, often in the context of co-existing or historically damaging life-experiences. Interventions to mitigate these effects should include providing practical advice about economic issues before difficulties become insurmountable and providing appropriate psychosocial support for vulnerable

  13. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R Isasi

    Full Text Available The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084, a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing, and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and percentage body fat (%BF. Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background. Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF. These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  14. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  15. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS1) Polymorphisms Interact with Financial Hardship to Affect Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarginson, Jane E; Deakin, JF William; Anderson, Ian M; Downey, Darragh; Thomas, Emma; Elliott, Rebecca; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors have a role in differential susceptibility to depression in response to severe or chronic adversity. Studies in animals suggest that nitric oxide (NO) signalling has a key role in depression-like behavioural responses to stress. This study investigated whether genetic variation in the brain-expressed nitric oxide synthase gene NOS1 modifies the relationship between psychosocial stress and current depression score. We recruited a population sample of 1222 individuals who provided DNA and questionnaire data on symptoms and stress. Scores on the List of Life-Threatening Experiences (LTE) questionnaire for the last year and self-rated current financial hardship were used as measures of recent/ongoing psychosocial stress. Twenty SNPs were genotyped. Significant associations between eight NOS1 SNPs, comprising two regional haplotypes, and current depression score were identified that survived correction for multiple testing when current financial hardship was used as the interaction term. A smaller three-SNP haplotypes (rs10507279, rs1004356 and rs3782218) located in a regulatory region of NOS1 showed one of the strongest effects, with the A-C-T haplotype associating with higher depression scores at low adversity levels but lower depression scores at higher adversity levels (p=2.3E-05). These results suggest that NOS1 SNPs interact with exposure to economic and psychosocial stressors to alter individual's susceptibility to depression. PMID:24917196

  16. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) polymorphisms interact with financial hardship to affect depression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarginson, Jane E; Deakin, J F William; Anderson, Ian M; Downey, Darragh; Thomas, Emma; Elliott, Rebecca; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors have a role in differential susceptibility to depression in response to severe or chronic adversity. Studies in animals suggest that nitric oxide (NO) signalling has a key role in depression-like behavioural responses to stress. This study investigated whether genetic variation in the brain-expressed nitric oxide synthase gene NOS1 modifies the relationship between psychosocial stress and current depression score. We recruited a population sample of 1222 individuals who provided DNA and questionnaire data on symptoms and stress. Scores on the List of Life-Threatening Experiences (LTE) questionnaire for the last year and self-rated current financial hardship were used as measures of recent/ongoing psychosocial stress. Twenty SNPs were genotyped. Significant associations between eight NOS1 SNPs, comprising two regional haplotypes, and current depression score were identified that survived correction for multiple testing when current financial hardship was used as the interaction term. A smaller three-SNP haplotypes (rs10507279, rs1004356 and rs3782218) located in a regulatory region of NOS1 showed one of the strongest effects, with the A-C-T haplotype associating with higher depression scores at low adversity levels but lower depression scores at higher adversity levels (p=2.3E-05). These results suggest that NOS1 SNPs interact with exposure to economic and psychosocial stressors to alter individual's susceptibility to depression.

  17. Picturing Policy in Addressing Water and Sanitation: The Voices of Girls Living in Abject Intergenerational Hardship in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajan Virgi, Zainul; Mitchell, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Abject generational hardship is a systemic phenomenon which denies people a higher quality of life by limiting their access to basic life necessities. The article focuses on a group of ten girls between the ages of 10 and 14 living in a peri-urban community outside of Maputo. The first part outlines the importance of engaging girls through…

  18. Serial Migration and the Assessment of "Extreme and Unusual Psychological Hardship" with Undocumented Latina/o Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Joseph M.; Mejia, Olga L.; Mena, Amalia Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    There has been a significant trend among families from Mexico and Central America to immigrate to the United States due to difficult living conditions, financial hardship, and the lack of opportunity. This article addresses the role of serial migration, where one family member immigrates first and then brings the rest of the family at a later…

  19. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  20. Hardships of end-of-life care with court-appointed guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Kylie B

    2014-02-01

    In the United States, the court-appointed guardians do not have the ability to make decisions regarding end-of-life (EOL) care for their clients. Additionally, the process of initiating EOL care measures can be slow and cumbersome, despite an existing process of getting approval for such care. This process has the potential to prolong suffering and delay imperative decisions. This article reviews the hardships that patients, court-appointed guardians, and health care staff endure while moving through the oppressive process of obtaining EOL care orders through the court. This article also proposes ways of tuning up the laws, regulations, and communications to make it easier and faster to obtain orders regarding EOL care to preserve the dignity of our patients and loved ones. "A guardianship is a legal relationship created when a person or institution named in a will or assigned by the court to take care of minor children or incompetent adults."

  1. Financial hardship associated with colorectal cancer survivorship: the role of asset depletion and debt accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Maguire, Rebecca; Ceilleachair, Alan O; Sharp, Linda

    2018-05-31

    To estimate the prevalence of financial objective stress and subjective strain among colorectal cancer survivors and assess associated financial coping factors in Ireland which has a mixed public-private healthcare system. Colorectal cancer survivors were identified from the National Cancer Registry and a sample of 496 respondents were included in the analysis. A postal survey collected information on survivor demographics, socio-economic background, medical characteristics, cancer-related financial hardship, debt accumulation and asset depletion. Cancer-related financial objective stress and subjective strain were employed as dependent variables in logistic regression analysis. Approximately two in five survivors experienced objective stress (40.9%) or subjective strain (39.4%). Depletion of savings (49.1%) was the most prevalent form of financial coping strategy. Factors significantly associated with increased objective stress were having a stoma (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), using savings (OR=9.4, 95% CI 4.9-18.0), formally borrowing money (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.0-9.6) and loans from family members/friends (OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.9-7.8). Not working (excluding retirees) (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.96) was associated with decreased objective stress. Significant predictors of subjective strain included having dependents, a stoma, using savings (OR=5.3 95% CI 2.9-9.5) and loans from family members/friends (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), but excluded borrowing money. Cancer-related financial objective stress and subjective strain are common in colorectal cancer survivors, even where all citizens are entitled to publicly-funded care, but the financial coping strategies significantly associated with these two measures differed. These findings will help inform targeted measures across disparate health care systems, and survivor groups, to alleviate financial hardship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Financial hardship, mastery and social support: Explaining poor mental health amongst the inadequately employed using data from the HILDA survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Crowe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analysed data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey to examine the relationship between employment status and mental health, and the mediating effects of financial hardship, mastery and social support. In addition, the study sought to explore the effects of duration of unemployment on mental health. Methods: The primary analysis used three waves of data from the HILDA Survey with 4965 young adult respondents. Longitudinal population-averaged logistic regression models assessed the association of employment status and mental health, including the contribution of mastery, financial hardship and social support in explaining this association between employment groups (unemployed vs. employed; under employed vs. employed. Sensitivity analyses utilised a fixed-effects approach and also considered the full-range of working-age respondents. Regression analysis was used to explore the effect of duration of unemployment on mental health. Results: Respondents’ who identified as unemployed or underemployed were at higher risk of poor mental health outcomes when compared to their employed counterparts. This association was ameliorated when accounting for mastery, financial hardship and social support for the unemployed, and was fully mediated for the underemployed. The fixed-effects models showed the transition to unemployment was associated with a decline in mental health and that mastery in particular contributed to that change. The same results were found with a broader age range of respondents. Finally, the relationship between duration of unemployment and mental health was not linear, with mental health showing marked decline across the first 9 weeks of unemployment. Conclusions and implications: Mastery, social support and financial hardship are important factors in understanding the association of poor mental health with both unemployment and underemployment. Furthermore, the results suggest

  3. A novel personal cooling system (PCS) incorporated with phase change materials (PCMs) and ventilation fans: An investigation on its cooling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Wei, Fanru; Lai, Dandan; Shi, Wen; Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Song, Guowen

    2015-08-01

    Personal cooling systems (PCS) have been developed to mitigate the impact of severe heat stress for humans working in hot environments. It is still a great challenge to develop PCSs that are portable, inexpensive, and effective. We studied the performance of a new hybrid PCS incorporating both ventilation fans and phase change materials (PCMs). The cooling efficiency of the newly developed PCS was investigated on a sweating manikin in two hot conditions: hot humid (HH, 34°C, 75% RH) and hot dry (HD, 34°C, 28% RH). Four test scenarios were selected: fans off with no PCMs (i.e., Fan-off, the CONTROL), fans on with no PCMs (i.e., Fan-on), fans off with fully solidified PCMs (i.e., PCM+Fan-off), and fans on with fully solidified PCMs (i.e., PCM+Fan-on). It was found that the addition of PCMs provided a 54∼78min cooling in HH condition. In contrast, the PCMs only offered a 19-39min cooling in HD condition. In both conditions, the ventilation fans greatly enhanced the evaporative heat loss compared with Fan-off. The hybrid PCS (i.e., PCM+Fan-on) provided a continuous cooling effect during the three-hour test and the average cooling rate for the whole body was around 111 and 315W in HH and HD conditions, respectively. Overall, the new hybrid PCS may be an effective means of ameliorating symptoms of heat stress in both hot-humid and hot-dry environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oenorm S 5220-1: monitoring of persons with regard to incorporated radioactive materials. Part 1: General necessity and frequency, a regulation in Austria to protect workers from occupational internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Brandl, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intake of non-sealed radioactive material (incorporation) results in people's internal exposure to radioactivity. The basic requirements for incorporation monitoring provided by Part 1 of OENORM S 5220 are intended to contain internal exposures within the limits set forth in EC-Regulation 96/29/Euratom. In particular, it enables the user to determine the internal exposure contribution to the effective dose and to prove at any time that dose limits for equivalent and effective dose have not been exceeded and conditions at the work place have not changed unexpectedly. The OENORM discussed in this paper can be used by the competent authorities as a basis for their determination of the permissibility of the work with non-sealed radioactive material in a certain work place. Based on the OENORM, they can ensure standardized physical radiation protection after incorporation of radionuclides and the calculation of the resulting equivalent and effective doses according to consistent criteria. In the case where the work with non-sealed radioactive material has previously been permitted, the competent authorities can re-evaluate the necessity, the frequency, and the optimal method for incorporation monitoring. Two different kinds of laboratories are envisioned in this standards series to perform the necessary measurements

  5. Financial hardship, mastery and social support: Explaining poor mental health amongst the inadequately employed using data from the HILDA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Laura; Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana

    2016-12-01

    This study analysed data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to examine the relationship between employment status and mental health, and the mediating effects of financial hardship, mastery and social support. In addition, the study sought to explore the effects of duration of unemployment on mental health. The primary analysis used three waves of data from the HILDA Survey with 4965 young adult respondents. Longitudinal population-averaged logistic regression models assessed the association of employment status and mental health, including the contribution of mastery, financial hardship and social support in explaining this association between employment groups (unemployed vs. employed; under employed vs. employed). Sensitivity analyses utilised a fixed-effects approach and also considered the full-range of working-age respondents. Regression analysis was used to explore the effect of duration of unemployment on mental health. Respondents' who identified as unemployed or underemployed were at higher risk of poor mental health outcomes when compared to their employed counterparts. This association was ameliorated when accounting for mastery, financial hardship and social support for the unemployed, and was fully mediated for the underemployed. The fixed-effects models showed the transition to unemployment was associated with a decline in mental health and that mastery in particular contributed to that change. The same results were found with a broader age range of respondents. Finally, the relationship between duration of unemployment and mental health was not linear, with mental health showing marked decline across the first 9 weeks of unemployment. Mastery, social support and financial hardship are important factors in understanding the association of poor mental health with both unemployment and underemployment. Furthermore, the results suggest that the most deleterious effects on mental health may occur in the first two

  6. When hard times take a toll: the distressing consequences of economic hardship and life events within the family-work interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marisa; Schieman, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Using two waves of data from a national survey of working Americans (N = 1,122), we examine the associations among economic hardship, negative life events, and psychological distress in the context of the family-work interface. Our findings demonstrate that family-to-work conflict mediates the effects of economic hardship and negative events to significant others on distress (net of baseline distress and hardship). Moreover, economic hardship and negative events to significant others moderate the association between family-to-work conflict and distress. While negative events to others exacerbate the positive effect of family-to-work conflict on distress, we find the opposite for economic hardship: The positive association between hardship and distress is weaker at higher levels of family-to-work conflict. These patterns hold across an array of family, work, and sociodemographic conditions. We discuss how these findings refine and extend ideas of the stress process model, including complex predictions related to processes of stress-buffering, resource substitution, and role multiplication.

  7. Improving the Performance of Layered Oxide Cathode Materials with Football-Like Hierarchical Structure for Na-Ion Batteries by Incorporating Mg2+ into Vacancies in Na-Ion Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Yao; Wang, Huibo; Chen, Dongfeng; Sun, Kai; Yang, Wenyun; Yang, Jinbo; Liu, Xiangfeng; Han, Songbai

    2018-04-09

    The development of advanced cathode materials is still a great interest for sodium-ion batteries. The feasible commercialization of sodium-ion batteries relies on the design and exploitation of suitable electrode materials. This study offers a new insight into material design to exploit high-performance P2-type cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The incorporation of Mg 2+ into intrinsic Na + vacancies in Na-ion layers can lead to a high-performance P2-type cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. The materials prepared by the coprecipitation approach show a well-defined morphology of secondary football-like hierarchical structures. Neutron power diffraction and refinement results demonstrate that the incorporation of Mg 2+ into intrinsic vacancies can enlarge the space for Na-ion diffusion, which can increase the d-spacing of the (0 0 2) peak and the size of slabs but reduce the chemical bond length to result in an enhanced rate capability and cycling stability. The incorporation of Mg 2+ into available vacancies and a unique morphology make Na 0.7 Mg 0.05 Mn 0.8 Ni 0.1 Co 0.1 O 2 a promising cathode, which can be charged and discharged at an ultra-high current density of 2000 mA g -1 with an excellent specific capacity of 60 mAh g -1 . This work provides a new insight into the design of electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Economic Hardship and Educational Differentials in Disability in 26 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambois, Emmanuelle; Solé-Auró, Aïda; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this article is to study to what extent European variations in differentials in disability by education level are associated to variation in poverty. Using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for 26 countries, we measure the prevalence of activity limitation (AL) and the rate of economic hardship (EH) by level of education. We measure the increased AL prevalence (disadvantage) of the low-educated relative to the middle-educated and the reduced AL prevalence (advantage) of the high-educated groups, controlling or not for EH. The rate of EH and the extent of the AL-advantage/disadvantage vary substantially across Europe. EH contributes to the AL-advantage/disadvantage but to different extent depending on its level across educational groups. Associations between poverty, education, and disability are complex. In general, large EH goes along with increased disability differentials. Actions to reduce poverty are needed in Europe to reduce the levels and differentials in disability. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Midlife Family Economic Hardship and Later Life Cardiometabolic Health: The Protective Role of Marital Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Neppl, Tricia K

    2018-05-25

    The current study assesses the unique influences of family economic hardship (FEH) in early and late midlife on husbands' and wives' body mass index (BMI) and the influence of BMI on the onset of cardiometabolic (CM) disease in later adulthood. The protective role of marital integration is also considered in relation to the stress-response link between FEH and BMI. Analyses were performed using structural equation modeling with prospective data from 257 husbands and wives in enduring marriages over a period of 25 years beginning when they were approximately 40 years old. A multigroup analysis tested the moderating role of marital integration. The distal influence of FEH in early midlife on BMI in later adulthood remained statistically significant even after controlling for proximal FEH. Proximal FEH in later midlife was influential for wives', but not husbands', BMI. BMI in later midlife was related to the onset of CM disease in their later life. Moderation analysis showed that FEH and subsequent BMI were associated for couples with below average levels of behavioral integration but not for couples with above average levels of integration. Taken together, these findings suggest a family-health process stemming from early FEH and operating cumulatively over the life course. FEH in early midlife is a persistent determinant of physiological dysregulation as reflected by BMI. Findings identify BMI as a modifiable leverage point for the long-term reduction of CM disease risk and highlight the role of spouses as a buffer against the detrimental stress-health association.

  10. Punching loan sharks on the nose: effective interventions to reduce financial hardship in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Bowers, Sharron

    2012-08-01

    Growth in the high-cost, unregulated fringe lender market (with these lenders commonly referred to as loan sharks) has occurred both internationally and in New Zealand in recent years. The credit practices of loan sharks create financial hardship for many people including Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. This paper reports on research that explored strategies for reducing the impact of the fringe lender market on Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. A narrative literature review and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to provide information on how best to intervene to reduce the impact of the fringe lender market for these people. The main interventions identified were: two regulatory approaches, one for capping interest rates and another to create codes of responsible lending; access to safe affordable micro-finance options; financial literacy education; and Pacific cultural change around fa'alavelave, which are the 'obligations' of giving. Protecting consumers from the unsafe practices of fringe lenders requires a combined approach of discouraging the undesirable practices of fringe lenders through regulation and encouraging the growth of safe, affordable micro-finance options. Financial literacy education is a valuable activity for directing consumer attention to the safest options, but in isolation will have limited effect if options are limited. Health promoters have a valuable role to play in implementing these interventions.

  11. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of the incorporated organic materials available and the profit in the soil moisture, in the ICTA, la Alameda, Chimaltenango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corado Recinos, M.J. de

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out during the period from June 1995 to November 1996 supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) jointly with the Direction General de Energia Nuclear (DGEN) through the Agricultural Section. The objectives consisted on evaluating the effect of the incorporation of the organic residues of Bean (Phascolus vulgaris L.), MUCUNA (STIZOLOBIUM PRURITUM L.), vicia (Vicia sativa L.) and the stubble of maiz (Zea mays L.) all these compared with a witness in the yield of corn grain of the variety Don Marshall, expressed in kg/ha; to determine the calibration curve of the moisture gauge CPN 503 for the soils of Tecp ; to determine the indexes of consumption of moisture (kc) of corn and lastly to determine the soil moisture contents during the corn cultivation cycle (rainy season) and the beginning of the dry period. The response variables were: Content surface moisture (%), yield grain of corn (kg/ha), real evapotranspiration (Etr). The different valued treatments were: Witness (TO), stubble corn (B), bean (C), Mucuna (D) and Vicia (E); set up in an experimental design of random blocks with 4 repetitions. The moisture contents were determined by means of the use of the moisture gauge, taking in consideration the obtained calibration curve for each stratum, with the purpose to transform the gravimetric humidity in volumetric humidity, being obtained the higher values for the stratum 0-20 cm where the corn stubble was incorporated (B) with 20.11% and for the stratum 20-40 cm the best treatment it was where the organic residual of Vicia was incorporated measuring values of moisture of 25.97%. With regard to the yield corn of the variety Don Marshall (kg/ha), the best treatment was where the residual of Vicia was incorporated with a yield 4,595.13 kg/ha. The pluvial precipitation (PP) and evapotranspiration (ETP) during the cultivation cycle was 1,014.1 mm and 708.14 mm respectively. The values of moisture consumption indexes gives (kc) for

  13. Economic hardship of minority and non-minority cancer survivors 1 year after diagnosis: another long-term effect of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria; Kenzik, Kelly M; Oster, Robert A; Drentea, Patricia; Ashing, Kimlin T; Fouad, Mona; Martin, Michelle Y

    2015-04-15

    Current literature suggests that racial/ethnic minority survivors may be more likely than whites to experience economic hardship after a cancer diagnosis; however, little is known about such hardship. Patients with lung cancer (LC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) participating in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium were surveyed approximately 4 months (baseline) and 12 months (follow-up) after diagnosis. Economic hardship at follow-up was present if participants 1) indicated difficulty living on household income; and/or 2) for the following 2 months, anticipated experiencing hardships (inadequate housing, food, or medical attention) or reducing living standards to the bare necessities of life. The authors tested whether African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics were more likely than whites to experience economic hardship controlling for sex, age, education, marital status, cancer stage, treatment, and economic status at baseline (income, prescription drug coverage). Of 3432 survivors (39.7% with LC, 60.3% with CRC), 14% were AA, 7% were Hispanic, and 79% were white. AAs and Hispanics had lower education and income than whites. Approximately 68% of AAs, 58% of Hispanics, and 44.5% of whites reported economic hardship. In LC survivors, the Hispanic-white disparity was not significant in unadjusted or adjusted analyses, and the AA-white disparity was explained by baseline economic status. In CRC survivors, the Hispanic-white disparity was explained by baseline economic status, and the AA-white disparity was not explained by the variables that were included in the model. Economic hardship was evident in almost 1 in 2 cancer survivors 1 year after diagnosis, especially AAs. Research should evaluate and address risk factors and their impact on survival and survivorship outcomes. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L; Walsh, Matthew C; Nieto, F Javier

    2015-03-13

    Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers' dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Linking data from the population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, n = 1,570, 2008-10) and a commercially available business database, the Wisconsin Retail Food Environment Index (WRFEI) was defined as the mean distance from each participating household to the three closest supermarkets divided by the mean distance to the three closest convenience stores or fast food restaurants. Based on US census data, neighborhood-level economic hardship was defined by the Economic Hardship Index (EHI). Relationships were analyzed using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. SHOW residents living in neighborhoods with the highest economic hardship faced a less favorable retail food environment (WRFEI = 2.53) than residents from neighborhoods with the lowest economic hardship (WRFEI = 1.77; p-trend associations between the WRFEI and obesity and only a weak borderline-significant association between access to fast food restaurants and self-reported fast food consumption (≥ 2 times/week, OR = 0.59-0.62, p = 0.05-0.09) in urban residents. Participants reporting higher frequency of fast food consumption (≥ 2 times vs. obese (OR = 1.35, p = 0.06). This study indicates that neighborhood-level economic hardship is associated with an unfavorable retail food environment. However inconsistent or non-significant relationships between the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity were observed. More research is needed to enhance methodological approaches to assess the retail food environment and

  15. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, Taufiq; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Hemat, Shafiqullah; Watanabe, Masafumi; Seino, Kaoruko

    2008-08-29

    The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1) family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2) war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5%) and acute respiratory infection (41.0%) were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4%) and linear growth retardation (39.9%) were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1%) was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40), and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90); a lack of education of the mother (71.7%) and child marriage of the mothers (18.3%) were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.40, 2.41; odds

  16. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1 family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2 war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. Methods The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. Results A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5% and acute respiratory infection (41.0% were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4% and linear growth retardation (39.9% were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1% was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40, and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90; a lack of education of the mother (71.7% and child marriage of the mothers (18.3% were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1

  17. Beneficial effects of amino acid-functionalized graphene nanosheets incorporated in the photoanode material of dye-sensitized solar cells: A practical and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Mahmood; Rezaei, Behzad; Fani, Najmeh; Borandeh, Sedigheh; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Ensafi, Ali A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of GO was improved with incorporated amino acids. • Functionalized amino acids could act as a reducing agent for GO. • Aromatic amino acids-GO had improved photovoltaic properties over aliphatic ones. • Aromatic ring of tyrosine was aligned in parallel to the GO sheet. • A bang gap for GO was emerged with functionalizing with amino acids. - Abstract: In this research, covalently functionalized graphene oxide (GO) with some biocompatible amino acids were incorporated to the TiO_2 film and employed as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrochemical analysis of the amino acids-functionalized graphene oxide (AFGs) confirmed that the attached amino acids could be acted as a reducing agent of the GO. The photovoltaic performance of the assembled DSSCs under illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mW cm"−"2) showed an enhancement of about 4.1 and 1.8 fold for the solar cell assembled with the tyrosine-functionalized GO in relation to the control solar cells constructed with GO-TiO_2 composite and blank TiO_2 film, respectively. These results were in accordance with electron life time and transport time resulted from the open circuit voltage decay (OCVD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) analysis. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations exhibited a proper spacial arrangement for the tyrosine-GO structure that could improve electron transfer between the adjucent GO sheets. Density of electronic states (DOS) exhibited a gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels for the simulated AFG structures. This effect could facilitate the light adsorption process in near-IR region.

  18. Incorporating Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and sodium bentonite nano-clay open a new perspective to use zein films as bioactive packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).

  19. Beneficial effects of amino acid-functionalized graphene nanosheets incorporated in the photoanode material of dye-sensitized solar cells: A practical and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Mahmood [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Behzad, E-mail: rezaei@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fani, Najmeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borandeh, Sedigheh [Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 71345, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir; Ensafi, Ali A. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of GO was improved with incorporated amino acids. • Functionalized amino acids could act as a reducing agent for GO. • Aromatic amino acids-GO had improved photovoltaic properties over aliphatic ones. • Aromatic ring of tyrosine was aligned in parallel to the GO sheet. • A bang gap for GO was emerged with functionalizing with amino acids. - Abstract: In this research, covalently functionalized graphene oxide (GO) with some biocompatible amino acids were incorporated to the TiO{sub 2} film and employed as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrochemical analysis of the amino acids-functionalized graphene oxide (AFGs) confirmed that the attached amino acids could be acted as a reducing agent of the GO. The photovoltaic performance of the assembled DSSCs under illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mW cm{sup −2}) showed an enhancement of about 4.1 and 1.8 fold for the solar cell assembled with the tyrosine-functionalized GO in relation to the control solar cells constructed with GO-TiO{sub 2} composite and blank TiO{sub 2} film, respectively. These results were in accordance with electron life time and transport time resulted from the open circuit voltage decay (OCVD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) analysis. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations exhibited a proper spacial arrangement for the tyrosine-GO structure that could improve electron transfer between the adjucent GO sheets. Density of electronic states (DOS) exhibited a gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels for the simulated AFG structures. This effect could facilitate the light adsorption process in near-IR region.

  20. Economic, Legal, and Social Hardships Associated with HIV Risk among Black Men who have Sex with Men in Six US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Moineddin, Rahim; Zhang, Nanhua; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Sa, Ting; Harawa, Nina; Regan, Rotrease; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Watson, Christopher C; Koblin, Beryl; Del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-02-01

    We assessed whether economic, legal, and social hardships were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among a sample of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether associations were moderated by city of residence. The study analyzed baseline and follow-up data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1553). Binary logistic regression assessed associations between hardships and HIV risk indicators. Multivariate regressions were used to test if city of residence had a moderating effect for hardships and HIV risks. Adjusted analyses showed that Black MSM with recent job loss were more likely to engage in condomless insertive anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and that those with recent financial crisis were more likely to have had two or more male sexual partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Black MSM with recent convictions were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 6 months (AOR = 3.97; 95% CI 1.58-9.94), while those who were unstably housed were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 12 months (AOR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.02 = 2.86). There were no city of residence and hardship interaction effects on HIV risks. Hardships are important factors that influence HIV risk for Black MSM. Integrating strategies that address structural factors that influence HIV risk may enhance HIV prevention interventions implementation efforts.

  1. Impacts of vegetation and temperature on the treatment of domestic sewage in constructed wetlands incorporated with Ferric-Carbon micro-electrolysis material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwei; Zhu, Hui; Bañuelos, Gary; Yan, Baixing; Liang, Yinxiu; Yu, Jing; Li, Huai

    2017-10-03

    Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis (Fe/C-M/E) material had been widely used for the pretreatment of wastewater. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fe/C-M/E material could enhance the treatment of domestic sewage when it was integrated into constructed wetlands (CWs). In this study, CWs integrated with Fe/C-M/E material were developed. Druing the experiment of effect of vegetation on the performance of CWs, percentages of NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N, total nitrogen (TN), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removed in polyculture (W1) were up to 91.8%, 97.0%, 92.3%, and 85.4%, respectively, which were much higher than those in Lythrum salicaria monoculture (W2) and Canna indica monoculture (W3). In the experiment of temperature influences on the removal efficiency of CWs, temperature substantially influenced the performance of CWs. For example, NO 3 - -N removal percentages of W1, W2, and W3 at high temperature (25.5°C and 19.8°C) were relatively stable and greater than 85.4%. At 8.9°C, however, a sharp decline of NO 3 - -N removal percentage was observed in all CWs. Temperature also influenced the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and soil microbial activity and biomass. Overall, the polyculture (Lythrum salicaria +Canna indica) showed the best performance during most of the operating time, at an average temperature ≥ 19.8°C, due to the functional complementarity between vegetation. All the CWs consistently achieved high removal efficiency (above 96%) for TP in all experiments, irrespective of vegetation types, phosphorous loadings, and temperatures. In conclusion, polyculture was an attractive solution for the treatment of domestic sewage during most of the operating time (average temperature ≥ 19.8°C). Furthermore, CWs with Fe/C-M/E material were ideally suitable for domestic sewage treatment, especially for TP removal.

  2. Primary Radiation Damage in Materials. Review of Current Understanding and Proposed New Standard Displacement Damage Model to Incorporate in Cascade Defect Production Efficiency and Mixing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Zinkle, Steven J.; Stoller, Roger; Averback, Robert S.; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei; Simeone, David

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems (WPMM) was established in 2008 to assess the scientific and engineering aspects of fuels and structural materials, aiming at evaluating multi-scale models and simulations as validated predictive tools for the design of nuclear systems, fuel fabrication and performance. The WPMM's objective is to promote the exchange of information on models and simulations of nuclear materials, theoretical and computational methods, experimental validation, and related topics. It also provides member countries with up-to-date information, shared data, models and expertise. The WPMM Expert Group on Primary Radiation Damage (PRD) was established in 2009 to determine the limitations of the NRT-dpa standard, in the light of both atomistic simulations and known experimental discrepancies, to revisit the NRT-dpa standard and to examine the possibility of proposing a new improved standard of primary damage characteristics. This report reviews the current understanding of primary radiation damage from neutrons, ions and electrons (excluding photons, atomic clusters and more exotic particles), with emphasis on the range of validity of the 'displacement per atom' (dpa) concept in all major classes of materials with the exception of organics. The report also introduces an 'athermal recombination-corrected dpa' (arc-dpa) relation that uses a relatively simple functional to address the well-known issue that 'displacement per atom' (dpa) overestimates damage production in metals under energetic displacement cascade conditions, as well as a 'replacements-per-atom' (rpa) equation, also using a relatively simple functional, that accounts for the fact that dpa is understood to severely underestimate actual atom relocation (ion beam mixing) in metals. (authors)

  3. Chemical and structural changes in polyamide based organic–inorganic hybrid materials upon incorporation of SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−} precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, V.; Dukstienė, N.; Žalenkienė, S. [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu st. " 1" 9" , LT-50254, Kaunas (Lithuania); Baltrusaitis, J., E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigated deposited and diffused K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} into polyamide 6 (PA 6). • AAS showed Se:S molar ratio = 1:2 within the PA. • Various decomposition products were detected within the polymer. • Measured bandgap shifted towards lower light absorption energies. - Abstract: Composite organic-inorganic functional materials are of significant importance in various applications of science and technology. In this work, physicochemical characterization of such composite materials obtained after the exposure of polyamide PA 6 to K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} precursor solution was performed. Chalcogenized polymer surface was characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, and UV–vis spectroscopies while their bulk chemical analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Crystallite size was not found to change with the exposure to K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} precursor but PA 6 chain–chain separation decreased. Importantly, infrared and X-ray analyses showed chemical bonding taking place between the PA 6 and SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−} ions via −NH− functional group. A distinct change in bandgap, E{sub g}, value was observed in UV–vis spectra due to the presence of SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−}, SeSO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and Se{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−} ions formed via decomposition of the precursor material in acidic medium. After extended 4 h chalcogenation a distinct absorption due to the elemental selenium was also observed as obtained from Tauc plots.

  4. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Incorporação de lama de mármore e granito em massas argilosas Incorporation of marble and granite sludge in clay materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resíduos industriais como aditivos na fabricação de produtos cerâmicos vem despertando um crescente interesse dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos e está se tornando prática comum. Este trabalho descreve a variação do comportamento de uma argila utilizada numa indústria de cerâmica vermelha, resultante de adições de uma lama de mármore e granito, tal como é produzida em uma indústria de beneficiamento de pedras ornamentais do estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Misturas de argila e rejeito (10 - 50% em peso foram compactadas uniaxialmente e sinterizadas a temperaturas entre 950 e 1150 °C. Os resultados obtidos por análise química e mineralógica (DRX e FRX, análises térmicas (DTA, TG e dilatometria, medidas de distribuição granulométrica, porosidade, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão, revelam que a lama de mármore e granito pode ser incorporada na massa de argila sem perda ou comprometimento das propriedades dos corpos sinterizados de cerâmica vermelha.The use of industrial waste materials as additives in the manufacture of ceramic products has been attracting a growing interest from researchers in recent years and is becoming common practice. This work describes the changes in the behavior of the clay material used in a red-ceramic industry due to additions of a granite and marble sludge, produced in an ornamental stone processing industry in Rio Grande do Norte. Mixtures of clay and waste material (10 - 50 wt.% were uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1150 °C. Results from chemical and mineralogical analysis (XRD and XRF, thermal analysis (DTA, TG and dilatometry, particle size distribution, porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, show that the granite and marble sludge can be added to the clay material with no detrimental effect on the properties of the sintered red-clay products.

  6. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  7. A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green's Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, James; Hyde, Christopher

    2016-01-06

    The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt "two-shifting" operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal pressures to generate in a highly flexible and efficient manner. The Green's function method offers a flexible approach to determine reference elastic solutions for transient thermal stress problems. In order to simplify integration, it is often assumed that Green's functions (derived from finite element unit temperature step solutions) are temperature independent (this is not the case due to the temperature dependency of material parameters). The present work offers a simple method to approximate a material's temperature dependency using multiple reference unit solutions and an interpolation procedure. Thermal stress histories are predicted and compared for realistic temperature cycles using distinct techniques. The proposed interpolation method generally performs as well as (if not better) than the optimum single Green's function or the previously-suggested weighting function technique (particularly for large temperature increments). Coefficients of determination are typically above 0 . 96 , and peak stress differences between true and predicted datasets are always less than 10 MPa.

  8. Role of melt behavior in modifying oxidation distribution using an interface incorporated model in selective laser melting of aluminum-based material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Dongdong, E-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn; Dai, Donghua [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016 (China); Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing), Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2016-08-28

    A transient three dimensional model for describing the molten pool dynamics and the response of oxidation film evolution in the selective laser melting of aluminum-based material is proposed. The physical difference in both sides of the scan track, powder-solid transformation and temperature dependent physical properties are taken into account. It shows that the heat energy tends to accumulate in the powder material rather than in the as-fabricated part, leading to the formation of the asymmetrical patterns of the temperature contour and the attendant larger dimensions of the molten pool in the powder phase. As a higher volumetric energy density is applied (≥1300 J/mm{sup 3}), a severe evaporation is produced with the upward direction of velocity vector in the irradiated powder region while a restricted operating temperature is obtained in the as-fabricated part. The velocity vector continuously changes from upward direction to the downward one as the scan speed increases from 100 mm/s to 300 mm/s, promoting the generation of the debris of the oxidation films and the resultant homogeneous distribution state in the matrix. For the applied hatch spacing of 50 μm, a restricted remelting phenomenon of the as-fabricated part is produced with the upward direction of the convection flow, significantly reducing the turbulence of the thermal-capillary convection on the breaking of the oxidation films, and therefore, the connected oxidation films through the neighboring layers are typically formed. The morphology and distribution of the oxidation are experimentally acquired, which are in a good agreement with the results predicted by simulation.

  9. Control of Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material Inadvertently Incorporated into Scrap Metal and Semi-finished Products of the Metal Recycling Industries. Results of the Meetings Conducted to Develop a Draft Code of Conduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    In 2010, the IAEA initiated the development of a code of conduct on the transboundary movement of radioactive material inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal and semi- finished products of the metal recycling industries (Metal Recycling Code of Conduct). The Metal Recycling Code of Conduct was intended to harmonize the approaches of Member States in relation to the discovery of radioactive material that may inadvertently be present in scrap metals and semi-finished products subject to transboundary movement, and their safe handling and management to facilitate regulatory control. The Metal Recycling Code of Conduct was envisaged as being complementary to the Safety Guide on Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-17), which provides recommendations, principally within a national context, on the protection of workers, members of the public and the environment in relation to the control of radioactive material inadvertently incorporated in scrap metal. In February 2013, the third open-ended meeting of technical and legal experts to develop the Metal Recycling Code of Conduct was organized. The objective of this meeting was to address the comments received from Member States and to finalize the text of the draft Metal Recycling Code of Conduct. Representatives from 55 Member States, one non-Member State and the EU, together with seven observers from the metal recycling industry, reviewed the comments and revised the draft accordingly. In September 2013, in Resolution GC(57)/RES/9, the IAEA General Conference recorded that it 'Appreciates the intensive efforts undertaken by the Secretariat to develop a code of conduct on the transboundary movement of scrap metal, or materials produced from scrap metal, that may inadvertently contain radioactive material, and encourages the Secretariat to make the results of the discussion conducted on this issue available to

  10. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  11. Hardships and health impacts on women due to traditional cooking fuels: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the inter-linkages of gender, energy use, health and hardships in the Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh in India. It brings out a gender-differentiated and age-differentiated picture of hardships and health impact on the use of traditional biofuels. The study is based on survey with questionnaires covering 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts where biomass fuels meet 70% of household fuel needs. On an average, women walk 30 km each month taking 2.7 h per trip for fuel wood collection over hilly terrain, often at high altitudes and undergo stress like stiff-neck, backache, headache and loss of work days. Girls below 5 and females in 30–60 age-groups have higher proportion of respiratory symptoms than males of similar age-groups. While many studies are done on the health impact of cooking fuels, very little quantitative work is done on the other aspects of the fuel chain viz. collection, transportation and processing of fuels. Such studies would guide energy policy and health policy to improve the lives of women. - Highlights: ► Inter-linkages of gender, energy and health due to wood in Himachal Pradesh. ► Survey of 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts. ► Women walk 30 km per month for fuel wood collection that supply 70% of energy needs. ► Women gather inferior fuels—dung, wood and waste, and men purchase LPG and kerosene. ► More than 50% suffer from neck ache, backache, headache or bruises from gathering fuels.

  12. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  13. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Vleugels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment, attitudes (employment commitment, and behaviour (job search intensity. Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypotheses. Data were sampled from unemployed people in the Brussels area in Belgium ('N' = 305, and the Potchefstroom area in South Africa ('N' = 381. The results indicated that, compared to the Belgian unemployed, the South African unemployed experienced their unemployment as more negative, were more committed towards employment and more intensively searched for work. Moreover, country of residence indirectly influenced unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. Some policy recommendations are suggested.

  14. Determinants of hardship financing in coping with out of pocket payment for care seeking of under five children in selected rural areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nazia Binte; Siddique, Md. Abu Bakkar; Ahmed, Sameen; Rahman, Mubashshira; Islam, Sajia; Rahman, Md. Mezanur; Amena, Bushra; Hoque, D. M. Emdadul; Huda, Tanvir M.; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-01-01

    Background Around 63% of total health care expenditure in Bangladesh is mitigated through out of pocket payment (OOP). Heavy reliance on OOP at the time of care seeking poses great threat for financial impoverishment of the households. Households employ different strategies to cope with the associated financial hardship. Objective The aim of this paper is to understand the determinants of hardship financing in coping with OOP adopted for health care seeking of under five childhood illnesses in rural setting of Bangladesh. Methods A community based cross sectional survey was conducted during August to October, 2014 in 15 low performing sub-districts of northern and north-east regions of Bangladesh. Of the 7039 mothers of under five children surveyed, 1895 children who suffered from illness and sought care for their illness episodes were reported in this study. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were conducted. Results A total number of 7,039 under five children reported to have suffered illness by their mothers. Among these children 37% suffered from priority illness. Care was sought for 88% children suffering from illnesses. Among them 26% went to a public or private sector medically trained provider. 5% of households incurred illness cost more than 10% of the household’s monthly expenditure. The need for assistance was higher among those compared to others (31% vs 13%). Different financing mechanisms adopted to meet OOP are loan with interest (6%), loan without interest (9%) and financial help from relatives (6%) Need for financial assistance varied from 19% among households in the lowest quintile to 9% in the highest wealth. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that burden of hardship financing increases by 2.17 times when care is sought from a private trained provider compared to care seeking from untrained provider (CI: 1.49, 3.17). Similarly, for families that incur a health care expenditure that is more than 10% of their total monthly

  15. Determinants of hardship financing in coping with out of pocket payment for care seeking of under five children in selected rural areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahsina, Tazeen; Ali, Nazia Binte; Siddique, Md Abu Bakkar; Ahmed, Sameen; Rahman, Mubashshira; Islam, Sajia; Rahman, Md Mezanur; Amena, Bushra; Hoque, D M Emdadul; Huda, Tanvir M; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-01-01

    Around 63% of total health care expenditure in Bangladesh is mitigated through out of pocket payment (OOP). Heavy reliance on OOP at the time of care seeking poses great threat for financial impoverishment of the households. Households employ different strategies to cope with the associated financial hardship. The aim of this paper is to understand the determinants of hardship financing in coping with OOP adopted for health care seeking of under five childhood illnesses in rural setting of Bangladesh. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted during August to October, 2014 in 15 low performing sub-districts of northern and north-east regions of Bangladesh. Of the 7039 mothers of under five children surveyed, 1895 children who suffered from illness and sought care for their illness episodes were reported in this study. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were conducted. A total number of 7,039 under five children reported to have suffered illness by their mothers. Among these children 37% suffered from priority illness. Care was sought for 88% children suffering from illnesses. Among them 26% went to a public or private sector medically trained provider. 5% of households incurred illness cost more than 10% of the household's monthly expenditure. The need for assistance was higher among those compared to others (31% vs 13%). Different financing mechanisms adopted to meet OOP are loan with interest (6%), loan without interest (9%) and financial help from relatives (6%) Need for financial assistance varied from 19% among households in the lowest quintile to 9% in the highest wealth. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that burden of hardship financing increases by 2.17 times when care is sought from a private trained provider compared to care seeking from untrained provider (CI: 1.49, 3.17). Similarly, for families that incur a health care expenditure that is more than 10% of their total monthly expenditure (CI:1.46, 3.88), the

  16. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation...

  17. Differentiating leucine incorporation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, T.; Sintes, E.; de Corte, D.; Olbrich, K.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance (based on catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybrid ization, CARD-FISH) and leucine incorporation rates of Archaea and Bacteria were determined throughout the water column in the eastern Atlantic. Bacteria dominated throughout the water column, although their

  18. Influence of living environment and subjective economic hardship on new-onset of low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Sugawara, Yumi; Sato, Mari; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Itaya, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami devastated the northeastern part of Japan. Low back pain is thought to increase after a natural disaster and is related to various factors. The aim of this study was to examine the influencing factors of "Living environment" and "Subjective economic hardship" on new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for the survivors of the earthquake evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. A panel study was conducted with the Great East Japan Earthquake survivors at 2 and 3 years after the disaster. New-onset of low back pain was defined as low back pain absent at the 1st period (2 years after the earthquake) and present at the 2nd period (3 years after the earthquake). Living environment was divided into 4 categories (1. Living in the same house as before the earthquake, 2. Living in a prefabricated house, 3. Living in a new house, 4. Others: Living in an apartment, house of relatives or acquaintance). Subjective economic hardship was obtained using the following self-report question: "How do you feel about the current economic situation of your household?" The response alternatives were "Normal", "A little bit hard", "Hard", and "Very hard". A univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. 1357 survivors consented to join this study. There was no significant association between new-onset of low back pain and living environment. There was significant association between new-onset of low back pain and "A little hard" (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.07-2.40), "Hard" (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.56-3.74), and "Very hard" (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.84-5.53) in subjective economic hardship. Subjective economic hardship was significantly associated with new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Hardship of Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that being flexible (soft) or predictable (hard) is the most fundamental dimension in the design of programming languages including aspect-oriented ones, giving rise to myriads of derived trade-offs, and emerging in many different forms and variants. Based on a presentation of s...

  20. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lefebvre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013 were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001. The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  1. Individual and contextual factors for the child abuse potential of Croatian mothers: The role of social support in times of economic hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Marina; Rajter, Miroslav; Rezo, Ines

    2018-04-01

    The study assessed mothers' risk for abusing their children in middle adolescence in relation to individual and contextual factors during the economic crisis in Croatia. Socioeconomic status of mothers, family economic pressure, and mothers' exposure to stress were measured. Special attention was given to the perceived availability of social support as one of protective factors potentially buffering the negative impact of risks of child abuse. The community sample included 746 mothers (Mage = 42.85; SDage = 5.319). The results showed that the risk of child abuse is higher for mothers with lower education, those who perceive themselves as suffering greater family economic hardship, those who have experienced a higher number of stressful events, and those with lower social support. When the mothers perceive a lower availability of social support, the effects of exposure to cumulative risk, namely the combination of socioeconomic status, economic pressure, and exposure to stress, are stronger. Since social support proved to be one of the key protective factors in the relationship between adverse life circumstances and parenting, the development of effective and non-stigmatized interventions aiming to increase social support, positive social relationships, and adequate parenting practices for parents facing economic hardship is an important direction for future family policy measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation questionnaire into Danish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Erik Jorgensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by “The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache.” A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65–0.78. The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6–11 years of age and within 15 min (age 12–17 years of age respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6–11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically

  3. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  4. 49 CFR 193.2013 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL... incorporated materials are available for inspection in the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... referenced material 49 CFR Reference A. American Gas Association (AGA): (1) “Purging Principles and Practices...

  5. REAC neuromodulation treatments in subjects with severe socioeconomic and cultural hardship in the Brazilian state of Pará: a family observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Pereira, José Alfredo; Rinaldi, Arianna; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary observational study was to evaluate the usefulness of a humanitarian initiative, aimed at improving the neuropsychological and behavioral attitude of children with severe socioeconomic and cultural hardship, in the Brazilian state of Pará. This humanitarian initiative was realized through the administration of two neuromodulation protocols, with radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) technology. During several years of clinical use, the REAC neuromodulation protocols have already proved to be effective in countering the effects of environmental stress on neuropsycho-physical functions. After the preliminary medical examination, all subjects were investigated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), including the impact supplement with teacher's report. After the SDQ, they received the neuromodulation treatment with REAC technology named neuro postural optimization (NPO), to evaluate their responsiveness. Subsequently, every 3 months all subjects underwent a treatment cycle of neuropsycho-physical optimization (NPPO) with REAC technology, for a total of three cycles. At the end of the last REAC-NPPO treatment cycle, all subjects were investigated once again with the SDQ. For the adequacy of the data, the Wilcoxon and the Signs tests were used. For the subdivision into clusters, the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for the adequacy of the procedure. For all the applied tests, a statistical significance of p <0.5 was found. The results showed that the REAC-NPO and REAC-NPPO neuromodulation protocols are able to improve the quality of life, the scholastic and socialization skills, and the overall state of physical and mental health in children of a family with severe socioeconomic and cultural hardship. The REAC-NPO and REAC-NPPO neuromodulation protocols, due to their non-invasive characteristics, painlessness, and speed of administration, can be hypothesized as a treatment to improve the overall state of physical and

  6. Becoming disabled: The association between disability onset in younger adults and subsequent changes in productive engagement, social support, financial hardship and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Kariuki, Maina; Honey, Anne; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-10-01

    Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being. To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults. Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. For financial hardship and subjective well-being, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was no evidence that the onset of disability was associated with a subsequent lowering of well-being. For participation in employment and education, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest immediate reduction in participation rates followed by subsequent stability. For social support, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest temporary reduction in support followed by rebound back to initial levels. Membership of classes associated with poorer outcomes was associated with a number of covariates including: male gender; younger age of disability onset; being born overseas; not living with both parents at age 14; lower proficiency in the English language; and parental education being year 12 or below. The results of our analyses illustrate the existence of clear empirically defined trajectory classes following the onset of disability across a range of indicators of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  8. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  9. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  10. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  11. A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green’s Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rouse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt “two-shifting” operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal pressures to generate in a highly flexible and efficient manner. The Green’s function method offers a flexible approach to determine reference elastic solutions for transient thermal stress problems. In order to simplify integration, it is often assumed that Green’s functions (derived from finite element unit temperature step solutions are temperature independent (this is not the case due to the temperature dependency of material parameters. The present work offers a simple method to approximate a material’s temperature dependency using multiple reference unit solutions and an interpolation procedure. Thermal stress histories are predicted and compared for realistic temperature cycles using distinct techniques. The proposed interpolation method generally performs as well as (if not better than the optimum single Green’s function or the previously-suggested weighting function technique (particularly for large temperature increments. Coefficients of determination are typically above 0 . 96 , and peak stress differences between true and predicted datasets are always less than 10 MPa.

  12. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...... the interviewer and interviewee beyond an exclusively linguistic understanding of memory. This article analyses how the shifting objects of materiality in personal and generational school memories connects to material as well as sensuous experiences of everyday school life and its complex processes of learning....... Drawing on anthropological writings, the article argues that the objects of materiality are part of important but non-verbalised memories of schooling. The Dutch philosopher Eelco Runia’s notions of presence and metonymy are incorporated as tools for approaching objects of materiality in memory studies....

  13. Variety more than quantity of fruit and vegetable intake varies by socioeconomic status and financial hardship. Findings from older adults in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Beyond quantity, variety of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake prevents chronic conditions and is widely recommended as critical to healthful eating. FV consumption is socially patterned, especially for women, but little is known about multiple economic determinants of variety or whether they differ from those of quantity. To examine socioeconomic status and financial hardships in relation to variety and quantity of FV intakes among older British women and men. Cross-sectional study of 9580 adults (50-79 years) in the nationally representative EPIC cohort who responded to a postal Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire (1996-2000) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (1998-2002). Variety counted unique items consumed (items/month) and quantity measured total intake (g/day). No consistent differences by any economic factor were observed for quantity of fruits or vegetables, except education in men. Lower education, lower social class and renting were independently associated with lower fruit variety and vegetable variety (p-trend consumption of diverse FV. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for work-related stress and subjective hardship in health-care staff in nursing homes for the elderly: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, Carole; Vohito, Michel; Fort, Emmanuel; Sellier, Brigitte; Agard, Jean Pierre; Fontana, Luc; Charbotel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore potential risk factors for work-related stress by, detailing working conditions and subjective hardship according to occupational category in health-care staff working with elderly patients. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 105 nursing homes for the elderly in France. Data on nursing home working conditions were collected by occupational physicians. The study population was limited to those in direct contact with the elderly, who were divided into 3 occupational groups defined by qualifications and tasks: housekeepers (HKs), nursing assistants (NAs) and nurses (Ns). Employees answered a questionnaire on their perceived working conditions and vocational training courses. Psychosocial stress was assessed with the Siegrist questionnaire. The subjects included 706 HKs, 1,565 NAs and 378 Ns, and the findings showed confusion of tasks and responsibilities in the study population. Verbal abuse by residents was reported by 60.9% of HKs (versus 76.2% of NAs and 76.7% of Ns, pstress related to insufficient ability, nursing home workers should be encouraged to attend job training courses, which should cover knowledge of the specific care needs of elderly patients and of the authority/responsibility required to do their job.

  15. 40 CFR 432.5 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 432.5 Incorporation by reference. (a... Federal Register. The material is available for purchase at the address in paragraph (b) of this section..., Washington, DC. (b) The following material is available for purchase from the National Technical Information...

  16. Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John F. Klepac

    2003-01-01

    A study was installed in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA that sought to examine the impact of incorporating downed slash materials into subsoil layers on soil chemical and physical properties as compared with the effect of slash materials left on the soil surface. Baseline levels of slash were estimated by establishing transects within harvested stands...

  17. Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    . The first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity......This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment...... as vocational skills) add to the difficulties for sustainability in penetrating already overcrowded curricula....

  18. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  19. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2016-01-01

    that researchers should start paying attention to the material world (consisting of both human bodies and material objects) and what it means for how people live their lives. It is argued that this can be done by incorporating the concept of material presence to capture embodied and material layers of existence......This article challenges the hegemonic status of “language” as the primary substance of qualitative research in psychology, whether through interviews or recordings of naturally occurring talk. It thereby questions the overt focus on analyzing linguistic “meaning.” Instead, it is suggested...... practical guidelines for incorporating attention to materiality in qualitative research....

  20. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  1. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Evans-Lacko

    Full Text Available A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems.Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34. This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems.These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  2. The Mental Health Consequences of the Recession: Economic Hardship and Employment of People with Mental Health Problems in 27 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Methods Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Results Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. Conclusion These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups. PMID:23922801

  3. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1 issued February 4, 2003. (2) Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), “Vehicle Traffic Control Signal Heads: Light Emitting Diode (LED) Circular Signal Supplement... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Traffic Signal Modules and Pedestrian Modules Test Procedures § 431.223...

  4. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hearings and Dockets, “Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards...

  5. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hearings and Dockets, “Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards for Commercial Water Heaters, Hot....105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  6. 10 CFR 435.3 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435....gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html (2) U.S. Department of Energy...

  7. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Generators, with Revisions 1, 2, 3 and 4, IBR approved for §§ 431.12; 431.31 and appendix B to subpart B of... (Fractional) and Medium (Integral) Machines, Part 11, Dimensions—AC and DC Small and Medium Machines... and Performance—AC and DC Motors, paragraphs 12.35.1, 12.35.5, 12.38.1, 12.39.1, and 12.40.1, 12.58.1...

  8. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024... Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, approved February 9, 2004, IBR approved for § 431...

  9. Potential sustainable energy source: Pheroid™ with incorporated light harvesting materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available the main pigments, Chl a and b attributed main peaks around 435 nm (Chl b) and 680 nm (Chl a) respectively, as well as shoulders around 590 nm and 620 nm. Other pigments were also present, with carotenoids possibly attributing a peak...] Ruban, A.V., Horton, P., Robert, B., Resonance raman spectroscopy of the Photosystem II light- harvesting complex of green plants: A comparison of trimeric and aggregated states, Biochemistry 34, 2333 – 2337 (1995). [6] Haferkamp, S., Haase, W...

  10. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22201, 703-524... B. (d) ANSI Reseller. Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way, East Englewood, CO 80112, Phone: 800.854.7179 or 303.397.7956, http://www.global.ihs.com, E-mail: global@ihs.com. DOE does not...

  11. Reconfigurable materials handling system incorporating part tracking, routing and scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidu, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . Transmission range of 10m-30m indoors is common. RFID is a commonly available system which uses either low-cost passive Radio tags, or higher cost active tags, that an RF receiver can then read. An RFID system comprises of a reader, its associated antenna...]. 3. Proposed Tracking System The proposed tracking system consists of a two phases. In the first phase a passive radio frequency (RF) tag is read by a RF reader. In the second phase the information obtained from the reader is wirelessly...

  12. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S...-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1971 Tullie Circle, NE., Atlanta, GA 30329, or http://www.ashrae.org/book..., CO 80112, or http://global.ihs.com/, or http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/. (iii) The UL Standard...

  13. Ba incorporation in benthic foraminifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooijer, L.J.; Brombacher, Anieke; Mewes, A.; Langer, Gerald; Nehrke, G.; Bijma, Jelle; Reichart, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Barium (Ba) incorporated in the calcite of many foraminiferal species is proportional to the concentration of Ba in seawater. Since the open ocean concentration of Ba closely follows seawater alkalinity, foraminiferal Ba ∕ Ca can be used to reconstruct the latter. Alternatively, Ba ∕ Ca from

  14. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  15. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of ... structure. [1] reported that the standard workability tests are not suitable for the polystyrene aggregate concrete since they are sensitive to the unit weight of concrete. [2] made ...

  16. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  17. Radiological accidents: methodologies of radio nuclides dis incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez F, E. A.; Paredes G, L.; Cortes, A.

    2014-08-01

    Derived of the radioactive or nuclear material management, exists the risk that accidents can happen where people cases are presented with internal radioactive contamination, who will receive specialized medical care to accelerate the radioactive dis incorporation with the purpose of diminishing the absorbed dose and the associate biological effects. In this work treatments of radioactive dis incorporation were identified, in function of the radionuclide, radiation type, radioactive half life, biological half life, critical organ, ingestion duct and patient type. The factor time is decisive for the effectiveness of the selected treatment in the blockade stage (before the accident) or dis incorporation (after the accident); this factor is related with the radioactive and biological half lives. So to achieve dis incorporation efficiencies of more to 70%, the patient clinical treatment will begin before the first third of the biological half life of the radionuclide that generated the internal contamination. (Author)

  18. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tests were carried out on concrete incorporating Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) of “Mittal ... mechanical properties by using the existing materials on the local market and HSC ..... general shape of the curves whether at 28 days ... Figure.7. Residual compressive strength as a function of temperature.

  19. 33 CFR 96.130 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (ISM) Code by Administrations, November 23, 1995—96.320, 96.440 Resolution A.739(18), Guidelines for.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) The material approved for incorporation by...), International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, November 4, 1993—96...

  20. Incorporation of Certain Hydrophobic Excipients in the Core of Melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    incorporation of hydrophobic materials (talc or magnesium stearate) in the core of such granules may further retard .... (500mg) was filled into a capsule shell and ... of the drug particles. The effect of melt granulation on the release profiles of paracetamol is shown in Fig 1. The melt granulations displayed a retarded release.

  1. 7 CFR 1755.901 - Incorporation by Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...”), incorporation by reference approved for § 1755.902(h). (e) The following Telecommunications Industry Association... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS... Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable, approved March 10...

  2. Radiation exposure from incorporated isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleznay, F [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations for the limitation of the burden of the human body from radiation exposure were developed to avoid direct radiation health damage such that the occurrence of stochastic damage can be held below a resonable risk level. The recommendations, published under ICRP 26 and ICRP 30, contain several guidelines and concepts which are discussed here. They include the primary internal dose exposure limits, secondary and implied limits for the monitoring of internal radiation exposure (Annual Limit of Intake, Derived Air Concentrations). Methods are presented for inspection and monitoring of internal exposure in medical laboratories, inspection of incorporation of sup(131)I and sup(99m)Tc.

  3. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  4. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Incorporation of iodine into calcium phosphates with apatitic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the release of 129 I (long-lived intermediate-level waste) in the environment, we describe a novel material incorporating iodine under the form of iodate in a calcium phosphate based hydroxyapatite. This material is prepared by two synthetic processes: a wet precipitation route followed by a spark plasma sintering and a cementitious route. A high iodine content (with a maximum incorporation rate of 10 wt.%) is reached for both processes, by incorporation of the iodate in the apatitic structure. A monolith with relative density of 88.6% was obtained after shaping of the precipitated powders by spark plasma sintering. This material reveals satisfactory leaching properties, with an initial leaching rate in pure water at 50 C of 10 -2 g.m -2 .j -1 , and a residual leaching rate at 50 C of 10 -5 g.m -2 .j -1 in underground water of potential geological repositories. All in all, this material is a potential candidate for the conditioning of radioactive iodine. (author) [fr

  6. Portal monitor incorporating smart probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Constantin, F.; Guta, T.

    2003-01-01

    Portal monitors are intended for detection of radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for prevention of illegal traffic of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarms when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. They can be recommended to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments or nuclear research or energetic facilities. The portal monitor developed by us consists in a portal frame, which sustains five intelligent probes having long plastic scintillator (0.5 liters each). The probes communicate, by serial transmission, with a Central Unit constructed on the basis of the 80552 microcontroller. This one manages the handshake, calculates the background, establishes the measuring time, starts and stops each measurement and makes all the other decisions. Sound signals and an infrared sensor monitor the passing through the portal and the measuring procedure. For each measurement the result is displayed on a LCD device contaminated/uncontaminated; for the contaminated case a loud and long sound signal is also issued. An RS 232 serial interface is provided in order to further developments or custom made devices. As a result, the portal monitor detects 1 μ Ci 137 Cs, spread all over a human body, in a 20 μR/h gamma background for a measuring time of 1.5 or 10 seconds giving a 99% confidence factor. (authors)

  7. Strategies for incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into garments and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    device as a structural element. The total area of the device on PET was typically much smaller than the active area due to the decorative design of the aluminium electrode. Elaborate integration of the photovoltaic device into the textile material involved the lamination of a polyethylene (PE) film onto......The incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into textiles was demonstrated following two different strategies. Simple incorporation of a polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) substrate carrying the polymer photovoltaic device prepared by a doctor blade technique necessitated the use of the photovoltaic...... a suitably transparent textile material that was used as substrate. Plasma treatment of the PE-surface allowed the application of a PEDOT electrode that exhibited good adherence. Screen printing of a designed pattern of poly 1,4(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy))phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) from chlorobenzene...

  8. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  9. Materials Genome Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  10. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, W.S.; Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  11. 77 FR 37961 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...'' are added to Sec. 171.8. Requirements for electronic shipping papers, electronic data interchange (EDI... electronic shipping paper information transmitted by EDI for the development of shipping papers used to... shipping papers by carriers. Most of the commenters support amending the HMR to permit EDI transmission of...

  12. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  13. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  14. Production method of burnable poison incorporated fuel pellet by coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Naoyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical member is formed with an organic material which is melted, decomposed or evaporated by heating. Such organic materials include polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol, for example. A predetermined amount of burnable poisons are homogeneously incorporated in the cylindrical member by a means, such as melting before fabricating it into a cylindrical shape. UO 2 fuel pellets are inserted to the cylindrical member and heated, to scatter only the organic materials, so that non-volatile burnable poisons are homogeneously left on the surface of the pellets. It is preferred that the cylindrical member having pellets inserted therein is inserted to a cladding tube and applied with a heat treatment. With such procedures, a UO 2 pellet is coated with burnable poisons by a convenient and compact device. In addition, grinding step after the coating is unnecessary. (I.N.)

  15. Characterization of civil construction waste and its incorporation to mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    As the preservation of the environment is a big concern nowadays, plenty of studies have arisen in order to decrease the production or reuse the waste from human activities. In this context, the civil construction industry comes up, as it is able to incorporate waste to mortar, being a great alternative for the reuse of solid waste. The scope of this work has been the characterization of Construction and Demolishment Waste (RCD) and its incorporation to the mortar aiming at the development of alternative construction materials in the future for the economical reutilization of waste discharged in embankments and landfills so far preserving the environment so far. The experimental studies taken with sample bodies, such as water absorption, resistance to compression, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy, elicits the viability of the partial substitution of cement by RCD mixed waste, taking its different applications into consideration. (author)

  16. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  17. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  18. Formulation of Bioadhesive Carbomer Gel Incorporating Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated into carbomer gel and evaluated for drug release. Results: ... localized delivery system for the treatment inflammation and infection in periodontal pockets. ..... loaded with diclofenac sodium for intra- articular administration. J Drug ...

  19. 15 CFR 230.7 - Description of services and list of fees, incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Description of Services and List of Fees § 230.7 Description of services and list of fees, incorporation by reference. (a) The text of NIST Special Publication... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of services and list of...

  20. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  1. Scheduling a Single Mobile Robot Incorporated into Production Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    to the challenges of issues such as energy conservation and pollution preventions. Facing the central tension between manufacturing and environmental drivers is difficult, but critical to develop new technologies, particularly mobile robots, that can be incorporated into production to achieve holistic solutions....... This chapter deals with the problem of finding optimal operating sequence in a manufacturing cell of a mobile robot with manipulation arm that feeds materials to feeders. The “Bartender Concept” is discussed to show the cooperation between the mobile robot and industrial environment. The performance criterion...

  2. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainab Ngaini; Khairul Aidil Azlin Abd Rahman; Nazlina Shaari; Hasnain Hussain; Norhaizat Sundin; Jingxin, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  3. When does hardship matter for health? Neighborhood and individual disadvantages and functional somatic symptoms from adolescence to mid-life in The Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per E; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has shown that health is influenced by disadvantaged living conditions, including both personal and neighborhood conditions. Little is however known to what degree the health impact of different forms of disadvantage differ along the life course. The present study aims to examine when, during the life course, neighborhood and individual disadvantages relate to functional somatic symptoms. Participants (n = 992) came from The Northern Swedish Cohort and followed from age 16, 21, 30 until 42 years. Functional somatic symptoms, socioeconomic disadvantage, and social and material adversity were measured through questionnaires and linked to register data on neighborhood disadvantage. Data was analyzed with longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel models. Results showed that neighborhood disadvantage, social and material adversity and gender all contributed independently to overall levels of symptoms across the life course. Cross-sectional analyses also suggested that the impact of disadvantage differed between life course periods; neighborhood disadvantage was most important in young adulthood, and the relative importance of material versus social adversity increased as participants grew older. In summary, the study suggests that disadvantages from different contextual sources may affect functional somatic health across the life course, but also through life course specific patterns.

  4. Material Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-15

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  5. Material Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-01

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  6. Materials and material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review based on 105 literature quotations is given on the latest state of development in the steel sector and in the field of non-ferrous metals and plastics. The works quoted also include, preparation, working, welding including simulation methods, improvement of weldability, material mechanics (explanation of defects mechanisms by means of fracture mechanics), defect causes (corrosion, erosion, hydrogen influence), mechanical-technological and non-destructive material testing. Examples from the field of reactor building are also given within there topics. (IHOE) [de

  7. Incorporation of T4 bacteriophage in electrospun fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehei, R; Kadla, J

    2013-05-01

    Antibacterial food packaging materials, such as bacteriophage-activated electrospun fibrous mats, may address concerns triggered by waves of bacterial food contamination. To address this, we investigated several efficient methods for incorporating T4 bacteriophage into electrospun fibrous mats. The incorporation of T4 bacteriophage using simple suspension electrospinning led to more than five orders of magnitude decrease in bacteriophage activity. To better maintain bacteriophage viability, emulsion electrospinning was developed where the T4 bacteriophage was pre-encapsulated in an alginate reservoir via an emulsification process and subsequently electrospun into fibres. This resulted in an increase in bacteriophage viability, but there was still two orders of magnitude drop in activity. Using a coaxial electrospinning process, full bacteriophage activity could be maintained. In this process, a core/shell fibre structure was formed with the T4 bacteriophage being directly incorporated into the fibre core. The core/shell fibre encapsulated bacteriophage exhibited full bacteriophage viability after storing for several weeks at +4°C. Coaxial electrospinning was shown to be capable of encapsulating bacteriophages with high loading capacity, high viability and long storage time. These results are significant in the context of controlling and preventing bacterial infections in perishable foods during storage. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  9. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  10. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  11. Natural radionuclides in urine and feces samples and their importance for incorporation monitoring; Natuerliche Radionuklide in Urin- und Stuhlproben und deren Bedeutung in der Inkorporationsueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, Martina; Burow, Mechthild; Droop, Philipp; Laumen-Sentis, Sandra; Zoriy, Myroslav [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Incorporation monitoring is performed for personnel dealing with open radioactive materials if incorporation cannot be excluded. Besides occupational exposure everybody is exposed to natural radioactivity. For the interpretation of occupational incorporation or in case of a radiation accident it is necessary to know the diet related share of natural radioactivity.

  12. Facepiece Material Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    be the best selection to meet the facepiece criteria. Accession For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB I] Unannounced 13 Just ifcatio By Distribution/ Availability...considered the most important factor in material selection . HD and GD resistance were recently reported for a broad range of elastomers. 1 While these...not be an issue. The concept of multiple strippable layers does not appear feasible for the facepiece. This concept calls for incorporating

  13. Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller

    2010-01-01

    The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...

  14. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  15. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  16. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  17. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...

  18. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  19. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A process of safe disposal, handling, or storae of radwaste associated with nuclear power productin is described. A feature of the invention is to incorporate the radwaste in a hardenable, matrix-forming mass employing a cement-type binding agent to which alkali or alkaline-earth silicate is added, among other things, to increase liquid absorption. 9 claims

  20. Incorporating biological control into IPM decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the many ways biological control can be incorporated into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, natural enemy thresholds are arguably most easily adopted by stakeholders. Integration of natural enemy thresholds into IPM programs requires ecological and cost/benefit crop production data, thr...

  1. KRYPTON INCORPORATION IN SPUTTERED SILICON FILMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GREUTER, MJW; NIESEN, L; HAKVOORT, RA; DEROODE, J; VANVEEN, A; BERNTSEN, AJM; SLOOF, WG

    1993-01-01

    The incorporation of Kr in sputtered a-Si films has been investigated in a systematic way by varying the Kr to Si flux, yielding Kr concentrations up to 5 at %. Compositions were determined with X-ray microanalysis. A model has been applied to describe the composition of the growing film. The layers

  2. Fissile material proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility depends on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. To effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of nuclear related sites and facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for fissile material (plutonium and highly enriched uranium)

  3. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  4. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  5. Analysis of the cement clinker produced with incorporation of petroleum sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, A.; Kadir, A. Abdul; Khodja, M.; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Very limited researches have been conducted on the incorporation of petroleum sludge waste into cement clinker production even though this waste may contain similar components to those of clinker raw materials. In this research, petroleum sludge was integrated into cement plant as raw material to produce the cement clinker. As results, incorporation of 5% of this waste was able to produce an acceptable quality of cement. Despite the use of petroleum sludge has decreased the properties of the produced clinker, but it still fit the requirements.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Hansenová Maňásková

    Full Text Available The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITCLPETG-amide into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii Substituting aspartic acid (E for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITCLPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITCLPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITCLPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

  7. [Incorporation monitoring of employees of a radioiodine therapy ward. Is incorporation monitoring required for routine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, C; Kratzel, U; Selkinski, I; Bockisch, B; Etzel, M; Korkusuz, H; Sauter, B; Staudt, J; von Müller, F; Grünwald, F; Kranert, W T

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the annual incorporation of staff on a radioiodine therapy ward and the resulting annual effective dose (aed). Following the German incorporation guideline (gig), incorporation monitoring is not necessary for potential aed below 0.5 mSv/a. For aed > 0.5 mSv/a adherence to the 1 mSv dose limit must be verified. For doses > 1 mSv/a incorporation has to be monitored by the authority. Furthermore, the (131)I incorporation factor from the gig should be verified. To determine the actual work related incorporation, the (131)I activity concentration in urine samples (collection over 24 h) of 14 employees of different professions were examined over a period of 27 months. Measured activity concentrations were related to the individual time of exposure. A constant activity supply for at least three days was assumed. The mean annual effective doses were 2.4 · 10⁻¹ mSv/a (nursing staff; n = 3), 5.6 · 10⁻² mSv/a (cleaning staff; n = 2), 2.8 · 10⁻³ mSv/a (technical staff; n = 2) and 5.2 · 10⁻³ mSv/a (physicians; n = 7). All aed were below the dose limits of the gig. The calculated mean incorporation factors ranged from 3.0 · 10⁻⁸ for the nursing staff to 3.6 · 10⁻¹⁰ for the technical staff (cleaning staff: 7 · 10⁻⁹; physicians: 6.5 · 10⁻¹⁰) and were therefore well below the (131)I incorporation factor defined by the gig. To estimate the aed caused by incorporation of (131)I it has to be subdivided for the different requirements in the diverse fields of activity of the employees. Regarding those who spend most of their time nearby the patient an incorporation monitoring by the authority might be required. The (131)I incorporation factor from the guideline (10⁻⁶) can be reduced by a factor of 10. For (99m)Tc and (18)F an incorporation factor of 10⁻⁷ is accepted.

  8. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  9. A Framework Incorporating Community Preferences in Use ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is intended to assist water quality officials, watershed managers, members of stakeholder groups, and other interested individuals in fully evaluating ecological and socioeconomic objectives and the gains and losses that often are involved in use attainment decisions. In addition, this report enables local, state, and tribal managers to better understand the benefits, as well as the costs, of attaining high water quality, and to incorporate community preferences in decision-making. Specific objectives are (1) to provide an introduction to the CWA and WQS regulation and analyses related to setting or changing designated uses; (2) create a basis for understanding the relationship between use-attainment decisions and the effects on ecosystems, ecosystem services, and ecological benefits; (3) serve as reference for methods that elicit or infer preferences for benefits and costs related to attaining uses and (4) present process for incorporating new approaches in water quality decisions.

  10. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  11. Fluorine incorporation during Si solid phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impellizzeri, G.; Mirabella, S.; Romano, L.; Napolitani, E.; Carnera, A.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Priolo, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the F incorporation and segregation in preamorphized Si during solid phase epitaxy (SPE) at different temperatures and for several implanted-F energies and fluences. The Si samples were amorphized to a depth of 550 nm by implanting Si at liquid nitrogen temperature and then enriched with F at different energies (65-150 keV) and fluences (0.07-5 x 10 14 F/cm 2 ). Subsequently, the samples were regrown by SPE at different temperatures: 580, 700 and 800 deg. C. We have found that the amount of F incorporated after SPE strongly depends on the SPE temperature and on the energy and fluence of the implanted-F, opening the possibility to tailor the F profile during SPE

  12. Fast Approximate Joint Diagonalization Incorporating Weight Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 878-891 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : autoregressive processes * blind source separation * nonstationary random processes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-fast approximate joint diagonalization incorporating weight matrices.pdf

  13. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Householder, Daniel L.; Hailey, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American youth. In most instances, these experiences in engineering design are infused into instruction programs in standards-based courses in science, technol...

  14. Incorporating Financial Stability in Inflation Targeting Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Aydin; Engin Volkan

    2011-01-01

    The global financial crisis has exposed the limitations of a conventional inflation targeting (IT) framework in insulating an economy from shocks, and demonstrated that its rigid application may aggravate the effect of shocks on output and inflation. Accordingly, we investigate possible refinements to the IT framework by incorporating financial stability considerations. We propose a small open economy DSGE model, calibrated for Korea during the period of 2003 - 07, with real and financial fri...

  15. Spacesuit Materials Add Comfort to Undergarments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) were one of the technologies NASA used to help astronauts maintain a "just right" temperature in their space gloves. To incorporate PCMs in spacesuit fabrics, Johnson Space Center collaborated with Outlast Technologies Inc. In 2011, Jockey International, headquartered in Kenosha, Wisconsin, released a line of men's and women's undergarments incorporating the NASA technology

  16. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  17. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  18. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  19. Strategic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buhler, Carl; Burke, Adrian; Davis, Kirk; Gerhard, Michelle; Heil, Valerie; Hulse, Richard; Kwong, Ralph; Mahoney, Michael; Moran, Scott; Peek, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Some materials possess greater value than others. Materials that provide essential support for the nation's economic viability or enable critical military capabilities warrant special attention in security studies...

  20. Fabrication and characterization of Ag-Cd/CdO materials produced by incorporation of CdO particles to liquid Ag-Cd alloys; Fabricacion y caracterizacion de materiales Ag-Cd/CdO producidos mediante incorporacion de particulas de CdO en aleaciones Ag-Cd liquidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Equihua-Guillen, F.; Ruiz-Mondragon, J.; Servin-Castaneda, R.; Orozco-Gonzalez, P.; Zaldivar-Cadena, A.; Martinez-Villafane, F.; Villarreal-Garza, E. J.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work it has been investigated the kinetic behavior of internal oxidation processes of strips of Ag-Cd/CdO materials fabricated by adding CdO particles (size of 5 and 20 {mu}m) in liquid Ag-Cd alloys. It has been established the metallurgical mechanism that controls the formation of the thickness covered with CdO particles produced by internal oxidation of the Ag-Cd/CdO material. It has been developed, successfully, a metallographic preparation technique for characterizing the morphology, size and distribution of CdO particles produced by heat treatment of internal oxidation on the surface of each sample based on the distance from the original surface to the boundary of dispersed CdO particles. The material strips were sequentially roughed on its surface and the roughing thickness was measured in the cross section of each new surface to determine the number of particles per area and average particle size. (Author)

  1. Radiological accidents: methodologies of radio nuclides dis incorporation; Accidentes radiologicos: metodologias de desincorporacion de radionuclidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez F, E. A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cortes, A., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Derived of the radioactive or nuclear material management, exists the risk that accidents can happen where people cases are presented with internal radioactive contamination, who will receive specialized medical care to accelerate the radioactive dis incorporation with the purpose of diminishing the absorbed dose and the associate biological effects. In this work treatments of radioactive dis incorporation were identified, in function of the radionuclide, radiation type, radioactive half life, biological half life, critical organ, ingestion duct and patient type. The factor time is decisive for the effectiveness of the selected treatment in the blockade stage (before the accident) or dis incorporation (after the accident); this factor is related with the radioactive and biological half lives. So to achieve dis incorporation efficiencies of more to 70%, the patient clinical treatment will begin before the first third of the biological half life of the radionuclide that generated the internal contamination. (Author)

  2. Application of aluminum slag incorporated in lightweigh aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Elisa Akiko Nakano

    2006-01-01

    The use of industrial waste materials as additives in the manufacture of ceramic product has been attracting a growing interest in the last few years and is becoming common practice. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibility of incorporation of aluminum slag into clay materials. Expansive clays are obtained from a pyro plastic expansion, and are usually employed like lightweight aggregate in structural concrete as ornamental garden products. The characterization of the aluminum slag and clay materials was carried out by Xray fluorescence spectrometry, Xray diffraction, granulometry, differential thermal analysis, thermal gravimetry (DTA and TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The studied compositions contained 5, 10, 15 and 20 weight % of aluminum slag into clay mass. The linear expansion, mass variation, apparent specific mass and water absorption of all compositions were determined. Leaching and solubilization experiments were also performed. The main results show the viability of using up to 5 wt% aluminum slag for producing expansive clays with characteristics within the accepted standards. (author)

  3. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  4. Dye incorporation in polyphosphate gels: synthesis and theoretical calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Del Nero

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described theoretical calculations on the electronic structure and optical properties of the dyes crystal violet and malachite green based in semiempirical methods (Parametric Method 3 and Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap / Spectroscopic - Configuration Interaction and the synthesis of a new hybrid material based upon the incorporation of these dyes in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The samples are nearly transparent, free-standing thick films. The optical properties of the entrapped dyes are sensitive to chemical changes within the matrix caused either by gel aging or external stimulli such as exposition to acidic and basic vapors that can percolate within the matrix. Our theoretical modeling is in good agreement with the experimental results for the dyes.

  5. Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, George

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad exposition of analytical and numerical methods for modeling composite materials, laminates, polycrystals and other heterogeneous solids, with emphasis on connections between material properties and responses on several length scales, ranging from the nano and microscales to the macroscale. Many new results and methods developed by the author are incorporated into a rich fabric of the subject, which has been explored by several researchers over the last 40 years.   The first  part of the book reviews anisotropic elasticity theory, and then it describes the frequently used procedures and theorems for bounding and estimating overall properties, local fields and energy changes in elastic inhomogeneities, heterogeneous media, fiber composites and functionally graded materials.  Those are caused by mechanical loads and by phase eigenstrains, such as thermal, transformation and inelastic strains, and also by cavities and cracks.    Worked examples show that the eigendeformations may...

  6. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  7. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... to the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, ``Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel... for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels, A2. Reference Materials and Blending Accessories, (``ASTM... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0185] RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by...

  8. Incorporation of bacteriophages in polycaprolactone/collagen fibers for antibacterial hemostatic dual-function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Weilu; Zhang, Zhongyang; Xu, Ruodan

    2018-01-01

    Effective and affordable, antibacterial and hemostatic materials are of great interests in clinical wound care practices. Herein, Enterobacteria phage T4 were incorporated in polycaprolactone/collagen I (PCL-ColI) nanofibers via electrospinning in order to eradicate Escherichia coli infection and...

  9. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32 P and methionine-free medium for 35 S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  10. Nano-graphene oxide incorporated into PMMA resin to prevent microbial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jo, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Dong-Ae; Patel, Kapil Dev; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2018-04-01

    Although polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used as a dental material, a major challenge of using this substance is its poor antimicrobial (anti-adhesion) effects, which increase oral infections. Here, graphene-oxide nanosheets (nGO) were incorporated into PMMA to introduce sustained antimicrobial-adhesive effects by increasing the hydrophilicity of PMMA. After characterizing nGO and nGO-incorporated PMMA (up to 2wt%) in terms of morphology and surface characteristics, 3-point flexural strength and hardness were evaluated. The anti-adhesive effects were determined for 4 different microbial species with experimental specimens and the underlying anti-adhesive mechanism was investigated by a non-thermal oxygen plasma treatment. Sustained antimicrobial-adhesive effects were characterized with incubation in artificial saliva for up to 28 days. The typical nanosheet morphology was observed for nGO. Incorporating nGO into PMMA roughened its surface and increased its hydrophilicity without compromising flexural strength or surface hardness. An anti-adhesive effect after 1h of exposure to microbial species in artificial saliva was observed in nGO-incorporated specimens, which accelerated with increasing levels of nGO without significant cytotoxicity to oral keratinocytes. Plasma treatment of native PMMA demonstrated that the antimicrobial-adhesive effects of nGO incorporation were at least partially due to increased hydrophilicity, not changes in the surface roughness. A sustained antimicrobial-adhesive property against Candida albicans was observed in 2% nGO for up to 28 days. The presence of sustained anti-adhesion properties in nGO-incorporated PMMA without loading any antimicrobial drugs suggests the potential usefulness of this compound as a promising antimicrobial dental material for dentures, orthodontic devices and provisional restorative materials. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  12. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  13. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  14. Incorporating social media into dermatologic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lauren N; Rana, Jasmine; Burgin, Susan

    2017-10-15

    In the current digital age, medical education has slowly evolved from the largely lecture-based teaching style of the past to incorporate more interactive pedagogical techniques, including use of social media. Already used readily by millennial trainees and clinicians, social media can also be used in innovative ways to teach trainees and facilitate continuing education among practicing clinicians. In this commentary, we discuss many learning benefits of social media and review potential pitfalls of employing social media in both trainee and physician dermatological education.

  15. Bayesian optimization for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Packwood, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a short and concise introduction to Bayesian optimization specifically for experimental and computational materials scientists. After explaining the basic idea behind Bayesian optimization and some applications to materials science in Chapter 1, the mathematical theory of Bayesian optimization is outlined in Chapter 2. Finally, Chapter 3 discusses an application of Bayesian optimization to a complicated structure optimization problem in computational surface science. Bayesian optimization is a promising global optimization technique that originates in the field of machine learning and is starting to gain attention in materials science. For the purpose of materials design, Bayesian optimization can be used to predict new materials with novel properties without extensive screening of candidate materials. For the purpose of computational materials science, Bayesian optimization can be incorporated into first-principles calculations to perform efficient, global structure optimizations. While re...

  16. Composite Materials: An Educational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

  17. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  18. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  19. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  20. Incorporating intelligence into structured radiology reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E.

    2014-03-01

    The new standard for radiology reporting templates being developed through the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and DICOM organizations defines the storage and exchange of reporting templates as Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) documents. The use of HTML5 enables the incorporation of "dynamic HTML," in which documents can be altered in response to their content. HTML5 documents can employ JavaScript, the HTML Document Object Model (DOM), and external web services to create intelligent reporting templates. Several reporting templates were created to demonstrate the use of scripts to perform in-template calculations and decision support. For example, a template for adrenal CT was created to compute contrast washout percentage from input values of precontrast, dynamic postcontrast, and delayed adrenal nodule attenuation values; the washout value can used to classify an adrenal nodule as a benign cortical adenoma. Dynamic templates were developed to compute volumes and apply diagnostic criteria, such as those for determination of internal carotid artery stenosis. Although reporting systems need not use a web browser to render the templates or their contents, the use of JavaScript creates innumerable opportunities to construct highly sophisticated HTML5 reporting templates. This report demonstrates the ability to incorporate dynamic content to enhance the use of radiology reporting templates.

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Sobrevivência de fungos fitopatogênicos habitantes do solo, em microcosmo, simulando solarização com prévia incorporação de materiais orgânicos Survival of soilborne plant pathogenic fungi in soil solarization simulation (microcosm associated with the incorporation of organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Michelle de Queiroz Ambrósio

    2009-02-01

    unfeasible vast agricultural areas. Organic materials associated race 2; Macrophomina phaseolina; Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HGI with soil solarization helps the retention of volatile fungitoxic and Sclerotium rolfsii. A nylon bag containing structures of each compounds from the degradation of materials which are lethal to pathogen was placed in each one of the two glass cameras (microcosm several soil fungi. The objective of this experiment was to search for for each evaluated period. Structures of the fungi were also maintained new organic materials that produce volatile fungitoxic compounds in laboratory conditions as the check treatment. All materials when capable to control the resistance structures produced by the soilborne associated the simulation of the soil solarization gave the best control phytopathogenic fungi but in conditions of association with simulation of the structures of all the studied soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. of soil solarization (microcosm. The present work consisted of six However, variation was observed in the control of the fungi. The treatments (Solarization; Solarization+brocollis; Solarization + treatment which only simulated the solarization did not control any eucalyptus; Solarization+castor plants; Solarization + cassava and fungus.

  3. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  4. Policy Awareness, Financial Hardship, and Work Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Drapela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with disabilities often report difficulty interacting with health care professionals. Addressing this challenge requires greater understanding of factors that exacerbate the odds of negative interactions between health care providers and patients with disabilities. Drawing on the qualitative research describing the features of such incidents, we use logistic regression to explore two dimensions of this dynamic: negative experiences with health care providers (e.g., doctors, specialists and negative experiences with health insurance carriers (e.g., for profit or non-profit health insurance organizations. Using a non-probability sample of American families who have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, we find that negative experiences with health care providers are associated with the family’s income level, as well as changes in parental labor force participation. The odds of a negative interaction with the insurance carrier are intensified when the family experiences financial difficulties and when they have a negative experience with the health care provider. Finally, families who are aware of laws and policies regarding ASD also report increased odds of negative experiences with their insurance carrier but not their health care provider. Policy implications of our findings are discussed.

  5. The backwaters of glory and hardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hun

    2001-07-01

    This book starts the background of this writing, the letter to his father, a brief summary of his career. It is Dr. Kim Dong Hun's an autobiographical report about introduction into nuclear power, building TRIGA Mark-III and propel the business of research reactor, establishing nuclear safe center, beginning and president Lee, Seung Man, passion over TRIGA. It deals with carrying out building the HANARO about background, the process of the business.

  6. Predicting Exemptions and Hardship in CISG Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution to the Liber Amicorum Festschrift in honor of Peter Møgelvang-Hansen, the author revisits and casts new light on force majeure and liability exemptions under the 1980 UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, including recent developments in CISG Article...... 79 theory and practice, as well as the advent of a highly controversial conundrum: how to handle ‘hardship’ in the liability-exemptions context? By way of introduction to this particular CISG topic area, the author sketches the larger Sales Convention picture and its relationship to domestic law...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.30 - Hardship loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... finance facilities located in any exchange of the borrower that has: (i) More than 1,000 existing... application for at least one of the following basic plant modernizations or system improvements: (A) Providing...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.58 - Extreme hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... application for suspension of deportation; (2) The age, number, and immigration status of the alien's children... educational opportunities; (9) The psychological impact of the alien's deportation; (10) The current political...

  9. Dirac materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wehling, T. O.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrodinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials''. In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions ...

  10. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  11. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA......-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation...... of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree...

  12. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, P.; McLeod, N.

    1997-01-01

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation

  13. Incorporation of tritium from wrist watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Pock, K.

    1995-01-01

    Watches are consumer products and are subject to the regulations that control food and consumer products. Elevated concentrations of tritium were found in the urine of persons who wore wrist watches with luminous dials and plastic cases. High emission of tritium from these watches were observed. In an experiment, a volunteer wore a watch with high emissions and the build-up of the tritium concentration in urine was monitored, as well as the decline after removing the watch. Possible pathways for the incorporation and its mechanism are considered. In spite of the relatively high activity concentrations observed, the dose is negligible. On the other hand, the principle 'ALARA' can be achieved without any costs by simply choosing other types of watches. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena.

  15. Incorporating sustainable development objectives into land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Jude

    2006-01-01

    Historically, land administration systems (LAS) were built to support land markets and land taxation systems. In developed countries, these systems constitute substantial infrastructure provided through government for the benefit of overall public administration, citizens and businesses. These sy......Historically, land administration systems (LAS) were built to support land markets and land taxation systems. In developed countries, these systems constitute substantial infrastructure provided through government for the benefit of overall public administration, citizens and businesses...... lay in incorporating market based instruments (MBI) and complex commodities into LAS and revitalization of land information through inventive Web based initiatives. The EGM developed a vision outlined in this paper for future LAS sufficiently flexible to adapt to this changing world of new technology...

  16. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  17. Free Software and Multivariable Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Gail M.

    2011-01-01

    Calculators and computers make new modes of instruction possible; yet, at the same time they pose hardships for school districts and mathematics educators trying to incorporate technology with limited monetary resources. In the "Standards," a recommended classroom is one in which calculators, computers, courseware, and manipulative materials are…

  18. 77 FR 11414 - Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... adoption of this exact language, however, so we are not including that text here. We are requesting... language of action 552(a)''; the whole of the regulation is, in effect, an interpretation of what it means..., criteria, standards, specifications, techniques, illustrations, or similar material'' made eligible for...

  19. Incorporating biopulping technology into wood yard operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Scott; Eric. Horn; Masood. Akhtar; Ross E. Swaney; Michael J. Lentz; David F. Shipley

    1998-01-01

    Biopulping is the treatment of wood chips and other lignocellulosic materials with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Ten years of industry-sponsored research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the technology for mechanical pulping at a laboratory scale. Two 50-ton outdoor chip pile trials recently conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products...

  20. Composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrook, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor composite is described comprising at least one longitudinally extending superconductor filament or bundle of sub-filaments, each filament or bundle of sub-filaments being surrounded by and in good electrical contact with a matrix material, the matrix material comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending cells of a metal of high electrical conductivity surrounded by a material of lower electrical conductivity. The high electrical conductivity material surrounding the superconducting filament or bundle of sub-filaments is interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of the lower electrical conductivity, the arrangement being such that at least two superconductor filaments or sub-filaments are circumferentially circumscribed by a single annulus of the material of high electrical conductivity. The annulus is electrically interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of low electrical conductivity

  1. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This final report documents the activities performed during SHRP 2 Reliability Project L08: Incorporating Travel Time Reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. It serves as a supplement to the proposed chapters for incorporating travel time relia...

  2. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  3. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  4. RETIMAC: a real-time material control concept for strategic special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    As one possible means to upgrade licensee safeguards systems, the NRC is exploring a real-time material control concept. The concept incorporates process controls, material containment provisions, and extensive instrumentation. Plants incorporating this concept would be better able to prevent, deter, and detect diversion, and to assure that diversion has not gone undetected. A substantial methods development, evaluation, and preliminary standards development program is under way to develop the basis for future policy decisions

  5. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  6. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  7. Synthesis and characterization of novel halloysite-incorporated adhesive resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Sabrina A; Münchow, Eliseu A; Al-Zain, Afnan O; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Platt, Jeffrey A; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of Halloysite® aluminosilicate clay nanotubes (HNTs) addition on selected physical, mechanical, and biological properties of experimental adhesive resins. Experimental dentin adhesive resins were prepared by mixing Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA (50/25/25wt.%), and photo-initiators. As-received HNTs were then incorporated into the resin mixture at distinct concentrations: 0 (HNT-free, control), 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 20wt.%. The degree of conversion (DC), radiopacity (RP), Knoop hardness (KHN), flexural strength (FS), and cytotoxicity analyses were carried out for each adhesive formulation. The adhesive resin of Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) was used as the commercially available reference for both the RP and cytotoxicity tests. Data were statistically analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p≤0.05). All adhesives exhibited similar DC (p=0.1931). The RP of adhesives was improved with the addition of up to 5wt.% of HNTs (p<0.001). Adhesives containing 5-10wt.% of HNTs led to greater KHN when compared to the control (p<0.001). The FS was reduced only when 20wt.% of HNTs was added (p≤0.001). None of the prepared adhesives was cytotoxic. The incorporation of up to 10wt.% of HNTs into the adhesive resins did not jeopardize the tested physical and biological properties. When using HNTs as carriers of drugs/bioactive compounds, the amount of the former added into adhesive resin materials should not exceed 10wt.%; otherwise, a significant reduction in physicomechanical properties may be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 43 CFR 46.110 - Incorporating consensus-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporating consensus-based management... § 46.110 Incorporating consensus-based management. (a) Consensus-based management incorporates direct... carry out those plans and activities. For the purposes of this Part, consensus-based management involves...

  9. 17 CFR 230.411 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following provisions: (1) Non-financial information may be incorporated by reference to any document; (2) Financial information may be incorporated by reference to any document, provided any financial statement so incorporated meets the requirements of the forms on which the statement is filed. Financial statements or other...

  10. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraresi, M. de L.; Ferraresi Filho, O.; Bracht, A.

    1985-01-01

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14 C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14 CO 2 , was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text. ...

  12. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text. ...

  13. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about

  14. Effect of Hyaluronic Acid Incorporation Method on the Stability and Biological Properties of Polyurethane-Hyaluronic Acid Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Amaliris; Rathnam, Kashmila R.; Masters, Kristyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The high failure rate of small diameter vascular grafts continues to drive the development of new materials and modification strategies that address this clinical problem, with biomolecule incorporation typically achieved via surface-based modification of various biomaterials. In this work, we examined whether the method of biomolecule incorporation (i.e., bulk vs. surface modification) into a polyurethane (PU) polymer impacted biomaterial performance in the context of vascular applications. Specifically, hyaluronic acid (HA) was incorporated into a poly(ether urethane) via bulk copolymerization or covalent surface tethering, and the resulting PU-HA materials characterized with respect to both physical and biological properties. Modification of PU with HA by either surface or bulk methods yielded materials that, when tested under static conditions, possessed no significant differences in their ability to resist protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and bacterial adhesion, while supporting endothelial cell culture. However, only bulk-modified PU-HA materials were able to fully retain these characteristics following material exposure to flow, demonstrating a superior ability to retain the incorporated HA and minimize enzymatic degradation, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and bacterial adhesion. Thus, despite bulk methods rarely being implemented in the context of biomolecule attachment, these results demonstrate improved performance of PU-HA upon bulk, rather than surface, incorporation of HA. Although explored only in the context of PU-HA, the findings revealed by these experiments have broader implications for the design and evaluation of vascular graft modification strategies. PMID:24276670

  15. Corrosion behaviour of nanometre sized cerium oxide and titanium oxide incorporated aluminium in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Edwin, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion resistant aluminium incorporated with nano oxides of cerium and titanium. ► 0.2% nano CeO 2 and 0.05% nano TiO 2 showed increased corrosion resistance. ► Nano TiO 2 concentration influenced the optimum performance of the material. ► Comparison of Micro and nano CeO 2 and TiO 2 aluminium showed the latter is best. - Abstract: The study highlights the development of an aluminium matrix composite by incorporating mixture of nanometre sized cerium oxide and titanium oxide in pure aluminium and its corrosion resistance in marine environment. The mixed nanometre sized oxides incorporated aluminium exhibited improved microstructure and excellent corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance depends on the concentration of nanometre sized titanium oxide. Electrochemical characteristics improved several folds in nanometre sized mixed oxides incorporated aluminium than micrometre sized oxides incorporated aluminium.

  16. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    finite size effects [25]. Based on finite size scaling studies of our largest charged cluster (CsC-OC-2VSi)4-, we estimate these effects lead to errors on the scale of 1.9 eV. Due to the fact that DFT formalism is unable to reproduce experimental band gaps in materials, underestimation of the band gap is expected. This can have an effect on the calculation of the charged defect formation energies. Therefore, the energetics and charge states of the defects must be treated as somewhat approximate. In this work, the value of the Fermi level is taken to be at the conduction band minimum, a choice that is consistent with an n-type material. This is justified by the fact that as-prepared SiC is generally n-type, with a low concentration of electron carriers [26-29]. It is also important to note that, even if SiC had an intrinsically lower Fermi level, under irradiation conditions long lived electronic excitations might provide effectively higher Fermi levels in the system. Irradiation induced defects such as vacancies and interstitials have been reported to lead to Fermi levels at the middle of the band gap [30,31]. For the case of negatively charged defects, having a Fermi level closer to the middle of the band gap will result in lower defect formation energies. This aspect is not critical for our study since our goal is not to calculate highly accurate formation energies or defect charge states but to compare these energies to identify qualitative trends of co-incorporate for the different defect clusters. Based on the above comments, results presented in this paper can be expected to have some quantitative inaccuracies but the conclusions drawn from these results are still of qualitative value. Furthermore, as will be shown in the result section, formation energy differences between competing energy clusters are above 1 eV for most cases. The main goals of this work are to identify whether Cs and Ag co-incorporation with O and I into SiC can lead to more stable defects than

  17. Improvements in or relating to refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckett, J.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the production of a refractory material which includes heating an intermediate material containing carbon to cause a thermally induced reaction involving carbon in the intermediate material, wherein the intermediate material has been produced by heating a shaped gel precipitated gel, and the carbon in the intermediate material for participating in the thermally induced reaction has been produced from a gelling agent, or a derivative thereof, incorporated in the gel during gel precipitation. As examples, the refractory material may comprise uranium/plutonium oxide, or uranium/plutonium carbide, or thorium/uranium carbide, or tungsten carbide, or tungsten carbide/cobalt metal. (author)

  18. Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ''engineering'' prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, the prototype-learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype- and adaptive-learning theories. We refer to our new model as ``prototype-incorporated EmNN''. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely, static hand-gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back-propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional BPNN (EmNN), deep networks, an exemplar classification model, and k-nearest neighbor.

  19. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyu Wei

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU. This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT, provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  20. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  1. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjiang, E-mail: wjli@zju.edu.cn [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Sun Tan [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  2. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Tan

    2009-01-01

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  3. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Pendergrast

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  4. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761

  5. Incorporating technical analysis in undergraduate curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Melton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce instruction of technical analysis on the undergraduate level that can coincide with traditional teachings of fundamental analysis. Design/methodology/approach – Through examples using the latest in security analysis technology, this paper illustrates the importance of technical security analysis. Findings – This research illustrates how technical analysis techniques may be used to make more significant investment decisions. Originality/value – Kirkpatrick and Dahlquist define technical analysis as a security analysis discipline for forecasting future direction of prices through the study of past market data primarily price and volume This form of analysis has stood in direct contrast to the fundamental analysis approach whereby actual facts of the company its industry and sector may be ignored. Understanding this contrast, much of academia has chosen to continue to focus its finance curricula on fundamental analysis techniques. As more universities implement trading rooms to reflect that of industry, they must recognize that any large brokerage trading group or financial institution will typically have both a technical analysis and fundamental analysis team. Thus, the need to incorporate technical analysis into undergraduate finance curricula.

  6. Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Community-level ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program is developing tools and approaches to incorporate ecosystem goods and services concepts into community-level decision-making. The San Juan Community Study is one of a series of coordinated community studies, which also include Mobile Bay, AL, Great Lakes Areas of Concern, and the Pacific Northwest. Common elements across the community studies include a focus on watershed management and national estuary programs (National Estuary Program, National Estuarine Research Reserve System). San Juan, Puerto Rico, is unique from the other community studies in that it is located in a highly urbanized watershed integrated with a number of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. The San Juan Community Study will explore linkages between watershed management decisions (e.g., dredging canals, restoration of mangrove buffers, sewage discharge interventions, climate adaptive strategies) targeting priority stressors (e.g., nutrients, contaminants, and pathogens; aquatic debris; habitat loss; modified hydrology and water circulation; sea level rise; storm intensity and frequency) effecting the condition of ecosystems (e.g., estuarine habitats and fish, as well as the connected terrestrial and coastal ecosystems), associated ecosystem goods and services (e.g., tourism and recreation, fishing, nutrient & sediment retention, contaminant processing, carbon sequestration, flood protection),

  7. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  8. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  9. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  10. Materializing Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Geismar, H.; Horst, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    The articles in this volume were originally presented in a panel entitled ‘Material Methodologies’ at the American Anthropological Association meeting in New Orleans (November 2002). The panel was devised to tie together theoretical advances in the study of the material with the creative possibilities of fieldwork practices. Through detailed ethnographic discussion, we highlighted the ways in which a focus on a specifically material world enabled us to discover new perspecti...

  11. Analysis by X-Ray images of EVA waste incorporated in Portland Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.A.; Antunes, M.L.P.; Montagnoli, R.M.; Mancini, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The EVA is a copolymer used by Brazilian shoes industries. This material is cut for the manufacture of insoles. This operation generates about 18% of waste. The EVA waste can be reused in incorporation in Portland cement to construction without structural purposes. The aim of this work is to show X-rays images to assessment the space distribution of the wastes in the cement and to evaluate the use of this methodology. Cylindrical specimens were produced according to ABNT - NBR 5738 standards. The volume relation of sand and cement was 3:1, 10% and 30% of waste was incorporated in cement specimens. X-Rays images were obtained of cylindrical specimens in front projection. The images showed that the distribution of the waste is homogeneous, consistent with what was intended in this type of incorporation, which can provide uniformity in test results of compressive strength. (author)

  12. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in conventional glass ionomer cements and triclosan incorporated glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Somani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The aim of the following study is to comparatively evaluate the microleakage of triclosan incorporated GIC with conventional restorative GIC. Materials and Methods: Triclosan in powder form was added to conventional GIC to formulate a concentration of 2.5%. Class five cavities were prepared in non-carious extracted molars and were respectively restored with conventional restorative GIC and triclosan incorporated GIC. Samples were kept in 10% methylene blue dye. Ground sections were obtained and were observed under a binocular microscope for dye penetration. Result: No significant difference was found in the microleakage of two groups. Conclusion: Triclosan incorporated GIC can be considered as an alternative to GIC with enhanced antibacterial property.

  13. Materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Various nuclear techniques have been developed and employed by technologies and scientists worldwide to physically and chemically characterise the material particularly those that have applications in industry. These include small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the internal structural study of material, whereas, the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for the chemical analysis, while the Moessbauer spectroscopy for the study on the magnetic properties and structural identity of material. Basic principle and instrumentations of the techniques are discussed in this chapter. Example of their applications in various disciplines particularly in characterisation of industrial materials also described

  14. Evolutionary Snowdrift Game Incorporating Costly Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Yee Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG by introducing a third punishing (P character and study the effects.  The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C character, are willing to pay a cost of a so as to punish a non-cooperative (D opponent by ß. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, a, ß, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, the three-character system evolves either into a steady state consisting only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters in a well-mixed population.  The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to SG, while the latter is similar to SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different.  Analytically, the key features in the steady states and dynamics obtained by simulations are captured by a set of differential equations.  The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P-agents is greater than r/ß. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population. ABSTRAK: Peranan hukuman dalam meningkatkan kerjasama merupakan isu penting.  Hukuman berat diterapkan ke dalam permainan hanyutan salji (snowdrift game (SG dengan memperkenalkan karekter penghukum (P ketiga dan akibatnya dipantau. Penghukum, pada asasnya membawa watak koperatif (C, sanggup membayar kos a, agar dia menghukum lawan yang tidak koperatif (D dengan ß. Bergantung kepada pecahan permulaan watak

  15. Transfer and incorporation of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den; Juan, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of tritium in mammals has been studied in a number of laboratories which have participated in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment. The results of these studies are discussed and related to data obtained elsewhere. The animals studied are small laboratory and domestic animals. Tritium has been administered as THO, both in single and long-term dosing experiments, and also as organically bound tritium. The biological half-life of tritium in the body water pool has been determined in different species. The following values have been found: 1.1 days in mice; 13.2 days in kangaroo rats; 3.8 days in pigs; 4.1 days in lactating versus 8.3 in non-lactating goats and 3.1-4.0 days in lactating cows and steers. Much attention has been paid to the incorporation of tritium into organic constituents, both in the animal organism (organs, tissues) and in the secretions of the animal after continuous administration of tritium, mostly as THO. When compared with tritium levels in body water, and expressed as the ratio of specific activities, values of 0.25 and 0.40 have been found in mice liver and testis respectively. In cow's milk, these ratios vary from 0.30 for casein to 0.60 for lactose. The transfer of tritium into milk after continuous ingestion of THO by a lactating cow is about 1.50% of the daily ingested tritium per litre of milk. Some results of experiments, utilizing organically bound tritium, are also presented. (author)

  16. INCORPORATING MARKET ORIENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the main issues surrounding the concept of market orientation applied in the context of higher education. Considering the important changes taking place in this sector, a strong willingness of universities to adopt marketing concepts can be noticed. The paper seeks to provide a retrospect on this process, starting with the incorporation of marketing in higher education, and moving on to its implementation, which has come to be known as market orientation. Following a stream of the most relevant literature in the field, we present definitions of the main concepts, and integrate them in the education context, with the purpose of establishing the relevance and importance of market orientation for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage and higher institutional performance. The paper does not aim at providing an exhaustive literature review, but rather at presenting the main elements that define a market orientation, and at supporting its implementation, by outlining the significant benefits that could follow. While theoretical by nature, this research contributes to the body of literature in the field, through closely examining the conceptualization and operationalization of market orientation, and also providing the fundamental components that define the concept and help its implementation. Furthermore, the paper provides practitioners with a number of suggested research directions, which could potentially help improve educational institutions’ activity, while also contributing to a better understanding of the concept, and to building richer theories in the field of marketing education. Given that the marketing literature in Romania has mostly overlooked market orientation, both this paper, and all following research in this area will prove to be significant for education managers and researchers alike, promoting the importance and significance of relevant knowledge, and encouraging a

  17. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  18. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  19. Incorporating damage mechanics into explosion simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammis, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    The source region of an underground explosion is commonly modeled as a nested series of shells. In the innermost open-quotes hydrodynamic regimeclose quotes pressures and temperatures are sufficiently high that the rock deforms as a fluid and may be described using a PVT equation of state. Just beyond the hydrodynamic regime, is the open-quotes non-linear regimeclose quotes in which the rock has shear strength but the deformation is nonlinear. This regime extends out to the open-quotes elastic radiusclose quotes beyond which the deformation is linear. In this paper, we develop a model for the non-linear regime in crystalline source rock where the nonlinearity is mostly due to fractures. We divide the non-linear regime into a open-quotes damage regimeclose quotes in which the stresses are sufficiently high to nucleate new fractures from preexisting ones and a open-quotes crack-slidingclose quotes regime where motion on preexisting cracks produces amplitude dependent attenuation and other non-linear effects, but no new cracks are nucleated. The boundary between these two regimes is called the open-quotes damage radius.close quotes The micromechanical damage mechanics recently developed by Ashby and Sammis (1990) is used to write an analytic expression for the damage radius in terms of the initial fracture spectrum of the source rock, and to develop an algorithm which may be used to incorporate damage mechanics into computer source models for the damage regime. Effects of water saturation and loading rate are also discussed

  20. Performance of asphalt mixture incorporating recycled waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Baizura; Abdullah, Mohd Ezree; Sanik, Mohd Erwan; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Raduan, Rasyidah; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the amount of premix waste was increased every year, especially at the batching plants. Normally, the waste materials will be discarded without doing any innovative and effective research about those materials. This situation has become one of the global concerns due to the increasing number of premix waste produced every year. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using premix waste on improving asphalt mixture fatigue behaviour. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. The sample conducted in this study were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% of premix waste respectively. For a binder test, the laboratory test conducted were penetration test, softening test and thin film oven test while for the performance test were resilient modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test. From the laboratory test, the resilient modulus test was conducted with two different temperature which was 25°C and 40°C. The result from that test was 20% of premix waste had higher resilient modulus at that two different temperatures compared to another samples. From that test also shown that the sample at the lower temperature which was 25°C has higher resilient modulus compared to the temperature of 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test showed that the 30% of premix waste sample was suitable for the modified asphalt mixture with referring to the maximum deformation and strain for comparison control, 10%,20%, and 100% of premix waste samples. So, it can be concluded that premix waste inhibits great potential as road construction material and suitable for repeated traffic loading.

  1. New materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.K.; Rao, C.N.R.; Tsuruta, T.

    1992-01-01

    The book contains the state-of-the art lectures delivered at the discussion meeting on new materials, a field in which rapid advances are taking place. The main objective of the meeting was to bring active scientists in this area from Japan and India together. The topics covered diverse aspects of modern materials including high temperature superconducting compounds. (M.G.B.)

  2. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    the document is a collection of papers on different aspects of materials science. It discusses many items such as semiconductors, surface properties and interfaces, construction and civil engineering, metallic materials, polymers and composites, biology and biomaterials, metallurgy etc.. - 1 - Document1 Document1

  3. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    . Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program......, and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  4. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  5. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Materials Science Division is engaged in research on physical properties of materials and the effects of radiation upon them. This involves solid state materials undergoing phase transitions, energy storing materials, and biomaterials. The Division also offers research facilities for M.S. and Ph.D. thesis work in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials, and radiation sciences in cooperation with the various colleges and departments of the UPR Mayaguez Campus. It is anticipated that it will serve as a catalyst in starting energy-related research programs in cooperation with UPR faculty, especially programs involving solar energy. To encourage and promote cooperative efforts, contact is maintained with former graduate students and with visiting scientists from Latin American research institutions

  6. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  7. Centrioles regulate centrosome size by controlling the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conduit, Paul T; Brunk, Kathrin; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Dix, Carly I; Lucas, Eliana P; Raff, Jordan W

    2010-12-21

    centrosomes are major microtubule organizing centers in animal cells, and they comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM). Centrosome size is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and it has recently been shown that the two centrosomes in certain stem cells are often asymmetric in size. There is compelling evidence that centrioles influence centrosome size, but how centrosome size is set remains mysterious. we show that the conserved Drosophila PCM protein Cnn exhibits an unusual dynamic behavior, because Cnn molecules only incorporate into the PCM closest to the centrioles and then spread outward through the rest of the PCM. Cnn incorporation into the PCM is driven by an interaction with the conserved centriolar proteins Asl (Cep152 in humans) and DSpd-2 (Cep192 in humans). The rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and this rate influences the amount of Cnn in the PCM, which in turn is an important determinant of overall centrosome size. Intriguingly, daughter centrioles in syncytial embryos only start to incorporate Cnn as they disengage from their mothers; this generates a centrosome size asymmetry, with mother centrioles always initially organizing more Cnn than their daughters. centrioles can control the amount of PCM they organize by regulating the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM. This mechanism can explain how centrosome size is regulated during the cell cycle and also allows mother and daughter centrioles to set centrosome size independently of one another.

  8. Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marcel; Macdonald, Brian A; Wagner, Gregory L; Joyce, Stephen A; Rector, Kirk D

    2010-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass offers economic and environmental advantages over corn starch for biofuels production. However, its fractionation currently requires energy-intensive pretreatments, due to the lignin chemical resistance and complex cell wall structure. Recently, ionic liquids have been used to dissolve biomass at high temperatures. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen by ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) pretreatment at room temperature. The samples contract when rinsed with deionized water. The controlled expansion and contraction of the wood structure can be used to incorporate enzymes and catalysts deep into the wood structure for improved pretreatments and accelerated cellulose hydrolysis. As a proof of concept, silver and gold nanoparticles of diameters ranging from 20 to 100 nm were incorporated at depths up to 4 mum. Confocal surface-enhanced Raman images at different depths show that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the pretreated sample, and they remained on the samples after rinsing. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence microanalyses indicate that the majority of nanoparticle incorporation occurs after an ionic liquid pretreatment of less than 1 h. In addition to improved pretreatments, the incorporation of materials and chemicals into wood and paper products enables isotope tracing, development of new sensing, and imaging capabilities.

  9. The effect of insulin on amino acid incorporation into exocrine pancreatic cells of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.F.; Poort, C.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of radioactive leucine per cell in the acinar pancreatic cells of the rat increases by 50 per cent within one hour after subcutaneous administration of insulin, an effect that lasts for at least one more hour. The rate of incorporation has been measured by quantitative radioautography and by determination of the radioactivity per μg DNA in TCA-precipitable material from tissue homogenates. The capacity for amino acid (leucine and lysine) incorporation as measured by incubating pancreatic fragments in vitro is not enhanced by insulin treatment of the rat in vivo during one or more hours. Insulin was found to lower the serum concentration of most amino acids significantly, leucine by 50 per cent. The apparent effect of insulin on the incorporation of radioactive leucine in vivo can be explained by the difference in the specific radioactivity of the circulating amino acid in the treated rats as compared to the untreated ones. A change in amino acid concentration in the serum may likewise be the explanation of the decrease in amino acid incorporation rate in alloxan diabetic rats. (orig./GSE) [de

  10. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  11. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Kelly L.S.; Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca"2"+ ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO_3 solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO_3 residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  12. Timing incorporation of different green manure crops to minimize the risk of nitrogen leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KÄNKÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven field trials at four research sites were carried out to study the effect of incorporation time of different plant materials on soil mineral N content during two successive seasons. Annual hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, red clover (Trifolium pratense L., westerwold ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. westerwoldicum and straw residues of N-fertilized spring barley (Hordeum vulgare were incorporated into the soil by ploughing in early September, late October and the following May, and by reduced tillage in May. Delaying incorporation of the green manure crop in autumn lessened the risk of N leaching. The higher the crop N and soil NO3-N content, the greater the risk of leaching. Incorporation in the following spring, which lessened the risk of N leaching as compared with early autumn ploughing, often had an adverse effect on the growth of the succeeding crop. After spring barley, the NO3-N content of the soil tended to be high, but the timing of incorporation did not have a marked effect on soil N. With exceptionally high soil mineral N content, N leaching was best inhibited by growing westerwold ryegrass in the first experimental year. ;

  13. Microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly, membrane protein incorporation, and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Jones, Joshua D; Lenov, Ivan L; Riordan, Colleen M; Sligar, Stephen G; Bailey, Ryan C

    2017-08-22

    The characterization of integral membrane proteins presents numerous analytical challenges on account of their poor activity under non-native conditions, limited solubility in aqueous solutions, and low expression in most cell culture systems. Nanodiscs are synthetic model membrane constructs that offer many advantages for studying membrane protein function by offering a native-like phospholipid bilayer environment. The successful incorporation of membrane proteins within Nanodiscs requires experimental optimization of conditions. Standard protocols for Nanodisc formation can require large amounts of time and input material, limiting the facile screening of formation conditions. Capitalizing on the miniaturization and efficient mass transport inherent to microfluidics, we have developed a microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly and purification, and demonstrated the ability to incorporate functional membrane proteins into the resulting Nanodiscs. In addition to working with reduced sample volumes, this platform simplifies membrane protein incorporation from a multi-stage protocol requiring several hours or days into a single platform that outputs purified Nanodiscs in less than one hour. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we incorporated Cytochrome P450 into Nanodiscs of variable size and lipid composition, and present spectroscopic evidence for the functional active site of the membrane protein. This platform is a promising new tool for membrane protein biology and biochemistry that enables tremendous versatility for optimizing the incorporation of membrane proteins using microfluidic gradients to screen across diverse formation conditions.

  14. Materials at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    ,' LA-UR-08-1541. This document introduced three strategic thrusts that crosscut the Grand Challenges and define future laboratory directions and facilities: (1) Information Science and Technology enabl ing integrative and predictive science; (2) Experimental science focused on materials for the future; and (3) Fundamental forensic science for nuclear, biological, and chemical threats. The next step for the Materials Capability was to develop a strategic plan for the second thrust, Materials for the Future. within the context of a capabilities-based Laboratory. This work has involved extending our 2006-2007 Grand Challenge workshops, integrating materials fundamental challenges into the MaRIE definition, and capitalizing on the emerging materials-centric national security missions. Strategic planning workshops with broad leadership and staff participation continued to hone our scientific directions and reinforce our strength through interdependence. By the Fall of 2008, these workshops promoted our primary strength as the delivery of Predictive Performance in applications where Extreme Environments dominate and where the discovery of Emergent Phenomena is a critical. These planning efforts were put into action through the development of our FY10 LDRD Strategic Investment Plan where the Materials Category was defined to incorporate three central thrusts: Prediction and Control of Performance, Extreme Environments and Emergent Phenomena. As with all strategic planning, much of the benefit is in the dialogue and cross-fertilization of ideas that occurs during the process. By winter of 2008/09, there was much agreement on the evolving focus for the Materials Strategy, but there was some lingering doubt over Prediction and Control of Performance as one of the three central thrusts, because it overarches all we do and is, truly, the end goal for materials science and engineering. Therefore, we elevated this thrust within the overarching vision/mission and introduce the

  15. E-beam crosslinked, biocompatible functional hydrogels incorporating polyaniline nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M.A.; Niconov, A.; Chmieliewska, D.; Spadaro, G.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective of this research is to develop a functional soft nanocomposites platform that combines the electro-optic properties of conjugated polymer nanoparticles with process flexibility, highly hydrophilic character, 3D structure and biocompatibility of hydrogels, to yield novel soft materials with multi-application potential in diagnostic, therapeutic and regenerative medicine. PANI aqueous nanocolloids in their acid doped, inherently conductive form, are synthesised by means of suitable polymeric stabilisers, i.e. water soluble polymers, that may prevent irreversible PANI particles coalescence and precipitation during synthesis and upon storage. Depending on the nature nad concentration of the polymeric stabiliser, e.g. polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinylalcohol (PVA) or chitosan (CT), PANI has been synthesised in form of nanoscalar rods, spherical particles or rice grains, respectively. In the present work, e-beam irradiation with a 12 MeV Linac accelerator has been tested, in alternative to gamma-rays, as a viable industrial methodology to generate hydrogel nanocomposites via in-situ crosslinking of the polymers already used to stabilise polyaniline nanocolloids, at low temperature, with no recourse to further addition of molecular weight chemicals and in a few minutes. In these conditions nanoparticles morphology of PANI should be preserved and interesting electro-optical properties can be imparted. The swelling properties of the different hydrogel nanocomposites have been investigated at the variance of the chemical structure of the matrix material and of the pH of the swelling medium. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies demonstrate the retained optical activity of the dispersed PANI nanoparticles when incorporated in the hydrogels. Selected formulations have been also subjected to MTT assays and absence of cytotoxicity has been ascertained as the first necessary step to assess their biocompatibility.

  16. Addition of alternative materials to ceramic slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Nara,E. O. B.; Moraes,J. A. R.; Freitas,A. M. V. de; Rediske,G.; Benitez,G. B.

    2014-01-01

    The construction market is very growing, leading to the emergence of new technologies and materials, and a growing need for sustainable products for the construction process, and the call for quality of life we present the description of a new option alternative materials for environments that require careful with the acoustics. The research covers the development and incorporation of new material in construction, with the potential acoustic, from tests and measurements with calibrated decibe...

  17. Neutron radiation shielding properties of polymer incorporated self compacting concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkapur, Santhosh M; Divakar, L; Narasimhan, Mattur C; Karkera, Narayana B; Goverdhan, P; Sathian, V; Prasad, N K

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the neutron radiation shielding characteristics of a class of novel polymer-incorporated self-compacting concrete (PISCC) mixes are evaluated. Pulverized high density polyethylene (HDPE) material was used, at three different reference volumes, as a partial replacement to river sand in conventional concrete mixes. By such partial replacement of sand with polymer, additional hydrogen contents are incorporated in these concrete mixes and their effect on the neutron radiation shielding properties are studied. It has been observed from the initial set of experiments that there is a definite trend of reductions in the neutron flux and dose transmission factor values in these PISCC mixes vis-à-vis ordinary concrete mix. Also, the fact that quite similar enhanced shielding results are recorded even when reprocessed HDPE material is used in lieu of the virgin HDPE attracts further attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incorporation of europium III complex into nanoparticles and films obtained by the Sol-Gel methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faley Jean de Sousa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is very effective for the preparation of new materials with potential applications in optics, sensors, catalyst supports, coatings, and specialty inorganic polymers that can be used as hosts for the accommodation of organic molecules. The low temperature employed in the process is the main advantage of this methodology. In this work, the europium (III complex with 1,10-phenantroline was prepared, and this luminescent complex was incorporated into silica nanoparticles and films by the sol-gel process. The nanoparticles were obtained by the modified Stöber methodology. The films were obtained by the dip-coating technique, at different deposition rates and numbers of layers. The nanoparticles and films were characterized by photoluminescence, thermal analysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Characterization revealed that the europium (III complex was not affected upon incorporation into the nanoparticles and films, opening a new field for the application of these materials.

  19. Recommendation for the application of the guideline for incorporation monitoring in nuclear medicine; Empfehlung fuer die Anwendung der Richtlinie zur Inkorporationsueberwachung in der Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenmuth, T. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Dalheimer, A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany); Eckardt, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Eschner, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany); Kratzel, U. [LfU Bayern (Germany); Lassmann, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany); Lauterbach, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany); Dettmann, K.

    2009-07-01

    For the use of open radioactive materials in the nuclear medicine a recommendation should give assistance by the judgement of the draught suggested by the user according to the guideline 'Incorporation monitoring' to the responsible authorities. To the evaluation of the requirement for a regular monitoring the document delivers recommendations for incorporation factors or use of threshold value measurements. (orig.)

  20. Incorporating nuclear and radiochemistry in the traditional undergraduate chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.D.; Kleppinger, E.W.

    1994-01-01

    Although many areas of major national need depend critically on professionals trained in nuclear and radiochemistry, there has been a steady decline in both the educational opportunities and student interest in this area. One major factor that has contributed greatly to the lack of student interest in nuclear and radiochemistry is that most undergraduate students in chemistry and other sciences are no longer introduced to these topics. This deficiency in the traditional chemistry curriculum, coupled with the negative public perception towards all things open-quotes nuclear,close quotes has resulted in a serious shortage of individuals with a background in this area. The authors are trying to address this problem by open-quotes educating the educators.close quotes The authors are developing a set of summer workshops to provide faculty from four-year colleges with the curriculum materials, training, and motivation to incorporate these topics on a continuing basis in their traditional undergraduate chemistry curricula. The first series of workshops is scheduled for the summer of 1995

  1. Incorporation of iridium into electrodeposited rhenium–nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen Sagiv, Maayan; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium (Re), a refractory metal that has gained significant recognition as a high performance engineering material, is mostly used in military, aircraft and aerospace applications, as well as for catalysis in the petrochemical industry. However, its performance at high temperature in humid air is limited by the formation of rhenium heptoxide (Re 2 O 7 ), which penetrates the grain boundaries and causes brittleness. Improvement of this is being sought through the incorporation of iridium (Ir) into Re deposits. To this end, suitable plating baths for Re–Ir–Ni coatings were developed. These alloys were deposited from different aqueous solutions on copper substrates under galvanostatic conditions, in a three-electrode cell. The plating bath consisted of iridium tri-chloride, ammonium perrhenate and nickel sulfamate as the electroactive species, and citric acid as the complexing agent. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions on the Faradaic efficiency (FE), partial current densities, as well as on the thickness of the coatings and their composition were studied. Re–Ir–Ni coatings as thick as 18 μm, with Re-content as high as 73 at.% and Ir-content as high as 29 at.%, were obtained, using different plating baths. A mechanism of the electrochemical process was suggested. It was found that both an HCP Ir 0.4 Re 0.6 phase and an HCP Ni phase with nanometric crystallites were formed, possibly together with a hexagonal nickel hydride (Ni 2 H) phase

  2. Incorporating TCNQ into thiophene-fused heptacene for n-channel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Qun

    2012-06-01

    Incorporation of electron-deficient tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) into electron-rich thiophene-fused heptacene was successfully achieved for the purpose of stabilizing longer acenes and generating new n-type organic semiconductors. The heptacene-TCNQ derivative 1 was found to have good stability and an expected electron transporting property. Electron mobility up to 0.01 cm 2 V -1 s -1 has been obtained for this novel material in solution processed organic field effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  4. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  5. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...... a detachment from the known world.Second, the utopianism of a new economy firm is examined. It is argued that the physical set-up of the firm -in particular the distribution of tables and chairs - evoke a number of alternatives to ordinary work practice.In this way the materialities of the firm are crucial...... to its persuasive image of being the office of the future.The notion that utopia is achieved through material arrangements is finally related to the analysis of facts andfictions in ANT. It is argued, that even though Utopias are neither fact nor fiction, they are both material andeffective...

  7. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  8. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  9. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  10. 76 FR 5483 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Cargo Tank Special Permits Into Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... are used to supply LPG fuel to farmers for crop drying, crop irrigation, flame weeding, plant..., applicators use soil fumigants primarily on high value crops, such as vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals...

  11. Selenium incorporated in vegetable material for the obtaining of worm flour and compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbio Alcivar Cedeño

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was done to evaluate the quality of the earthworm flour fed with the addition of selenium. Two groups with three replicates were used; a food made of sterilized vegetable waste and other with the addition of soya (5% as a source of selenium. Temperature, humidity, and pH were controlled to ensure the optimal growth of earthworms. A 0.5 g sample of both groups replicates was weighed in order to determine the amount of Na, K, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu, Li, Se, Hg and Pb. The humus quality provided by the samples was also qualitatively analyzed, and the amount of moisture, protein, dry matter, fat, ash, crude fiber and soluble carbohydrates were determined. The amount of the elements Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Li was satisfactory because the flour had concentrations similar to the conventional worm flour, which is first achieved for this type of product. The amount of protein and lipid was also high similar to the conventional foods derived from animals. No heavy metals were found. Remarkably, the use of Eisenia foetida Savigny extracts can be used as a dietary supplement in amounts less than 1 g per person, which minimizes the risk of heavy metals. The application of humus from earthworms that were fed with a diet that contained selenium, corn plants obtained were significantly different from the untreated ones.

  12. 77 FR 64450 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Special Permits and Competent Authorities Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... posted without change to the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS), including any personal information.... Transportation of solid coal tar pitch compounds. Transportation of certain ammonia solutions in UN1H1 and UN6HA1... production and the transportation stream. Thus, special permits provide a mechanism for testing new...

  13. Numerical modelling of flexible pavement incorporating cross-anisotropic material properties. Part II: Surface rectangular loading

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, J W; Kawana, F; Matsui, K

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of increased loading on roads, studies on tyre-road interaction have gained prominence in recent years. Tyres form an essential interface between vehicles and road pavement surfaces. These are the only parts of the vehicle that are in contact with the road and transmit the vehicle loading to the road surface. The use of the Cartesian coordinate system is convenient in dealing with a uniform/non-uniform tyre load acting over a rectangular area, but few ...

  14. The direct incorporation of micro-encapsulated phase change materials in the concrete mixing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Entrop, A.G.; Mandilaras, I.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Founti, M.; Durmisevic, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study refers to a set of tests using different amounts of microencapsulated PCM directly mixed into self-compacting concrete. This SCC is investigated regarding its fresh and hardened properties. It will be shown that increasing PCM amounts lead to lower thermal conductivity and

  15. 78 FR 56618 - Incorporation by Reference; North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria; Hazardous Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Rights. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act The National Technology Transfer and Advancement... 1980 (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of... and comment. Assistance for Small Entities In accordance with section 213(a) of the Small Business...

  16. Radmap: ''as-built'' cad models incorporating geometrical, radiological and material information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, L.; Lubawy, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    EDF intends to achieve successful and cost-effective dismantling of its obsolete nuclear plants. To reach this goal, EDF is currently extending its ''as-built'' 3-D modelling system to also include the location and characteristics of gamma sources in the geometrical models of its nuclear installations. The resulting system (called RADMAP) is a complete CAD chain covering 3-D and gamma data acquisitions, CAD modelling and exploitation of the final model. Its aim is to describe completely the geometrical and radiological state of a particular nuclear environment. This paper presents an overall view of RADMAP. The technical and functional characteristics of each element of the chain are indicated and illustrated using real (EDF) environments/applications. (author)

  17. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  18. Incorporation of fluconazole in copolymer PMMA-g-PEG derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, B.M.; Santos, V.M.R. dos; Novack, K.M.; Lopes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The graft copolymer PMMA-g-PEG went through chemical transformations in its chain through acetylation, halogenation, methylation and esterification followed by hydrolysis reactions. Subsequently, the copolymer PMMA-g-PEG derivatives passed through the process of emulsification and incorporation of the drug fluconazole. Derivatives copolymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after incorporation in order to evaluate their effectiveness. The efficiency of incorporation was observed and it was also verified that the complexity of polymer chain influence in the incorporated fluconazole content. (author)

  19. Incorporating prior knowledge into beam orientation optimization in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei M.S.; Lei Xing

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Selection of beam configuration in currently available intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning systems is still based on trial-and-error search. Computer beam orientation optimization has the potential to improve the situation, but its practical implementation is hindered by the excessive computing time associated with the calculation. The purpose of this work is to provide an effective means to speed up the beam orientation optimization by incorporating a priori geometric and dosimetric knowledge of the system and to demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm for beam placement in IMRT. Methods and Materials: Beam orientation optimization was performed in two steps. First, the quality of each possible beam orientation was evaluated using beam's-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) developed in our previous study. A simulated annealing algorithm was then employed to search for the optimal set of beam orientations, taking into account the BEVD scores of different incident beam directions. During the calculation, sampling of gantry angles was weighted according to the BEVD score computed before the optimization. A beam direction with a higher BEVD score had a higher probability of being included in the trial configuration, and vice versa. The inclusion of the BEVD weighting in the stochastic beam angle sampling process made it possible to avoid spending valuable computing time unnecessarily at 'bad' beam angles. An iterative inverse treatment planning algorithm was used for beam intensity profile optimization during the optimization process. The BEVD-guided beam orientation optimization was applied to an IMRT treatment of paraspinal tumor. The advantage of the new optimization algorithm was demonstrated by comparing the calculation with the conventional scheme without the BEVD weighting in the beam sampling. Results: The BEVD tool provided useful guidance for the selection of the potentially good directions for the beams to incident and was used

  20. Exploiting strain to enhance the Bi incorporation in GaAs-based III/V semiconductors using MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattermann, L.; Ludewig, P.; Sterzer, E.; Volz, K.

    2017-07-01

    Bi containing III/V semiconductors are frequently mentioned for their importance as part of the next generation of optoelectronic devices. Bi containing ternary and quaternary materials like Ga(AsBi), Ga(NAsBi) or Ga(PAsBi) are promising candidates to meet the requirements for new laser structures for telecommunications and solar cell applications. However, in previous studies it was determined that the incorporation of sufficient amounts of Bi still poses a challenge, especially when using MOVPE (metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy) as the growth technique. In order to figure out which mechanisms are responsible for the limitation of Bi incorporation, this work deals with the question of whether there is a relationship between strain, induced by the large Bi atoms, and the saturation level of Bi incorporation in Ga(AsBi). Ga(NAsBi) structures were grown by MOVPE at a low temperature, 400 °C, and compared to Ga(PAsBi) as well as Ga(AsBi) growth. By using the two group V atoms P and N, which have a smaller covalent radius than Bi, the effect of local strain compensation was investigated systematically. The comparison of Bi incorporation in the two quaternary materials systems proved the importance of local strain for the limitation of Bi incorporation, in addition to other effects, like Bi surface coverage and hydrocarbon groups at the growth surface. This, of course, also opens up ways to strain-state-engineer the Bi incorporation in semiconductor alloys.

  1. Carbonaceous electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Long; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-26

    Supercapacitors have been widely studied around the world in recent years, due to their excellent power density and long cycle life. As the most frequently used electrode materials for supercapacitors, carbonaceous materials attract more and more attention. However, their relatively low energy density still holds back the widespread application. Up to now, various strategies have been developed to figure out this problem. This research news summarizes the recent advances in improving the supercapacitor performance of carbonaceous materials, including the incorporation of heteroatoms and the pore size effect (subnanopores' contribution). In addition, a new class of carbonaceous materials, porous organic networks (PONs) has been managed into the supercapacitor field, which promises great potential in not only improving the supercapacitor performances, but also unraveling the related mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Methodology of radionuclides dis incorporation in people related to nuclear and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez F, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a classification of the radiological and nuclear accidents is presented, describing which the activities are, where they have occurred, their incidence and the learned lessons in these successes. The radiological accidents in which radioactive materials intervene can occur anywhere, and they are related to no controlled dangerous sources (abandoned, lost, stolen, or found sources), improper use of dangerous industrial and medical sources, exposition and contamination of people in general by an unknown origin, serious over expositions, menaces and willful misconduct, emergencies during transportation of radioactive material. A person can receive a dose of radiation from an external source, because of radioactive material placed on skin or on equipment, or because of ingestion or inhalation of radiological particles. The ingestion or the inhalation of radioactive material can cause an internal dose to the whole body or to a specific organ during a period of time. That is why a description of the processes of incorporation, the stages of incorporation and a description of the biokinetic models are also realized to understand the ingestion, transference and the excretion of the radioactive elements. In order to offer help to a victim of internal contamination, the dosimetric and medical diagnosis is very important. The most important techniques of dosimetric diagnosis are the dosimetry in vivo (cytogenetics and the counting in vivo of the whole body) and the bioassays. These techniques allow obtain data such as the radionuclide, the target organ, the absorbed dose, etc. At the same time, the doctor in charge must be attentive to the patients symptoms and their manifestation time, since they are an indicator, first, the patient suffered an irradiation, and second, of the range esteem of the received radiation dose. These are the parameters that are useful as criterion to decide if a person has to receive some treatment and select the methodologies that

  3. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  4. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  5. Neutron shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori; Iimori, Hiroshi; Kobori, Junzo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a neutron shielding material which incorporates preferable shielding capacity, heat resistance, fire resistance and workability by employing a mixture of thermosetting resin, polyethylene and aluminium hydroxide in special range ratio and curing it. Constitution: A mixture containing 20 to 60% by weight of thermosetting resin having preferable heat resistance, 10 to 40% by weight of polyethylene powder having high hydrogen atom density and 1000 to 60000 of molecular weight, and 15 to 55% by weight of Al(OH) 3 for imparting fire resistance and self-fire extinguishing property thereto is cured. At this time approx. 0.5 to 5% of curing catalyst of the thermosetting resin is contained in 100 parts by weight of the mixture. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Modeling of oxygen incorporation in Th, ThC, and ThN by density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen incorporation in nuclear fuel materials is an important issue deserving investigation due to its influence on thermophysical and structural properties. Even if there has been a renewed interest in thorium and thorium compounds in the last years, there is still not much research done on this topic. In this work, we study, by means of density functional theory calculations, the incorporation of oxygen in Th, ThC, and ThN. We analyze the electronic structure finding a characteristic peak to be attributed to oxygen incorporation. We also calculate incorporation and solution energies and obtain migration energies of oxygen through different paths finding that migration through vacancy sites is more energetically favorable than through interstitial ones.

  7. Incorporating Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook in Economics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak

    2015-01-01

    Social media is one of the most current and dynamic developments in education. In general, the field of economics has lagged behind other disciplines in incorporating technologies in the classroom. In this article, the authors provide a guide for economics educators on how to incorporate Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook inside and outside of the…

  8. 75 FR 17737 - Industrial Economics, Incorporated; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0194; FRL-8820-2] Industrial Economics... (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Industrial Economics, Incorporated in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Industrial Economics, Incorporated has been awarded multiple...

  9. Selective incorporation of 5-hydroxytryptophan into proteins in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-02-25

    This invention provides methods and compositions for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into a peptide using an orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair. In particular, an orthogonal pair is provided to incorporate 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan in a position encoded by an opal mutation.

  10. The biokinetic of incorporates radionuclides; Die Biokinetik von inkorporierten Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung; Giussani, Augusto [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Externe und interne Dosimetrie, Biokinetik' '

    2017-08-01

    Incorporated radionuclides from nuclear accidents, fission product releases or nuclear medical administration are distributed in the human body in organs and tissue, absorbed 9or excreted. The interpretation of incorporation monitoring results and the estimation of the internal doses that cannot be measured directly need mathematical methods and the formulation of biokinetic models.

  11. 22 CFR 212.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incorporation by reference. 212.13 Section 212.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC INFORMATION Publication in the Federal Register § 212.13 Incorporation by reference. For purposes of this subpart B, USAID matters which...

  12. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  13. A Collaborative Approach to Incorporating Statistics in the Physiology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterfield, April; Majerus, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Both the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) recommend appropriately incorporating mathematics into other disciplines (NRC 1996; NRC 2003; NCTM 2000). With this in mind, an interdisciplinary, inquiry-based project was undertaken to incorporate mathematical analysis of data into a…

  14. 40 CFR 59.412 - Incorporations by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Method for Chemical Resistance of Coatings Used in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, incorporation by reference approved for § 59.401, Nuclear coating. (5) ASTM Method D 4082-89, Standard Test Method for Effects of Gamma Radiation on Coatings for Use in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, incorporation...

  15. Between economic and legal analysis of incorporeal things: A critical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author uses practical economic examples to argue for the development of common law. The author identifies relevant Roman law principles which justify the legal nature of incorporeal things. It is demonstrated that the value of incorporeal things depends greatly on future circumstances. It is argued in this article that the ...

  16. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  17. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation by reference. 76.4 Section 76.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) The...

  18. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel isatin- incorporated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated thiadiazole hybrids as potential anti-breast ... Abstract. Purpose: To synthesis and characterize some novel isatin-incorporated ... Results: Compounds 3a, 3c, 3d, 3g and 3j showed anticancer activity in both MTT and SRB assay.

  19. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design requirements incorporated by reference. 801.12 Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements incorporated...

  20. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, I.; Ivanko, S.

    1976-01-01

    32 P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of 32 P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of 32 P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The 32 P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time. (author)

  1. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  2. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  3. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...

  4. Absorbant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetier, Monique.

    1978-11-01

    Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr

  5. Rates of incorporation of radioactive molecules during the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.W.; Pallavicini, M.G.; George, Y.S.; Groppi, V.; Look, M.; Dean, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    We report measurements of the incorporation of radioactive molecules during short labeling periods, as a function of cell-cycle stage, using a cell-sorter-based technique that does not require cell synchronization. We have determined: (1) tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation throughout S-phase in Lewis lung tumor cells in vitro both before and after treatment with cytosine arabinoside; (2) 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in KHT tumor cells in vitro and in vivo; (3) 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in Chinese hamster ovary cells and compared it with DNA synthesis throughout S-phase; (4) a mathematical expression describing 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in Chinese hamster M3-1 cells; and (5) the simultaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR and 35 S-methionine as they are related to cell size and DNA content in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. In asynchronously growing cells in vitro and in vivo, 3 H-TdR incorporation was generally low in early and late S-phase and highest in mid-S-phase. However, in Lewis lung tumor cells treated with cytosine arabinoside 3 H-TdR incorporation was highest in early and late S-phase and lowest in mid-S-phase. Incorporation of 35 S-methionine increased continuously with cell size and DNA content. Incorporation of 3 H-TdR in CHO cells was proportional to DNA synthesis

  6. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  7. Model for Volatile Incorporation into Soils and Dust on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Yen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Martian soils with high content of compounds of sulfur and chlorine are ubiquitous on Mars, having been found at all five landing sites. Sulfate and chloride salts are implicated by a variety of evidence, but few conclusive specific identifications have been made. Discovery of jarosite and Mg-Ca sulfates in outcrops at Meridiani Planum (MER mission) and regional-scale beds of kieserite and gypsum (Mars Express mission) notwithstanding, the sulfates in soils are uncertain. Chlorides or other Cl-containing minerals have not been uniquely identified directly by any method. Viking and Pathfinder missions found trends in the elemental analytical data consistent with MgSO4, but Viking results are biased by duricrust samples and Pathfinder by soil contamination of rock surfaces. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) missions have taken extensive data on soils with no confirmation of trends implicating any particular cation. In our model of martian dust and soil, the S and Cl are initially incorporated by condensation or chemisorption on grains directly from gas phase molecules in the atmosphere. It is shown by modeling that the coatings thus formed cannot quantitatively explain the apparent elemental composition of these materials, and therefore involve the migration of ions and formation of microscopic weathering rinds. Original cation inventories of unweathered particles are isochemically conserved. Exposed rock surfaces should also have micro rinds, depending upon the length of time of exposure. Martian soils may therefore have unusual chemical properties when interacting with aqueous layers or infused fluids. Potential ramifications to the quantitative accuracy of x-ray fluorescence and Moessbauer spectroscopy on unprocessed samples are also assessed.

  8. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education.

  9. Heterovalent Dopant Incorporation for Bandgap and Type Engineering of Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Ahmed L.

    2016-01-02

    Controllable doping of semiconductors is a fundamental technological requirement for electronic and optoelectronic devices. As intrinsic semiconductors, hybrid perovskites have so far been a phenomenal success in photovoltaics. The inability to dope these materials heterovalently (or aliovalently) has greatly limited their wider utilizations in electronics. Here we show an efficient in situ chemical route that achieves the controlled incorporation of trivalent cations (Bi3+, Au3+, or In3+) by exploiting the retrograde solubility behavior of perovskites. We term the new method dopant incorporation in the retrograde regime. We achieve Bi3+ incorporation that leads to bandgap tuning (∼300 meV), 104 fold enhancement in electrical conductivity, and a change in the sign of majority charge carriers from positive to negative. This work demonstrates the successful incorporation of dopants into perovskite crystals while preserving the host lattice structure, opening new avenues to tailor the electronic and optoelectronic properties of this rapidly emerging class of solution-processed semiconductors. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  10. Incorporating stand level risk management options into forest decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Eyvindson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To examine methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty to stand level forest decisions. Area of study: A case study examines a small forest holding from Jönköping, Sweden. Material and methods: We incorporate empirically estimated uncertainty into the simulation through a Monte Carlo approach when simulating the forest stands for the next 100 years. For the iterations of the Monte Carlo approach, errors were incorporated into the input data which was simulated according to the Heureka decision support system. Both the Value at Risk and the Conditional Value at Risk of the net present value are evaluated for each simulated stand. Main results: Visual representation of the errors can be used to highlight which decision would be most beneficial dependent on the decision maker’s opinion of the forest inventory results. At a stand level, risk preferences can be rather easily incorporated into the current forest decision support software. Research highlights: Forest management operates under uncertainty and risk. Methods are available to describe this risk in an understandable fashion for the decision maker.

  11. Heterovalent Dopant Incorporation for Bandgap and Type Engineering of Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Banavoth, Murali; Adinolfi, Valerio; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Alarousu, Erkki; Comin, Riccardo; Dursun, Ibrahim; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sargent, Edward H.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Controllable doping of semiconductors is a fundamental technological requirement for electronic and optoelectronic devices. As intrinsic semiconductors, hybrid perovskites have so far been a phenomenal success in photovoltaics. The inability to dope these materials heterovalently (or aliovalently) has greatly limited their wider utilizations in electronics. Here we show an efficient in situ chemical route that achieves the controlled incorporation of trivalent cations (Bi3+, Au3+, or In3+) by exploiting the retrograde solubility behavior of perovskites. We term the new method dopant incorporation in the retrograde regime. We achieve Bi3+ incorporation that leads to bandgap tuning (∼300 meV), 104 fold enhancement in electrical conductivity, and a change in the sign of majority charge carriers from positive to negative. This work demonstrates the successful incorporation of dopants into perovskite crystals while preserving the host lattice structure, opening new avenues to tailor the electronic and optoelectronic properties of this rapidly emerging class of solution-processed semiconductors. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  13. Effect of the Prodegradant-Additive Plastics Incorporated on the Polyethylene Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aldas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of degraded plastic with prodegradants on the polyethylene properties was studied. First, the mixture of low-density polyethylene (LDPE with 5 wt.% prodegradant (oxo-degradable additive was prepared by melt processing using a mixer chamber. Then, the degradation of the mixtures was evaluated by exposing the oxo-degradable LDPE in a Xenon arc chamber for 300 hours. The degraded material was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR assessing the carbonyl index and the hydroperoxide band. Then, different percentages of degraded material (1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 wt.% were incorporated into the neat LDPE. Mechanical and rheological tests were carried out to evaluate the recycling process of these blends. Also, the feasibility of the blends reprocessing was determined by analysing the melt flow index for each heating process and shear stress applied. It was evidenced that the increment of the content of the degraded material in the neat LDPE decreased the mechanical strength and the processability of blends due to the imminent thermal degradation. All the test results showed that the incorporation of degraded material causes a considerable reduction in the matrix properties during the reprocessing. Nevertheless, at low concentrations, the properties of the oxo-degradable LDPE–LDPE blends were found to be similar to the neat LDPE.

  14. New materials for next-generation commercial transports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on New Materials for Advanced Civil Aircraft, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council

    ... civil aircraft throughout their service life. The committee investigated the new materials and structural concepts that are likely to be incorporated into next generation commercial aircraft and the factors influencing application decisions...

  15. A first-principles study of He, Xe, Kr and O incorporation in thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. Understanding the incorporation of fission products and oxygen is very important to predict the behavior of nuclear fuels. A first approach to this goal is the study of the incorporation energies and stability of these elements in the material. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we calculate the incorporation energies of He, Xe, Kr and O atoms in Th and C vacancy sites, in tetrahedral interstitials and in Schottky defects along the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈1 0 0〉 directions. We also analyze atomic displacements, volume modifications and Bader charges. This kind of results for ThC, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. This should deal as a starting point towards the study of the complex behavior of fission products in irradiated ThC.

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  18. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  19. Materializing Superghosts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Victor; Krotov, Dmitry; Losev, Andrei; Lysov, Vyacheslav

    2007-01-01

    We construct the off-shell BV realization of N=1, d=10 SYM with 7 auxillary fields. This becomes possible due to materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of 10-dimensional spinors with pure spinors cut out. Auxillary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out axillary fields we obtain on-shell supersymmetric BV action with terms quadratic in antifields. Exactly this on...

  20. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  1. Engineering the bone-ligament interface using polyethylene glycol diacrylate incorporated with hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Jennifer Z; Donnelly, Kenneth; Keatch, Robert P; Baar, Keith

    2009-06-01

    Ligaments and tendons have previously been tissue engineered. However, without the bone attachment, implantation of a tissue-engineered ligament would require it to be sutured to the remnant of the injured native tissue. Due to slow repair and remodeling, this would result in a chronically weak tissue that may never return to preinjury function. In contrast, orthopaedic autograft reconstruction of the ligament often uses a bone-to-bone technique for optimal repair. Since bone-to-bone repairs heal better than other methods, implantation of an artificial ligament should also occur from bone-to-bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the cell-adhesion peptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) as a material for creating an in vitro tissue interface to engineer intact ligaments (i.e., bone-ligament-bone). Incorporation of HA into PEG hydrogels reduced the swelling ratio but increased mechanical strength and stiffness of the hydrogels. Further, HA addition increased the capacity for cell growth and interface formation. RGD incorporation increased the swelling ratio but decreased mechanical strength and stiffness of the material. Optimum levels of cell attachment were met using a combination of both HA and RGD, but this material had no better mechanical properties than PEG alone. Although adherence of the hydrogels containing HA was achieved, failure occurs at about 4 days with 5% HA. Increasing the proportion of HA improved interface formation; however, with high levels of HA, the PEG HA composite became brittle. This data suggests that HA, by itself or with other materials, might be well suited for engineering the ligament-bone interface.

  2. Cost effective material control and accountability training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaux, J.J.; Shull, L.M.; Salizzoni, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    DOE Order 5630.15, ''Safeguards and Security Training Program'' is being implemented at the Savannah River Site within the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's material control and accountability program. This paper reviews the development of a material control and accountability task analysis, the development of specific material control and accountability courses, and the cost effective and innovative strategies employed to implement the training program. The paper also discusses how the site material control and accountability policies and procedures are incorporated into the Westinghouse Savannah River Company training program to ensure that personnel receive the most current information

  3. FBR metallic materials test manual (English version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Susumu; Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2003-06-01

    For the development of the fast breeder reactor, this manual describes the method of in-air and in-sodium material tests and the method of organization the data. This previous manual has revised in accordance with the revision of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) and the conversion to the international unit. The test methods of domestic committees such as the VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) workshop were also refereed. The material test technologies accumulated in this group until now were also incorporated. This English version was prepared in order to provide more engineers with the FBR metallic materials test manual. (author)

  4. Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Berkun, Isil; Schmidt, Robert D.; Luzenski, Matthew F.; Lu, Xu; Bordon Sarac, Patricia; Case, Eldon D.; Hogan, Timothy P.

    2014-06-01

    Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds are promising candidate low-cost, lightweight, nontoxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation applications in the intermediate temperature range of 600 K to 800 K. Knowledge on the transport and mechanical properties of Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds is essential to the design of Mg2(Si,Sn)-based thermoelectric devices. In this work, such materials were synthesized using the molten-salt sealing method and were powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4- x Sn0.6Sb x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.072) compounds were investigated, and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036. The high ZT is attributed to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final product. The mechanical response of the material to stresses is a function of the elastic moduli. The temperature-dependent Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, acoustic wave speeds, and acoustic Debye temperature of the undoped Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds were measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy from 295 K to 603 K. In addition, the hardness and fracture toughness were measured at room temperature.

  5. Concentration-Dependent Patterns of Leucine Incorporation by Coastal Picoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cecilia; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Coastal pelagic environments are believed to feature concentration gradients of dissolved organic carbon at a microscale, and they are characterized by pronounced seasonal differences in substrate availability for the heterotrophic picoplankton. Microbial taxa that coexist in such habitats might thus differ in their ability to incorporate substrates at various concentrations. We investigated the incorporation patterns of leucine in four microbial lineages from the coastal North Sea at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 nM before and during a spring phytoplankton bloom. Community bulk incorporation rates and the fraction of leucine-incorporating cells in the different populations were analyzed. Significantly fewer bacterial cells incorporated the amino acid before (13 to 35%) than during (23 to 47%) the bloom at all but the highest concentration. The incorporation rate per active cell in the prebloom situation was constant above 0.1 nM added leucine, whereas it increased steeply with substrate concentration during the bloom. At both time points, a high proportion of members of the Roseobacter clade incorporated leucine at all concentrations (55 to 80% and 86 to 94%, respectively). In contrast, the fractions of leucine-incorporating cells increased substantially with substrate availability in bacteria from the SAR86 clade (8 to 31%) and from DE cluster 2 of the Flavobacteria-Sphingobacteria (14 to 33%). The incorporation patterns of marine Euryarchaeota were between these extremes (30 to 56% and 48 to 70%, respectively). Our results suggest that the contribution of microbial taxa to the turnover of particular substrates may be concentration dependent. This may help us to understand the specific niches of coexisting populations that appear to compete for the same resources. PMID:16517664

  6. Microstructural analysis of clayey ceramic incorporated with fluorescent lamp glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of glass powder fluorescent lamp, from a decontamination process, in the microstructure of clayey ceramic. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts of up to 10 wt.% into the clayey body. Specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired at 850 and 1050°C. After firing, the microstructure of the ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the incorporation of glass powder into the clayey body changes the microstructure of the ceramics. (author)

  7. Sulfur mineralization of different plant materials labelled with 35 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Cassio H.

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out, in green house conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effect of incorporation in soil of different plant materials labelled with 35 S and of incubation periods on the availability of sulfur to the bean test plants and on the dynamic of this element in the soil. The bean test plants dry matter yield ranged from 2.00 to 3.79 g/plant, the S content and absorption ranged from 118.20 to 194.04 mg/100 g and 2.61 to 6.34 mg/plant respectively. The 35 S derived from the incorporated bean plant material contributed with 12 to 256% of total S absorbed by bean test plant; rice plant material contributed with 12 to 22%; soybean plant material contributed 11 to 18%; corn plant material at rate of 7 g with, 11 to 19% and corn at rate of 3.5 g; with 7 to 1%. Plant material incorporation showed 35 S using efficiency by bean test plant of 21.41 to 9.94% by incorporated rice plant material, of 16.12 to 7.79% by rice material, of 13.11 to 6.49% by soybean material, of 10.24 to 6.21% by corn at rate of 3.5 g and of 7.41 to 3.81% by corn at rate of 7 g.Incorporated plant material with C/S relationship near 120, such as bean and rice, promoted desirable and favorable alteration in soil, while materials with C/S higher than 250, such as soybean and corn, led to unsatisfactory and undesirable alteration. The characteristic of incorporated plant materials which more affected its behavior was the C/S relationship, which depended on its physiological stage on collect timing. (author)

  8. Microstructural characterization of ceramic floor tiles with the incorporation of wastes from ceramic tile industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic floor tiles are widely used in buildings. In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic floor tiles interfere in the contact temperature and also it can be an strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. In this work, porous ceramic tiles were obtained by pressing an industrial atomized ceramic powder incorporated with refractory raw material (residue from porcelainized stoneware tile polishing and changing firing temperature. Raw materials and obtained compacted samples were evaluated by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential thermal analysis (DTA. Thermal (thermal conductivity and effusivity and physical (porosity measurements were also evaluated.

  9. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  10. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumari Chandrasekharan Sunil Sekhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies.

  11. Incorporation of polydimethylsiloxane with reduced graphene oxide and zinc oxide for tensile and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, N. S.; Ramli, Muhammad. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Hong, H. C.; Isa, S. Salwa M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Talip, L. F. A.; Mazlan, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an organosilicon polymer that is commonly used to incorporate with other fillers. PDMS in high viscous liquid form is mechanically stirred with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and mixed with zinc oxide (ZnO) with specific ratio, thus rendering into two types of samples. The mechanical and electrical properties of both samples are characterized. The result shows that PDMS sample with 50 mg rGO has the highest tensile strength with the value of 9.1 MPa. For electrical properties, sample with the lowest resistance is PDMS with 50 mg rGO and ZnO with the value of l.67×l05 Ω. This experiment shows the significant role of conductive fillers like rGO and ZnO incorporated in polymeric material such as PDMS to improve its electrical properties.

  12. Bimetallic iron and cobalt incorporated MFI/MCM-41 composite and its catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoshan; Xu, Junqing; Li, Xiao; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The formation of FeCo-MFI/MCM-41 composite is based on two steps, the first step of synthesizing the MFI-type proto-zeolite unites under hydrothermal conditions. The second step of assembling these zeolite fragment together new silica and heteroatom source on the CTAB surfactant micelle to synthesize the mesoporous product with hexagonal structure. Highlights: ► Bimetallic iron and cobalt incorporated MFI/MCM-41 composite was prepared using templating method. ► FeCo-MFI/MCM-41 composite simultaneously possessed two kinds of meso- and micro-porous structures. ► Iron and cobalt ions incorporated into the silica framework with tetrahedral coordination. -- Abstract: The MFI/MCM-41 composite material with bimetallic Fe and Co incorporation was prepared using templating method via a two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure. The obtained products were characterized by a series of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, N 2 sorption, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, H 2 temperature programmed reduction, thermal analyses, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the Fe and Co K-edge. The catalytic properties of the products were investigated by residual oil hydrocracking reactions. Characterization results showed that the FeCo-MFI/MCM-41 composite simultaneously possessed two kinds of stable meso- and micro-porous structures. Iron and cobalt ions were incorporated into the silicon framework, which was confirmed by H 2 temperature programmed reduction and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. This composite presented excellent activities in hydrocracking of residual oil, which was superior to the pure materials of silicate-1/MCM-41.

  13. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  14. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  15. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  16. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Orland Park, IL; Antink, Allison L [Bolingbrook, IL

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  17. From Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Arwa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores a novel strategy based on the site-selective incorporation of unnatural, metal binding amino acids into a host protein. The unnatural amino acids can either serve directly as metal binding centers can

  18. Incorporating Political Socialization Theory into Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra Godman

    1996-01-01

    Nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity to meet the future challenges of the health care system. Political socialization theory can assist faculty in adding a political thread to the curriculum. (SK)

  19. Investigating the Incorporation of Personality Constructs into IMPRINT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickason, David; Sargent, Bob; Bagnall, Tim

    2009-01-01

    ... in the Army, for use in Navy ship acquisitions. The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to incorporate non-cognitive attributes such as stress tolerance into IMPRINT for use as human performance moderators...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this part. Only... Administration (OSHA), or at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room...