WorldWideScience

Sample records for incorporating functional inter-relationships

  1. Incorporating functional inter-relationships into protein function prediction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vipin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional classification schemes (e.g. the Gene Ontology that serve as the basis for annotation efforts in several organisms are often the source of gold standard information for computational efforts at supervised protein function prediction. While successful function prediction algorithms have been developed, few previous efforts have utilized more than the protein-to-functional class label information provided by such knowledge bases. For instance, the Gene Ontology not only captures protein annotations to a set of functional classes, but it also arranges these classes in a DAG-based hierarchy that captures rich inter-relationships between different classes. These inter-relationships present both opportunities, such as the potential for additional training examples for small classes from larger related classes, and challenges, such as a harder to learn distinction between similar GO terms, for standard classification-based approaches. Results We propose a method to enhance the performance of classification-based protein function prediction algorithms by addressing the issue of using these interrelationships between functional classes constituting functional classification schemes. Using a standard measure for evaluating the semantic similarity between nodes in an ontology, we quantify and incorporate these inter-relationships into the k-nearest neighbor classifier. We present experiments on several large genomic data sets, each of which is used for the modeling and prediction of over hundred classes from the GO Biological Process ontology. The results show that this incorporation produces more accurate predictions for a large number of the functional classes considered, and also that the classes benefitted most by this approach are those containing the fewest members. In addition, we show how our proposed framework can be used for integrating information from the entire GO hierarchy for improving the accuracy of

  2. Stability parameters and their inter-relationships at the naviface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Hasse, L.; Murty, C.S.

    Different forms of stability parameters used for the estimation of fluxes and studies on the structure of surface boundary layer of the marine atmosphere and their inter-relationships under the varying conditions of thermal stratifications...

  3. Designing pedagogy incorporating executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Neuropsychology defines clinical neuropsychology as "a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behavior relationships. Clinical neuropsychologists use this knowledge in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and/or rehabilitation of patients across the lifespan with neurological, medical, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning disorders" (National Academy of Neuropsychology, 2011 ). Pediatric neuropsychologists have long been concerned about another area of functionality, making their recommendations educationally relevant. This article describes accommodated metacognitive instruction, a pedagogy based on cognitive neuropsychological principles of learning and used to instruct college faculty on a methodology for teaching in all-inclusive environments.

  4. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Burreson, E.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were

  5. The internalization of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. II. The inter-relationship of optical quality and structure as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszak, J R; Al-Ghoul, K J; Novak, L A; Peterson, K L; Herbert, K L; Sivak, J G

    1999-05-06

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat is an animal model for human retinal degenerative disease and posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs). The purpose of this study was to correlate the structure and optical quality of RCS lenses with PSCs as a function of their internalization, with normal, non-cataractous, age-matched control lenses. Correlative light (LM), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), three-dimensional computer assisted drawings (3D-CADs) and low power helium-neon laser scan analysis were used to examine the structure and function of lenses. The optical properties (average focal length variability; sharpness of focus) of RCS rat lenses are quantitatively compromised by PSCs. Correlative LM and SEM analysis of RCS lenses at various stages of PSC internalization (1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months of age), revealed that the sutures formed by additional fiber growth were progressively more abnormal. During PSC internalization, two to nine small suture branches were formed and arranged in modified line to multiple y configurations rather than the normal three branch y sutures. These temporal changes were also chronicled in animated 3D-CAD videos derived from lens reconstructions based on LM and SEM micrographs from the selected time points stated above. However, laser scan analysis also revealed that as the PSCs of RCS rat lenses were progressively internalized, there was a steady improvement in total sharpness of focus that reached normal levels by 12 months of age. The correlation of laser scan and structural data from specific regions of lenses revealed the following: 1. The abnormal posterior sutures of RCS rats with internalized PSCs effect a greater reduction in optical quality than normal posterior sutures of age-matched controls; 2. However, the resulting abnormal suture plane area was cumulatively similar to that of age-matched controls; 3. Thus, total optical quality was similar between RCS lenses with internalized PSCs and age-matched controls by

  6. Dynamic inter-relationship between trade, economic growth and tourism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmidi, Tamat; Salleh, Norlida H

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to test a hypothesis that postulate a positive inter-relationship between international flows of tourist, trade and economic growth. Although tourism is one of the major components in the trade of services, and it has been certified by large number of literatures on the strong correlation between tourism industry and economic development, yet not much is known on the dynamic inter-relationship between these three variables. Closing-up this gaping hole, this study employs the c...

  7. Non-Functional Requirements Elicitation and Incorporation into Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Song , Xiaoyu; Duan , Zhenhua; Tian , Cong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Top-quality software architecture should consider both functional and non-functional aspects of systems and their association. In the the existing literature, considerable efforts have been directed at functional requirement analysis and design, regardless of the non-functional aspects. This disassociation makes architecture comprehension and evolution hard. This paper proposes a strategy on how to elicit non-functional requirements and incorporate them into the design...

  8. Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe handwriting and executive control features and their inter-relationships among children with developmental dysgraphia, in comparison to controls. Method Participants included 64 children, aged 10–12 years, 32 with dysgraphia based on the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and 32 matched controls. Children copied a paragraph onto paper affixed to a digitizer that supplied handwriting process objective measures (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Their written product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire about their child's executive control abilities. Results Significant group differences were found for handwriting performance measures (HHE and ComPET) and executive control domains (BRIEF). Based on one discriminate function, including handwriting performance and executive control measures, 98.4% of the participants were correctly classified into groups. Significant correlations were found in each group between working memory and legibility as well as for other executive domains and handwriting measures. Furthermore, twenty percent of the variability of the mean pressure applied towards the writing surface among children with was explained by their 'emotional control' (BRIEF). Conclusion The results strongly suggest consideration of executive control domains to obtain better insight into handwriting impairment characteristics among children with dysgraphia to improve their identification, evaluation and the intervention process. PMID:29689111

  9. Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2018-01-01

    To describe handwriting and executive control features and their inter-relationships among children with developmental dysgraphia, in comparison to controls. Participants included 64 children, aged 10-12 years, 32 with dysgraphia based on the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and 32 matched controls. Children copied a paragraph onto paper affixed to a digitizer that supplied handwriting process objective measures (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Their written product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire about their child's executive control abilities. Significant group differences were found for handwriting performance measures (HHE and ComPET) and executive control domains (BRIEF). Based on one discriminate function, including handwriting performance and executive control measures, 98.4% of the participants were correctly classified into groups. Significant correlations were found in each group between working memory and legibility as well as for other executive domains and handwriting measures. Furthermore, twenty percent of the variability of the mean pressure applied towards the writing surface among children with was explained by their 'emotional control' (BRIEF). The results strongly suggest consideration of executive control domains to obtain better insight into handwriting impairment characteristics among children with dysgraphia to improve their identification, evaluation and the intervention process.

  10. Inter-relationship Between Marine Meiobenthos and Microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A

    of the cases, the sediments associated with microbiota supply energy to the benthic meiofauna while bacteria and diatoms are responsible for the spatial heterogeneity among meiobenthos (Fenchel, 1969; Hargrave, 1970). In a trophic pyramid, generally the larger...) is strictly linked with the availability of bacterial food and their grazing rates from a functional response angle to changes in the environment. One of the most important ecological advantages the hetrotrophic bacteria will acquire as a consequence of being...

  11. Variation and Inter-relationship ,Between Yield aJld,SQQl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation and Inter-relationship ,Between Yield aJld,SQQl~ ",,,',, ... Analysis of variance revealed sigiiificaiit'differences, among the-teSted. • .:' '. J ~ I .... Successful use of. muta~ "number of panicles,~r~~ metre,', 100Q,grain ... ponents and to assess genetic x ,environment inter- , individual traits, estimates of error phenotYpic,.

  12. Education: of the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi. - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v33i2.12753

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article in question focuses on the analysis of education through the message of the movie Coach Carter - Training for Life (2005, which features the paradox of the democratization of education and converges to the boundaries that mark the function of the school and the role of the educator, stressing the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi that make up that process.

  13. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the inter relationship between fatigue crack growth parameters in Paris regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasikala, G.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on fatigue crack growth behaviour of several steels and their welds for nuclear applications have been characterized in the author's laboratory in the past decade as a part of (i) creating the required database for integrity assessment of components, (ii) providing inputs for materials development, and (iii) understanding the crack growth behaviour in the light of basic mechanisms of cyclic deformation and damage. These include, effects of test variables (such as temperature, load ratio R) and material conditions (such as base and weld materials in as received, as welded or after subjecting to different ageing conditions). Different steels investigated include the ferritic grades modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (P91) and reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, and austenitic grade SS 316L(N) and its weld. A common observation in the FCG literature is the inverse relationship between the Paris constant (log C) and exponent m, which has attracted considerable attention of the researchers in the field. The present paper attempts a fresh look at the inter relationship between Paris parameters obtained in the FCG studies on the above materials including the effect of crack closure and crack tip shielding. Further, some observed deviations from the inter relationship will be discussed in the light of changes in material properties and crack growth mechanisms. (author)

  15. E-beam crosslinked, biocompatible functional hydrogels incorporating polyaniline nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M.A.; Niconov, A.; Chmieliewska, D.; Spadaro, G.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective of this research is to develop a functional soft nanocomposites platform that combines the electro-optic properties of conjugated polymer nanoparticles with process flexibility, highly hydrophilic character, 3D structure and biocompatibility of hydrogels, to yield novel soft materials with multi-application potential in diagnostic, therapeutic and regenerative medicine. PANI aqueous nanocolloids in their acid doped, inherently conductive form, are synthesised by means of suitable polymeric stabilisers, i.e. water soluble polymers, that may prevent irreversible PANI particles coalescence and precipitation during synthesis and upon storage. Depending on the nature nad concentration of the polymeric stabiliser, e.g. polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinylalcohol (PVA) or chitosan (CT), PANI has been synthesised in form of nanoscalar rods, spherical particles or rice grains, respectively. In the present work, e-beam irradiation with a 12 MeV Linac accelerator has been tested, in alternative to gamma-rays, as a viable industrial methodology to generate hydrogel nanocomposites via in-situ crosslinking of the polymers already used to stabilise polyaniline nanocolloids, at low temperature, with no recourse to further addition of molecular weight chemicals and in a few minutes. In these conditions nanoparticles morphology of PANI should be preserved and interesting electro-optical properties can be imparted. The swelling properties of the different hydrogel nanocomposites have been investigated at the variance of the chemical structure of the matrix material and of the pH of the swelling medium. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies demonstrate the retained optical activity of the dispersed PANI nanoparticles when incorporated in the hydrogels. Selected formulations have been also subjected to MTT assays and absence of cytotoxicity has been ascertained as the first necessary step to assess their biocompatibility.

  16. Inter-relationships among Diet, Obesity and Hippocampal-dependent Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Terry L.; Hargrave, Sara L.; Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Fu, Xue; Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD...

  17. Inter-relationships among diet, obesity and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T L; Hargrave, S L; Swithers, S E; Sample, C H; Fu, X; Kinzig, K P; Zheng, W

    2013-12-03

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD, on ketogenic (KETO) diet, which is high in saturated fat and low in sugar and other carbohydrates, or continued maintenance on chow (CHOW). Confirming and extending previous findings, diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed WD showed impaired FN performance, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and increased fasting blood glucose levels compared to CHOW controls and to diet-resistant (DR) rats that did not become obese when maintained on WD. For rats fed the KETO diet, FN performance and BBB integrity were more closely associated with level of circulating ketone bodies than with obesity phenotype (DR or DIO), with higher levels of ketones appearing to provide a protective effect. The evidence also indicated that FN deficits preceded and predicted increased body weight and adiposity. This research (a) further substantiates previous findings of WD-induced deficits in hippocampal-dependent FN discriminations, (b) suggests that ketones may be protective against diet-induced cognitive impairment, and (c) provides evidence that diet-induced cognitive impairment precedes weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brief Report: Inter-Relationship between Emotion Regulation, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety, and Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ru Ying; Richdale, Amanda L.; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationship between emotion regulation (ER), intolerance of uncertainty (IU), and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-one individuals aged 14-24 years (M[subscript age] = 18.19; SD[subscript age] = 2.19) completed the…

  19. Modelling price and volatility inter-relationships in the Australian wholesale spot electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the inter-relationships of wholesale spot electricity prices among the four regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM): namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria using the constant conditional correlation and Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) and Engle's (Engle, R., 2002. Dynamic conditional correlation: a sample class of multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 339-350.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH models. Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model which takes account of the Student t specification produces the best results. At the univariate GARCH(1,1) level, the mean equations indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in all four markets and little evidence of mean spillovers from the other lagged markets. In the dynamic conditional correlation equation, the highest conditional correlations are evident between the well-connected markets indicating the presence of strong interdependence between these markets with weaker interdependence between the not so well-interconnected markets. (author)

  20. Bayesian PET image reconstruction incorporating anato-functional joint entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jing; Rahmim, Arman

    2009-01-01

    We developed a maximum a posterior (MAP) reconstruction method for positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction incorporating magnetic resonance (MR) image information, with the joint entropy between the PET and MR image features serving as the regularization constraint. A non-parametric method was used to estimate the joint probability density of the PET and MR images. Using realistically simulated PET and MR human brain phantoms, the quantitative performance of the proposed algorithm was investigated. Incorporation of the anatomic information via this technique, after parameter optimization, was seen to dramatically improve the noise versus bias tradeoff in every region of interest, compared to the result from using conventional MAP reconstruction. In particular, hot lesions in the FDG PET image, which had no anatomical correspondence in the MR image, also had improved contrast versus noise tradeoff. Corrections were made to figures 3, 4 and 6, and to the second paragraph of section 3.1 on 13 November 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  1. Prospective inter-relationships between late adolescent personality and major depressive disorder in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G

    2014-02-01

    A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.

  2. Inter-relationship between scaling exponents for describing self-similar river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Natural river networks show well-known self-similar characteristics. Such characteristics are represented by various power-law relationships, e.g., between upstream length and drainage area (exponent h) (Hack, 1957), and in the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area (exponent ɛ) (Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1992). It is empirically revealed that these power-law exponents are within narrow ranges. Power-law is also found in the relationship between drainage density (the total stream length divided by the total basin area) and specified source area (the minimum drainage area to form a stream head) (exponent η) (Moussa and Bocquillon, 1996). Considering that above three scaling relationships all refer to fundamental measures of 'length' and 'area' of a given drainage basin, it is natural to hypothesize plausible inter-relationship between these three scaling exponents. Indeed, Rigon et al. (1996) demonstrated the relationship between ɛ and h. In this study, we expand this to a more general ɛ-η-h relationship. We approach ɛ-η relationship in an analytical manner while η-h relationship is demonstrated for six study basins in Korea. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Hack, J. T. (1957). Studies of longitudinal river profiles in Virginia and Maryland. US, Geological Survey Professional Paper, 294. Moussa, R., & Bocquillon, C. (1996). Fractal analyses of tree-like channel networks from digital elevation model data. Journal of Hydrology, 187(1), 157-172. Rigon, R., Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., Maritan, A., Giacometti. A., Tarboton, D. G., & Rinaldo, A. (1996). On Hack's Law. Water Resources Research, 32(11), 3367-3374. Rodríguez-Iturbe, I., Ijjasz-Vasquez, E. J., Bras, R. L., & Tarboton, D. G. (1992). Power law distributions of discharge mass and energy in river basins. Water Resources Research, 28(4), 1089-1093.

  3. Inter-relationship between the two emission cones of B1237+25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maan, Yogesh [Joint Astronomy Programme (JAP), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. (India); Deshpande, Avinash A., E-mail: yogesh@rri.res.in, E-mail: desh@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2014-09-10

    The origin of two distinct pairs of conal emission components in pulsars, associated with the 'outer' and the 'inner' emission cones, as well as the marked difference in their observed spectral properties, is poorly understood. The sub-pulse modulation in the corresponding conal components, if mapped back to the underlying system of sub-beams rotating around the magnetic axis in the polar cap, as envisioned by Ruderman and Sutherland, provides a potential way to investigate the emission morphologies in the two conal regions, and more importantly, any inter-relationship between them. The bright pulsar B1237+25 with its special viewing geometry where the sightline traverses almost through the magnetic axis, along with a rich variety in pulse-to-pulse fluctuations, provides an excellent but challenging opportunity to map the underlying emission patterns across the full transverse slice of its polar emission region. We present here our analysis on a number of pulse sequences from this star to map and study any relationship between the underlying patterns responsible for emission in the two pairs of presumed conal components and a core component of this pulsar. The results from our correlation analysis of the two conal emission patterns strongly support the view that the two cones of this pulsar (the outer and the inner cone) originate from a common system of sub-beams. We also see evidence for a twist in the emission columns, most likely associated with a corresponding twist in the magnetic field structure. We discuss these results, and their implications, including a possibility that the core component of this pulsar shares its origin partly with the conal counterparts.

  4. New MoM code incorporating multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available piecewise linear approximation of geometry. This often leads to an unnecessarily great number of unknowns used to model relatively small loop and spiral antennas, coils and other curved structures. This is because the program creates a dense mesh... to accelerate computation of the elements of the impedance matrix and showed acceleration factor exceeding an order of magnitude, subject to a high accuracy requirement. 3. On Code Functionality and Application Results The package of programs was written...

  5. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate

  6. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by

  7. Modifying influence of incorporated 137Cs upon the mechanisms of adrenergic control over contractile myucard function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanok, L.M.; Bulanova, K.Ya.; Gerasimovich, N.V.; Sineleva, M.V.; Milyutin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Incorporated 137 Cs (absorbed dose of 0.26 Gy) causes decrease of myocard's contractile function and intropic response to β-adrenagonists effect, isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenoreceptors affinity. Adrenergic effects, mediated by α-adrenergic structures on heart contractile function, on the contrary, become stronger, that is due to the increase of the receptors' dencity on sarcolemma surface

  8. Site-Specific Incorporation of Functional Components into RNA by an Unnatural Base Pair Transcription System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Kawai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet, an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa functions as a third base pair in replication and transcription, and provides a useful tool for the site-specific, enzymatic incorporation of functional components into nucleic acids. We have synthesized several modified-Pa substrates, such as alkylamino-, biotin-, TAMRA-, FAM-, and digoxigenin-linked PaTPs, and examined their transcription by T7 RNA polymerase using Ds-containing DNA templates with various sequences. The Pa substrates modified with relatively small functional groups, such as alkylamino and biotin, were efficiently incorporated into RNA transcripts at the internal positions, except for those less than 10 bases from the 3′-terminus. We found that the efficient incorporation into a position close to the 3′-terminus of a transcript depended on the natural base contexts neighboring the unnatural base, and that pyrimidine-Ds-pyrimidine sequences in templates were generally favorable, relative to purine-Ds-purine sequences. The unnatural base pair transcription system provides a method for the site-specific functionalization of large RNA molecules.

  9. The inter-relationships between vegetarianism and eating disorders among females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Maldonado, Christine R; Lawson, Melissa A; Smith, Roma; Robinson, D Paul

    2012-08-01

    When individuals with a suspected or diagnosed eating disorder adopt a vegetarian diet, health care professionals might worry that this choice could function as a socially acceptable way to legitimize food avoidance. Yet only limited research has examined vegetarianism in relation to eating disorders. Our study objectives were to compare individuals with and without an eating disorder history and individuals at different stages of eating disorder recovery on past and current vegetarianism and motivations for and age at becoming vegetarian. Participants were females seen at some point for an eating disorder (n=93) and controls who never had an eating disorder (n=67). Recruitment and data collection for this cross-sectional study occurred in 2007-2008. χ(2) analyses and analyses of variance and covariance were used to examine the research questions. Compared with controls, individuals with an eating disorder history were considerably more likely to ever have been vegetarian (52% vs 12%; Pmotivated by weight-related reasons (42% vs 0%; Pmotives for vegetarianism). Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The inter-relationship of ascorbate transport, metabolism and mitochondrial, plastidic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Asard, Han

    2013-09-20

    Ascorbate, this multifaceted small molecular weight carbohydrate derivative, plays important roles in a range of cellular processes in plant cells, from the regulation of cell cycle, through cell expansion and senescence. Beyond these physiological functions, ascorbate has a critical role in responses to abiotic stresses, such as high light, high salinity, or drought. The biosynthesis, recycling, and intracellular transport are important elements of the balancing of ascorbate level to the always-changing conditions and demands. A bidirectional tight relationship was described between ascorbate biosynthesis and the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (mETC), since L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), the enzyme catalyzing the ultimate step of ascorbate biosynthesis, uses oxidized cytochrome c as the only electron acceptor and has a role in the assembly of Complex I. A similar bidirectional relationship was revealed between the photosynthetic apparatus and ascorbate biosynthesis since the electron flux through the photosynthetic ETC affects the biosynthesis of ascorbate and the level of ascorbate could affect photosynthesis. The details of this regulatory network of photosynthetic electron transfer, respiratory electron transfer, and ascorbate biosynthesis are still not clear, as are the potential regulatory role and the regulation of intracellular ascorbate transport and fluxes. The elucidation of the role of ascorbate as an important element of the network of photosynthetic, respiratory ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle will contribute to understanding plant cell responses to different stress conditions.

  11. TH-A-9A-04: Incorporating Liver Functionality in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V; Epelman, M; Feng, M; Cao, Y; Wang, H; Romeijn, E; Matuszak, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Liver SBRT patients have both variable pretreatment liver function (e.g., due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatments) and sensitivity to radiation, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work aims to explicitly incorporate liver perfusion into treatment planning to redistribute dose to preserve well-functioning areas without compromising target coverage. Methods: Voxel-based liver perfusion, a measure of functionality, was computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Two optimization models with different cost functions subject to the same dose constraints (e.g., minimum target EUD and maximum critical structure EUDs) were compared. The cost functions minimized were EUD (standard model) and functionality-weighted EUD (functional model) to the liver. The resulting treatment plans delivering the same target EUD were compared with respect to their DVHs, their dose wash difference, the average dose delivered to voxels of a particular perfusion level, and change in number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving a particular dose. Two-dimensional synthetic and three-dimensional clinical examples were studied. Results: The DVHs of all structures of plans from each model were comparable. In contrast, in plans obtained with the functional model, the average dose delivered to high-/low-functioning voxels was lower/higher than in plans obtained with its standard counterpart. The number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving high/low dose was lower in the plans that considered perfusion in the cost function than in the plans that did not. Redistribution of dose can be observed in the dose wash differences. Conclusion: Liver perfusion can be used during treatment planning potentially to minimize the risk of toxicity during liver SBRT, resulting in better global liver function. The functional model redistributes dose in the standard model from higher to lower functioning voxels, while achieving the same target EUD

  12. Inter-relationships between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment among urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inter-Relationship between Profitability, Growth and Size: A Case of Non-Financial Companies from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kouser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth description of the inter-relationship between firm size, growth, and profitability of non-financial companies listed at Karachi stock exchange. The study is based on the sample of 70 (seventy non-financial companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange of Pakistan, selected on the basis of their market capitalization. Panel data techniques were employed using 700 observations of each of the variables of study; size(log natural of total assets, growth (sustainable growth rate for firm and profitability (return on assets. Observations are collected for ten years (2001-2010. The study concluded thatthere is study reveals that all the profitability has strong positive relationship with the growth of the firm; however size has less significant and negative impact on the profitability. Onesuggestion for further research would be to replicate the study in order to get more cases. Furthermore, it would be valuable to take a more long-term focus to examine the described relationships in the long run. The paper highlights the importance of these measures which are generally used for performance evaluation. Paper sets out the criteria that under which situations the company should focus which of the measure, so that company may derive its strategies on that way. This paper improves our preferences about the three major measures of the firm. Moreover, it contributes to the literature of financial management that how these three measures have trade-off between them.

  14. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  15. Fabrication of Functionalized MOFs Incorporated Mixed Matrix Hollow Fiber Membrane for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-organic framework (MOFs of MIL-53 was functionalized by aminosilane grafting and then incorporated into Ultem®1000 polymer matrix to fabricate mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMHFM with high separation performance. SEM, XRD, and TGA were performed to characterize the functionalized MIL-53 and prepared MMHFM. The filler particles were embedded in membrane successfully and dispersed well in the polymer matrix. The incorporation of MOFs endowed MMHFM better thermal stability. Moreover, effects of solvent ratio in spinning dope, spinning condition, and testing temperature on gas separation performance of MMHFM were investigated. By optimizing dope composition, air gap distance, and bore fluid composition, MMHFM containing functionalized MIL-53 achieved excellent gas permeance and CO2/N2 selectivity. The CO2 permeance increased from 12.2 GPU for pure Ultem HFM to 30.9 GPU and the ideal CO2/N2 selectivity was enhanced from 25.4 to 34.7 simultaneously. Additionally, gas permeance increased but the selectivity decreased with the temperature increase, which followed the solution-diffusion based transport mechanism.

  16. Incorporation of functionalized gold nanoparticles into nanofibers for enhanced attachment and differentiation of mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dongju

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospun nanofibers have been widely used as substrata for mammalian cell culture owing to their structural similarity to natural extracellular matrices. Structurally consistent electrospun nanofibers can be produced with synthetic polymers but require chemical modification to graft cell-adhesive molecules to make the nanofibers functional. Development of a facile method of grafting functional molecules on the nanofibers will contribute to the production of diverse cell type-specific nanofiber substrata. Results Small molecules, peptides, and functionalized gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated with polymethylglutarimide (PMGI nanofibers through electrospinning. The PMGI nanofibers functionalized by the grafted AuNPs, which were labeled with cell-adhesive peptides, enhanced HeLa cell attachment and potentiated cardiomyocyte differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Conclusions PMGI nanofibers can be functionalized simply by co-electrospinning with the grafting materials. In addition, grafting functionalized AuNPs enable high-density localization of the cell-adhesive peptides on the nanofiber. The results of the present study suggest that more cell type-specific synthetic substrata can be fabricated with molecule-doped nanofibers, in which diverse functional molecules are grafted alone or in combination with other molecules at different concentrations.

  17. A methodology for incorporating functional bone marrow sparing in IMRT planning for pelvic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.; Menda, Yusuf; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Gross, Brandie; Juweid, Malik; Bayouth, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to design a radiation therapy treatment planning approach that would spare hematopoietically active bone marrow using [ 18 F]FLT PET imaging. Materials and methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using [ 18 F]FLT scans. Plans were generated for two simulated cervical cancer patients, where pelvic active bone marrow regions were incorporated as avoidance regions based on the ranges: SUV4 ≥ 4; 4 > SUV3 ≥ 3; and 3 > SUV2 ≥ 2. Dose objectives were set to reduce bone marrow volume that received 10 (V 10 ) and 20 (V 20 ) Gy. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by [ 18 F]FLT with an SUV ≥ 2, SUV ≥ 3, and SUV ≥ 4 represented an average of 43.0%, 15.3%, and 5.8%, respectively of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose-volume histograms for all identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V 10 , and V 20 were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusions: Incorporation of [ 18 F]FLT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in pelvic malignancies.

  18. Incorporation of in-plane interconnects to reflow bonding for electrical functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moğulkoç, B; Jansen, H V; Ter Brake, H J M; Elwenspoek, M C

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of in-plane electrical interconnects to reflow bonding is studied to provide electrical functionality to lab-on-a-chip or microfluidic devices. Reflow bonding is the packaging technology, in which glass tubes are joined to silicon substrates at elevated temperatures. The tubes are used to interface the silicon-based fluidic devices and are directly compatible with standard Swagelok® connectors. After the bonding, the electrically conductive lines will allow probing into the volume confined by the tube, where the fluidic device operates. Therefore methods for fabricating electrical interconnects that survive the bonding procedure at elevated temperature and do not alter the properties of the bond interface are investigated

  19. The inter-relationship of diabetes and left ventricular systolic function on outcome after high-risk myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M; Uno, Hajime; Køber, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown.......Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown....

  20. The inter-relationship of diabetes and left ventricular systolic function on outcome after high-risk myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M; Uno, Hajime; Køber, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown....

  1. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0% in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods.

  2. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

    2014-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  3. Empirical evaluation of the inter-relationship of articular elements involved in the pathoanatomy of knee osteoarthritis using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Dennis S; Losina, Elena; Neumann, Gesa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Lang, Philipp K; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2009-10-29

    In this cross-sectional study, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of all articular elements that could be measured using knee MRI. We assessed the association of pathological change in multiple articular structures involved in the pathoanatomy of osteoarthritis. Knee MRI scans from patients over 45 years old were assessed using a semi-quantitative knee MRI assessment form. The form included six distinct elements: cartilage, bone marrow lesions, osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, joint effusion and synovitis. Each type of pathology was graded using an ordinal scale with a value of zero indicating no pathology and higher values indicating increasingly severe levels of pathology. The principal dependent variable for comparison was the mean cartilage disease score (CDS), which captured the aggregate extent of involvement of articular cartilage. The distribution of CDS was compared to the individual and cumulative distributions of each articular element using the Chi-squared test. The correlations between pathological change in the various articular structures were assessed in a Spearman correlation table. Data from 140 patients were available for review. The cohort had a median age of 61 years (range 45-89) and was 61% female. The cohort included a wide spectrum of OA severity. Our analysis showed a statistically significant trend towards pathological change involving more articular elements as CDS worsened (p-value for trend osteophytes (p-value for trend subchondral sclerosis (p = 0.009), but not joint effusion or synovitis. There was a moderate correlation between cartilage damage, osteophytes and BMLs as well as a moderate correlation between joint effusion and synovitis. However, cartilage damage and osteophytes were only weakly associated with synovitis or joint effusion. Our results support an inter-relationship of multiple articular elements in the pathoanatomy of knee OA. Prospective studies of OA pathogenesis in humans are needed to correlate these

  4. Effects of Incorporation of Jackfruit Rind Powder on Chemical and Functional Properties of Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Reza; Yang, Tajul Aris; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; Zzaman, Wahidu

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, there is a rising interest towards consuming health beneficial food products. Bread-as one of the most popular food products-could be improved to 'healthy bread' by addition of ingredients high in protein, dietary fiber and low in calorie. Incorporating Jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a by-product rich in dietary fiber in bread, could not only provide health beneficial bread products, but also lead to develop an environmental friendly technology by solving the problem of waste disposal of residues. In this study, addition of jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a high dietary fiber and functional ingredient in bread was examined. The results showed that incorporation of JRP in bread improved functional properties of flour such as Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and pasting properties. Addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of JRP in wheat flour caused significantly (p bread products. Results from proximate composition indicated that all breads substituted with JRP, contained significantly (p bread products.

  5. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  6. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Barrick, Todd A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flores, Adrean (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  7. Towards a functional model of mental disorders incorporating the laws of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, George C; McKenzie, Karen

    2013-05-01

    The current paper presents the hypothesis that the understanding of mental disorders can be advanced by incorporating the laws of thermodynamics, specifically relating to energy conservation and energy transfer. These ideas, along with the introduction of the notion that entropic activities are symptomatic of inefficient energy transfer or disorder, were used to propose a model of understanding mental ill health as resulting from the interaction of entropy, capacity and work (environmental demands). The model was applied to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and was shown to be compatible with current thinking about this condition, as well as emerging models of mental disorders as complex networks. A key implication of the proposed model is that it argues that all mental disorders require a systemic functional approach, with the advantage that it offers a number of routes into the assessment, formulation and treatment for mental health problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium incorporation biokinetics in poultry bones as function of phytase doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Cestari, A.C.; Zamboni, C.B.; Saiki, M.; Nogueira, G.P.; Fonseca, L.E.C.; Manso-Guevara, M.V.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to study uranium incorporation in poultry bones as function of chow doped with: (a) uranium (20 ppm); (b) U-doped food (20 ppm) plus phytase (120 ppm) and (c) U-doped food (20 ppm) plus phytase (180 ppm). To investigate this situation experiments involving several groups of Cobb broilers was performed. Two animals per group were sacrificed weekly up to their adultness and uranium concentration in the tibia was measured. It was observed that the concentration of uranium (μg U/g bone) is decreasing all along the animal life spanning period of 14-42 days. This behavior suggests that the skeleton mass is growing faster than the corresponding accumulation of uranium. The administration of phytase seems not to alter this scenario. (author)

  9. Polyethyleneglycol diacrylate hydrogels with plasmonic gold nanospheres incorporated via functional group optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuvelu, Dinesh Veeran; Kim, Seokbeom; Lee, Jungchul

    2017-12-01

    We present a facile method for the preparation of polyethyleneglycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels with plasmonic gold (Au) nanospheres incorporated for various biological and chemical sensing applications. Plasmonic Au nanospheres were prepared ex situ using the standard citrate reduction method with an average diameter of 3.5 nm and a standard deviation of 0.5 nm, and evaluated for their surface functionalization process intended for uniform dispersion in polymer matrices. UV-Visible spectroscopy reveals the existence of plasmonic properties for pristine Au nanospheres, functionalized Au nanospheres, and PEG-DA with uniformly dispersed functionalized Au nanospheres (hybrid Au/PEG-DA hydrogels). Hybrid Au/PEG-DA hydrogels examined by using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) exhibit the characteristic bands at 1635, 1732 and 2882 cm-1 corresponding to reaction products of OH- originating from oxidized product of citrate, -C=O stretching from ester bond, and C-H stretching of PEG-DA, respectively. Thermal studies of hybrid Au/PEG-DA hydrogels show three-stage decomposition with their stabilities up to 500 °C. Optical properties and thermal stabilities associated with the uniform dispersion of Au nanospheres within hydrogels reported herein will facilitate various biological and chemical sensing applications.

  10. Physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures, and their inter-relationship with psychological distress: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; O'Brien, K; Waller, J; Gallagher, P; D'Arcy, T; Flannelly, G; Martin, C M; McRae, J; Prendiville, W; Ruttle, C; White, C; Pilkington, L; O'Leary, J J; Sharp, L

    2017-08-01

    To estimate prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects and investigate associations between these and subsequent psychological distress. Longitudinal survey. Two hospital-based colposcopy clinics. Women with abnormal cytology who underwent colposcopy (±related procedures). Questionnaires were mailed to women 4, 8 and 12 months post-colposcopy. Details of physical after-effects (pain, bleeding and discharge) experienced post-colposcopy were collected at 4 months. Colposcopy-specific distress was measured using the Process Outcome-Specific Measure at all time-points. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to identify associations between physical after-effects and distress over 12 months, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables. Prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects. Associations between the presence of any physical after-effects, awareness of after-effects, and number of after-effects and distress. Five-hundred and eighty-four women were recruited (response rate = 73, 59 and 52% at 4, 8 and 12 months, respectively). Eighty-two percent of women reported one or more physical after-effect(s). Multiple physical after-effects were common (two after-effects = 25%; three after-effects = 25%). Psychological distress scores declined significantly over time. In adjusted analyses, women who experienced all three physical after-effects had on average a 4.58 (95% CI: 1.10-8.05) higher distress scored than those who experienced no after-effects. Women who were unaware of the possibility of experiencing after-effects scored significantly higher for distress during follow-up. The prevalence of physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures is high. The novel findings of inter-relationships between awareness of the possibility of after-effects and experiencing multiple after-effects, and post-colposcopy distress may be relevant to the development of interventions to alleviate post-colposcopy distress. Experiencing multiple

  11. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Enhancement of the functionality of bread by incorporation of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishu; Jha, Alok; Chaudhary, Anand; Upadhyay, Ashutosh

    2014-09-01

    In view of the wider consumption of bakery products, they could be good choice for the delivery of functionality. The present study attempts to develop a functional formulation of bread by incorporation of shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.), which is an important medicinal plant of India. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for experiments in which yeast and shatavari powder were taken as variables. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the bread formulations on the basis of hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness and cohesiveness as responses. Qualitative tests were performed for assessing the presence of phytochemicals in shatavari bread. Sensory attributes of the shatavari bread were evaluated using descriptive analysis technique. The optimum acceptable level for shatavari and yeast in bread was found to be 3.5 % and 4.96 %, respectively. All the phytochemicals such as alkaloid, steroid, terpenoid and saponin present in original herbs were also present in bread. However flavonoids were not found in the bread when analysed qualitatively and using TLC.

  13. Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability and Catalytic Performance of HKUST-1 by Incorporating Carboxyl-Functionalized Attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Yin, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xing-Yang; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2016-06-29

    Much attention has been paid to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) due to their large surface areas, tunable functionality, and diverse structure. Nevertheless, most reported MOFs show poor hydrothermal stability, which seriously hinders their applications. Here a strategy is adopted to tailor the properties of MOFs by means of incorporating carboxyl-functionalized natural clay attapulgite (ATP) into HKUST-1, a well-known MOF. A new type of hybrid material was thus fabricated from the hybridization of HKUST-1 and ATP. Our results indicated that the hydrothermal stability of the MOFs as well as the catalytic performance was apparently improved. The frameworks of HKUST-1 were severely destroyed after hydrothermal treatment (hot water vapor, 60 °C), while that of the hybrid materials was maintained. For the hybrid materials containing 8.4 wt % of ATP, the surface area reached 1302 m(2)·g(-1) and was even higher than that of pristine HKUST-1 (1245 m(2)·g(-1)). In the ring-opening of styrene oxide, the conversion reached 98.9% at only 20 min under catalysis from the hybrid material, which was obviously higher than that over pristine HKUST-1 (80.9%). Moreover, the hybrid materials showed excellent reusability and the catalytic activity was recoverable without loss after six cycles. Our materials provide promising candidates for heterogeneous catalysis owing to the good catalytic activity and reusability.

  14. Generation of functional inhibitory synapses incorporating defined combinations of GABA(A or glycine receptor subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Laura Dixon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain is mediated by wide range of GABAA receptor (GABAAR and glycine receptor (GlyR isoforms, each with different physiological and pharmacological properties. Because multiple isoforms are expressed simultaneously in most neurons, it is difficult to define the properties of inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by individual isoforms in vivo. Although recombinant expression systems permit the expression of individual isoforms in isolation, they require exogenous agonist application which cannot mimic the dynamic neurotransmitter profile characteristic of native synapses. We describe a neuron-HEK293 cell co-culture technique for generating inhibitory synapses incorporating defined combinations of GABAAR or GlyR subunits. Primary neuronal cultures, prepared from embryonic rat cerebral cortex or spinal cord, are used to provide presynaptic GABAergic and glycinergic terminals, respectively. When the cultures are mature, HEK293 cells expressing the subunits of interest plus neuroligin 2A are plated onto the neurons, which rapidly form synapses onto HEK293 cells. Patch clamp electrophysiology is then used to analyze the physiological and pharmacological properties of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by the recombinant receptors. The method is suitable for investigating the kinetic properties or the effects of drugs on inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by defined GABAAR or GlyR isoforms of interest, the effects of hereditary disease mutations on the formation and function of both types of synapses, and synaptogenesis and synaptic clustering mechanisms. The entire cell preparation procedure takes 2 – 5 weeks.

  15. Tunable fabrication of hierarchical hybrids via the incorporation of poly(dopamine) functional interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Junxian; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@dhu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PS/PDA with well-defined core/shell structures was prepared in aqueous solution. • Au NPs were coated on PS/PDA by in-situ reduction and self-assembly approach. • PS/PDA/Au had homogeneous and dense Au coatings with different shape. • Hierarchical spheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure maintaining the spherical morphology. - Abstract: Two kinds of ternary hybrids were prepared by anchoring different shapes and loadings of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on poly(dopamine) (PDA) functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres with two different strategies, i.e., in situ reduction and self-assembly approach. PDA coatings were firstly introduced to functionalize the hydrophobic PS surface with sufficient amino and hydroxyl groups, which enhanced the interaction between Au NPs and the polymer spheres. Thus, Au NPs could be easily immobilized onto the surface of the PDA/PS microspheres, and the hierarchical composite microspheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure without sacrificing the spherical PS morphology. PS/PDA/Au-R and PS/PDA/Au-A microspheres fabricated by in situ reduction and self-assembly approach showed different distinct Au nano-shell morphology with the corresponding optical, catalytic and electrochemical properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy verified these hierarchical structures with the ultrathin PDA film incorporating between the inner PS core and the outer Au NPs shell. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of PDA and Au layer on the surface of the composite particles. These green and facile methods with mild experimental conditions can extend to fabricate other polymer or inorganic substrates coated by various noble metals.

  16. Modeling of oxygen incorporation in Th, ThC, and ThN by density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen incorporation in nuclear fuel materials is an important issue deserving investigation due to its influence on thermophysical and structural properties. Even if there has been a renewed interest in thorium and thorium compounds in the last years, there is still not much research done on this topic. In this work, we study, by means of density functional theory calculations, the incorporation of oxygen in Th, ThC, and ThN. We analyze the electronic structure finding a characteristic peak to be attributed to oxygen incorporation. We also calculate incorporation and solution energies and obtain migration energies of oxygen through different paths finding that migration through vacancy sites is more energetically favorable than through interstitial ones.

  17. Electrodeposition of zinc–silica composite coatings: challenges in incorporating functionalized silica particles into a zinc matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabrisur Rahman Khan, Andreas Erbe, Michael Auinger, Frank Marlow and Michael Rohwerder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is a well-known sacrificial coating material for iron and co-deposition of suitable particles is of interest for further improving its corrosion protection performance. However, incorporation of particles that are well dispersible in aqueous electrolytes, such as silica particles, is extremely difficult. Here, we report a detailed study of Zn–SiO2 nanocomposite coatings deposited from a zinc sulfate solution at pH 3. The effect of functionalization of the silica particles on the electro-codeposition was investigated. The best incorporation was achieved for particles modified with SiO2–SH, dithiooxamide or cysteamine; these particles have functional groups that can strongly interact with zinc and therefore incorporate well into the metal matrix. Other modifications (SiO2–NH3+, SiO2–Cl and N,N-dimethyldodecylamine of the silica particles lead to adsorption and entrapment only.

  18. Incorporation of bacteriophages in polycaprolactone/collagen fibers for antibacterial hemostatic dual-function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Weilu; Zhang, Zhongyang; Xu, Ruodan

    2018-01-01

    Effective and affordable, antibacterial and hemostatic materials are of great interests in clinical wound care practices. Herein, Enterobacteria phage T4 were incorporated in polycaprolactone/collagen I (PCL-ColI) nanofibers via electrospinning in order to eradicate Escherichia coli infection and...

  19. The effects of functional magnetic nanotubes with incorporated nerve growth factor in neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jining; Chen Linfeng; Varadan, Vijay K; Yancey, Justin; Srivatsan, Malathi

    2008-01-01

    In this in vitro study the efficiency of magnetic nanotubes to bind with nerve growth factor (NGF) and the ability of NGF-incorporated magnetic nanotubes to release the bound NGF are investigated using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). It is found that functional magnetic nanotubes with NGF incorporation enabled the differentiation of PC12 cells into neurons exhibiting growth cones and neurite outgrowth. Microscope observations show that filopodia extending from neuron growth cones were in close proximity to the NGF-incorporated magnetic nanotubes, at times appearing to extend towards or into them. These results show that magnetic nanotubes can be used as a delivery vehicle for NGF and thus may be exploited in attempts to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease with neurotrophins. Further neurite outgrowth can be controlled by manipulating magnetic nanotubes with external magnetic fields, thus helping in directed regeneration

  20. Structural and functional characterization of Rpn12 identifies residues required for Rpn10 proteasome incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Jonas; Riedinger, Christiane; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos; Johnson, Eachan O D; Lowe, Edward D; Khoudian, Christina; Smith, Dominique; Noble, Martin E M; Gordon, Colin; Endicott, Jane A

    2012-11-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets selected proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Rpn12 is an essential component of the 19S regulatory particle and plays a role in recruiting the extrinsic ubiquitin receptor Rpn10. In the present paper we report the crystal structure of Rpn12, a proteasomal PCI-domain-containing protein. The structure helps to define a core structural motif for the PCI domain and identifies potential sites through which Rpn12 might form protein-protein interactions. We demonstrate that mutating residues at one of these sites impairs Rpn12 binding to Rpn10 in vitro and reduces Rpn10 incorporation into proteasomes in vivo.

  1. Study on the inter-relationship among the changes of serum levels of leptin, insulin and glucagon in patients with DM2 complicated with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhiwei; Yan Songqin; Tan Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inter-relationship among the changes of serum leptin, insulin and glucagon levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) complicated with hypertension. Methods: Serum leptin, insulin and glucagon levels were, measured with RIA in 30 DM2 patients complicated with hypertension, 30 DM2 patients without hypertension and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of leptin, insulin and glucagon in all the DM2 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). In addition, the serum levels in DM2 patients with hypertension were significantly higher than those in DM2 patients without hypertension (P<0.05). These levels were positively correlated with the severity of hypertension. Conclusion: The role played by leptin and glucagon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitns should be furthur studied. (authors)

  2. A new potentiometric electrode incorporating functionalized β-cyclodextrins for diclofenac determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenik, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation of diclofenac-selective membrane electrodes incorporating β-cyclodextrins: (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Several plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes of different compositions were tested with the best electrode being the one incorporating heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin with the membrane plasticized with 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether. The electrode is characterized by a near-Nernstian response slope of -60.0 mV decade(-1) over the linear range of 5.0×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2) mol L(-1) and a limit of detection of 1.4×10(-5) mol L(-1). The proposed electrode can easily discriminate diclofenac ions from several inorganic and organic interferents and some common drug excipients. The electrode has a response time of 10s and can be used within a pH range of 6.2-8.5 over 10 months without any considerable deterioration. The electrical properties of the membrane electrode were studied by impedance spectroscopy. The notable advantages of the diclofenac-selective electrode include its high sensitivity, selectivity, cost-effectiveness, and comfortable application in drug and urine analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Zilles, Julie; Clark, Mark; Meier, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The permeability and solute transport characteristics of amphiphilic triblock-polymer vesicles containing the bacterial water-channel protein Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) were investigated. The vesicles were made of a block copolymer with symmetric poly-(2-methyloxazoline)-poly-(dimethylsiloxane)-poly-(2-methyloxazoline) (PMOXA15-PDMS110-PMOXA15) repeat units. Light-scattering measurements on pure polymer vesicles subject to an outwardly directed salt gradient in a stopped-flow apparatus indicated that the polymer vesicles were highly impermeable. However, a large enhancement in water productivity (permeability per unit driving force) of up to ≈800 times that of pure polymer was observed when AqpZ was incorporated. The activation energy (Ea) of water transport for the protein-polymer vesicles (3.4 kcal/mol) corresponded to that reported for water-channel-mediated water transport in lipid membranes. The solute reflection coefficients of glucose, glycerol, salt, and urea were also calculated, and indicated that these solutes are completely rejected. The productivity of AqpZ-incorporated polymer membranes was at least an order of magnitude larger than values for existing salt-rejecting polymeric membranes. The approach followed here may lead to more productive and sustainable water treatment membranes, whereas the variable levels of permeability obtained with different concentrations of AqpZ may provide a key property for drug delivery applications. PMID:18077364

  4. Modulation of the effective work function of a TiN metal gate for NMOS requisition with Al incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Kai; Ma Xueli; Yang Hong; Wang Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Al incorporation on the effective work function (EWF) of TiN metal gate was systematically investigated. Metal—oxide—semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with W/TiN/Al/TiN gate stacks were used to fulfill this purpose. Different thickness ratios of Al to TiN and different post metal annealing (PMA) conditions were employed. Significant shift of work function towards to Si conduction band was observed, which was suitable for NMOS and the magnitude of shift depends on the processing conditions. (semiconductor technology)

  5. Da educação: do jogo sociocultural e a inter-relação envolvendo modus vivendi e modus essendi = Education: of the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo em questão se detém na análise da educação por meio da mensagem do filme Coach Carter - Treino para a Vida (2005, que acena com o paradoxo da democratização do ensino e converge para as fronteiras que assinalam a função da escola e o papel do educador, sublinhando o jogo sociocultural e a inter-relação envolvendo modus vivendi e modus essendi que perfazem o referido processo.The article in question focuses on the analysis of education through the message of the movie Coach Carter - Training for Life (2005, which features the paradox of the democratization of education and converges to the boundaries that mark the function of the school and the role of the educator, stressing the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi that make up that process.

  6. Direct 4D reconstruction of parametric images incorporating anato-functional joint entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Rahmim, Arman

    2010-08-07

    We developed an anatomy-guided 4D closed-form algorithm to directly reconstruct parametric images from projection data for (nearly) irreversible tracers. Conventional methods consist of individually reconstructing 2D/3D PET data, followed by graphical analysis on the sequence of reconstructed image frames. The proposed direct reconstruction approach maintains the simplicity and accuracy of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by extending the system matrix to include the relation between the parametric images and the measured data. A closed-form solution was achieved using a different hidden complete-data formulation within the EM framework. Furthermore, the proposed method was extended to maximum a posterior reconstruction via incorporation of MR image information, taking the joint entropy between MR and parametric PET features as the prior. Using realistic simulated noisy [(11)C]-naltrindole PET and MR brain images/data, the quantitative performance of the proposed methods was investigated. Significant improvements in terms of noise versus bias performance were demonstrated when performing direct parametric reconstruction, and additionally upon extending the algorithm to its Bayesian counterpart using the MR-PET joint entropy measure.

  7. Temperature-Responsive Biocompatible Copolymers Incorporating Hyperbranched Polyglycerols for Adjustable Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. House

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-triggered copolymers are proposed for a number of bio-applications but there is no ideal material platform, especially for injectable drug delivery. Options are needed for degradable biomaterials that not only respond to temperature but also easily accommodate linkage of active molecules. A first step toward realizing this goal is the design and synthesis of the novel materials reported herein. A multifunctional macromer, methacrylated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-MA with an average of one acrylate unit per copolymer, was synthesized and copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm, hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polylactide (HEMAPLA and acrylic acid (AAc. The potential to fully exploit the copolymers by modification of the multiple HPG hydroxyl groups will not be discussed here. Instead, this report focuses on the thermoresponsive, biocompatible, and degradation properties of the material. Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMAPLA-co-AAc-co-HPG-MA displayed increasing lower critical solution temperatures (LCST as the HPG content increased over a range of macromer ratios. For the copolymer with the maximum HPG incorporation (17%, the LCST was ~30 °C. In addition, this sample showed no toxicity when human uterine fibroid cells were co-cultured with the copolymer for up to 72 h. This copolymer lost approximately 92% of its mass after 17 hours at 37 °C. Thus, the reported biomaterials offer attractive properties for the design of drug delivery systems where orthogonally triggered mechanisms of therapeutic release in relatively short time periods would be attractive.

  8. Quantitative photoplethysmography: Lambert-Beer law or inverse function incorporating light scatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejnar, M; Kobler, H; Hunyor, S N

    1993-03-01

    Finger blood volume is commonly determined from measurement of infra-red (IR) light transmittance using the Lambert-Beer law of light absorption derived for use in non-scattering media, even when such transmission involves light scatter around the phalangeal bone. Simultaneous IR transmittance and finger volume were measured over the full dynamic range of vascular volumes in seven subjects and outcomes compared with data fitted according to the Lambert-Beer exponential function and an inverse function derived for light attenuation by scattering materials. Curves were fitted by the least-squares method and goodness of fit was compared using standard errors of estimate (SEE). The inverse function gave a better data fit in six of the subjects: mean SEE 1.9 (SD 0.7, range 0.7-2.8) and 4.6 (2.2, 2.0-8.0) respectively (p < 0.02, paired t-test). Thus, when relating IR transmittance to blood volume, as occurs in the finger during measurements of arterial compliance, an inverse function derived from a model of light attenuation by scattering media gives more accurate results than the traditional exponential fit.

  9. Feasibility of incorporating functionally relevant virtual rehabilitation in sub-acute stroke care: perception of patients and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; Chan Chun Kong, Daniel; Levin, Mindy F

    2018-03-11

    To determine user satisfaction and safety of incorporating a low-cost virtual rehabilitation intervention as an adjunctive therapeutic option for cognitive-motor upper limb rehabilitation in individuals with sub-acute stroke. A low-cost upper limb virtual rehabilitation application incorporating realistic functionally-relevant unimanual and bimanual tasks, specifically designed for cognitive-motor rehabilitation was developed for patients with sub-acute stroke. Clinicians and individuals with stroke interacted with the intervention for 15-20 or 20-45 minutes, respectively. The study had a mixed-methods convergent parallel design that included a focus group interview with clinicians working in a stroke program and semi-structured interviews and standardized assessments (Borg Perceived Exertion Scale, Short Feedback Questionnaire) for participants with sub-acute stroke undergoing rehabilitation. The occurrence of adverse events was also noted. Three main themes emerged from the clinician focus group and patient interviews: Perceived usefulness in rehabilitation, satisfaction with the virtual reality intervention and aspects to improve. All clinicians and the majority of participants with stroke were highly satisfied with the intervention and perceived its usefulness to decrease arm motor impairment during functional tasks. No participants experienced major adverse events. Incorporation of this type of functional activity game-based virtual reality intervention in the sub-acute phase of rehabilitation represents a way to transfer skills learned early in the clinical setting to real world situations. This type of intervention may lead to better integration of the upper limb into everyday activities. Implications for Rehabilitation • Use of a cognitive-motor low-cost virtual reality intervention designed to remediate arm motor impairments in sub-acute stroke is feasible, safe and perceived as useful by therapists and patients for stroke rehabilitation.

  10. Functional electrospun polystyrene nanofibers incorporating α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins: comparison of molecular filter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Tamer; Havelund, Rasmus; Hacaloglu, Jale; Besenbacher, Flemming; Kingshott, Peter

    2010-09-28

    Electrospinning has been used to successfully create polystyrene (PS) nanofibers containing either of three different types of cyclodextrin (CD); α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. These three CDs are chosen because they have different sized cavities that potentially allow for selective inclusion complex (IC) formation with molecules of different size or differences in affinity of IC formation with one type of molecule. The CD containing electrospun PS nanofibers (PS/CD) were initially characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the uniformity of the fibers and their fiber diameter distributions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to quantitatively determine the concentration of each CD on the different fiber surfaces. Static time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (static-ToF-SIMS) showed the presence of each type of CD on the PS nanofibers by the detection of both the CD sodium adduct molecular ions (M + Na+) and lower molecular weight oxygen containing fragment ions. The comparative efficiency of the PS/CD nanofibers/nanoweb for removing phenolphthalein, a model organic compound, from solution was determined by UV-vis spectrometry, and the kinetics of phenolphthalein capture was shown to follow the trend PS/α-CD > PS/β-CD > PS/γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) was also performed to ascertain the relative binding strengths of the phenolphthalein for the CD cavities, and the results showed the trend in the interaction strength was β-CD > γ-CD > α-CD. Our results demonstrate that nanofibers produced by electrospinning that incorporate cyclodextrins with different sized cavities can indeed filter organic molecules and can potentially be used for filtration, purification, and/or separation processes.

  11. Study of inter-relationship of depression, seizure frequency and quality of life of people with epilepsy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can have profound physical, social and psychological consequences. We aimed to assess the clinical predictors of quality of life of people with epilepsy. We recruited 31 patients suffering from epilepsy in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical profile was recorded. Quality Of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31 was used to assess quality of life of our patients. Depression was screened by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory in Epilepsy (NDDI-E. Among all the clinical variables, only seizure frequency significantly correlated with seizure worry (P=0.002, emotional well-being (P=0.026 and social functions (P=0.013 subscales of QOLIE-31. NDDI-E score showed a significant negative correlation with all the subscales of QOLIE-31 except medication effects (P=0.993. A significant positive correlation was also noted between seizure frequency and NDDI-E score (r=0.417, P=0.020. Seizure frequency and depression are the most important predictors of quality of life in epilepsy patients. The management of patients with epilepsy should not only be aimed at just preventing seizures but the treating clinicians should also be cognizant about depression which itself can significantly affect the quality of life of patients.

  12. Incorporating Functional Genomic Information in Genetic Association Studies Using an Empirical Bayes Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Amy V; Cox, Angela; Lin, Wei-Yu; Easton, Douglas F; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Walters, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    There is a large amount of functional genetic data available, which can be used to inform fine-mapping association studies (in diseases with well-characterised disease pathways). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prioritization via Bayes factors is attractive because prior information can inform the effect size or the prior probability of causal association. This approach requires the specification of the effect size. If the information needed to estimate a priori the probability density for the effect sizes for causal SNPs in a genomic region isn't consistent or isn't available, then specifying a prior variance for the effect sizes is challenging. We propose both an empirical method to estimate this prior variance, and a coherent approach to using SNP-level functional data, to inform the prior probability of causal association. Through simulation we show that when ranking SNPs by our empirical Bayes factor in a fine-mapping study, the causal SNP rank is generally as high or higher than the rank using Bayes factors with other plausible values of the prior variance. Importantly, we also show that assigning SNP-specific prior probabilities of association based on expert prior functional knowledge of the disease mechanism can lead to improved causal SNPs ranks compared to ranking with identical prior probabilities of association. We demonstrate the use of our methods by applying the methods to the fine mapping of the CASP8 region of chromosome 2 using genotype data from the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (COGS) Consortium. The data we analysed included approximately 46,000 breast cancer case and 43,000 healthy control samples. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Physico-functional and mechanical properties of chitosan and calcium salts incorporated fish gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevithan, E; Jeya Shakila, R; Varatharajakumar, A; Jeyasekaran, G; Sukumar, D

    2013-09-01

    Four types of fish gelatin scaffolds viz. gelatin (G), gelatin-chitosan (GC), gelatin-calcium acetate (GCA) and gelatin-chitosan-calcium acetate (GCCA) prepared were investigated for their functional properties, biomechanical strength, microstructural changes in relation to biodegradation. GC scaffold was superior with pH 3.15 and viscosity 9.40 cP. Chitosan and calcium acetate improved tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM), but lowered elongation at break (EAB). GCCA scaffold possessed moderate TS of 19.6 MPa, EAB of 4.76% and YM of 185 MPa. Foaming ability ratio of GC scaffold was high (3.41). GCA and GCCA scaffolds remained for 4 days before complete in vitro biodegradation. GC scaffold had larger cavities (180-300 μm) that were responsible for low swelling ratios and shrinkage factor. GCCA scaffold with moderate swelling rates, mechanical, functional properties and lowered biodegradation rate were found more suitable for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Canarium ovatum Engl. (Pili exocarp crude extract as functional food colorant incorporated in yogurt developed product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aril-dela Cruz, J.V.,

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Canarium ovatum Engl. (Pili, a locally grown plant in the Philippines, bears highly pigmented fruits. In this research study, the deeply pigmented fruit exocarp was evaluated for phytochemical contents, functional properties and possible application to yogurt as a colorant. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extract revealed high phenolic and flavonoid content, particularly anthocyanins (17.5 mg CE/g DW of the sample. The pigment extract also exhibited potential antioxidant activities as determined by DPPH and FRAP assays and did not show any inhibitory activity against gut normal flora, Escherichia coli, but also failed to express cytotoxic activity against HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Stability tests showed decreased redness with increasing temperature or pH. The pigment exhibited excellent color retention in yogurt during the two-week storage at 4oC. Sensory evaluation showed a slight difference in over-all acceptability between natural and synthetic-colored yogurt. Thus, Pili exocarp extract can be used as a functional food colorant in yogurt.

  15. Incorporating Data Link Messaging into a Multi-function Display for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated system and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. This paper describes the development of a research multi-function display (MFD) to support the interaction between pilots and an automated Airport Management Module (AMM). Preliminary results of simulation and flight tests indicate that adding the responsibility of monitoring other traffic for self-separation does not increase pilots subjective workload levels. Pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved situation awareness over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  16. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-08-28

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi-Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of nonblanched sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incorporation of bone marrow cells in pancreatic pseudoislets improves posttransplant vascularization and endocrine function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wittig

    Full Text Available Failure of revascularization is known to be the major reason for the poor outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed whether pseudoislets composed of islet cells and bone marrow cells can improve vascularization and function of islet transplants. Pancreatic islets isolated from Syrian golden hamsters were dispersed into single cells for the generation of pseudoislets containing 4×10(3 cells. To create bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets 2×10(3 islet cells were co-cultured with 2×10(3 bone marrow cells. Pseudoislets and bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets were transplanted syngeneically into skinfold chambers to study graft vascularization by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Native islet transplants served as controls. Bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets showed a significantly improved vascularization compared to native islets and pseudoislets. Moreover, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets but not pseudoislets normalized blood glucose levels after transplantation of 1000 islet equivalents under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals, although the bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets contained only 50% of islet cells compared to pseudoislets and native islets. Fluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets composed of bone marrow cells from GFP-expressing mice showed a distinct fraction of cells expressing both GFP and insulin, indicating a differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells to an insulin-producing cell-type. Thus, enrichment of pseudoislets by bone marrow cells enhances vascularization after transplantation and increases the amount of insulin-producing tissue. Accordingly, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets may represent a novel approach to increase the success rate of islet transplantation.

  20. Improvement of single detector proton radiography by incorporating intensity of time-resolved dose rate functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Jee, Kyung-Wook; Cascio, Ethan; Sharp, Gregory C.; Flanz, Jacob B.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Proton radiography, which images patients with the same type of particles as those with which they are to be treated, is a promising approach to image guidance and water equivalent path length (WEPL) verification in proton radiation therapy. We have shown recently that proton radiographs could be obtained by measuring time-resolved dose rate functions (DRFs) using an x-ray amorphous silicon flat panel. The WEPL values were derived solely from the root-mean-square (RMS) of DRFs, while the intensity information in the DRFs was filtered out. In this work, we explored the use of such intensity information for potential improvement in WEPL accuracy and imaging quality. Three WEPL derivation methods based on, respectively, the RMS only, the intensity only, and the intensity-weighted RMS were tested and compared in terms of the quality of obtained radiograph images and the accuracy of WEPL values. A Gammex CT calibration phantom containing inserts made of various tissue substitute materials with independently measured relative stopping powers (RSP) was used to assess the imaging performances. Improved image quality with enhanced interfaces was achieved while preserving the accuracy by using intensity information in the calibration. Other objects, including an anthropomorphic head phantom, a proton therapy range compensator, a frozen lamb’s head and an ‘image quality phantom’ were also imaged. Both the RMS only and the intensity-weighted RMS methods derived RSPs within  ±  1% for most of the Gammex phantom inserts, with a mean absolute percentage error of 0.66% for all inserts. In the case of the insert with a titanium rod, the method based on RMS completely failed, whereas that based on the intensity-weighted RMS was qualitatively valid. The use of intensity greatly enhanced the interfaces between different materials in the obtained WEPL images, suggesting the potential for image guidance in areas such as patient positioning and tumor tracking by proton

  1. WE-AB-202-02: Incorporating Regional Ventilation Function in Predicting Radiation Fibrosis After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, F; Jeudy, J; Tseng, H; Zhou, J; D’Souza, W; Zhang, H [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Senan, S; Sornsen de Koste, J van [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of pre-therapy regional ventilation function in predicting radiation fibrosis (RF) in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. Methods: 37 stage III NSCLC patients were retrospectively studied. Patients received one cycle of cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by two to three cycles of cisplatin-etoposide concurrently with involved-field thoracic radiotherapy between 46 and 66 Gy (2 Gy per fraction). Pre-therapy regional ventilation images of the lung were derived from 4DCT via a density-change-based image registration algorithm with mass correction. RF was evaluated at 6-months post-treatment using radiographic scoring based on airway dilation and volume loss. Three types of ipsilateral lung metrics were studied: (1) conventional dose-volume metrics (V20, V30, V40, and mean-lung-dose (MLD)), (2) dose-function metrics (fV20, fV30, fV40, and functional mean-lung-dose (fMLD) generated by combining regional ventilation and dose), and (3) dose-subvolume metrics (sV20, sV30, sV40, and subvolume mean-lung-dose (sMLD) defined as the dose-volume metrics computed on the sub-volume of the lung with at least 60% of the quantified maximum ventilation status). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the predictability of these metrics for RF. Results: In predicting airway dilation, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for (V20, MLD), (fV20, fMLD), and (sV20, and sMLD) were (0.76, 0.70), (0.80, 0.74) and (0.82, 0.80), respectively. The logistic regression p-values were (0.09, 0.18), (0.02, 0.05) and (0.004, 0.006), respectively. With regard to volume loss, the corresponding AUC values for these metrics were (0.66, 0.57), (0.67, 0.61) and (0.71, 0.69), and p-values were (0.95, 0.90), (0.43, 0.64) and (0.08, 0.12), respectively. Conclusion: The inclusion of regional ventilation function improved

  2. Incorporating functionalized polyethylene glycol lipids into reprecipitated conjugated polymer nanoparticles for bioconjugation and targeted labeling of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Prakash K.; Fernando, Lawrence P.; Ackroyd, P. Christine; Christensen, Kenneth A.

    2011-03-01

    We report a simple and rapid method to prepare extremely bright, functionalized, stable, and biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticles incorporating functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG) lipids by reprecipitation. These nanoparticles retain the fundamental spectroscopic properties of conjugated polymer nanoparticles prepared without PEG lipid, but demonstrate greater hydrophilicity and quantum yield compared to unmodified conjugated polymer nanoparticles. The sizes of these nanoparticles, as determined by TEM, were 21-26 nm. Notably, these nanoparticles were prepared with several PEG lipid functional end groups, including biotin and carboxy moieties that can be easily conjugated to biomolecules. We have demonstrated the availability of these end groups for functionalization using the interaction of biotin PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles with streptavidin. Biotinylated PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles bound streptavidin-linked magnetic beads, while carboxy and methoxy PEG lipid modified nanoparticles did not. Similarly, biotinylated PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles bound streptavidin-coated glass slides and could be visualized as diffraction-limited spots, while nanoparticles without PEG lipid or with non-biotin PEG lipid end groups were not bound. To demonstrate that nanoparticle functionalization could be used for targeted labelling of specific cellular proteins, biotinylated PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles were bound to biotinylated anti-CD16/32 antibodies on J774A.1 cell surface receptors, using streptavidin as a linker. This work represents the first demonstration of targeted delivery of conjugated polymer nanoparticles and demonstrates the utility of these new nanoparticles for fluorescence based imaging and sensing.We report a simple and rapid method to prepare extremely bright, functionalized, stable, and biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticles incorporating functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG

  3. Inter-Relationship Between Subtropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in Recent Summers and Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2017-01-01

    The inter-relationship between subtropical western-central Pacific sea surface temperatures (STWCPSST), sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea (SICBS), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are investigated for the last 37 summers and winters (1980-2016). Lag-correlation of the STWCPSST×(-1) in spring with the NAO phase and SICBS in summer increases over the last two decades, reaching r = 0.4-0.5 with significance at 5 percent, while winter has strong correlations in approximately 1985-2005. Observational analysis and the atmospheric general circulation model experiments both suggest that STWCPSST warming acts to increase the Arctic geopotential height and temperature in the following season. This atmospheric response extends to Greenland, providing favorable conditions for developing the negative phase of the NAO. SIC and surface albedo tend to decrease over the Beaufort Sea in summer, linked to the positive surface net shortwave flux. Energy balance considering radiative and turbulent fluxes reveal that available energy that can heat surface is larger over the Arctic and Greenland and smaller over the south of Greenland, in response to the STWCPSST warming in spring. XXXX Arctic & Atlantic: Positive upper-level height/T anomaly over the Arctic and Greenland, and a negative anomaly over the central-eastern Atlantic, resembling the (-) phase of the NAO. Pacific: The negative height/T anomaly over the mid-latitudes, along with the positive anomaly over the STWCP, where 1degC warming above climatology is prescribed. Discussion: It is likely that the Arctic gets warm and the NAO is in the negative phase in response to the STWCP warming. But, there are other factors (e.g., internal variability) that contribute to determination of the NAO phase: not always the negative phase of the NAO in the event of STWCP warming (e.g.: recent winters and near neutral NAO in 2017 summer).

  4. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  5. Effect of incorporation of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom-moringa-supplemented healthy soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajan, Suman; Orchy, Tania N; Farzana, Tasnim

    2018-05-01

    The research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom-moringa-supplemented soup which could be used as a protein-supplemented ready-to-eat food. In this study, corn flour was supplemented with soy flour at different levels such as 20% (T4), 15% (T3), 10% (T2), and 5% (T1), and without soy flour was kept as control (T0). Fixed amount of mushroom and moringa leaf powder was added in all soup powders. Soup powders were analyzed for functional, nutritional, and sensory parameters. Bulk density (0.82-0.74 g/ml), dispersibility (82.1%-75.9%), pH (6.17-6.13), swelling capacity (3.98-3.65 ml/g), and viscosity were decreased, while water absorption capacity (70%-94%) was increased with increasing of soy flour percentages. Protein content of all the treatment groups increased from 10.66% to 19.97% along with a significant increased in fat (1.43%-6.97%), fiber (1.10%-2.30%), ash (15.77%-16.40%), and energy value (328.38-353.21 kcal/100 g) while decreased in moisture and carbohydrate content. On sensory evaluation, soup powders with 10% (T2) level of soy flour incorporation had highest scores for all the sensory attributes evaluated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that soy flour has effect on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of soup powders and 10% supplementation of soy flour is suitable for ready-to-eat soup formulation. Besides these, use of mushroom and moringa leaf may also increase its nutritional value. Soup developed in this way may be sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement.

  6. Mathematical modeling of (13)C label incorporation of the TCA cycle: the concept of composite precursor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffmann, Kai; Gruetter, Rolf

    2007-11-15

    A novel approach for the mathematical modeling of (13)C label incorporation into amino acids via the TCA cycle that eliminates the explicit calculation of the labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates is described, resulting in one differential equation per measurable time course of labeled amino acid. The equations demonstrate that both glutamate C4 and C3 labeling depend in a predictable manner on both transmitochondrial exchange rate, V(X), and TCA cycle rate, V(TCA). For example, glutamate C4 labeling alone does not provide any information on either V(X) or V(TCA) but rather a composite "flux". Interestingly, glutamate C3 simultaneously receives label not only from pyruvate C3 but also from glutamate C4, described by composite precursor functions that depend in a probabilistic way on the ratio of V(X) to V(TCA): An initial rate of labeling of glutamate C3 (or C2) being close to zero is indicative of a high V(X)/V(TCA). The derived analytical solution of these equations shows that, when the labeling of the precursor pool pyruvate reaches steady state quickly compared with the turnover rate of the measured amino acids, instantaneous labeling can be assumed for pyruvate. The derived analytical solution has acceptable errors compared with experimental uncertainty, thus obviating precise knowledge on the labeling kinetics of the precursor. In conclusion, a substantial reformulation of the modeling of label flow via the TCA cycle turnover into the amino acids is presented in the current study. This approach allows one to determine metabolic rates by fitting explicit mathematical functions to measured time courses.

  7. Quantitative echocardiographic measures in the assessment of single ventricle function post-Fontan: Incorporation into routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Rodrigo; Ginde, Salil; Saudek, David; Loomba, Rohit S; Stelter, Jessica; Frommelt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative echocardiographic measurements of single ventricular (SV) function have not been incorporated into routine clinical practice. A clinical protocol, which included quantitative measurements of SV deformation (global circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rate), standard deviation of time to peak systolic strain, myocardial performance index (MPI), dP/dT from an atrioventricular valve regurgitant jet, and superior mesenteric artery resistance index, was instituted for all patients with a history of Fontan procedure undergoing echocardiography. All measures were performed real time during clinically indicated studies and were included in clinical reports. A total of 100 consecutive patients (mean age = 11.95±6.8 years, range 17 months-31.3 years) completed the protocol between September 1, 2014 to April 29, 2015. Deformation measures were completed in 100% of the studies, MPI in 93%, dP/dT in 55%, and superior mesenteric artery Doppler in 82%. The studies were reviewed to assess for efficiency in completing the protocol. The average time for image acquisition was 27.4±8.8 (range 10-62 minutes). The average time to perform deformation measures was 10.8±5.5 minutes (range 5-35 minutes) and time from beginning of imaging to report completion was 53.4±13.7 minutes (range 27-107 minutes). There was excellent inter-observer reliability when deformation indices were blindly repeated. Patients with a single left ventricle had significantly higher circumferential strain and strain rate, longitudinal strain and strain rate, and dP/dT compared to a single right ventricle. There were no differences in quantitative indices of ventricular function between patients 10 years post-Fontan. Advanced quantitative assessment of SV function post-Fontan can be consistently and efficiently performed real time during clinically indicated echocardiograms with excellent reliability. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cesium-incorporated indium-tin-oxide films for use as a cathode with low work function for a transparent organic light-emitting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Mimura, Toshifumi; Ohtsuka, Masao; Otomo, Toshio; Ide, Mieko; Shida, Azusa; Sawada, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Transparent organic light-emitting devices (TOLEDs) were successfully fabricated utilizing a novel transparent conducting cathode with low work function. Cesium-incorporated indium-tin-oxide film was deposited on the organic layers with negligible damage by simultaneous operation of RF magnetron sputtering using an ITO target and vacuum evaporation of metallic cesium. Incorporation of cesium in the ITO film was confirmed by XPS analysis. The work function (4.3 eV) determined by photoelectron spectroscopy in air (PESA) was lower than that of 0.3-0.4-eV without cesium-incorporation and stable under the atmospheric environment. The electron injection efficiency of cesium-incorporated ITO cathode in the present transparent OLED fabricated was comparable to that of the previous double-layered structure comprising of ITO cathode and an organic buffer layer (BCP) doped by evaporation of cesium [T. Uchida, S. Kaneta, M. Ichihara, M. Ohtsuka, T. Otomo, D.R. Marx, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 44, No. 9 (2005) L282

  9. Fabrication of polyester microchannel with functional surface for electro-chromatography - Incorporation of detection devices into the microchip -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Katsumi; Qiu, Jing Miao; Hobo, Toshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, new analytical techniques using microchip devise have been extensively studied (micro-TAS). One of the most successful examples is capillary electrophoresis (CE) with glass plate fabricated by photolithography followed by the chemical or physical etching process. Micro CE one of the most excellent separation techniques, performs separations in microchannel formed in appreciate substrate material. We developed a fabrication method for polyester micro channels with aikene alcohol inside the wall of the channel and demonstrated the usefulness of the polymer microchip. Although many researchers have been studying microchannel or micro-devices for analytical use, miniaturization of the total system including sample introduction, separation, detection and data treatment is still under development. Especially, the miniaturization of the detection system will be a hard bar to be overcome. Our method, based upon the in situ polymerization of polyester resin on an appreciate template, can be exported to let some parts incorporated directly into the microchip during the polymerization process. In this paper, we will describe the incorporation of detection components (light emitting diode and optical fiber) into polyester microchip and the application of the microchip to the analysis of amino acids separated by electrophoresis.

  10. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-01-01

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO 2 , ZnO and Fe 2 O 3 as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  11. Incorporation of plasma-functionalized carbon nanostructures in composite laminates for interlaminar reinforcement and delamination crack monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O. G.; Pedrazzoli, D.; Kovtun, D.; Qian, X.; Manas-Zloczower, I.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach employing carbon nanostructure (CNS) buckypapers (BP) was used to prepare glass fiber/epoxy composite materials with enhanced resistance to delamination along with damage monitoring capability. The CNS-BP was subjected to plasma treatment to improve its wettability by epoxy and to promote stronger interfacial bonding. An increase up to 20% in interlaminar fracture toughness in mode I and mode II was observed in composite laminates incorporating CNS BP. Morphological analysis of the fracture surfaces indicated that failure in the conductive CNS layer provided a more effective energy dissipation mechanism, resulting in interlaminar fracture toughness increase. Moreover, fracture of the conductive CNS layer enabled damage monitoring of the composite by electrical resistance measurements upon delamination. The proposed approach provides multifunctional ply interphases, allowing to couple damage monitoring with interlaminar reinforcement of composite laminates.

  12. Oxygen adsorption and incorporation at irradiated GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces: First-principles density-functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations of oxygen adsorption and incorporation at the polar GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces have been carried out to explain the experimentally observed reduced oxygen concentration in GaN samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the presence of high energy (˜10keV) electron beam irradiation [Myers , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2295 (2000)]. Using a model in which the effect of the irradiation is to excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band, we find that both the energy cost of incorporating oxygen impurities in deeper layers and the oxygen adatom diffusion barriers are significantly reduced in the presence of the excitation. The latter effect leads to a higher probability for two O adatoms to recombine and desorb, and thus to a reduced oxygen concentration in the irradiated samples, consistent with experimental observations.

  13. Tuning the work function of VO_2(1 0 0) surface by Ag adsorption and incorporation: Insights from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lanli; Wang, Xiaofang; Shi, Siqi; Cui, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hongjie; Gao, Yanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • After adsorption, there is a charge transfer from Ag to VO_2(1 0 0) surface, which thus increases the electron concentration in VO_2 thin film. • Ag adsorption on VO_2(1 0 0) surface process is an exothermic chemical process, and the adsorption system is stable. • The work function can be tuned by Ag adsorption on and incorporation into the VO_2(1 0 0) surface, which in turn regulates the phase transition temperature of VO_2. - Abstract: VO_2 is an attractive material for application to thermochromic optoelectronic devices such as smart windows, and Ag/VO_2 double-layered structure can effectively decrease the phase transition temperature (T_c) of VO_2 thin film, which is very important for practical application of VO_2. Previous works has shown that the decrease in phase transition temperature (T_c) seems to be relevant with the work function of VO_2 in Ag/VO_2 double-layered thin film, although the underlying mechanism of tuning its T_c by Ag incorporation and adsorption on the VO_2(1 0 0) surface has been rarely investigated. Our first-principles calculations reveal that the adsorption of Ag atoms on the VO_2(1 0 0) surface rather than incorporation of Ag exhibits a lower work function, which is ascribed to an integrated effect of charge transfer from Ag to VO_2(1 0 0) surface and enhanced surface dipole moment. The results suggest that the decrease in work function of VO_2 with Ag adsorption favors the reduction in T_c. The current findings are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism for yielding high-efficiency VO_2-based optoelectronic devices.

  14. Tuning the work function of VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface by Ag adsorption and incorporation: Insights from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lanli; Wang, Xiaofang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shi, Siqi, E-mail: sqshi@shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Luo, Hongjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Gao, Yanfeng, E-mail: yfgao@shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • After adsorption, there is a charge transfer from Ag to VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface, which thus increases the electron concentration in VO{sub 2} thin film. • Ag adsorption on VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface process is an exothermic chemical process, and the adsorption system is stable. • The work function can be tuned by Ag adsorption on and incorporation into the VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface, which in turn regulates the phase transition temperature of VO{sub 2}. - Abstract: VO{sub 2} is an attractive material for application to thermochromic optoelectronic devices such as smart windows, and Ag/VO{sub 2} double-layered structure can effectively decrease the phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) of VO{sub 2} thin film, which is very important for practical application of VO{sub 2}. Previous works has shown that the decrease in phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) seems to be relevant with the work function of VO{sub 2} in Ag/VO{sub 2} double-layered thin film, although the underlying mechanism of tuning its T{sub c} by Ag incorporation and adsorption on the VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface has been rarely investigated. Our first-principles calculations reveal that the adsorption of Ag atoms on the VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface rather than incorporation of Ag exhibits a lower work function, which is ascribed to an integrated effect of charge transfer from Ag to VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface and enhanced surface dipole moment. The results suggest that the decrease in work function of VO{sub 2} with Ag adsorption favors the reduction in T{sub c}. The current findings are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism for yielding high-efficiency VO{sub 2}-based optoelectronic devices.

  15. A Better Understanding of Protein Structure and Function by the Synthesis and Incorporation of Selenium- and Tellurium Containing Tryptophan Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmey, Sherif Samir [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Bioscience Division; Belmont Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Rice, Ambrose Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Bioscience Division; Belmont Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Hatch, Duane Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Bioscience Division; Belmont Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Silks, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Bioscience Division; Marti-Arbona, Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Bioscience Division

    2016-08-17

    Unnatural heavy metal-containing amino acid analogs have shown to be very important in the analysis of protein structure, using methods such as X-ray crystallography, mass spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis and incorporation of selenium-containing methionine analogs has already been shown in the literature however with some drawbacks due to toxicity to host organisms. Thus synthesis of heavy metal tryptophan analogs should prove to be more effective since the amino acid tryptophan is naturally less abundant in many proteins. For example, bioincorporation of β-seleno[3,2-b]pyrrolyl-L-alanine ([4,5]SeTrp) and β-selenolo[2,3-b]pyrrolyl-L-alanine ([6,7]SeTrp) has been shown in the following proteins without structural or catalytic perturbations: human annexin V, barstar, and dihydrofolate reductase. The reported synthesis of these Se-containing analogs is currently not efficient for commercial purposes. Thus a more efficient, concise, high-yield synthesis of selenotryptophan, as well as the corresponding, tellurotryptophan, will be necessary for wide spread use of these unnatural amino acid analogs. This research will highlight our progress towards a synthetic route of both [6,7]SeTrp and [6,7]TeTrp, which ultimately will be used to study the effect on the catalytic activity of Lignin Peroxidase (LiP).

  16. Incorporating "motivation" into the functional analysis of challenging behavior: on the interactive and integrative potential of the motivating operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity theory attempts to account for the variability often observed in challenging behavior by recourse to the "aberrant motivation" of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this article, we suggest that a functional analysis based on environmental (challenging environments) and biological (challenging needs) motivating operations provides a more parsimonious and empirically grounded account of challenging behavior than that proposed by sensitivity theory. It is argued that the concept of the motivating operation provides a means of integrating diverse strands of research without the undue inference of mentalistic constructs. An integrated model of challenging behavior is proposed, one that remains compatible with the central tenets of functional analysis.

  17. Incorporating Modeling and Simulations in Undergraduate Biophysical Chemistry Course to Promote Understanding of Structure-Dynamics-Function Relationships in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Sanchita; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    A project-based biophysical chemistry laboratory course, which is offered to the biochemistry and molecular biology majors in their senior year, is described. In this course, the classroom study of the structure-function of biomolecules is integrated with the discovery-guided laboratory study of these molecules using computer modeling and…

  18. Beneficial effects of amino acid-functionalized graphene nanosheets incorporated in the photoanode material of dye-sensitized solar cells: A practical and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Mahmood; Rezaei, Behzad; Fani, Najmeh; Borandeh, Sedigheh; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Ensafi, Ali A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of GO was improved with incorporated amino acids. • Functionalized amino acids could act as a reducing agent for GO. • Aromatic amino acids-GO had improved photovoltaic properties over aliphatic ones. • Aromatic ring of tyrosine was aligned in parallel to the GO sheet. • A bang gap for GO was emerged with functionalizing with amino acids. - Abstract: In this research, covalently functionalized graphene oxide (GO) with some biocompatible amino acids were incorporated to the TiO_2 film and employed as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrochemical analysis of the amino acids-functionalized graphene oxide (AFGs) confirmed that the attached amino acids could be acted as a reducing agent of the GO. The photovoltaic performance of the assembled DSSCs under illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mW cm"−"2) showed an enhancement of about 4.1 and 1.8 fold for the solar cell assembled with the tyrosine-functionalized GO in relation to the control solar cells constructed with GO-TiO_2 composite and blank TiO_2 film, respectively. These results were in accordance with electron life time and transport time resulted from the open circuit voltage decay (OCVD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) analysis. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations exhibited a proper spacial arrangement for the tyrosine-GO structure that could improve electron transfer between the adjucent GO sheets. Density of electronic states (DOS) exhibited a gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels for the simulated AFG structures. This effect could facilitate the light adsorption process in near-IR region.

  19. Beneficial effects of amino acid-functionalized graphene nanosheets incorporated in the photoanode material of dye-sensitized solar cells: A practical and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Mahmood [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Behzad, E-mail: rezaei@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fani, Najmeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borandeh, Sedigheh [Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 71345, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir; Ensafi, Ali A. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of GO was improved with incorporated amino acids. • Functionalized amino acids could act as a reducing agent for GO. • Aromatic amino acids-GO had improved photovoltaic properties over aliphatic ones. • Aromatic ring of tyrosine was aligned in parallel to the GO sheet. • A bang gap for GO was emerged with functionalizing with amino acids. - Abstract: In this research, covalently functionalized graphene oxide (GO) with some biocompatible amino acids were incorporated to the TiO{sub 2} film and employed as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrochemical analysis of the amino acids-functionalized graphene oxide (AFGs) confirmed that the attached amino acids could be acted as a reducing agent of the GO. The photovoltaic performance of the assembled DSSCs under illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mW cm{sup −2}) showed an enhancement of about 4.1 and 1.8 fold for the solar cell assembled with the tyrosine-functionalized GO in relation to the control solar cells constructed with GO-TiO{sub 2} composite and blank TiO{sub 2} film, respectively. These results were in accordance with electron life time and transport time resulted from the open circuit voltage decay (OCVD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) analysis. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations exhibited a proper spacial arrangement for the tyrosine-GO structure that could improve electron transfer between the adjucent GO sheets. Density of electronic states (DOS) exhibited a gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels for the simulated AFG structures. This effect could facilitate the light adsorption process in near-IR region.

  20. Gene transfer, expression, and sarcomeric incorporation of a headless myosin molecule in cardiac myocytes: evidence for a reserve in myofilament motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, Rene; Herron, Todd; Favre, Elizabeth; Albayya, Faris P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a living myocyte in vitro model system to test whether a motor domain-deleted headless myosin construct could be incorporated into the sarcomere and affect contractility. To this end we used gene transfer to express a “headless” myosin heavy chain (headless-MHC) in complement with the native full-length myosin motors in the cardiac sarcomere. An NH2-terminal Flag epitope was used for unique detection of the motor domain-deleted headless-MHC. Total MHC content (i.e., headless-MHC + endogenous MHC) remained constant, while expression of the headless-MHC in transduced myocytes increased from 24 to 72 h after gene transfer until values leveled off at 96 h after gene transfer, at which time the headless-MHC comprised ∼20% of total MHC. Moreover, immunofluorescence labeling and confocal imaging confirmed expression and demonstrated incorporation of the headless-MHC in the A band of the cardiac sarcomere. Functional measurements in intact myocytes showed that headless-MHC modestly reduced amplitude of dynamic twitch contractions compared with controls (P < 0.05). In chemically permeabilized myocytes, maximum steady-state isometric force and the tension-pCa relationship were unaltered by the headless-MHC. These data suggest that headless-MHC can express to 20% of total myosin and incorporate into the sarcomere yet have modest to no effects on dynamic and steady-state contractile function. This would indicate a degree of functional tolerance in the sarcomere for nonfunctional myosin molecules. PMID:21112946

  1. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The incorporation of SPECT functional lung imaging into inverse radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Judith A.; Partridge, Mike; Nioutsikou, Elena; Cook, Gary; McNair, Helen A.; Cronin, Bernadette; Courbon, Frederic; Bedford, James L.; Brada, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often have inhomogeneous lung perfusion. Radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans have been accurately co-registered with lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to design radiotherapy treatments which limit dose to healthy 'perfused' lung. Patients and methods: Patients with localised NSCLC had CT and SPECT scans accurately co-registered in the planning system. The SPECT images were used to define a volume of perfused 'functioning' lung (FL). Inverse planning software was used to create 3D-conformal plans, the planning objective being either to minimise the dose to whole lungs (WL) or to minimise the dose to FL. Results: Four plans were created for each of six patients. The mean difference in volume between WL and FL was 1011.7 cm 3 (range 596.2-1581.1 cm 3 ). One patient with bilateral upper lobe perfusion deficits had a 16% reduction in FLV 2 (the percentage volume of functioning lung receiving ≥20 Gy). The remaining patients had inhomogeneous perfusion deficits such that inverse planning was not able to sufficiently optimise beam angles to avoid functioning lung. Conclusion: SPECT perfusion images can be accurately co-registered with radiotherapy planning CT scans and may be helpful in creating treatment plans for patients with large perfusion deficits

  3. Prevalence and inter-relationship of different Doppler measures of dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS: a report from CARE-HF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edner, Magnus; Kim, Yong; Hansen, Knud Norregaard

    2009-01-01

    . 3(1, 4), p = 0.002, compared to patients with ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony is high in patients with heart failure, wide QRS and depressed systolic function. Most important, TSI appears to be a fast and reliable method to identify patients...

  4. Ethylenediamine-functionalized graphene oxide incorporated acid-base ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Dan; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Haijun; Han, Xutong; Liu, Biqian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylenediamine functionalized graphene oxide. • Layered structure of functionalized graphene oxide block vanadium ions crossover. • Protonated N-containing groups suppress vanadium ions permeation. • Ion transport channels are narrowed by electrostatic interactions. • Vanadium crossover decreased due to enhanced Donnan effect and special structure. - Abstract: As a promising large-scale energy storage battery, vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is urgently needed to develop cost-effective membranes with excellent performance. Novel acid-base ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are fabricated based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix and modified graphene oxide (GO) by solution blending. N-based functionalized graphene oxide (GO-NH 2 ) is fabricated by grafting ethylenediamine onto the edge of GO via a facile method. On one hand, the impermeable layered structures effectively block ion transport pathway to restrain vanadium ions crossover. On the other hand, acid-base pairs form between −SO 3 − groups and N-based groups on the edge of GO nanosheets, which not only suppress vanadium ions contamination but also provide a narrow pathway for proton migration. The structure is beneficial for achieving an intrinsic balance between conductivity and permeability. By altering amounts of GO-NH 2 , a sequence of acid-base IEMs are characterized in detail. The single cells assembled with acid-base IEMs show self-discharge time for 160 h, capacity retention 92% after 100 cycle, coulombic efficiency 97.2% and energy efficiency 89.5%. All data indicate that acid-base IEMs have promising prospects for VRFB applications.

  5. Function of membrane protein in silica nanopores: incorporation of photosynthetic light-harvesting protein LH2 into FSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ippei; Hirata, Kotaro; Watanabe, Syoko; Shibata, Yutaka; Kajino, Tsutomu; Fukushima, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Satoshi; Itoh, Shigeru

    2006-01-26

    A high amount of functional membrane protein complex was introduced into a folded-sheet silica mesoporous material (FSM) that has nanometer-size pores of honeycomb-like hexagonal cylindrical structure inside. The photosynthetic light-harvesting complex LH2, which is a typical membrane protein, has a cylindrical structure of 7.3 nm diameter and contains 27 bacteriochlorophyll a and nine carotenoid molecules. The complex captures light energy in the anoxygenic thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum. The amount of LH2 adsorbed to FSM was determined optically and by the adsorption isotherms of N2. The FSM compounds with internal pore diameters of 7.9 and 2.7 nm adsorbed LH2 at 1.11 and 0.24 mg/mg FSM, respectively, suggesting the high specific affinity of LH2 to the interior of the hydrophobic nanopores with a diameter of 7.9 nm. The LH2 adsorbed to FSM showed almost intact absorption bands of bacteriochlorophylls, and was fully active in the capture and transfer of excitation energy. The LH2 complex inside the FSM showed increased heat stability of the exciton-type absorption band of bacteriochlorophylls (B850), suggesting higher circular symmetry. The environment inside the hydrophobic silica nanopores can be a new matrix for the membrane proteins to reveal their functions. The silica-membrane protein adduct will be useful for the construction of new probes and reaction systems.

  6. Facile synthesis of functionalized ionic surfactant templated mesoporous silica for incorporation of poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Lu; Yang, Baixue; Wang, Hongyu; Bao, Zhihong; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2015-08-15

    The present paper reported amino group functionalized anionic surfactant templated mesoporous silica (Amino-AMS) for loading and release of poorly water-soluble drug indomethacin (IMC) and carboxyl group functionalized cationic surfactant templated mesoporous silica (Carboxyl-CMS) for loading and release of poorly water-soluble drug famotidine (FMT). Herein, Amino-AMS and Carboxyl-CMS were facilely synthesized using co-condensation method through two types of silane coupling agent. Amino-AMS was spherical nanoparticles, and Carboxyl-CMS was well-formed spherical nanosphere with a thin layer presented at the edge. Drug loading capacity was obviously enhanced when using Amino-AMS and Carboxyl-CMS as drug carriers due to the stronger hydrogen bonding force formed between surface modified carrier and drug. Amino-AMS and Carboxyl-CMS had the ability to transform crystalline state of loaded drug from crystalline phase to amorphous phase. Therefore, IMC loaded Amino-AMS presented obviously faster release than IMC because amorphous phase of IMC favored its dissolution. The application of asymmetric membrane capsule delayed FMT release significantly, and Carboxyl-CMS favored sustained release of FMT due to its long mesoporous channels and strong interaction formed between its carboxyl group and amino group of FMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional group and stereochemical requirements for substrate binding by ghrelin O-acyltransferase revealed by unnatural amino acid incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverdon, Elizabeth R; Davis, Tasha R; Hougland, James L

    2018-04-21

    Ghrelin is a small peptide hormone that undergoes a unique posttranslational modification, serine octanoylation, to play its physiological roles in processes including hunger signaling and glucose metabolism. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) catalyzes this posttranslational modification, which is essential for ghrelin to bind and activate its cognate GHS-R1a receptor. Inhibition of GOAT offers a potential avenue for modulating ghrelin signaling for therapeutic effect. Defining the molecular characteristics of ghrelin that lead to binding and recognition by GOAT will facilitate the development and optimization of GOAT inhibitors. We show that small peptide mimics of ghrelin substituted with 2,3-diaminopropanoic acid in place of the serine at the site of octanoylation act as submicromolar inhibitors of GOAT. Using these chemically modified analogs of desacyl ghrelin, we define key functional groups within the N-terminal sequence of ghrelin essential for binding to GOAT and determine GOAT's tolerance to backbone methylations and altered amino acid stereochemistry within ghrelin. Our study provides a structure-activity analysis of ghrelin binding to GOAT that expands upon activity-based investigations of ghrelin recognition and establishes a new class of potent substrate-mimetic GOAT inhibitors for further investigation and therapeutic interventions targeting ghrelin signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incorporation of the purified epstein barr virus/C3d receptor (CR2) into liposomes and demonstration of its dual ligand binding functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mold, C.; Cooper, N.R.; Nemerow, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The 145-kDA molecule that has been identified as the C3d receptor CR2 was isolated from lysates of Raji cells by affinity chromatography by using the monoclonal antibody (MoAb)HB-5. The purified protein was incorporated into 14 C-phosphatidylcholine liposomes by deoxycholate dialysis followed by flotation on discontinuous sucrose gradients. Incorporation of the receptor was verified by testing the gradient fractions for CR2 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liposomes were shown to be unilamellar vesicles ranging in diameter from 25 to 100 nm by electron microscopy. The external orientation of CR2 in the membranes was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. The functional activities of liposomes containing CR2 and liposomes without protein were compared. CR2 liposomes bound to EC3d, but not to E, and this binding was inhibited by the anti-CR2 MoAb OKB7 and by a MoAb specific for C3d. Control liposomes failed to bind to either E or EC3D. The ability of CR2 to function as a receptor for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) was tested in two ways. First, CR2 liposomes bound to B95-8, a cell line expressing EBV membrane antigens, but not to B95-8 cells treated with the viral DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoformic acid. Second, liposomes containing CR2 were shown by ultracentrifugal analyses to bind directly to purified EBV, and this binding was also inhibited by OKB7. Control liposomes did not bind to B95-8 cells or to EBV. These findings show that CR2 purified from detergent extracts of Raji cells can be reconstituted into lipid membranes with maintenance of its dual functions as a receptor for C3d and EBV

  9. Incorporation of the purified epstein barr virus/C3d receptor (CR2) into liposomes and demonstration of its dual ligand binding functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mold, C.; Cooper, N.R.; Nemerow, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    The 145-kDA molecule that has been identified as the C3d receptor CR2 was isolated from lysates of Raji cells by affinity chromatography by using the monoclonal antibody (MoAb)HB-5. The purified protein was incorporated into /sup 14/C-phosphatidylcholine liposomes by deoxycholate dialysis followed by flotation on discontinuous sucrose gradients. Incorporation of the receptor was verified by testing the gradient fractions for CR2 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liposomes were shown to be unilamellar vesicles ranging in diameter from 25 to 100 nm by electron microscopy. The external orientation of CR2 in the membranes was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. The functional activities of liposomes containing CR2 and liposomes without protein were compared. CR2 liposomes bound to EC3d, but not to E, and this binding was inhibited by the anti-CR2 MoAb OKB7 and by a MoAb specific for C3d. Control liposomes failed to bind to either E or EC3D. The ability of CR2 to function as a receptor for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) was tested in two ways. First, CR2 liposomes bound to B95-8, a cell line expressing EBV membrane antigens, but not to B95-8 cells treated with the viral DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoformic acid. Second, liposomes containing CR2 were shown by ultracentrifugal analyses to bind directly to purified EBV, and this binding was also inhibited by OKB7. Control liposomes did not bind to B95-8 cells or to EBV. These findings show that CR2 purified from detergent extracts of Raji cells can be reconstituted into lipid membranes with maintenance of its dual functions as a receptor for C3d and EBV.

  10. Inter- relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkarnikar, J; Thomas, B S; Rao, S K

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal medicine defines a rapidly emerging branch of Periodontology focusing on establishing a strong relationship between periodontal health and systemic health. It is speculated that the major common dysregulation which links Periodontitis with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is being played by the mediators of immune inflammatory response. To determine whether there is any relationship between periodontal disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. A total of 100 patients were included for the present study which was divided into two groups: one group (cases) included 50 patients attending the Department of Orthopedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal who were diagnosed of Rheumatoid arthritis. Another subject population included 50 patients as controls attending the Department of Oral Medicine, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal with age and gender matched with those of rheumatoid arthritis group. Specific measures for periodontitis included plaque index, gingival index, number of missing teeth, and radiographic alveolar bone loss scores. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis included health assessment questionaires, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Various periodontal parameters were compared between the cases and controls. The average alveolar bone loss was statistically more severe in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group than in the controls although there were similar plaque index in both the groups. The gingival index was statistically higher in the RA group. The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C- Reactive Protein (CRP) levels of RA patients were also significantly associated with the severity of periodontal disease. There was a significant association between Rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontitis which may be due to a common underlying deregulation of the inflammatory response in these individuals.

  11. Inter relationship of Ayurveda and Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Jaiprakash Narayan

    2013-01-01

    In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases.

  12. The inter-relationship of premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M; Abraham, S; McNeil, D; Vizzard, J; Macaskill, P; Fraser, I; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1995-09-01

    The prospective symptom reports of women seeking treatment for premenstrual symptoms and control subjects was investigated. In order to compare symptom reports from premenstrual symptom sufferers and control subjects a method of combining and analysing prospectively collected menstrual cycle symptom data is required. A technique that uses the time of onset of menses and the time of ovulation (as measured by urinary luteinizing hormone excretion) to standardize each cycle into 14 time points was developed. Summary factors were then empirically derived from data collected prospectively from 30 premenstrual symptom sufferers and 19 control subjects. Twenty-two mood symptoms were summarized into a single factor and the 29 most frequently occurring physical symptoms were summarized into two factors. Factor scores were calculated on the basis of these factors and the effect of time during the menstrual cycle on these scores examined. Both physical symptom factor scores increased significantly in the luteal phase for both the premenstrual symptom sufferer group and the control group. The single mood factor score increased significantly in the luteal phase for the premenstrual sufferer group but not for the control group, suggesting that the only qualitative difference between the groups was the presence of cyclic mood symptoms in the premenstrual symptom sufferer group. The premenstrual symptom sufferer group recorded significantly higher scores on each of the three factors than the control group. The correlation between the scores on each of the factors over three cycles was high both in the follicular and luteal phase suggesting that these factor scores provide a reproducible measure of menstrual cycle symptomatology.

  13. Incorporation of an evolutionary algorithm to estimate transfer-functions for a parameter regionalization scheme of a rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents a framework, which enables the use of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) for the calibration and regionalization of the hydrological model COSEROreg. COSEROreg uses an updated version of the HBV-type model COSERO (Kling et al. 2014) for the modelling of hydrological processes and is embedded in a parameter regionalization scheme based on Samaniego et al. (2010). The latter uses subscale-information to estimate model via a-priori chosen transfer functions (often derived from pedotransfer functions). However, the transferability of the regionalization scheme to different model-concepts and the integration of new forms of subscale information is not straightforward. (i) The usefulness of (new) single sub-scale information layers is unknown beforehand. (ii) Additionally, the establishment of functional relationships between these (possibly meaningless) sub-scale information layers and the distributed model parameters remain a central challenge in the implementation of a regionalization procedure. The proposed method theoretically provides a framework to overcome this challenge. The implementation of the EA encompasses the following procedure: First, a formal grammar is specified (Ryan et al., 1998). The construction of the grammar thereby defines the set of possible transfer functions and also allows to incorporate hydrological domain knowledge into the search itself. The EA iterates over the given space by combining parameterized basic functions (e.g. linear- or exponential functions) and sub-scale information layers into transfer functions, which are then used in COSEROreg. However, a pre-selection model is applied beforehand to sort out unfeasible proposals by the EA and to reduce the necessary model runs. A second optimization routine is used to optimize the parameters of the transfer functions proposed by the EA. This concept, namely using two nested optimization loops, is inspired by the idea of Lamarckian Evolution and Baldwin Effect

  14. Functional characteristics, wettability properties and cytotoxic effect of starch film incorporated with multi-walled and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mahdiyar; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Sotoodeh, Shahnaz

    2017-11-01

    Two types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT and CNT-OH) at different levels (0.1-0.9wt%) were introduced into starch matrix in order to modify its functional properties. The optimum concentration of each nanotube was selected based on the results of water solubility, water permeability and mechanical experiments. The physico-mechanical data showed that CNT up to 0.7wt% led to a notable increase in water resistance, water barrier property and tensile strength, whilst regarding CNT-OH, these improvements found at 0.9wt%. Therefore, effects of optimized level of each nanotube on the starch film were evaluated by XRD, surface hydrophobicity, wettability and surface energy tests. XRD revealed that the position of starch characteristic peak shifted to higher degree after nanotubes introducing. The hydrophobic character of the film was greatly increased with incorporation of nanoparticles, as evidenced by increased contact angle with greatest value regarding CNT-OH. Moreover, CNT-OH notably decreased the surface free energy of the starch film. Finally, the conformity of both nanocomposites with actual food regulations on biodegradable materials was tested by cytotoxicity assay to evaluate the possibility of application in food packaging sector. Both nanocomposite films had potential of cytotoxic effects, since they could increase cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase release from L-929 fibroblast cells in contact with their surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. D-Amino acids incorporation in the frog skin-derived peptide esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 is beneficial for its multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grazia, Antonio; Cappiello, Floriana; Cohen, Hadar; Casciaro, Bruno; Luca, Vincenzo; Pini, Alessandro; Di, Y Peter; Shai, Yechiel; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising future antibiotics. We have previously isolated esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2, a short peptide derived from the frog skin AMP esculentin-1a, with a potent anti-Pseudomonal activity. Here, we investigated additional functions of the peptide and properties responsible for these activities. For that purpose, we synthesized the peptide, as well as its structurally altered analog containing two D-amino acids. The peptides were then biophysically and biologically investigated for their cytotoxicity and immunomodulating activities. The data revealed that compared to the wild-type, the diastereomer: (1) is significantly less toxic towards mammalian cells, in agreement with its lower α-helical structure, as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy; (2) is more effective against the biofilm form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (responsible for lung infections in cystic fibrosis sufferers), while maintaining a high activity against the free-living form of this important pathogen; (3) is more stable in serum; (4) has a higher activity in promoting migration of lung epithelial cells, and presumably in healing damaged lung tissue, and (5) disaggregates and detoxifies the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), albeit less than the wild-type. Light scattering studies revealed a correlation between anti-LPS activity and the ability to disaggregate the LPS. Besides shedding light on the multifunction properties of esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2, the D-amino acid containing isomer may serve as an attractive template for the development of new anti-Pseudomonal compounds with additional beneficial properties. Furthermore, together with other studies, incorporation of D-amino acids may serve as a general approach to optimize the future design of new AMPs.

  16. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Hassan; A.I. Mustafa; A.R. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  17. Improving the Functionality of Dictionary Definitions for Lexical Sets: The Role of Definitional Templates, Definitional Consistency, Definitional Coherence and the Incorporation of Lexical Conceptual Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Swanepoel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on some of the problems raised by Atkins and Rundell's (2008 approach to the design of lexicographic definitions for members of lexical sets. The questions raised are how to define and identify lexical sets, how lexical conceptual models (LCMs can support definitional consistency and coherence in defining members of lexical sets, and what the ideal content and structure of LCMs could be. Although similarity of meaning is proposed as the defining feature of lexical sets, similarity of meaning is only one dimension of the broader concept of lexical coherence. The argument is presented that numerous conceptual lexical models (e.g. taxonomies, folk models, frames, etc. in fact indicate, justify or explain how lexical items cohere (and thus form sets. In support of Fillmore's (2003 suggestion that definitions of the lexical items of cohering sets should be linked to such explanatory models, additional functionally-orientated arguments are presented for the incorporation of conceptual lexical models in electronic monolingual learners' dictionaries. Numerous resources exist to support the design of LCMs which can improve the functionality of definitions of members of lexical sets. A few examples are discussed of how such resources can be used to design functionally justified LCMs.

    OPSOMMING: Verbetering van die funksionaliteit van woordeboekdefinisies vir leksikale versamelings: Die rol van definisiematryse, definisie-eenvormigheid, definisiesamehang en die inkorporering van leksikale konseptuele modelle. Hierdie artikel fokus op sommige van die probleme wat ter sprake kom deur Atkins en Rundell (2008 se benadering tot die ontwerp van leksikografiese definisies vir lede van leksikale versamelings. Die vrae wat gestel word, is hoe leksikale versamelings gedefinieer en geïdentifiseer moet word, hoe leksikale konseptuele modelle (LKM's definisie-eenvormigheid en-samehang kan ondersteun by die definiëring van lede

  18. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tingshun, E-mail: tshjiang@mail.ujs.edu.cn; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  19. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-01-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO 4 2− /Zr-MCM-48 and SO 4 2− /Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH 3 -TPD and N 2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO 4 2− /Zr-MCM-48 and SO 4 2− /Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO 4 2− /Zr-MCM-48 and SO 4 2− /Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO 4 2− /Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h −1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO 4 2− /Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO 4 2− /Zr-MCM-48-25

  20. Study the effect of Gd{sup 3+} incorporation into nanocrystalline (Ni–Ti) substituted Mn–Zn ferrites on its structure and functional properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rady, K.E., E-mail: k_rady_2001@yahoo.com [Engineering Basic Sciences Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shebin El-El, Kom (Egypt); Shams, M.S. [Department of Physics and Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf (Egypt)

    2017-03-15

    Ferrite samples with general chemical formula Mn{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Ni{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.05}Gd{sub t}Fe{sub 1.9−t}O{sub 4}; (0.0≤ t≤0.05; step 0.01) were prepared using solid state reaction technique and the effect of Gd{sup 3+} ions incorporation on its physical properties has been studied. From the obtained results, XRD analysis reveals that the samples have a cubic spinel single phase structure for 0.0≤ t≤0.02; while for t≥0.03 a small peak of secondary phase (Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) appears and becomes more noticeable with increasing Gd content. The lattice parameter (a) of the prepared samples was found to be initially increases and then decreases with increasing Gd content which may be attributed to the difference in the ionic radii of the cations involved and the solubility limit of Gd{sup 3+} ions. The crystallite size of the samples was estimated using Scherrer's equation and ranged from 96 nm to 107 nm. A vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used at room temperature in order to study the effect of Gd content on the magnetic hysteresis parameters of the prepared ferrites such as saturation magnetization and coercivity. DC molar magnetic susceptibility (χ{sub M}) for the prepared samples was measured using Faraday's method as a function of temperature and the Curie temperature was calculated from the magnetic susceptibility measurements. Also the DC resistivity of the samples was measured at room temperature. The obtained results show that, the substitution by Gd{sup 3+} ions improves the electrical properties of the samples by increasing it DC electrical resistivity by 118% and consequently decreases it eddy current loss while the saturation magnetization slightly decreased by 14% only. The sample of t=0.01 shows a high dc magnetic susceptibility, high saturation magnetization (43.1 emu/g), high electric resistivity 12×10{sup 3} Ω.m and high Curie temperature (496 K), which is useful in some technological applications such

  1. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha -1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  2. Central talar dome lesions: a unique surgical approach with incorporation of a talar allograft for joint reconstitution and restoration of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Bruce M; Cazzell, Shawn M; Dini, Monara

    2011-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus have been documented, reported, and studied since as early as the 19th century. The evolution of classification systems has allowed surgeons to better manage osseous lesions. Most osteochondral lesions of the talus have been categorized as anterolateral, posteromedial, or central with respect to the talar dome and its articulating surface. The complexity of the aforementioned lesions each present their own set of obstacles and, hence, management. Specifically, surgery on a central talar dome lesion is complicated by poor exposure and limited access, proving to be a challenging operation. Preoperative planning, including exhaustive imaging before any talar dome surgery, is imperative. We present a case study that involves the need for a distal tibial chevron (wedge) talus, with incorporation of a cadaveric allograft to fill the defect.

  3. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  4. Incorporating ecosystem function concept in environmental planning and decision making by means of multi-criteria evaluation: the case-study of Kalloni, Lesbos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Vera; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Troumbis, Andreas Y

    2011-01-01

    Nature provides life-support services which do not merely constitute the basis for ecosystem integrity but also benefit human societies. The importance of such multiple outputs is often ignored or underestimated in environmental planning and decision making. The economic valuation of ecosystem functions or services has been widely used to make these benefits economically visible and thus address this deficiency. Alternatively, the relative importance of the components of ecosystem value can be identified and compared by means of multi-criteria evaluation. Hereupon, this article proposes a conceptual framework that couples ecosystem function analysis, multi criteria evaluation and social research methodologies for introducing an ecosystem function-based planning and management approach. The framework consists of five steps providing the structure of a participative decision making process which is then tested and ratified, by applying the discrete multi-criteria method NAIADE, in the Kalloni Natura 2000 site, on Lesbos, Greece. Three scenarios were developed and evaluated with regard to their impacts on the different types of ecosystem functions and the social actors' value judgements. A conflict analysis permitted the better elaboration of the different views, outlining the coalitions formed in the local community and shaping the way towards reaching a consensus.

  5. A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green's Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, James; Hyde, Christopher

    2016-01-06

    The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt "two-shifting" operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal pressures to generate in a highly flexible and efficient manner. The Green's function method offers a flexible approach to determine reference elastic solutions for transient thermal stress problems. In order to simplify integration, it is often assumed that Green's functions (derived from finite element unit temperature step solutions) are temperature independent (this is not the case due to the temperature dependency of material parameters). The present work offers a simple method to approximate a material's temperature dependency using multiple reference unit solutions and an interpolation procedure. Thermal stress histories are predicted and compared for realistic temperature cycles using distinct techniques. The proposed interpolation method generally performs as well as (if not better) than the optimum single Green's function or the previously-suggested weighting function technique (particularly for large temperature increments). Coefficients of determination are typically above 0 . 96 , and peak stress differences between true and predicted datasets are always less than 10 MPa.

  6. Deep sequencing of RNA from immune cell-derived vesicles uncovers the selective incorporation of small non-coding RNA biotypes with potential regulatory functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte-'t Hoen, E.N.M.; Buermans, H.P.; Waasdorp, M.; Stoorvogel, W.; Wauben, M.H.M.; `t Hoen, P.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cells release RNA-carrying vesicles and membrane-free RNA/protein complexes into the extracellular milieu. Horizontal vesicle-mediated transfer of such shuttle RNA between cells allows dissemination of genetically encoded messages, which may modify the function of target cells. Other studies used

  7. Hydrogen dissociation and incorporation on Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}(100) surface: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Hua [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Novel Energy Materials and Related Technology, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhou, Zhiyan; Zhang, Ziyan [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Novel Energy Materials and Related Technology, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhou, Wenzheng; Li, Guangxu [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Novel Energy Materials and Related Technology, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guo, Jin, E-mail: guojin@gxu.edu.cn [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Novel Energy Materials and Related Technology, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hydrogen adsorption, dissociation, and penetration on (in) Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} (100) surface are studied. • Hydrogen molecules are dissociated on the surface with barrier of 0.63 eV. • The maximum barrier energy for atomic hydrogen penetration into the subsurface is ∼0.7 eV. • The hybridization between the s orbital of H and the s orbitals of Mg is major. - Abstract: Hydrogen adsorption, dissociation, and penetration on (in) Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} (100) surface are studied extensively by DFT total-energy calculations. The adsorption geometries, dissociation barriers, various diffusion pathways, penetrative processes, and electronic structures were investigated. Results show that the atomic and molecular hydrogen forms prefer to be adsorbed on the Mg3-Mg3 bridge sites (C sites). Hydrogen molecules are dissociated on the surface with the minimum barrier energy of 0.63 eV. There are two stages in the process of hydrogen incorporation, which are hydrogen diffusion on the surface and the penetration from the surface into the subsurface. Two possible pathways of atomic hydrogen penetration from surface into subsurface are found. The calculations of electronic structures show that the hybridization between the s orbital of H and the s orbitals of Mg is major. The Mg-Mg bond on the outmost surface is shortened from 4.48 Å to 3.30 Å after the hydrogen adsorption on C sites, showing the strong interaction between Mg and H atoms.

  8. A pilot investigation of the potential for incorporating lifelog technology into executive function rehabilitation for enhanced transfer of self-regulation skills to everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Caracuel, Alfonso; Valls-Serrano, Carlos; Garcia-Mochon, Letitia; Gracey, Fergus; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the potential target and effect size of goal management training (GMT) enhanced with life-logging technology compared with standard GMT on a range of possible primary outcomes reflecting cognitive and ecological aspects of executive functioning and quality of life. Sixteen patients with acquired brain injury involving executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: seven weeks of GMT (n = 8), or seven weeks of GMT+Lifel...

  9. A pilot investigation of the potential for incorporating lifelog technology into executive function rehabilitation for enhanced transfer of self-regulation skills to everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Caracuel, Alfonso; Valls-Serrano, Carlos; García-Mochón, Leticia; Gracey, Fergus; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the potential target and effect size of goal management training (GMT) enhanced with life-logging technology compared with standard GMT on a range of possible primary outcomes reflecting cognitive and ecological aspects of executive functioning and quality of life. Sixteen patients with acquired brain injury involving executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: seven weeks of GMT (n = 8), or seven weeks of GMT+Lifelog (n = 8). Outcome measures included a battery of executive function tests, the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) and the Quality of Life after Brain Injury scale (QOLIBRI), measured pre- and post-interventions. Within-group changes were assessed with related-samples t-tests and estimation of effect sizes. GMT+Lifelog was associated with significant changes, of medium to large effect size, in response inhibition (Stroop), multitasking (Strategy Application and Multiple Errand tests), DEX Intentionality and Positive Affect subscales and QOLIBRI Daily Life and Autonomy, subscales. GMT alone was associated with significant changes of overall quality of life. It was concluded that GMT+Lifelog holds promise to optimise the impact of GMT on executive dysfunction and quality of life.

  10. Toward a Novel Strategy for Magnetic–Resonance Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Tumor Angiogenesis: Nickel Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Incorporated into Radiation-Functionalized Polymer Nano-Carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizza, G.; Clochard, M. C.; Berthelot, T. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    The more recent research activity of the Irradiated Polymers team focused mainly on nanostructures membranes for nanofiltration and nanofluidic systems in biomedical and energy fields. The so called track-etched membranes were made by chemical revealing of tracks induced from swift heavy ions irradiations in collaboration with the CIRIL laboratory (GANIL, France). The background experience of the tem about electron-polymer interaction allowed us to predict the behavior of the radio-induced grafting, namely radografting, inside ion-tracks. It was the necessary to adapt our detection tools to chemical modification of picomole range and to nanometer scale architecture of these membranes. Consequently, we resorted to the use of high-cost techniques such as small angle neutron scattering to be able to characterize accurately polymer membrane nanopores. In parallel, more accessible techniques like gas permeation have been developed for a rapid evaluation of nanopore radii. The labeling of introduced chemical functionalities with fluorescent probes was a very effective mean to visualize very few amounts of molecules by confocal microscopy and to localize, for the first time, the radiografting inside theetched tracks. The study of such nanostructures has enlarged our perspectives and collaborations. Indeed, it pushed us to electrodeposite metallic nanowires and to create conductive polymer nanotubes to study the conduction in nanochannels of such systems (Biosensors and optoelectronic applications) and to study the ionic conduction in nano-channels filled of hydrogen (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell application). More recently, since January 2007, we are developing a subject on another kind of polylmer device on which we are applying our known-how in radiografting. It is about the functionalized fluoropolymer nanoparticles for medical imaging. In the following, I describe in more details some of the recent works being carried out at our laboratory on the irradiated

  11. Toward a Novel Strategy for Magnetic–Resonance Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Tumor Angiogenesis: Nickel Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Incorporated into Radiation-Functionalized Polymer Nano-Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizza, G.; Clochard, M.C.; Berthelot, T.

    2009-01-01

    The more recent research activity of the Irradiated Polymers team focused mainly on nanostructures membranes for nanofiltration and nanofluidic systems in biomedical and energy fields. The so called track-etched membranes were made by chemical revealing of tracks induced from swift heavy ions irradiations in collaboration with the CIRIL laboratory (GANIL, France). The background experience of the tem about electron-polymer interaction allowed us to predict the behavior of the radio-induced grafting, namely radografting, inside ion-tracks. It was the necessary to adapt our detection tools to chemical modification of picomole range and to nanometer scale architecture of these membranes. Consequently, we resorted to the use of high-cost techniques such as small angle neutron scattering to be able to characterize accurately polymer membrane nanopores. In parallel, more accessible techniques like gas permeation have been developed for a rapid evaluation of nanopore radii. The labeling of introduced chemical functionalities with fluorescent probes was a very effective mean to visualize very few amounts of molecules by confocal microscopy and to localize, for the first time, the radiografting inside theetched tracks. The study of such nanostructures has enlarged our perspectives and collaborations. Indeed, it pushed us to electrodeposite metallic nanowires and to create conductive polymer nanotubes to study the conduction in nanochannels of such systems (Biosensors and optoelectronic applications) and to study the ionic conduction in nano-channels filled of hydrogen (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell application). More recently, since January 2007, we are developing a subject on another kind of polylmer device on which we are applying our known-how in radiografting. It is about the functionalized fluoropolymer nanoparticles for medical imaging. In the following, I describe in more details some of the recent works being carried out at our laboratory on the irradiated

  12. Interrogating two schedules of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in patients with advanced solid tumors incorporating novel pharmacodynamic and functional imaging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Timothy A; Yan, Li; Patnaik, Amita; Tunariu, Nina; Biondo, Andrea; Fearen, Ivy; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Olmos, David; Baird, Richard; Delgado, Liliana; Tetteh, Ernestina; Beckman, Robert A; Lupinacci, Lisa; Riisnaes, Ruth; Decordova, Shaun; Heaton, Simon P; Swales, Karen; deSouza, Nandita M; Leach, Martin O; Garrett, Michelle D; Sullivan, Daniel M; de Bono, Johann S; Tolcher, Anthony W

    2014-11-15

    Multiple cancers harbor genetic aberrations that impact AKT signaling. MK-2206 is a potent pan-AKT inhibitor with a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) previously established at 60 mg on alternate days (QOD). Due to a long half-life (60-80 hours), a weekly (QW) MK-2206 schedule was pursued to compare intermittent QW and continuous QOD dosing. Patients with advanced cancers were enrolled in a QW dose-escalation phase I study to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiles of tumor and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The QOD MTD of MK-2206 was also assessed in patients with ovarian and castration-resistant prostate cancers and patients with advanced cancers undergoing multiparametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and intrinsic susceptibility-weighted MRI. A total of 71 patients were enrolled; 38 patients had 60 mg MK-2206 QOD, whereas 33 received MK-2206 at 90, 135, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg QW. The QW MK-2206 MTD was established at 200 mg following dose-limiting rash at 250 and 300 mg. QW dosing appeared to be similarly tolerated to QOD, with toxicities including rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, and hyperglycemia. Significant AKT pathway blockade was observed with both continuous QOD and intermittent QW dosing of MK-2206 in serially obtained tumor and PRP specimens. The functional imaging studies demonstrated that complex multiparametric MRI protocols may be effectively implemented in a phase I trial. Treatment with MK-2206 safely results in significant AKT pathway blockade in QOD and QW schedules. The intermittent dose of 200 mg QW is currently used in phase II MK-2206 monotherapy and combination studies (NCT00670488). ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Differentiation and functional incorporation of embryonic stem cell-derived GABAergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus of mice with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Xu; Litvina, Elizabeth; Tagliatela, Stephanie; Aaron, Gloster B; Grabel, Laura B; Naegele, Janice R

    2012-01-04

    Cell therapies for neurological disorders require an extensive knowledge of disease-associated neuropathology and procedures for generating neurons for transplantation. In many patients with severe acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the dentate gyrus exhibits sclerosis and GABAergic interneuron degeneration. Mounting evidence suggests that therapeutic benefits can be obtained by transplanting fetal GABAergic progenitors into the dentate gyrus in rodents with TLE, but the scarcity of human fetal cells limits applicability in patient populations. In contrast, virtually limitless quantities of neural progenitors can be obtained from embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cell-based therapies for neurological repair in TLE require evidence that the transplanted neurons integrate functionally and replace cell types that degenerate. To address these issues, we transplanted mouse ES cell-derived neural progenitors (ESNPs) with ventral forebrain identities into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice with TLE and evaluated graft differentiation, mossy fiber sprouting, cellular morphology, and electrophysiological properties of the transplanted neurons. In addition, we compared electrophysiological properties of the transplanted neurons with endogenous hilar interneurons in mice without TLE. The majority of transplanted ESNPs differentiated into GABAergic interneuron subtypes expressing calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin. Global suppression of mossy fiber sprouting was not observed; however, ESNP-derived neurons formed dense axonal arborizations in the inner molecular layer and throughout the hilus. Whole-cell hippocampal slice electrophysiological recordings and morphological analyses of the transplanted neurons identified five basic types; most with strong after-hyperpolarizations and smooth or sparsely spiny dendritic morphologies resembling endogenous hippocampal interneurons. Moreover, intracellular recordings of spontaneous EPSCs indicated that

  14. Incorporating Data Link Features into a Multi-Function Display to Support Self-Separation and Spacing Tasks for General Aviation Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Consiglio, Maria C.; WIlliams, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated Airport Management Module (AMM) and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. Implementation of this concept required the development of a research Multi-Function Display (MFD) to support the interactive communications between pilots and the AMM. The interface also had to accommodate traffic awareness, self-separation, and spacing tasks through dynamic messaging and symbology for flight path conformance and conflict detection and alerting (CDA). The display served as the mechanism to support the examination of the viability of executing instrument operations designed for SATS designated airports. Results of simulation and flight experiments conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center indicate that the concept, as facilitated by the research MFD, did not increase pilots subjective workload levels or reduce their situation awareness (SA). Post-test usability assessments revealed that pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved SA over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  15. Diffusion trajectory of self-propagating innovations interacting with institutions-incorporation of multi-factors learning function to model PV diffusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Akira; Watanabe, Chihiro; Shum, Kwok L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper first proposes a modeling framework to study diffusion of innovations which exhibit strong interaction with the institution systems across which they diffuse. A unique character of such generic innovation is that specific applications are continually developed during its diffusion. This self-propagation in continual applications generation, which is dependent upon the cumulative installed base of the technological innovation, can be modeled to lead to a dynamic changing carrying capacity in an otherwise simple logistic diffusion curve. The cumulative installed base is dependent upon the price of technology and the cost learning dynamics. This paper utilizes a multi-factors learning function to represent such learning dynamics. Empirical estimates from our model are compared with those from other logistics curve formulations and are shown to better fit the annual PV production data during the past quarter century in the case of Japan. The very fact that the potential of this class of innovation can be leveraged only if it interacts closely with the institution highlights the importance of institutional determinants of adoption and diffusion of such innovations like PV. We therefore attempt to put forward an institutional framework, based on viewing PV as a technology platform, to consider PV diffusion beyond mathematical and empirical modeling. Some future research directions are also proposed. (author)

  16. Functional analysis of protein N-myristoylation: Metabolic labeling studies using three oxygen-substituted analogs of myristic acid and cultured mammalian cells provide evidence for protein-sequence-specific incorporation and analog-specific redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.R.; Heuckeroth, R.O.; Gordon, J.I.; Cox, A.D.; Solski, P.A.; Buss, J.E.; Devadas, B.; Adams, S.P.; Leimgruber, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0) to the NH 2 -terminal glycine residue of a number of cellular, viral, and oncogene-encoded proteins is essential for full expression of their biological function. Substitution of oxygen for methylene groups in this fatty acid does not produce a significant change in chain length or stereochemistry but does result in a reduction in hydrophobicity. These heteroatom-containing analogs serve as alternative substrates for mammalian myristoyl-CoA: protein N-myristoyltransferase and offer the opportunity to explore structure/function relationships of myristate in N-myristoyltransferase proteins. The authors have synthesized three tritiated analogs of myristate with oxygen substituted for methylene groups at C6, C11, and C13. Metabolic labeling studies were performed with these compounds and (i) a murine myocyte cell line (BC 3 H1), (ii) a rat fibroblast cell that produces p60 v-src (3Xsrc), or (iii) NIH 3T3 cells that have been engineered to express a fusion protein consisting of an 11-residue myristoylation signal from the Rasheed sarcoma virus (RaSV) gag protein linked to c-Ha-ras with a Cys → Ser-186 mutation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane and soluble fractions prepared from cell lysates revealed different patterns of incorporation of the analogs into cellular N-myristoyl proteins. The demonstration that these analogs differ in the extent to which they are incorporated and in their ability to cause redistribution of any single protein suggests that they may also have sufficient selectivity to be of potential therapeutic value

  17. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation...

  18. Differentiating leucine incorporation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, T.; Sintes, E.; de Corte, D.; Olbrich, K.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance (based on catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybrid ization, CARD-FISH) and leucine incorporation rates of Archaea and Bacteria were determined throughout the water column in the eastern Atlantic. Bacteria dominated throughout the water column, although their

  19. Incorporating Function Points into Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    th th t b t it it t dorgan za on s ou  use  ose  a   es  su   s  managemen  nee s. – 3.7.2 Apportioned Effort • Apportioned effort is work for which...Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202...of  management and technology issues.  He is an experienced project manager, managing over 50 projects during  hi M R t h i ll id d t i ht i t f t j

  20. Correção da acidez do solo em função de modos de incorporação de calcário Correction of soil acidity in function of lime incorporation manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Weirich Neto

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A solubilização do calcário no solo, sem o que não ocorre neutralização da acidez, demanda tempo e exige incorporação para aumentar o contato entre o corretivo e os colóides do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez do solo em função de diferentes modos de incorporação de calcário, foi conduzido um experimento, no ano agrícola 1993/94, em um Latossolo vermelho-escuro, distrófico, de campo nativo, do município de Ponta Grossa (PR. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco modos de incorporação: arado de discos mais duas gradagens, grade aradora mais duas gradagens, enxada rotativa, arado escarificador mais duas gradagens e distribuição na superfície sem incorporação, e por quatro doses de calcário dolomítico: 0, 2,8, 6,6 e 10,3 t ha-1, visando a elevar a saturação por bases do solo a 30, 60 e 90%. A planta teste utilizada foi o milho. Verificou-se que o modo de incorporação do corretivo no solo afeta a sua eficiência em relação à profundidade no perfil, na qual há neutralização da acidez. Houve elevação da saturação por bases do solo até a camada de 20cm, 15cm e 10cm, respectivamente, para os seguintes modos de incorporação: enxada rotativa, arado de discos ou grade aradora e arado escarificador ou calcário distribuído na superfície sem incorporação. Os valores de saturação por bases desejados não foram alcançados, três meses após a calagem, independente do modo de incorporação de calcário.The solubilization of lime in soil, without which the acidity neutralization does not occur, demands time and requires incorporation for increasing the contact between lime and soil coloides. In order to study the correction of soil acidity in function of lime incorporation manners, a field experiment was carried out, in Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in a

  1. Bio-inspired CO2 reduction by a rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine-based catalyst appended to amino acids and peptidic platforms: incorporating proton relays and hydrogen-bonding functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabolla, S A; Machan, C W; Yin, J; Dellamary, E A; Sahu, S; Gianneschi, N C; Gilson, M K; Tezcan, F A; Kubiak, C P

    2017-06-02

    Herein, we report a new approach to bio-inspired catalyst design. The molecular catalyst employed in these studies is based on the robust and selective Re(bpy)(CO) 3 Cl-type (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) homogeneous catalysts, which have been extensively studied for their ability to reduce CO 2 electrochemically or photochemically in the presence of a photosensitizer. These catalysts can be highly active photocatalysts in their own right. In this work, the bipyridine ligand was modified with amino acids and synthetic peptides. These results build on earlier findings wherein the bipyridine ligand was functionalized with amide groups to promote dimer formation and CO 2 reduction by an alternate bimolecular mechanism at lower overpotential (ca. 250 mV) than the more commonly observed unimolecular process. The bio-inspired catalysts were designed to allow for the incorporation of proton relays to support reduction of CO 2 to CO and H 2 O. The coupling of amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine led to the formation of two structurally similar Re catalyst/peptide catalysts for comparison of proton transport during catalysis. This article reports the synthesis and characterization of novel catalyst/peptide hybrids by molecular dynamics (MD simulations of structural dynamics), NMR studies of solution phase structures, and electrochemical studies to measure the activities of new bio-inspired catalysts in the reduction of CO 2.

  2. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01989637. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia and their inter-relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde - Gebriel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide study on the prevalence of xerophthalmia was carried out in 6,636 children aged 6 months to 6 years in all the Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai which were excluded for security reasons. Bitot's spots were observed in 1.0% of all children with higher prevalence in

  4. Intelligence quotient and perceptual ability: an inter-relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Cognitive ability refers to the characteristic approach by the brain in processing ... The study is based on resting brainwave of fifty samples and focused on the left and right prefrontal cortex.

  5. Inter-relationship between major ions, total dissolved solids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphate and magnesium concentrations were highest in station 7 while other parameters (potassium, chloride, calcium, alkalinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids (T. D. S.)) were highest in station 6. The ponds belong to class 1 of the African waters since they all have electrical conductance of less than 600 s cm-1.

  6. Diet composition and feeding inter-relationship in the claroteid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding interrelationship was investigated in samples of Clarotes laticeps collected from the lower River Niger between January 2010 and December 2012. Fish guts were analysed to determine diet composition using a combination of methods; frequency of occurrence (%FO), Numerical composition (%N) and ...

  7. An Integrated Model to Explain Inter-Relationships in Travel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the decision making process of international tourists traveling to Tanzania. An integrated approach is proposed to understand the interrelationships among tourist motivations, expectations, place identity and place dependence. Specifically, travel motivations directly affect tourist's expectations and ...

  8. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  9. Data on cell growth inhibition induced by anti-VEGF siRNA delivered by Stealth liposomes incorporating G2 PAMAM-cholesterol versus Metafectene® as a function of exposure time and siRNA concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Golkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, carboxyfluorescein-loaded liposomes were prepared and purified from free carboxyfluorescein using gel filtration chromatography in the first part. In the next part, following preparation of anti-VEGF siRNA loaded liposomes incorporating hydrophobically modified G2 PAMAM dendrimer (G2-Chol40% (Golkar et al., 2016 [1], the cell growth inhibition induced by the formulations (siRNA/Metafectene complexes and siRNA loaded liposomes incorporating hydrophobic G2 was evaluated at two exposure times through MTT assay in a breast cancer cell (SKBR-3 and compared by two-way ANOVA. Keywords: Anti-VEGF siRNA, Cell growth inhibition, Polyamidoaminedendrimer, Liposome

  10. Ba incorporation in benthic foraminifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooijer, L.J.; Brombacher, Anieke; Mewes, A.; Langer, Gerald; Nehrke, G.; Bijma, Jelle; Reichart, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Barium (Ba) incorporated in the calcite of many foraminiferal species is proportional to the concentration of Ba in seawater. Since the open ocean concentration of Ba closely follows seawater alkalinity, foraminiferal Ba ∕ Ca can be used to reconstruct the latter. Alternatively, Ba ∕ Ca from

  11. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  12. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of ... structure. [1] reported that the standard workability tests are not suitable for the polystyrene aggregate concrete since they are sensitive to the unit weight of concrete. [2] made ...

  13. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  14. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  15. Quantitative importance of the pentose phosphate pathway determined by incorporation of 13C from [2-13C]- and [3-13C]glucose into TCA cycle intermediates and neurotransmitter amino acids in functionally intact neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Eva M F; Walls, Anne B; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2012-09-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative injury, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) has been shown to be affected by pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. While this pathway has been investigated in the intact brain and in astrocytes, little is known about the PPP in neurons. The activity of the PPP was quantified in cultured cerebral cortical and cerebellar neurons after incubation in the presence of [2-(13)C]glucose or [3-(13)C]glucose. The activity of the PPP was several fold lower than glycolysis in both types of neurons. While metabolism of (13)C-labeled glucose via the PPP does not appear to contribute to the production of releasable lactate, it contributes to labeling of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and related amino acids. Based on glutamate isotopomers, it was calculated that PPP activity accounts for ~6% of glucose metabolism in cortical neurons and ~4% in cerebellar neurons. This is the first demonstration that pyruvate generated from glucose via the PPP contributes to the synthesis of acetyl CoA for oxidation in the TCA cycle. Moreover, the fact that (13)C labeling from glucose is incorporated into glutamate proves that both the oxidative and the nonoxidative stages of the PPP are active in neurons.

  16. A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green’s Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rouse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt “two-shifting” operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal pressures to generate in a highly flexible and efficient manner. The Green’s function method offers a flexible approach to determine reference elastic solutions for transient thermal stress problems. In order to simplify integration, it is often assumed that Green’s functions (derived from finite element unit temperature step solutions are temperature independent (this is not the case due to the temperature dependency of material parameters. The present work offers a simple method to approximate a material’s temperature dependency using multiple reference unit solutions and an interpolation procedure. Thermal stress histories are predicted and compared for realistic temperature cycles using distinct techniques. The proposed interpolation method generally performs as well as (if not better than the optimum single Green’s function or the previously-suggested weighting function technique (particularly for large temperature increments. Coefficients of determination are typically above 0 . 96 , and peak stress differences between true and predicted datasets are always less than 10 MPa.

  17. Rational site-directed mutations of the LLP-1 and LLP-2 lentivirus lytic peptide domains in the intracytoplasmic tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 indicate common functions in cell-cell fusion but distinct roles in virion envelope incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vandana; Sarkar, Surojit; Gupta, Phalguni; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2003-03-01

    Two highly conserved cationic amphipathic alpha-helical motifs, designated lentivirus lytic peptides 1 and 2 (LLP-1 and LLP-2), have been characterized in the carboxyl terminus of the transmembrane (TM) envelope glycoprotein (Env) of lentiviruses. Although various properties have been attributed to these domains, their structural and functional significance is not clearly understood. To determine the specific contributions of the Env LLP domains to Env expression, processing, and incorporation and to viral replication and syncytium induction, site-directed LLP mutants of a primary dualtropic infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate (ME46) were examined. Substitutions were made for highly conserved arginine residues in either the LLP-1 or LLP-2 domain (MX1 or MX2, respectively) or in both domains (MX4). The HIV-1 mutants with altered LLP domains demonstrated distinct phenotypes. The LLP-1 mutants (MX1 and MX4) were replication defective and showed an average of 85% decrease in infectivity, which was associated with an evident decrease in gp41 incorporation into virions without a significant decrease in Env expression or processing in transfected 293T cells. In contrast, MX2 virus was replication competent and incorporated a full complement of Env into its virions, indicating a differential role for the LLP-1 domain in Env incorporation. Interestingly, the replication-competent MX2 virus was impaired in its ability to induce syncytia in T-cell lines. This defect in cell-cell fusion did not correlate with apparent defects in the levels of cell surface Env expression, oligomerization, or conformation. The lack of syncytium formation, however, correlated with a decrease of about 90% in MX2 Env fusogenicity compared to that of wild-type Env in quantitative luciferase-based cell-cell fusion assays. The LLP-1 mutant MX1 and MX4 Envs also exhibited an average of 80% decrease in fusogenicity. Altogether, these results demonstrate for the first time that

  18. Onondaga Noun Incorporation: Some Notes on the Interdependence of Syntax and Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Hanni

    1975-01-01

    In Onondaga and all northern Iroquoian languages, nouns can be incorporated into verbs. The function of this is semantic as well as syntactic. It is semantic in that the sense of an incorporated noun will be narrower than its unincorporated counterpart regardless of modifiers. Incorporation changes the transformational structure of the sentence.…

  19. Rates of incorporation of radioactive molecules during the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.W.; Pallavicini, M.G.; George, Y.S.; Groppi, V.; Look, M.; Dean, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    We report measurements of the incorporation of radioactive molecules during short labeling periods, as a function of cell-cycle stage, using a cell-sorter-based technique that does not require cell synchronization. We have determined: (1) tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation throughout S-phase in Lewis lung tumor cells in vitro both before and after treatment with cytosine arabinoside; (2) 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in KHT tumor cells in vitro and in vivo; (3) 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in Chinese hamster ovary cells and compared it with DNA synthesis throughout S-phase; (4) a mathematical expression describing 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in Chinese hamster M3-1 cells; and (5) the simultaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR and 35 S-methionine as they are related to cell size and DNA content in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. In asynchronously growing cells in vitro and in vivo, 3 H-TdR incorporation was generally low in early and late S-phase and highest in mid-S-phase. However, in Lewis lung tumor cells treated with cytosine arabinoside 3 H-TdR incorporation was highest in early and late S-phase and lowest in mid-S-phase. Incorporation of 35 S-methionine increased continuously with cell size and DNA content. Incorporation of 3 H-TdR in CHO cells was proportional to DNA synthesis

  20. Radiation exposure from incorporated isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleznay, F [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations for the limitation of the burden of the human body from radiation exposure were developed to avoid direct radiation health damage such that the occurrence of stochastic damage can be held below a resonable risk level. The recommendations, published under ICRP 26 and ICRP 30, contain several guidelines and concepts which are discussed here. They include the primary internal dose exposure limits, secondary and implied limits for the monitoring of internal radiation exposure (Annual Limit of Intake, Derived Air Concentrations). Methods are presented for inspection and monitoring of internal exposure in medical laboratories, inspection of incorporation of sup(131)I and sup(99m)Tc.

  1. Radiological accidents: methodologies of radio nuclides dis incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez F, E. A.; Paredes G, L.; Cortes, A.

    2014-08-01

    Derived of the radioactive or nuclear material management, exists the risk that accidents can happen where people cases are presented with internal radioactive contamination, who will receive specialized medical care to accelerate the radioactive dis incorporation with the purpose of diminishing the absorbed dose and the associate biological effects. In this work treatments of radioactive dis incorporation were identified, in function of the radionuclide, radiation type, radioactive half life, biological half life, critical organ, ingestion duct and patient type. The factor time is decisive for the effectiveness of the selected treatment in the blockade stage (before the accident) or dis incorporation (after the accident); this factor is related with the radioactive and biological half lives. So to achieve dis incorporation efficiencies of more to 70%, the patient clinical treatment will begin before the first third of the biological half life of the radionuclide that generated the internal contamination. (Author)

  2. Effect of organoclay incorporation on dental resin morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Nadja M.S.; Reis, Romulo P.B.; Leite, Itamara F.; Morais, Crislene R.S.; Silva, Suedina M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to incorporate nanosilicates in commercial dental resins in order to prepare dental nanocomposites competitive as commercial nanoparticulates dental resins. Thus, a silicate, Cloisite 20A (C20A), was incorporated in a microhybrid dental resin (Z100) and morphological properties of the nanocomposites evaluated as a function of the incorporation method and the amount of filler employed. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results evidence that nanocomposites have been obtained and according to SEM results, the morphology of microhybrid resin was modified when C20A nanoparticulate was incorporated improve the size distribution and reduce the agglomeration of the particles. (author)

  3. Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: A 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peersen, O.B.; Pratt, E.A.; Truong, H.T. N.; Ho, C.; Rule, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 5-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme in conjunction with oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. 5-Fluorotryptophan has been substituted for nine phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine residues in the enzyme molecule without loss of activity. The 19 F signals from these additional tryptophan residues have been used as markers for sensitivity to substrate, exposure to aqueous solvent, and proximity to a lipid-bound spin-label. The nuclear magnetic resonance data show that two mutational sites, at amino acid residues 340 and 361, are near the lipid environment used to stabilize the enzyme. There are a number of amino acid residues on the carboxyl side of this region that are strongly sensitive to the aqueous solvent. The environment of the wide-type tryptophan residue at position 469 changes as a result of two of the substitution mutations, suggesting some amino acid residue-residue interactions. Secondary structure prediction methods indicate a possible binding site for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor in the carboxyl end of the enzyme molecule. These results suggest that the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase may have the two-domain structure of many cytoplasmic dehydrogenases but with the addition of a membrane-binding domain between the catalytic and cofactor-binding domains. This type of three-domain structure may be of general significance for understanding the structure of membrane-bound proteins which do not traverse the lipid bilayer of membranes

  4. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  5. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tests were carried out on concrete incorporating Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) of “Mittal ... mechanical properties by using the existing materials on the local market and HSC ..... general shape of the curves whether at 28 days ... Figure.7. Residual compressive strength as a function of temperature.

  6. The incorporation of specialised data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    As we will later see, this ency- clopaedic touch is visible in analyzed multimodal explanations. .... performing related services. Picture 10: ... school (Education, environment), factory (Industry, environment), crime (Law and Rules of ... Functions and Administrative Division), philanthropist (Human Relations) or celebrity (Mass ...

  7. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  8. E-beam crosslinked, biocompatible functional hydrogels incorporating polyaniline nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M.-A.; Niconov, A.; Chmielewska, D.; Spadaro, G.

    2012-01-01

    PANI aqueous nanocolloids in their acid-doped, inherently conductive form were synthesised by means of suitable water soluble polymers used as stabilisers. In particular, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or chitosan (CT) was used to stabilise PANI nanoparticles, thus preventing PANI precipitation during synthesis and upon storage. Subsequently, e-beam irradiation of the PANI dispersions has been performed with a 12 MeV Linac accelerator. PVA-PANI nanocolloid has been transformed into a PVA-PANI hydrogel nanocomposite by radiation induced crosslinking of PVA. CT-PANI nanoparticles dispersion, in turn, was added to PVA to obtain wall-to-wall gels, as chitosan mainly undergoes chain scission under the chosen irradiation conditions. While the obtainment of uniform PANI particle size distribution was preliminarily ascertained with laser light scattering and TEM microscopy, the typical porous structure of PVA-based freeze dried hydrogels was observed with SEM microscopy for the hydrogel nanocomposites. UV−visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the characteristic, pH-dependent and reversible optical absorption properties of PANI are conferred to the otherwise optically transparent PVA hydrogels. Selected formulations have been also subjected to MTT assays to prove the absence of cytotoxicity. - Highlights: ► PANI nanocolloids were chemically synthesised in the presence of PVA and chitosan. ► PANI dispersions were transformed into hydrogel nanocomposites by e-beam irradiation. ► Characteristic optical properties of PANI were shown by the nanocomposite hydrogels. ► Absence of cytotoxicity for the nanocomposite hydrogels is demonstrated. ► Results encourage developments for application in biosensing and smart drug delivery.

  9. Nanostructured functional multilayer coatings incorporating biomimetic macromolecules for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rui Filipe Ramos da

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento do Programa Doutoral em Engenharia Biomédica The modification of surfaces has been a key aspect in biology and biotechnology, for applications including cell expansion, biomaterials development and preparation of substrates for regenerative medicine. In this thesis, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was employed in the modification of surfaces for multiple purposes, namely for films with improved adhesiveness, enhanced cell adhesion, drug delivery capsules...

  10. Calculated activity incorporated in the therapy with I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chica, L.G.; Puerta, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the product S(T→ S).A s (T e ), the absorbed dose to thyroid delivered by I 131 incorporated is calculated. Where S(T→ S) is the absorbed dose in the thyroid per nuclear transformation (tn.) of I 131 localized in the thyroid and as a potential function of the mass is expressed. A s (T e ) is the number of tn. of I 131 in the thyroid since the moment of the incorporation until the time T e (the effective middle time); to find A s (T e ) to normal as different pathological conditions, the metabolic model of the iodo proposed by the ICRP is used. Of the expressions of the doses, the incorporated activity, l o , is obtained

  11. Np Incorporation into Uranyl Alteration Phases: A Quantum Mechanical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.C. Huller; R.C. Win; U.Ecker

    2006-01-01

    Neptunium is a major contributor to the long-term radioactivity in a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) due to its long half-life (2.1 million years). The mobility of Np may be decreased by incorporation into the U 6+ phases that form during the corrosion of SNF. The ionic radii of Np (0.089nm) and U (0.087nm) are similar, as is their chemistry. Experimental studies have shown Np can be incorporated into uranyl phases at concentrations of ∼ 100 ppm. The low concentration of Np in the uranyl phases complicates experimental detection and presents a significant challenge for determining the incorporation mechanism. Therefore, we have used quantum mechanical calculations to investigate incorporation mechanisms and evaluate the energetics of Np substituting for U. CASTEP, a density functional theory based code that uses plane waves and pseudo-potentials, was used to calculate optimal H positions, relaxed geometry, and energy of different uranyl phases. The incorporation energy for Np in uranyl alteration phases was calculated for studtite, [(UO 2 )O 2 (H 2 O) 2 ](H 2 ) 2 , and boltwoodite, HK(UO 2 )(SiO 4 )* 1.5(H 2 O). Studtite is the rare case of a stable uranyl hydroxyl-peroxide mineral that forms in the presence of H 2 O 2 from the radiolysis of H 2 O. For studtite, two incorporation mechanisms were evaluated: (1) charge-balanced substitution of Np 5+ and H + for one U 6+ , and (2) direct substitution of Np 6+ for U 6+ . For boltwoodite, the H atomic positions prior to Np incorporation were determined, as well as the Np incorporation mechanisms and the corresponding substitution energies. The preferential incorporation of Np into different structure types of U 6+ minerals was also investigated. Quantum mechanical substitution energies have to be derived at Np concentrations higher than the ones found in experiments or expected in a repository. However, the quantum mechanical results are crucial for subsequent empirical force-field and Monte

  12. Incorporating Brokers within Collaboration Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R.; de Torcy, A.

    2013-12-01

    A collaboration environment, such as the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS - http://irods.diceresearch.org), provides interoperability mechanisms for accessing storage systems, authentication systems, messaging systems, information catalogs, networks, and policy engines from a wide variety of clients. The interoperability mechanisms function as brokers, translating actions requested by clients to the protocol required by a specific technology. The iRODS data grid is used to enable collaborative research within hydrology, seismology, earth science, climate, oceanography, plant biology, astronomy, physics, and genomics disciplines. Although each domain has unique resources, data formats, semantics, and protocols, the iRODS system provides a generic framework that is capable of managing collaborative research initiatives that span multiple disciplines. Each interoperability mechanism (broker) is linked to a name space that enables unified access across the heterogeneous systems. The collaboration environment provides not only support for brokers, but also support for virtualization of name spaces for users, files, collections, storage systems, metadata, and policies. The broker enables access to data or information in a remote system using the appropriate protocol, while the collaboration environment provides a uniform naming convention for accessing and manipulating each object. Within the NSF DataNet Federation Consortium project (http://www.datafed.org), three basic types of interoperability mechanisms have been identified and applied: 1) drivers for managing manipulation at the remote resource (such as data subsetting), 2) micro-services that execute the protocol required by the remote resource, and 3) policies for controlling the execution. For example, drivers have been written for manipulating NetCDF and HDF formatted files within THREDDS servers. Micro-services have been written that manage interactions with the CUAHSI data repository, the Data

  13. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporated...

  14. Incorporating other texts: Intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, corporate social responsibility (CSR is relatively new but corporations have been required to engage in and disclose their CSR. A typical genre for disclosure is CSR reports and these reports often refer to other texts. The article investigates the act of referencing to other texts or intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports. It creates an archive of CEO Statements and Environment Sections in CSR reports and studies the archive for keywords, which can identify the incorporated texts. The function of these texts is examined in relation to Malaysia’s corporate context. CSR reports contain explicit references to documents (policies, regulations, reports, research, standards and to individuals/groups (CEOs, stakeholders, expert organizations. The incorporated texts display variation in corporate control, which organizes these texts along an intertextual cline. The cline helps to identify corporate and non-corporate sources among the texts. The selection of incorporated texts may reflect government and stock exchange demands. The texts are not standardized and are relevant for the CSR domain and corporations, where these texts monitor and justify CSR performance. Yet, the incorporated texts may perpetuate inexact reporting because corporations select the texts and the parts of texts to refer to. Since these texts have been employed to scrutinize initiatives and results, CSR reports can claim to represent the “truth” about a corporation’s CSR. Hence, intertextuality serves corporate interests.

  15. Formulation of Bioadhesive Carbomer Gel Incorporating Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated into carbomer gel and evaluated for drug release. Results: ... localized delivery system for the treatment inflammation and infection in periodontal pockets. ..... loaded with diclofenac sodium for intra- articular administration. J Drug ...

  16. Controlled nitrogen incorporation in GaNSb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of N in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaNxSb1−x alloys with x ⩽ 0.022 has been investigated as a function of temperature (325–400°C and growth rate 0.25–1.6 μmh−1. At fixed growth rate, the incorporated N fraction increases as the temperature is reduced until a maximum N content for the particular growth rate reached. At each temperature, there is a range of growth rates over which the N content is inversely proportional to the growth rate; the results are understood in terms of a kinetic model. The systematic growth rate- and temperature-dependence enables the N content and resulting band gap to be controlled.

  17. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  18. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  19. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  20. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  1. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  2. Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller

    2010-01-01

    The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...

  3. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  4. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  5. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  6. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...

  7. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  8. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A process of safe disposal, handling, or storae of radwaste associated with nuclear power productin is described. A feature of the invention is to incorporate the radwaste in a hardenable, matrix-forming mass employing a cement-type binding agent to which alkali or alkaline-earth silicate is added, among other things, to increase liquid absorption. 9 claims

  9. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  10. Incorporating biological control into IPM decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the many ways biological control can be incorporated into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, natural enemy thresholds are arguably most easily adopted by stakeholders. Integration of natural enemy thresholds into IPM programs requires ecological and cost/benefit crop production data, thr...

  11. KRYPTON INCORPORATION IN SPUTTERED SILICON FILMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GREUTER, MJW; NIESEN, L; HAKVOORT, RA; DEROODE, J; VANVEEN, A; BERNTSEN, AJM; SLOOF, WG

    1993-01-01

    The incorporation of Kr in sputtered a-Si films has been investigated in a systematic way by varying the Kr to Si flux, yielding Kr concentrations up to 5 at %. Compositions were determined with X-ray microanalysis. A model has been applied to describe the composition of the growing film. The layers

  12. Integrated Photonic Devices Incorporating Low-Loss Fluorinated Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-loss polymer materials incorporating fluorinated compounds have been utilized for the investigation of various functional optical devices useful for optical communication and optical sensor systems. Since reliability issues concerning the polymer device have been resolved, polymeric waveguide devices have been gradually adopted for commercial application systems. The two most successfully commercialized polymeric integrated optic devices, variable optical attenuators and digital optical switches, are reviewed in this paper. Utilizing unique properties of optical polymers which are not available in other optical materials, novel polymeric optical devices are proposed including widely tunable external cavity lasers and integrated optical current sensors.

  13. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainab Ngaini; Khairul Aidil Azlin Abd Rahman; Nazlina Shaari; Hasnain Hussain; Norhaizat Sundin; Jingxin, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  14. The inter-relationship between the periodontium and contours of artificial crowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, K.; Omar, R.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of axial contour of artificial crowns has and continues to be highly controversial. Much of the controversy centers arounrj whether the gingival sulcus is really in need of protection from buccal and/or lingual convexities, or whether a flatter emergence profile affords self cleansing muscle action. Evidence is reviewed in this part which suggests that overcontouring is probably more detrimental to gingival health than undercontouring. The critical role played by proper tooth reduction in attaining correct axial contour is shown and a rationale presented for the important interplay between preparation design, properties of the restorative materials to be employed and physiologic contour. (author)

  15. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.

  16. The Inter-relationships between Personality, Divergent Thinking and School Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel J.; Bennett, S. Neville

    1977-01-01

    Overall correlations between personality/motivation and verbal reasoning, divergent thinking, and creative writing in 1,416 children, aged 10-13 were low, suggesting that classroom climate and teaching methods may affect this relationship. (Tests are appended.) (Available in microfiche from: Carfax Publishing Company, Haddon House,…

  17. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP - Human Development against Poverty, AP - Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR - Water Resources, ODA - Official Development Aid, CEC - Country Environmental Concern). Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new classification of countries is useful in identifying countries with a less advanced position and weaknesses to be tackled. The relevance of indicators gathered to represent environmental and water resources state is questioned in the discussion section. The paper concludes with the necessity to increase the reliability of current indicators and calls for further research on specific indicators, in particular on water quality at national scale, in order to better include environmental state in analysis to WSS.

  18. An analysis of the inter-relationship between savings product usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products such as savings accounts, money market investments and fixed deposits ... financial services, satisfaction, SERVQUAL, marginal utility, savings ... they were being exploited by their financial advisors, who were receiving commission.

  19. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perron, A., E-mail: perron1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Turchi, P.E.A.; Landa, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Oudot, B.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA-Centre de Valduc, 21120, Is sur Tille (France)

    2016-12-15

    A newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U is presented. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. The previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) is also included in the database and is briefly described in the present work. Finally, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.

  20. Inter-Relationships among Attachment to Mother and Father, Self-Esteem, and Career Indecision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle, Vignoli

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of adolescents' global self-esteem, based on the relationship between adolescents' mother or father attachment and their career indecision; as well as the mediating role of adolescents' career indecision on the relationship between mother or father attachment and self-esteem. Two hundred and forty-one…

  1. Phytoplankton-zooplankton inter-relationships in tropical waters - Grazing and gut pigment dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goes, J.I.; Caeiro, S.; Gomes, H.

    An examination of the feeding mechanisms in two taxonomically dissimilar classes of tropical planktonic harbivores Evadne tergestina (Cladocera) and Acrocalanus spp. (Copepoda) revealed a distinct rhythmicity of food intake. Brief bouths...

  2. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  3. Inter-relationship between nuclei and gross characteristics of manganese nodules, Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, C; Iyer, S.D.; Hazra, S.

    More than 200 samples of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were studied for their different parameters. The study included various aspects such as morphology, texture, mineralogy, and composition of the nodules. The nuclei...

  4. THE DYNAMIC INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE: NEW EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Hoang, Viet-Ngu; Vu, Xuan-Binh; Wilson, Clevo

    2017-12-04

    This paper proposes a new empirical model for examining the relationship between obesity and school performance using the simultaneous equation modelling approach. The lagged effects of both learning and health outcomes were included to capture both the dynamic and inter-relational aspects of the relationship between obesity and school performance. The empirical application of this study used comprehensive data from the first five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), which commenced in 2004 (wave 1) and was repeated every two years until 2018. The study sample included 10,000 children, equally divided between two cohorts (infants and children) across Australia. The empirical results show that past learning and obesity status are strongly associated with most indicators of school outcomes, including reading, writing, spelling, grammar and numeracy national tests, and scores from the internationally standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Matrix Reasoning Test. The main findings of this study are robust due to the choice of obesity indicator and estimation methods.

  5. The Inter-relationship of Science and Religion: A typology of engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Pam; Bennett, Judith; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2014-05-01

    This study explores whether the religious background of students affects their opinions about and attitudes to engaging with scientific explanations of the origins of the universe and of life. The study took place in four English secondary schools representing three different contexts (Christian faith-based; non-faith with majority Muslim catchment; and non-faith, mixed catchment). It comprised questionnaires and focus groups with over 200 students aged 14-16, supplemented by teacher interviews. The analysis approach was informed by grounded theory and resulted in the development of an engagement typology, which has been set in the context of the cross-cultural border crossing literature. It divides students into categories depending on both the nature and amount of engagement they were prepared to have with the relationship between science and religion. The model takes into account where students sit on four dimensions. These assess whether a student's preferred knowledge base is belief-based or fact-based; their tolerance of uncertainty (do they have a need for resolution?); their open mindedness (are they unquestioning or inquiring?); and whether they conceptualise science and religion as being in conflict or harmony. Many Muslim students resisted engagement because of conflicting religious beliefs. Teachers did not always appreciate the extent to which this topic troubled some students who needed help to accommodate clashes between science and their religious beliefs. It is suggested that increased appreciation of the complexity represented by their students can guide a teacher towards an appropriate approach when covering potentially sensitive topics such as the theory of evolution.

  6. Variation and Inter-relationship ,Between Yield aJld,SQQl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'fh~~;m(;JC(iztj~ii of.v~'n.'ails 'trails with'}rield.· The a;riWinediDz~lysis over two yeafs was used to estif11!lte genetic. Ycir.lance!~:I{e!irabjjit}/ dJ;zd,e'xpected ... J.e~ semrd.":aIf vanet~e~ has n~t .. ', f' Id' '~". " b S 1.",-. Af'. 'th. Been successfulm Tanzama due to poor gram major Ie 'crops.~m;su: aUd.lan: _ n.£C! ,\\Yl. an.,. . .....

  7. An analysis of the inter-relationship between savings product usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article maintains that improved participation in the financial services industries seems to be dependent on satisfaction levels regarding financial services product usage. Empirical evidence shows that higher usage and higher satisfaction regarding basic savings products such as savings accounts, money market ...

  8. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS, being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation. These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP – Human Development against Poverty, AP – Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR – Water Resources, ODA – Official Development Aid, CEC – Country Environmental Concern. Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new classification of countries is useful in identifying countries with a less advanced position and weaknesses to be tackled. The relevance of indicators gathered to represent environmental and water resources state is questioned in the discussion section. The paper concludes with the necessity to increase the reliability of current indicators and calls for further research on specific indicators, in particular on water quality at national scale, in order to better include environmental state in analysis to WSS.

  9. Review: Vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in Leishmaniasis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript proposes a new hypothesis and a new concept in Leishmaniasis transmission, that points to a “vector-host-parasite” specificity. This concept will open a new approach for analysis of Leishmania/sandfly problems in transmission. Indeed, it will help to answer the following questions: 1-Why transmission ...

  10. Modelling Inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Lopez-Puga, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). This inter-dependency has been recognised with the adoption of the "Integrated Water Resources Management" principles that push for the integration of these various dimensions involved in WSS delivery to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector in particular in developing countries where WSS still represent an important leverage for livelihood improvement. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed a coherent database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 29 indicators from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data focusing on developing countries (Celine et al, 2011 under publication). The aim of this work is to model the WatSan4Dev dataset using probabilistic models to identify the key variables influencing or being influenced by the water supply and sanitation access levels. Bayesian Network Models are suitable to map the conditional dependencies between variables and also allows ordering variables by level of influence on the dependent variable. Separated models have been built for water supply and for sanitation because of different behaviour. The models are validated if complying with statistical criteria but either with scientific knowledge and literature. A two steps approach has been adopted to build the structure of the model; Bayesian network is first built for each thematic cluster of variables (e.g governance, agricultural pressure, or human development) keeping a detailed level for interpretation later one. A global model is then built based on significant indicators of each cluster being previously modelled. The structure of the relationships between variable are set a priori according to literature and/or experience in the field (expert knowledge). The statistical validation is verified according to error rate of classification, and the significance of the variables. Sensibility analysis has also been performed to characterise the relative influence of every single variable in the model. Once validated, the models allow the estimation of impact of each variable on the behaviour of the water supply or sanitation providing an interesting mean to test scenarios and predict variables behaviours. The choices made, methods and description of the various models, for each cluster as well as the global model for water supply and sanitation will be presented. Key results and interpretation of the relationships depicted by the models will be detailed during the conference.

  11. INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG USE, ANOMIE, ALIENATION AND AUTTHORITARIANISM AMONGST UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ravi K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Dang, Ravinder

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The degree of addictive substance usage score and three personality variables, namely, authoritarianism, alienation, and anomie were measured in 197 university students through a self-administered questionnaire. WHO's Youth Survey Questionnaire for drag use, Varma et al.'s scale of Authoritarianism, Srole's scale of Anomie, and Pearlin's scale of Alienation, were used. A study of the relationship between the co-variables was studied and is discussed. PMID:22058449

  12. Developmental Inter-Relationships Among Concrete Operational Tasks: An Investigation of Piaget's Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Wesley

    1977-01-01

    Two models of intertask relations, Wohlwill's divergent-decalage and reciprocal-interaction patterns, were evaluated for their fit to cross-classification tables which showed the joint classification of 101 children's performance on all possible pairs of eight concrete operational tasks. (SB)

  13. Research on the National Culture–Intellectual Capital Inter-Relationship in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Franc Valeriu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the paper aims at identifying the type and the intensity of the relationship between the national culture dimension and the intellectual capital dimension. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the correlations of the national culture dimensions, based on the Geert Hofstede approach, with the three dimensions of the intellectual capital within the EU countries. The research procedures were: content analysis of the most representative models and methodologies for evaluating the intellectual capital and the national culture dimensions, and correlation analysis. The main outcome of our research reveals the influence of the national culture on the intellectual capital performance. It also shows that some dimensions of the national culture, such as Individualism versus Collectivism and Indulgence versus Restraint, correlate positively with the intellectual capital, while other dimensions, such as Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance correlate with it negatively.

  14. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs. In areas of rapid growth the worse problems came from the inadequate amount of potable water, the continuous deterioration of water quality and the slow progress in the water resources management and supply. The effects of urban dynamics over the water use and sustainability deserves an increasing study over the recent history in order to provide for an optimal management of the interrelationships between them.

  15. In vivo incorporation of labeled fatty acids in rat liver lipids after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, J.; Drury, P.J.; Crawford, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Striking differences were found in the compartmentalization of fatty acids into liver lipid fractions. The saturated fatty acids--lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic--were incorporated into phosphoglycerides at faster rates with increasing chain lengths, while triglyceride incorporation was almost uniform. The degree of incorporation of the unsaturated fatty acids into phosphoglycerides (structural) compared to triglyceride (storage and energy) was the converse of their oxidation rates. The incorporation of oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was mainly into triglyceride, whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were preferentially incorporated into phosphoglycerides. The data suggest that distribution of each fatty acid is different depending on its destination for structural or energy function

  16. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  17. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  18. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Hansenová Maňásková

    Full Text Available The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITCLPETG-amide into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii Substituting aspartic acid (E for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITCLPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITCLPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITCLPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

  20. [Incorporation monitoring of employees of a radioiodine therapy ward. Is incorporation monitoring required for routine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, C; Kratzel, U; Selkinski, I; Bockisch, B; Etzel, M; Korkusuz, H; Sauter, B; Staudt, J; von Müller, F; Grünwald, F; Kranert, W T

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the annual incorporation of staff on a radioiodine therapy ward and the resulting annual effective dose (aed). Following the German incorporation guideline (gig), incorporation monitoring is not necessary for potential aed below 0.5 mSv/a. For aed > 0.5 mSv/a adherence to the 1 mSv dose limit must be verified. For doses > 1 mSv/a incorporation has to be monitored by the authority. Furthermore, the (131)I incorporation factor from the gig should be verified. To determine the actual work related incorporation, the (131)I activity concentration in urine samples (collection over 24 h) of 14 employees of different professions were examined over a period of 27 months. Measured activity concentrations were related to the individual time of exposure. A constant activity supply for at least three days was assumed. The mean annual effective doses were 2.4 · 10⁻¹ mSv/a (nursing staff; n = 3), 5.6 · 10⁻² mSv/a (cleaning staff; n = 2), 2.8 · 10⁻³ mSv/a (technical staff; n = 2) and 5.2 · 10⁻³ mSv/a (physicians; n = 7). All aed were below the dose limits of the gig. The calculated mean incorporation factors ranged from 3.0 · 10⁻⁸ for the nursing staff to 3.6 · 10⁻¹⁰ for the technical staff (cleaning staff: 7 · 10⁻⁹; physicians: 6.5 · 10⁻¹⁰) and were therefore well below the (131)I incorporation factor defined by the gig. To estimate the aed caused by incorporation of (131)I it has to be subdivided for the different requirements in the diverse fields of activity of the employees. Regarding those who spend most of their time nearby the patient an incorporation monitoring by the authority might be required. The (131)I incorporation factor from the guideline (10⁻⁶) can be reduced by a factor of 10. For (99m)Tc and (18)F an incorporation factor of 10⁻⁷ is accepted.

  1. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  2. A Framework Incorporating Community Preferences in Use ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is intended to assist water quality officials, watershed managers, members of stakeholder groups, and other interested individuals in fully evaluating ecological and socioeconomic objectives and the gains and losses that often are involved in use attainment decisions. In addition, this report enables local, state, and tribal managers to better understand the benefits, as well as the costs, of attaining high water quality, and to incorporate community preferences in decision-making. Specific objectives are (1) to provide an introduction to the CWA and WQS regulation and analyses related to setting or changing designated uses; (2) create a basis for understanding the relationship between use-attainment decisions and the effects on ecosystems, ecosystem services, and ecological benefits; (3) serve as reference for methods that elicit or infer preferences for benefits and costs related to attaining uses and (4) present process for incorporating new approaches in water quality decisions.

  3. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  4. Fluorine incorporation during Si solid phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impellizzeri, G.; Mirabella, S.; Romano, L.; Napolitani, E.; Carnera, A.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Priolo, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the F incorporation and segregation in preamorphized Si during solid phase epitaxy (SPE) at different temperatures and for several implanted-F energies and fluences. The Si samples were amorphized to a depth of 550 nm by implanting Si at liquid nitrogen temperature and then enriched with F at different energies (65-150 keV) and fluences (0.07-5 x 10 14 F/cm 2 ). Subsequently, the samples were regrown by SPE at different temperatures: 580, 700 and 800 deg. C. We have found that the amount of F incorporated after SPE strongly depends on the SPE temperature and on the energy and fluence of the implanted-F, opening the possibility to tailor the F profile during SPE

  5. Fast Approximate Joint Diagonalization Incorporating Weight Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 878-891 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : autoregressive processes * blind source separation * nonstationary random processes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-fast approximate joint diagonalization incorporating weight matrices.pdf

  6. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Householder, Daniel L.; Hailey, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American youth. In most instances, these experiences in engineering design are infused into instruction programs in standards-based courses in science, technol...

  7. Incorporating Financial Stability in Inflation Targeting Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Aydin; Engin Volkan

    2011-01-01

    The global financial crisis has exposed the limitations of a conventional inflation targeting (IT) framework in insulating an economy from shocks, and demonstrated that its rigid application may aggravate the effect of shocks on output and inflation. Accordingly, we investigate possible refinements to the IT framework by incorporating financial stability considerations. We propose a small open economy DSGE model, calibrated for Korea during the period of 2003 - 07, with real and financial fri...

  8. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  9. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  11. Effect of Phosphorus-32 Incorporated into Chick Embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, L. D.; Antoni, F.; Koeteles, G. J.; Holland, J.; Hidvegi, E. J.; Varteresz, V. [Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    1968-06-15

    The bilogical effects of {sup 32}P on the viability and development of chick embryo were studied. 200,100 and 50 {mu}Ci per egg killed the embryos during incubation. Growth retardation preceded their death. 25 {mu}Ci per egg, however, did not cause mortality until hatching. An attempt was made to correlate the observed effects with the radiation dose and the number of {sup 32}P atoms incorporated into DNA and therefore, the frequencies of radiophosphorus atoms in the polynucleotide chains of DNA and RNA were determined under various conditions. Some biochemical consequences of the decay of {sup 32}P incorporated into ribonucleic acids were demonstrated. Structural changes of RNA were observed. Parallel with structural changes, functional alterations of various kinds of RNA molecules were demonstrated in isolated ribosomal systems. The decrease in protein synthesis by liver ribosomes was found to be proportional to the number of decayed intramolecular {sup 32}P atoms. The structural and functional changes of ribonucleic acids observed on molecular and sub-cellular levels could be attributed to nuclear transmutation of {sup 32}P. (author)

  12. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  13. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  14. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  15. Incorporating social media into dermatologic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lauren N; Rana, Jasmine; Burgin, Susan

    2017-10-15

    In the current digital age, medical education has slowly evolved from the largely lecture-based teaching style of the past to incorporate more interactive pedagogical techniques, including use of social media. Already used readily by millennial trainees and clinicians, social media can also be used in innovative ways to teach trainees and facilitate continuing education among practicing clinicians. In this commentary, we discuss many learning benefits of social media and review potential pitfalls of employing social media in both trainee and physician dermatological education.

  16. Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    . The first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity......This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment...... as vocational skills) add to the difficulties for sustainability in penetrating already overcrowded curricula....

  17. On the inference of function from structure using biomechanical modelling and simulation of extinct organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical modelling and simulation techniques offer some hope for unravelling the complex inter-relationships of structure and function perhaps even for extinct organisms, but have their limitations owing to this complexity and the many unknown parameters for fossil taxa. Validation and sensitivity analysis are two indispensable approaches for quantifying the accuracy and reliability of such models or simulations. But there are other subtleties in biomechanical modelling that include investigator judgements about the level of simplicity versus complexity in model design or how uncertainty and subjectivity are dealt with. Furthermore, investigator attitudes toward models encompass a broad spectrum between extreme credulity and nihilism, influencing how modelling is conducted and perceived. Fundamentally, more data and more testing of methodology are required for the field to mature and build confidence in its inferences. PMID:21666064

  18. Functional brain networks in schizophrenia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince D Calhoun

    2009-08-01

    inter-relationships w

  19. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  20. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  1. Incorporating intelligence into structured radiology reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E.

    2014-03-01

    The new standard for radiology reporting templates being developed through the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and DICOM organizations defines the storage and exchange of reporting templates as Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) documents. The use of HTML5 enables the incorporation of "dynamic HTML," in which documents can be altered in response to their content. HTML5 documents can employ JavaScript, the HTML Document Object Model (DOM), and external web services to create intelligent reporting templates. Several reporting templates were created to demonstrate the use of scripts to perform in-template calculations and decision support. For example, a template for adrenal CT was created to compute contrast washout percentage from input values of precontrast, dynamic postcontrast, and delayed adrenal nodule attenuation values; the washout value can used to classify an adrenal nodule as a benign cortical adenoma. Dynamic templates were developed to compute volumes and apply diagnostic criteria, such as those for determination of internal carotid artery stenosis. Although reporting systems need not use a web browser to render the templates or their contents, the use of JavaScript creates innumerable opportunities to construct highly sophisticated HTML5 reporting templates. This report demonstrates the ability to incorporate dynamic content to enhance the use of radiology reporting templates.

  2. Radiological accidents: methodologies of radio nuclides dis incorporation; Accidentes radiologicos: metodologias de desincorporacion de radionuclidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez F, E. A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cortes, A., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Derived of the radioactive or nuclear material management, exists the risk that accidents can happen where people cases are presented with internal radioactive contamination, who will receive specialized medical care to accelerate the radioactive dis incorporation with the purpose of diminishing the absorbed dose and the associate biological effects. In this work treatments of radioactive dis incorporation were identified, in function of the radionuclide, radiation type, radioactive half life, biological half life, critical organ, ingestion duct and patient type. The factor time is decisive for the effectiveness of the selected treatment in the blockade stage (before the accident) or dis incorporation (after the accident); this factor is related with the radioactive and biological half lives. So to achieve dis incorporation efficiencies of more to 70%, the patient clinical treatment will begin before the first third of the biological half life of the radionuclide that generated the internal contamination. (Author)

  3. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  4. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA......-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation...... of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree...

  5. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, P.; McLeod, N.

    1997-01-01

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation

  6. Incorporation of tritium from wrist watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Pock, K.

    1995-01-01

    Watches are consumer products and are subject to the regulations that control food and consumer products. Elevated concentrations of tritium were found in the urine of persons who wore wrist watches with luminous dials and plastic cases. High emission of tritium from these watches were observed. In an experiment, a volunteer wore a watch with high emissions and the build-up of the tritium concentration in urine was monitored, as well as the decline after removing the watch. Possible pathways for the incorporation and its mechanism are considered. In spite of the relatively high activity concentrations observed, the dose is negligible. On the other hand, the principle 'ALARA' can be achieved without any costs by simply choosing other types of watches. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  8. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena.

  9. Incorporating sustainable development objectives into land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Jude

    2006-01-01

    Historically, land administration systems (LAS) were built to support land markets and land taxation systems. In developed countries, these systems constitute substantial infrastructure provided through government for the benefit of overall public administration, citizens and businesses. These sy......Historically, land administration systems (LAS) were built to support land markets and land taxation systems. In developed countries, these systems constitute substantial infrastructure provided through government for the benefit of overall public administration, citizens and businesses...... lay in incorporating market based instruments (MBI) and complex commodities into LAS and revitalization of land information through inventive Web based initiatives. The EGM developed a vision outlined in this paper for future LAS sufficiently flexible to adapt to this changing world of new technology...

  10. Energetics of Mg incorporation at GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-04-01

    By using density functional calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, we investigate the energetics of Mg adsorption and incorporation at GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces under various Ga and Mg coverage conditions as well as in presence of light or electron beam-induced electronic excitation. We find significant differences in Mg incorporation between Ga- and N-polar surfaces. Mg incorporation is easier at the Ga-polar surface, but high Mg coverages are found to cause important distortions which locally change the polarity from Ga to N polar. At the N-rich and moderately Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface, 0.25 ML of Mg substituting Ga in the top bilayer strongly reduce the surface diffusion barriers of Ga and N adatoms, in agreement with the surfactant effect observed in experiments. As the Mg coverage exceeds 0.5 ML, partial incorporation in the subsurface region (second bilayer) becomes favorable. A surface structure with 0.5 ML of incorporated Mg in the top bilayer and 0.25 ML in the second bilayer is found to be stable over a wide range of Ga chemical potential. At the Ga bilayer-terminated GaN(0001) surface, corresponding to Ga-rich conditions, configurations where Mg is incorporated in the interface region between the metallic Ga bilayer and the underlying GaN bilayer appear to be favored. At the N-polar surface, Mg is not incorporated under N-rich or moderately Ga-rich conditions, whereas incorporation in the adlayer may take place under Ga-rich conditions. In the presence of light or electron beam induced excitation, energy differences between Mg incorporated at the surface and in deeper layers are reduced so that the tendency toward surface segregation is also reduced.

  11. Microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly, membrane protein incorporation, and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Jones, Joshua D; Lenov, Ivan L; Riordan, Colleen M; Sligar, Stephen G; Bailey, Ryan C

    2017-08-22

    The characterization of integral membrane proteins presents numerous analytical challenges on account of their poor activity under non-native conditions, limited solubility in aqueous solutions, and low expression in most cell culture systems. Nanodiscs are synthetic model membrane constructs that offer many advantages for studying membrane protein function by offering a native-like phospholipid bilayer environment. The successful incorporation of membrane proteins within Nanodiscs requires experimental optimization of conditions. Standard protocols for Nanodisc formation can require large amounts of time and input material, limiting the facile screening of formation conditions. Capitalizing on the miniaturization and efficient mass transport inherent to microfluidics, we have developed a microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly and purification, and demonstrated the ability to incorporate functional membrane proteins into the resulting Nanodiscs. In addition to working with reduced sample volumes, this platform simplifies membrane protein incorporation from a multi-stage protocol requiring several hours or days into a single platform that outputs purified Nanodiscs in less than one hour. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we incorporated Cytochrome P450 into Nanodiscs of variable size and lipid composition, and present spectroscopic evidence for the functional active site of the membrane protein. This platform is a promising new tool for membrane protein biology and biochemistry that enables tremendous versatility for optimizing the incorporation of membrane proteins using microfluidic gradients to screen across diverse formation conditions.

  12. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  13. Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, C.J.; Frazer, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor

  14. Framework for optimal power flow incorporating dynamic system security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, M.A.; Owayedh, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework and methodologies which are capable of tackling the complex issue of power system economy versus security in a practical and effective manner. At heart of achieving such a challenging and far-reaching objective is the incorporation of the Dyanamic Security Assessment (DSA) into production optimization techniques using the Transient Energy Function (TEF) method. In addition, and in parallel with the already well established concept of the system security, two new concepts pertaining to power system performance will be introduced in this paper, namely the concept of system dynamic susceptibility, which measures the level of systems weakness to a particular contingency and the concept of system consequent restorability, which measures the extent of contingency severity in terms of the required subsequent system restoration work should a particular contingency occur. (author)

  15. Phenomena based Methodology for Process Synthesis incorporating Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    at processes at the lowest level of aggregation which is the phenomena level. In this paper, a phenomena based synthesis/design methodology incorporating process intensification is presented. Using this methodology, a systematic identification of necessary and desirable (integrated) phenomena as well......Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing as well as conceptual processes, in order to achieve a more sustainable production. PI can be achieved at different levels. That is, the unit operations, functional and/or phenomena level. The highest impact is expected by looking...... as generation and screening of phenomena based flowsheet options are presented using a decomposition based solution approach. The developed methodology as well as necessary tools and supporting methods are highlighted through a case study involving the production of isopropyl-acetate....

  16. Outcome Measures in Myasthenia Gravis: Incorporation Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppidi, Srikanth

    2017-03-01

    The development of validated assessment tools for evaluating disease status and response to interventions in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) has been driven by clinical studies of emerging MG therapies. However, only a small proportion of MG-focused neurology practices have adopted these assessment tools for routine clinical use. This article reviews the suitability of 5 assessment instruments for incorporation into clinical practice, which should be driven by their ability to contribute to improved patient outcomes, and to be implemented within practice personnel and resource constraints. It is recommended that assessments based on both physician-evaluated and patient-reported outcomes be selected, to adequately evaluate both point-in-time symptom load and functional impact of MG symptoms over time. Provider resource allocation and reimbursement issues may be the most significant roadblocks to successful ongoing use of these tools; to that end, the addition of regular assessments to MG standards of care is recommended.

  17. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  18. From Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Arwa A.

    2016-12-04

    Studies and development of artificial metalloenzymes have developed into vibrant areas of research. It is expected that artificial metalloenzymes will be able to combine the best of enzymatic and homogenous catalysis, that is, a broad catalytic scope, high selectivity and activity under mild, aqueous conditions. Artificial metalloenzyme consist of a host protein and a newly introduced artificial metal center. The host protein merely functions as ligand controlling selectivity and augmenting reactivity, while the metal center determines the reactivity. Potential applications range from catalytic production of fine chemicals and feedstock to electron transfer utilization (e.g. fuel cells, water splitting) and medical research (e.g. metabolic screening). Particularly modern asymmetric synthesis is expected to benefit from a successful combination of the power of biocatalysis (substrate conversion via multi-step or cascade reactions, potentially immortal catalyst, unparalleled selectivity and optimization by evolutionary methods) with the versatility and mechanism based optimization methods of homogeneous catalysis. However, so far systems are either limited in structural diversity (biotin-avidin technology) or fail to deliver the selectivities expected (covalent approaches). This thesis explores a novel strategy based on the site-selective incorporation of unnatural, metal binding amino acids into a host protein. The unnatural amino acids can either serve directly as metal binding centers can be used as anchoring points for artificial metallo-cofactors. The identification expression, purification and modification of a suitable protein scaffolds is fundamental to successfully develop this field. Chapter 2 and 3 detail a rational approach leading to a highly engineered host protein. Starting with fluorescent proteins, which combine high thermal and pH stability, high expression yields, and fluorescence for ease of quantification and monitoring an efficient and fast

  19. Barriers, activities and participation: Incorporating ICF into service planning datasets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donovan, MA

    2009-05-21

    Purpose. Guided by the World Health Organization\\'s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a measure of activity and participation (MAP) was developed and incorporated into the National Physical and Sensory Disability Database in Ireland. The aims of this article are to investigate and explore the relationship between the barriers, participation restriction and functioning levels experienced by people with disabilities. Method. Seven thousand five hundred and sixty-two personal interviews with people meeting specific eligibility criteria for registering onto the database were conducted across four health service executive regions in Ireland. Results. Overall, differences in barriers, participation restriction and activity limitations experienced by people with different types of disabilities were found to be significant. Furthermore, low functioning and experience of barriers were indicators of participation restriction. Conclusions. This article has shown that elements of the ICF have been successfully operationalised in a service planning tool through the development of the MAP. This provides a more holistic view of disability and will enable the impact of service interventions to be measured over time.

  20. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This final report documents the activities performed during SHRP 2 Reliability Project L08: Incorporating Travel Time Reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. It serves as a supplement to the proposed chapters for incorporating travel time relia...

  1. 43 CFR 46.110 - Incorporating consensus-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporating consensus-based management... § 46.110 Incorporating consensus-based management. (a) Consensus-based management incorporates direct... carry out those plans and activities. For the purposes of this Part, consensus-based management involves...

  2. 17 CFR 230.411 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following provisions: (1) Non-financial information may be incorporated by reference to any document; (2) Financial information may be incorporated by reference to any document, provided any financial statement so incorporated meets the requirements of the forms on which the statement is filed. Financial statements or other...

  3. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraresi, M. de L.; Ferraresi Filho, O.; Bracht, A.

    1985-01-01

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14 C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14 CO 2 , was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text. ...

  5. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text. ...

  6. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about

  7. Residue-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids for protein engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldijk, Mark B.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Lemke, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids has given protein chemists access to an expanded repertoire of amino acids. This methodology has significantly broadened the scope of protein engineering allowing introduction of amino acids with non-native functionalities, such as bioorthogonal reactive

  8. Carbon nanotube-incorporated collagen hydrogels improve cell alignment and the performance of cardiac constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hongyu Sun,* Jing Zhou,* Zhu Huang,* Linlin Qu,* Ning Lin,* Chengxiao Liang, Ruiwu Dai, Lijun Tang, Fuzhou Tian General Surgery Center, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs provide an essential 2-D microenvironment for cardiomyocyte growth and function. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CNT nanostructures can promote cell–cell integrity and facilitate the formation of functional tissues in 3-D hydrogels. Here, single-walled CNTs were incorporated into collagen hydrogels to fabricate (CNT/Col hydrogels, which improved mechanical and electrical properties. The incorporation of CNTs (up to 1 wt% exhibited no toxicity to cardiomyocytes and enhanced cell adhesion and elongation. Through the use of immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular calcium-transient measurement, the incorporation of CNTs was found to improve cell alignment and assembly remarkably, which led to the formation of engineered cardiac tissues with stronger contraction potential. Importantly, cardiac tissues based on CNT/Col hydrogels were noted to have better functionality. Collectively, the incorporation of CNTs into the Col hydrogels improved cell alignment and the performance of cardiac constructs. Our study suggests that CNT/Col hydrogels offer a promising tissue scaffold for cardiac constructs, and might serve as injectable biomaterials to deliver cell or drug molecules for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction in the near future. Keywords: carbon nanotubes, collagen hydrogel, cardiac constructs, cell alignment, tissue functionality

  9. Quantitative isotope incorporation reveals substrate partitioning in a coastal microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayali, Xavier; Weber, Peter K

    2018-05-01

    To quantitatively link microbial identity with biogeochemical function, we carried out 14 simultaneous stable isotope probing experiments with organic and inorganic C and N substrates to measure the isotope incorporation by over one hundred co-occurring eukaryotic and prokaryotic populations in a coastal community. We found that nitrate was the most commonly incorporated substrate, and that light-driven carbon fixation was carried out by some bacterial taxa from the Flavobacteriales and OM60 (NOR5) clade, in addition to photoautotrophic phytoplankton. We found that organisms that incorporated starch, maltose, glucose, lactose and bicarbonate were phylogenetically clustered, suggesting that specific bacterial lineages specialized in the incorporation of these substrates. The data further revealed that coastal microorganisms spanned a range of resource utilization strategies from generalists to specialists and demonstrated a high level of substrate partitioning, with two thirds of taxa exhibiting unique substrate incorporation patterns and the remaining third shared by no more than three OTUs each. Specialists exhibited more extreme incorporation levels (high or low), whereas generalists displayed more intermediate activity levels. These results shed valuable insights into the bottom-up ecological strategies enabling the persistence of high microbial diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ''engineering'' prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, the prototype-learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype- and adaptive-learning theories. We refer to our new model as ``prototype-incorporated EmNN''. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely, static hand-gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back-propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional BPNN (EmNN), deep networks, an exemplar classification model, and k-nearest neighbor.

  11. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyu Wei

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU. This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT, provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  12. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjiang, E-mail: wjli@zju.edu.cn [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Sun Tan [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  13. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Tan

    2009-01-01

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  14. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  15. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Pendergrast

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  16. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761

  17. Incorporating technical analysis in undergraduate curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Melton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce instruction of technical analysis on the undergraduate level that can coincide with traditional teachings of fundamental analysis. Design/methodology/approach – Through examples using the latest in security analysis technology, this paper illustrates the importance of technical security analysis. Findings – This research illustrates how technical analysis techniques may be used to make more significant investment decisions. Originality/value – Kirkpatrick and Dahlquist define technical analysis as a security analysis discipline for forecasting future direction of prices through the study of past market data primarily price and volume This form of analysis has stood in direct contrast to the fundamental analysis approach whereby actual facts of the company its industry and sector may be ignored. Understanding this contrast, much of academia has chosen to continue to focus its finance curricula on fundamental analysis techniques. As more universities implement trading rooms to reflect that of industry, they must recognize that any large brokerage trading group or financial institution will typically have both a technical analysis and fundamental analysis team. Thus, the need to incorporate technical analysis into undergraduate finance curricula.

  18. Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Community-level ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program is developing tools and approaches to incorporate ecosystem goods and services concepts into community-level decision-making. The San Juan Community Study is one of a series of coordinated community studies, which also include Mobile Bay, AL, Great Lakes Areas of Concern, and the Pacific Northwest. Common elements across the community studies include a focus on watershed management and national estuary programs (National Estuary Program, National Estuarine Research Reserve System). San Juan, Puerto Rico, is unique from the other community studies in that it is located in a highly urbanized watershed integrated with a number of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. The San Juan Community Study will explore linkages between watershed management decisions (e.g., dredging canals, restoration of mangrove buffers, sewage discharge interventions, climate adaptive strategies) targeting priority stressors (e.g., nutrients, contaminants, and pathogens; aquatic debris; habitat loss; modified hydrology and water circulation; sea level rise; storm intensity and frequency) effecting the condition of ecosystems (e.g., estuarine habitats and fish, as well as the connected terrestrial and coastal ecosystems), associated ecosystem goods and services (e.g., tourism and recreation, fishing, nutrient & sediment retention, contaminant processing, carbon sequestration, flood protection),

  19. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  20. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Kelly L.S.; Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca"2"+ ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO_3 solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO_3 residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  1. High spin structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)

  2. Phenomenological effets of tantalum incorporation into diamond films: Experimental and first principle studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Mahtab, E-mail: mahtabullah@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmad, E. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore-54000 (Pakistan); Hussain, Fayyaz [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Hussain, Akhtar; Iqbal, Muhammad [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of tantalum incorporated diamonds films using HFCVD technique. • Decrease in resistivity by increasing tantalum content in diamond thin films. • Electronic structure calculations of tantalum incorporated diamonds films through VASP code. • A rise of bond length and bond angles by addition of tantalum in the diamond lattice. • Confirmation of decrease of resistivity by adding tantalum due to creation of impurity states in the bandgap. - Abstract: Tantalum (Ta) incorporated diamond films are synthesized on silicon substrate by chemical vapor deposition under gas mixture of CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. Characterizations of the resulting films indicate that morphology and resistivity of as-grown diamond films are significantly influenced by the process parameters and the amount of tantalum incorporated in the diamond films. XRD plots reveal that diamond films are composed of TaC along with diamond for higher concentration of tantalum and Ta{sub 2}C phases for lower concentration of tantalum. EDS spectra confirms the existence of tantalum in the diamond films. Resistivity measurements illustrate a sudden fall of about two orders of magnitude by the addition of tantalum in the diamond films. Band structure of Ta-incorporated diamond has been investigated based on density functional theory (DFT) using VASP code. Band structure calculations lead to the semiconducting behavior of Ta-incorporated diamond films because of the creation of defects states inside the band gap extending towards conduction band minimum. Present DFT results support experimental trend of resistivity that with the incorporation of tantalum into diamond lattice causes a decrease in the resistivity of diamond films so that tantalum-incorporated diamond films behave like a good semiconductor.

  3. Incorporating Health Education into Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of aligning health education with the goals and functions of employee assistance programs are discussed. The role of the health educator in developing these programs is explained in a description of employee assistance program service standards and specific sub-tasks. (DF)

  4. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the diffusion of fission products Cs and Ag through the SiC layer of TRISO particles is of particular interest for the progress and improvement of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies. Although the SiC layer acts as a barrier for fission products, there is experimental evidence of Cs and Ag diffusion through this layer. Previous considerations of Ag and Cs in SiC have focused on the element interacting with SiC, but have not considered the possibility of co-incorporation with another species. This paper presents a ab initio study on the co-incorporation of Cs and Ag with an anion (Iodine (I) or Oxygen (O)) into SiC as an alternative incorporation mechanism. It is found that for crystalline SiC, Ag co-incorporation with Iodine (I) and Oxygen (O) into SiC is not energetically favorable, while Cs co-incorporation with O is a preferred mechanism under some oxygen partial pressures of interest. However, Cs-O co-incorporation into the crystalline portion of SiC is not sufficiently strong to enable a Cs solubility that accounts for the Cs release observed in some experiments. Formation energies are a function of the chemical potential of Si and C. Calculations in this paper are performed for Si-rich and C-rich conditions, which constitute the boundaries for which the formation energies are allowed to vary. Calculation of the electronic potential shift is required in order to ensure that the Fermi level in a defected cell is defined with respect to the same valence band level in the undefected cell [21,23]. The potential shift is calculated by aligning low energy levels in the total density of states (DOS) [24]. Spurious interactions between images of the charged defects make it necessary to correct for unphysical electrostatic interactions. Both the monopole-monopole and monopole-quadrupole Makov Payne corrections are used for this purpose. However, strain and incompletely corrected electrostatic interactions can still lead to significant

  5. Evolutionary Snowdrift Game Incorporating Costly Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Yee Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG by introducing a third punishing (P character and study the effects.  The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C character, are willing to pay a cost of a so as to punish a non-cooperative (D opponent by ß. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, a, ß, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, the three-character system evolves either into a steady state consisting only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters in a well-mixed population.  The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to SG, while the latter is similar to SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different.  Analytically, the key features in the steady states and dynamics obtained by simulations are captured by a set of differential equations.  The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P-agents is greater than r/ß. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population. ABSTRAK: Peranan hukuman dalam meningkatkan kerjasama merupakan isu penting.  Hukuman berat diterapkan ke dalam permainan hanyutan salji (snowdrift game (SG dengan memperkenalkan karekter penghukum (P ketiga dan akibatnya dipantau. Penghukum, pada asasnya membawa watak koperatif (C, sanggup membayar kos a, agar dia menghukum lawan yang tidak koperatif (D dengan ß. Bergantung kepada pecahan permulaan watak

  6. Incorporating model parameter uncertainty into inverse treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jun; Xing Lei

    2004-01-01

    Radiobiological treatment planning depends not only on the accuracy of the models describing the dose-response relation of different tumors and normal tissues but also on the accuracy of tissue specific radiobiological parameters in these models. Whereas the general formalism remains the same, different sets of model parameters lead to different solutions and thus critically determine the final plan. Here we describe an inverse planning formalism with inclusion of model parameter uncertainties. This is made possible by using a statistical analysis-based frameset developed by our group. In this formalism, the uncertainties of model parameters, such as the parameter a that describes tissue-specific effect in the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model, are expressed by probability density function and are included in the dose optimization process. We found that the final solution strongly depends on distribution functions of the model parameters. Considering that currently available models for computing biological effects of radiation are simplistic, and the clinical data used to derive the models are sparse and of questionable quality, the proposed technique provides us with an effective tool to minimize the effect caused by the uncertainties in a statistical sense. With the incorporation of the uncertainties, the technique has potential for us to maximally utilize the available radiobiology knowledge for better IMRT treatment

  7. Probabilistic assessment of power system transient stability incorporating SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiakun, E-mail: Jiakun.Fang@gmail.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Wei [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wen, Jinyu, E-mail: jinyu.wen@hust.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, Shijie; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Zhuo [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Probabilistic study of power system with wind farm and SMES is proposed. ► Quantitative relationship between system stability and SMES capacity is given. ► System stability increases with the capacity of the SMES. ► System stability decreases with the penetration of wind power. ► Together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized. -- Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system incorporating the wind farm and the SMES. Uncertain factors include both sequence of disturbance in power grid and stochastic generation of the wind farm. The spectrums of disturbance in the grid as the fault type, the fault location, the fault clearing time and the automatic reclosing process with their probabilities of occurrence are used to calculate the probability indices, while the wind speed statistics and parameters of the wind generator are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate samples for the studies. With the proposed method, system stability is ”measured”. Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve, together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized economically.

  8. Probabilistic assessment of power system transient stability incorporating SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiakun; Yao, Wei; Wen, Jinyu; Cheng, Shijie; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Probabilistic study of power system with wind farm and SMES is proposed. ► Quantitative relationship between system stability and SMES capacity is given. ► System stability increases with the capacity of the SMES. ► System stability decreases with the penetration of wind power. ► Together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized. -- Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system incorporating the wind farm and the SMES. Uncertain factors include both sequence of disturbance in power grid and stochastic generation of the wind farm. The spectrums of disturbance in the grid as the fault type, the fault location, the fault clearing time and the automatic reclosing process with their probabilities of occurrence are used to calculate the probability indices, while the wind speed statistics and parameters of the wind generator are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate samples for the studies. With the proposed method, system stability is ”measured”. Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve, together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized economically

  9. Effects of incorporated straw on dye tracer infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Garnier, P.; Vachier, P.; Coquet, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Crop residue incorporation by conventional tillage increases the heterogeneity in the soil surface layer due to the soil tillage itself and to the presence of a zone with a high density of vegetal residues. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of incorporated straw on the transport behaviour of the dye Brilliant Blue. We used an image analysis technique to calculate the Brilliant Blue concentration from the spectral signature (i.e. RGB values) using a calibration relationship. This method was already successfully applied in soils without organic matter and in this study we want to extend it to soils that contain fresh organic matter. The experiment took place in a loamy bare soil in the north of France at Mons-en-Chaussée in May, 2002. The soil was ploughed under dry conditions to 30 cm depth and straw was incorporated at the content of 10 Tonnes of C/ha. The infiltration experiment was carried out using an infiltrometer of 25 cm diameter at the head potential of -1 cm of water. First, water was infiltrated followed by the dye solution. The day after the infiltration, the soil was cut in horizontal sections of 50 times 50 cm. In total, 15 cross-section were photographed which were separated by a vertical distance of about 2 or 3 cm. Samples of soil and small pieces of straw were taken from the soil surface in order to measure the Brilliant Blue concentration for the calibration procedure. The volumetric water content and bulk density were measured with small cylindrical samples. After geometrical and illumination corrections of the images, we separated the soil from the straw and established a separate second-order polynomial calibration function for both relating the Brilliant Blue content to the spectral signature in each pixel. In this way we obtained spatially highly resolved concentration patterns of the dye tracer. The dye concentration distribution was found to be very heterogeneous in the soil at the local scale. In the plough layer, dye

  10. Transfer and incorporation of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den; Juan, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of tritium in mammals has been studied in a number of laboratories which have participated in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment. The results of these studies are discussed and related to data obtained elsewhere. The animals studied are small laboratory and domestic animals. Tritium has been administered as THO, both in single and long-term dosing experiments, and also as organically bound tritium. The biological half-life of tritium in the body water pool has been determined in different species. The following values have been found: 1.1 days in mice; 13.2 days in kangaroo rats; 3.8 days in pigs; 4.1 days in lactating versus 8.3 in non-lactating goats and 3.1-4.0 days in lactating cows and steers. Much attention has been paid to the incorporation of tritium into organic constituents, both in the animal organism (organs, tissues) and in the secretions of the animal after continuous administration of tritium, mostly as THO. When compared with tritium levels in body water, and expressed as the ratio of specific activities, values of 0.25 and 0.40 have been found in mice liver and testis respectively. In cow's milk, these ratios vary from 0.30 for casein to 0.60 for lactose. The transfer of tritium into milk after continuous ingestion of THO by a lactating cow is about 1.50% of the daily ingested tritium per litre of milk. Some results of experiments, utilizing organically bound tritium, are also presented. (author)

  11. INCORPORATING MARKET ORIENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the main issues surrounding the concept of market orientation applied in the context of higher education. Considering the important changes taking place in this sector, a strong willingness of universities to adopt marketing concepts can be noticed. The paper seeks to provide a retrospect on this process, starting with the incorporation of marketing in higher education, and moving on to its implementation, which has come to be known as market orientation. Following a stream of the most relevant literature in the field, we present definitions of the main concepts, and integrate them in the education context, with the purpose of establishing the relevance and importance of market orientation for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage and higher institutional performance. The paper does not aim at providing an exhaustive literature review, but rather at presenting the main elements that define a market orientation, and at supporting its implementation, by outlining the significant benefits that could follow. While theoretical by nature, this research contributes to the body of literature in the field, through closely examining the conceptualization and operationalization of market orientation, and also providing the fundamental components that define the concept and help its implementation. Furthermore, the paper provides practitioners with a number of suggested research directions, which could potentially help improve educational institutions’ activity, while also contributing to a better understanding of the concept, and to building richer theories in the field of marketing education. Given that the marketing literature in Romania has mostly overlooked market orientation, both this paper, and all following research in this area will prove to be significant for education managers and researchers alike, promoting the importance and significance of relevant knowledge, and encouraging a

  12. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  13. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  14. Incorporating damage mechanics into explosion simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammis, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    The source region of an underground explosion is commonly modeled as a nested series of shells. In the innermost open-quotes hydrodynamic regimeclose quotes pressures and temperatures are sufficiently high that the rock deforms as a fluid and may be described using a PVT equation of state. Just beyond the hydrodynamic regime, is the open-quotes non-linear regimeclose quotes in which the rock has shear strength but the deformation is nonlinear. This regime extends out to the open-quotes elastic radiusclose quotes beyond which the deformation is linear. In this paper, we develop a model for the non-linear regime in crystalline source rock where the nonlinearity is mostly due to fractures. We divide the non-linear regime into a open-quotes damage regimeclose quotes in which the stresses are sufficiently high to nucleate new fractures from preexisting ones and a open-quotes crack-slidingclose quotes regime where motion on preexisting cracks produces amplitude dependent attenuation and other non-linear effects, but no new cracks are nucleated. The boundary between these two regimes is called the open-quotes damage radius.close quotes The micromechanical damage mechanics recently developed by Ashby and Sammis (1990) is used to write an analytic expression for the damage radius in terms of the initial fracture spectrum of the source rock, and to develop an algorithm which may be used to incorporate damage mechanics into computer source models for the damage regime. Effects of water saturation and loading rate are also discussed

  15. Carbon nanotube-incorporated collagen hydrogels improve cell alignment and the performance of cardiac constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyu; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Zhu; Qu, Linlin; Lin, Ning; Liang, Chengxiao; Dai, Ruiwu; Tang, Lijun; Tian, Fuzhou

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provide an essential 2-D microenvironment for cardiomyocyte growth and function. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CNT nanostructures can promote cell–cell integrity and facilitate the formation of functional tissues in 3-D hydrogels. Here, single-walled CNTs were incorporated into collagen hydrogels to fabricate (CNT/Col) hydrogels, which improved mechanical and electrical properties. The incorporation of CNTs (up to 1 wt%) exhibited no toxicity to cardiomyocytes and enhanced cell adhesion and elongation. Through the use of immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular calcium-transient measurement, the incorporation of CNTs was found to improve cell alignment and assembly remarkably, which led to the formation of engineered cardiac tissues with stronger contraction potential. Importantly, cardiac tissues based on CNT/Col hydrogels were noted to have better functionality. Collectively, the incorporation of CNTs into the Col hydrogels improved cell alignment and the performance of cardiac constructs. Our study suggests that CNT/Col hydrogels offer a promising tissue scaffold for cardiac constructs, and might serve as injectable biomaterials to deliver cell or drug molecules for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction in the near future. PMID:28450785

  16. Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, G; Vettor, R

    2000-06-01

    The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines.

  17. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  18. A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Grossegesse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the Poxviridae family, namely Cowpox virus. Our results revealed the incorporation of 19 viral transcripts, while host identifications were restricted to ribosomal and mitochondrial RNA. Most viral transcripts had an unknown and immunomodulatory function, suggesting that transcript incorporation may be beneficial for poxvirus immune evasion. Notably, the most abundant transcript originated from the D5L/I1R gene that encodes a viral inhibitor of the host cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery.

  19. Calculation of the activity incorporated in the therapy with I 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chica, L.G.; Puerta, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the product S(T--S). A-s-(T-e-). the absorbed dose to thyroid delivered by I-131 incorporated is calculated. Where S(T--S) is the absorbed dose in the thyroid per nuclear transformations (tn.) of I-131 localized in the thyroid and as a potential function of the mass is expressed. A-s-(T-e-) is the number of tn. of I-131 in the thyroid since the moment of the incorporation until the time T-e- (the effective middle time); to find A-s-(T-e-) to normal as different pathological conditions, the metabolic model of the iodo proposed by the ICRP is used. Of the expression of the doses, the incorporated activity, I-o- is obtained

  20. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  1. Incorporation of fluconazole in copolymer PMMA-g-PEG derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, B.M.; Santos, V.M.R. dos; Novack, K.M.; Lopes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The graft copolymer PMMA-g-PEG went through chemical transformations in its chain through acetylation, halogenation, methylation and esterification followed by hydrolysis reactions. Subsequently, the copolymer PMMA-g-PEG derivatives passed through the process of emulsification and incorporation of the drug fluconazole. Derivatives copolymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after incorporation in order to evaluate their effectiveness. The efficiency of incorporation was observed and it was also verified that the complexity of polymer chain influence in the incorporated fluconazole content. (author)

  2. New method to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares procedures in radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jubong; Lee, K.B.; Lee, Jong-Man; Park, Tae Soon; Oh, J.S.; Oh, Pil-Jei

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a new method to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares procedures. The new method is based on an extension of the likelihood function from which a conventional least-squares function is derived. The extended likelihood function is the product of the original likelihood function with additional PDFs (Probability Density Functions) that characterize the Type B uncertainties. The PDFs are considered to describe one's incomplete knowledge on correction factors being called nuisance parameters. We use the extended likelihood function to make point and interval estimations of parameters in the basically same way as the least-squares function used in the conventional least-squares method is derived. Since the nuisance parameters are not of interest and should be prevented from appearing in the final result, we eliminate such nuisance parameters by using the profile likelihood. As an example, we present a case study for a linear regression analysis with a common component of Type B uncertainty. In this example we compare the analysis results obtained from using our procedure with those from conventional methods. - Highlights: • A new method proposed to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares method. • The method constructed from the likelihood function and PDFs of Type B uncertainty. • A case study performed to compare results from the new and the conventional method. • Fitted parameters are consistent but with larger uncertainties in the new method.

  3. A maximum principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation, incorporating a potential treatment of voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Ackroyd's generalized least-squares method for solving the first-order Boltzmann equation is adapted to incorporate a potential treatment of voids. The adaptation comprises a direct least-squares minimization allied with a suitably-defined bilinear functional. The resulting formulation gives rise to a maximum principle whose functional does not contain terms of the type that have previously led to difficulties in treating void regions. The maximum principle is derived without requiring continuity of the flux at interfaces. The functional of the maximum principle is concluded to have an Euler-Lagrange equation given directly by the first-order Boltzmann equation. (author)

  4. Improving the precision of the structure-function relationship by considering phylogenetic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between protein structure and function is one of the foremost challenges in post-genomic biology. Higher conservation of structure could, in principle, allow researchers to extend current limitations of annotation. However, despite significant research in the area, a precise and quantitative relationship between biochemical function and protein structure has been elusive. Attempts to draw an unambiguous link have often been complicated by pleiotropy, variable transcriptional control, and adaptations to genomic context, all of which adversely affect simple definitions of function. In this paper, I report that integrating genomic information can be used to clarify the link between protein structure and function. First, I present a novel measure of functional proximity between protein structures (F-score. Then, using F-score and other entirely automatic methods measuring structure and phylogenetic similarity, I present a three-dimensional landscape describing their inter-relationship. The result is a "well-shaped" landscape that demonstrates the added value of considering genomic context in inferring function from structural homology. A generalization of methodology presented in this paper can be used to improve the precision of annotation of genes in current and newly sequenced genomes.

  5. Incorporating modelled subglacial hydrology into inversions for basal drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Koziol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in modelling coupled ice-flow–subglacial hydrology is initializing the state and parameters of the system. We address this problem by presenting a workflow for initializing these values at the start of a summer melt season. The workflow depends on running a subglacial hydrology model for the winter season, when the system is not forced by meltwater inputs, and ice velocities can be assumed constant. Key parameters of the winter run of the subglacial hydrology model are determined from an initial inversion for basal drag using a linear sliding law. The state of the subglacial hydrology model at the end of winter is incorporated into an inversion of basal drag using a non-linear sliding law which is a function of water pressure. We demonstrate this procedure in the Russell Glacier area and compare the output of the linear sliding law with two non-linear sliding laws. Additionally, we compare the modelled winter hydrological state to radar observations and find that it is in line with summer rather than winter observations.

  6. Nonlinear free vibration of piezoelectric nanobeams incorporating surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh; Nahas, Iman; Fakher, Mahmood; Nazemnezhad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the nonlinear free vibration of piezoelectric nanobeams incorporating surface effects (surface elasticity, surface tension, and surface density) is studied. The governing equation of the piezoelectric nanobeam is derived within the framework of Euler–Bernoulli beam theory with the von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. In order to satisfy the balance conditions between the nanobeam bulk and its surfaces, the component of the bulk stress, σ zz , is assumed to vary linearly through the nanobeam thickness. An exact solution is obtained for the natural frequencies of a simply supported piezoelectric nanobeam in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions using the free vibration mode shape of the corresponding linear problem. Then, the influences of the surface effects and the piezoelectric field on the nonlinear free vibration of nanobeams made of aluminum and silicon with positive and negative surface elasticity, respectively, have been studied for various properties of the piezoelectric field, various nanobeam sizes and amplitude ratios. It is observed that if the Young’s modulus of a nanobeam is lower, the effect of the piezoelectric field on the frequency ratios (FRs) of the nanobeam will be greater. In addition, it is seen that by increasing the nanobeam length so that the nanobeam cross section is set to be constant, the surface effects and the piezoelectric field with negative voltage values increases the FRs, whereas it is the other way around when the nanobeam cross section is assumed to be dependent on the length of the nanobeam. (paper)

  7. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by incorporating nondominated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian Sheng; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Buyamin, Salinda; Ahmad, Anita; Naim, Faradila; Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Mokhtar, Norrima

    2013-01-01

    The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  8. iFORM: Incorporating Find Occurrence of Regulatory Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; Chen, Hebing; Yang, Bite; Liu, Feng; Ouyang, Zhangyi; Bo, Xiaochen; Shu, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Accurately identifying the binding sites of transcription factors (TFs) is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and human disease. We present incorporating Find Occurrence of Regulatory Motifs (iFORM), an easy-to-use and efficient tool for scanning DNA sequences with TF motifs described as position weight matrices (PWMs). Both performance assessment with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and a correlation-based approach demonstrated that iFORM achieves higher accuracy and sensitivity by integrating five classical motif discovery programs using Fisher's combined probability test. We have used iFORM to provide accurate results on a variety of data in the ENCODE Project and the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Project, and the tool has demonstrated its utility in further elucidating individual roles of functional elements. Both the source and binary codes for iFORM can be freely accessed at https://github.com/wenjiegroup/iFORM. The identified TF binding sites across human cell and tissue types using iFORM have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under the accession ID GSE53962.

  9. Chitosan-incorporated different nanocomposite HPMC films for food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga Priya, D.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2014-02-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using ionic gelation method and casted into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. XRD, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectra showed the corresponding phase, characteristic peaks of CS-TPP functional groups, and transmittance of the films, respectively. Oleic acid, TiO2, neem powder, and Ag of equal ratio were added as an additive to the optimized 1 wt% of chitosan-HPMC films and studied for its mechanical, solubility, thermal, structural, and antimicrobial property. The better physio-chemical and biological properties are achieved in the films incorporated with TiO2 and neem. The characterized films were directly tested for the preservation of grape and plums and for their decay index. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity of the preserved fruits showed that grape and plums remained unchanged, respectively, for 10 days and for 3 weeks. This study reveals that shelf life of the grape using TiO2- and neem-doped CS-HPMC films was extended up to 10 days with good sensory and textural qualities compared with other films.

  10. Mechanical performance of laminated composites incorporated with nanofibrous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, Z.-M.; He, C.L.; Han, X.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of non-woven nanofibrous membranes as interlaminar interfaces on the mechanical performance of laminated composites was investigated experimentally. The nanofibrous membranes are porous, thin and lightweight, and exhibit toughness and strength to some extent. They give little increase in weight and thickness when incorporated into a laminate. More important, they can be used as a functional agent carrier for the laminate. The nanofiber membranes used in this paper were prepared by electrospinning of Nylon-6 (PA6), Epoxy 609 (EPO 1691-410) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), with a thickness ranging from 20 to 150 μm. The non-woven fabrics were attached to one side of a glass/epoxy fabric lamina prior to lamination and each fabric was arranged in between two adjacent plies of the laminate. The nanofibrous membranes were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing, whereas the mechanical properties of the laminate were understood in terms of three-point bending and short-beam shear tests. Results have shown that the nanofibrous membranes in the ply interfaces with a proper thickness did not affect the mechanical performance of the composite laminates significantly

  11. Irradiation on cereal bars incorporated with pineapple skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques; Silva, Yasmini Portes Abraham; Costa, Naiane Vieira; Almeida, Thatyana Lacerda; Damiani, Clarissa; Arthur, Valter; Lage, Moacir Evandro; Asquieri, Eduardo Ramirez

    2011-01-01

    One of the major current concerns to the food industry is the management of residues generated in its production processes. Thus, several studies have been developed, seeking alternative uses for these residues, in order to minimize environmental impacts and add value to products previously discarded. Combining this idea with the increasingly search for healthy and practical products, by consumers, this study aimed the characterization of cereal bars irradiated with doses of 0 kGy, 1 kGy, and 2 kGy, incorporated with dried pineapple skin. The following analyses were carried out: moisture, proteins, lipids, ashes, carbohydrates, energetic value, antioxidant potential, phenolic content, organic acids, and fatty acids profile. The results observed for the centesimal composition did not vary as a function of the radiation doses used, reducing only the levels of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and organic acids. The product showed potential for becoming an effective way of reusing a food industry residue and the irradiation interfered on the nutritional characteristics of the final product. (author)

  12. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by Incorporating Nondominated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Sheng Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  13. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  14. Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasue, Anita; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits. As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration. The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder (SWP) and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. The fresh Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweeds were washed, soaked in distilled water overnight, dried in a cabinet dryer at 40°C for 24 hours and ground into fine powder using universal miller. There were five different percentages of SWP incorporated into bun that were formulation A - control (0% SWP), B (3% SWP), C (6% SWP), D (9% SWP) and E (12% SWP). All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis. Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC (35.07 GAE, mg/100g) and DPPH activity (49.02%) maximized when 12% SWP was incorporated into the flour (P<0.05). The incorporation of the SWP also gives significant effects towards the texture of the bun where the bun becomes harder and denser as compared to the control.

  15. Incorporating Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook in Economics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak

    2015-01-01

    Social media is one of the most current and dynamic developments in education. In general, the field of economics has lagged behind other disciplines in incorporating technologies in the classroom. In this article, the authors provide a guide for economics educators on how to incorporate Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook inside and outside of the…

  16. 75 FR 17737 - Industrial Economics, Incorporated; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0194; FRL-8820-2] Industrial Economics... (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Industrial Economics, Incorporated in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Industrial Economics, Incorporated has been awarded multiple...

  17. Selective incorporation of 5-hydroxytryptophan into proteins in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-02-25

    This invention provides methods and compositions for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into a peptide using an orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair. In particular, an orthogonal pair is provided to incorporate 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan in a position encoded by an opal mutation.

  18. The biokinetic of incorporates radionuclides; Die Biokinetik von inkorporierten Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung; Giussani, Augusto [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Externe und interne Dosimetrie, Biokinetik' '

    2017-08-01

    Incorporated radionuclides from nuclear accidents, fission product releases or nuclear medical administration are distributed in the human body in organs and tissue, absorbed 9or excreted. The interpretation of incorporation monitoring results and the estimation of the internal doses that cannot be measured directly need mathematical methods and the formulation of biokinetic models.

  19. 22 CFR 212.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incorporation by reference. 212.13 Section 212.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC INFORMATION Publication in the Federal Register § 212.13 Incorporation by reference. For purposes of this subpart B, USAID matters which...

  20. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  1. A Collaborative Approach to Incorporating Statistics in the Physiology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterfield, April; Majerus, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Both the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) recommend appropriately incorporating mathematics into other disciplines (NRC 1996; NRC 2003; NCTM 2000). With this in mind, an interdisciplinary, inquiry-based project was undertaken to incorporate mathematical analysis of data into a…

  2. 40 CFR 59.412 - Incorporations by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Method for Chemical Resistance of Coatings Used in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, incorporation by reference approved for § 59.401, Nuclear coating. (5) ASTM Method D 4082-89, Standard Test Method for Effects of Gamma Radiation on Coatings for Use in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, incorporation...

  3. Between economic and legal analysis of incorporeal things: A critical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author uses practical economic examples to argue for the development of common law. The author identifies relevant Roman law principles which justify the legal nature of incorporeal things. It is demonstrated that the value of incorporeal things depends greatly on future circumstances. It is argued in this article that the ...

  4. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  5. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation by reference. 76.4 Section 76.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) The...

  6. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel isatin- incorporated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated thiadiazole hybrids as potential anti-breast ... Abstract. Purpose: To synthesis and characterize some novel isatin-incorporated ... Results: Compounds 3a, 3c, 3d, 3g and 3j showed anticancer activity in both MTT and SRB assay.

  7. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design requirements incorporated by reference. 801.12 Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements incorporated...

  8. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, I.; Ivanko, S.

    1976-01-01

    32 P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of 32 P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of 32 P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The 32 P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time. (author)

  9. Translation system engineering in Escherichia coli enhances non-canonical amino acid incorporation into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rui; Perez, Jessica G; Carlson, Erik D; Ntai, Ioanna; Isaacs, Farren J; Kelleher, Neil L; Jewett, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The ability to site-specifically incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins has made possible the study of protein structure and function in fundamentally new ways, as well as the bio synthesis of unnatural polymers. However, the task of site-specifically incorporating multiple ncAAs into proteins with high purity and yield continues to present a challenge. At the heart of this challenge lies the lower efficiency of engineered orthogonal translation system components compared to their natural counterparts (e.g., translation elements that specifically use a ncAA and do not interact with the cell's natural translation apparatus). Here, we show that evolving and tuning expression levels of multiple components of an engineered translation system together as a whole enhances ncAA incorporation efficiency. Specifically, we increase protein yield when incorporating multiple p-azido-phenylalanine(pAzF) residues into proteins by (i) evolving the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii p-azido-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase anti-codon binding domain, (ii) evolving the elongation factor Tu amino acid-binding pocket, and (iii) tuning the expression of evolved translation machinery components in a single vector. Use of the evolved translation machinery in a genomically recoded organism lacking release factor one enabled enhanced multi-site ncAA incorporation into proteins. We anticipate that our approach to orthogonal translation system development will accelerate and expand our ability to site-specifically incorporate multiple ncAAs into proteins and biopolymers, advancing new horizons for synthetic and chemical biotechnology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1074-1086. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rationally evolving tRNAPyl for efficient incorporation of noncanonical amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chenguang; Xiong, Hai; Reynolds, Noah M; Söll, Dieter

    2015-12-15

    Genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins is a powerful approach to study protein functions. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS), a polyspecific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase in wide use, has facilitated incorporation of a large number of different ncAAs into proteins to date. To make this process more efficient, we rationally evolved tRNA(Pyl) to create tRNA(Pyl-opt) with six nucleotide changes. This improved tRNA was tested as substrate for wild-type PylRS as well as three characterized PylRS variants (N(ϵ)-acetyllysyl-tRNA synthetase [AcKRS], 3-iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase [IFRS], a broad specific PylRS variant [PylRS-AA]) to incorporate ncAAs at UAG codons in super-folder green fluorescence protein (sfGFP). tRNA(Pyl-opt) facilitated a 5-fold increase in AcK incorporation into two positions of sfGFP simultaneously. In addition, AcK incorporation into two target proteins (Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase and human histone H3) caused homogenous acetylation at multiple lysine residues in high yield. Using tRNA(Pyl-opt) with PylRS and various PylRS variants facilitated efficient incorporation of six other ncAAs into sfGFP. Kinetic analyses revealed that the mutations in tRNA(Pyl-opt) had no significant effect on the catalytic efficiency and substrate binding of PylRS enzymes. Thus tRNA(Pyl-opt) should be an excellent replacement of wild-type tRNA(Pyl) for future ncAA incorporation by PylRS enzymes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. The Rheological Properties of Lipid Monolayers Modulate the Incorporation of l-Ascorbic Acid Alkyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yenisleidy de Las Mercedes Zulueta; Mottola, Milagro; Vico, Raquel V; Wilke, Natalia; Fanani, María Laura

    2016-01-19

    In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the incorporation of amphiphilic drugs into lipid membranes may be regulated by their rheological properties. For this purpose, two members of the l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters family (ASCn) were selected, ASC16 and ASC14, which have different rheological properties when organized at the air/water interface. They are lipophilic forms of vitamin C used in topical pharmacological preparations. The effect of the phase state of the host lipid membranes on ASCn incorporation was explored using Langmuir monolayers. Films of pure lipids with known phase states have been selected, showing liquid-expanded, liquid-condensed, and solid phases as well as pure cholesterol films in liquid-ordered state. We also tested ternary and quaternary mixed films that mimic the properties of cholesterol containing membranes and of the stratum corneum. The compressibility and shear properties of those monolayers were assessed in order to define its phase character. We found that the length of the acyl chain of the ASCn compounds induces differential changes in the rheological properties of the host membrane and subtly regulates the kinetics and extent of the penetration process. The capacity for ASCn uptake was found to depend on the phase state of the host film. The increase in surface pressure resultant after amphiphile incorporation appears to be a function of the capacity of the host membrane to incorporate such amphiphile as well as the rheological response of the film. Hence, monolayers that show a solid phase state responded with a larger surface pressure increase to the incorporation of a comparable amount of amphiphile than liquid-expanded ones. The cholesterol-containing films, including the mixture that mimics stratum corneum, allowed a very scarce ASCn uptake independently of the membrane diffusional properties. This suggests an important contribution of Cho on the maintenance of the barrier function of stratum corneum.

  12. The comparison of antimicrobial packaging properties with different applications incorporation method of active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, R. W.; Sugiarto; Warsiki, E.

    2018-03-01

    Contamination after the processing of products during storage, distribution and marketing is one of the main causes of food safety issues. Handling of food products after processing can be done during the packaging process. Antimicrobial (AM) active packaging is one of the concept of packaging product development by utilize the interaction between the product and the packaging environment that can delay the bacterial damage by killing or reducing bacterial growth. The active system is formed by incorporating an antimicrobial agent against a packaging matrix that will function as a carrier. Many incorporation methods have been developed in this packaging-making concept which were direct mixing, polishing, and encapsulation. The aims of this research were to examine the different of the AM packaging performances including its stability and effectiveness of its function that would be produced by three different methods. The stability of the packaging function was analyzed by looking at the diffusivity of the active ingredient to the matrix using SEM. The effectiveness was analyzed by the ability of the packaging to prevent the growing of the microbial. The results showed that different incorporation methods resulted on different characteristics of the AM packaging.

  13. Concentration-Dependent Patterns of Leucine Incorporation by Coastal Picoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cecilia; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Coastal pelagic environments are believed to feature concentration gradients of dissolved organic carbon at a microscale, and they are characterized by pronounced seasonal differences in substrate availability for the heterotrophic picoplankton. Microbial taxa that coexist in such habitats might thus differ in their ability to incorporate substrates at various concentrations. We investigated the incorporation patterns of leucine in four microbial lineages from the coastal North Sea at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 nM before and during a spring phytoplankton bloom. Community bulk incorporation rates and the fraction of leucine-incorporating cells in the different populations were analyzed. Significantly fewer bacterial cells incorporated the amino acid before (13 to 35%) than during (23 to 47%) the bloom at all but the highest concentration. The incorporation rate per active cell in the prebloom situation was constant above 0.1 nM added leucine, whereas it increased steeply with substrate concentration during the bloom. At both time points, a high proportion of members of the Roseobacter clade incorporated leucine at all concentrations (55 to 80% and 86 to 94%, respectively). In contrast, the fractions of leucine-incorporating cells increased substantially with substrate availability in bacteria from the SAR86 clade (8 to 31%) and from DE cluster 2 of the Flavobacteria-Sphingobacteria (14 to 33%). The incorporation patterns of marine Euryarchaeota were between these extremes (30 to 56% and 48 to 70%, respectively). Our results suggest that the contribution of microbial taxa to the turnover of particular substrates may be concentration dependent. This may help us to understand the specific niches of coexisting populations that appear to compete for the same resources. PMID:16517664

  14. Microstructural analysis of clayey ceramic incorporated with fluorescent lamp glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of glass powder fluorescent lamp, from a decontamination process, in the microstructure of clayey ceramic. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts of up to 10 wt.% into the clayey body. Specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired at 850 and 1050°C. After firing, the microstructure of the ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the incorporation of glass powder into the clayey body changes the microstructure of the ceramics. (author)

  15. Incorporating Speech Recognition into a Natural User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The Augmented/ Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab has been working to study the applicability of recent virtual and augmented reality hardware and software to KSC operations. This includes the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, Microsoft HoloLens, and Unity game engine. My project in this lab is to integrate voice recognition and voice commands into an easy to modify system that can be added to an existing portion of a Natural User Interface (NUI). A NUI is an intuitive and simple to use interface incorporating visual, touch, and speech recognition. The inclusion of speech recognition capability will allow users to perform actions or make inquiries using only their voice. The simplicity of needing only to speak to control an on-screen object or enact some digital action means that any user can quickly become accustomed to using this system. Multiple programs were tested for use in a speech command and recognition system. Sphinx4 translates speech to text using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Language Model, an Acoustic Model, and a word Dictionary running on Java. PocketSphinx had similar functionality to Sphinx4 but instead ran on C. However, neither of these programs were ideal as building a Java or C wrapper slowed performance. The most ideal speech recognition system tested was the Unity Engine Grammar Recognizer. A Context Free Grammar (CFG) structure is written in an XML file to specify the structure of phrases and words that will be recognized by Unity Grammar Recognizer. Using Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (SRGS) 1.0 makes modifying the recognized combinations of words and phrases very simple and quick to do. With SRGS 1.0, semantic information can also be added to the XML file, which allows for even more control over how spoken words and phrases are interpreted by Unity. Additionally, using a CFG with SRGS 1.0 produces a Finite State Machine (FSM) functionality limiting the potential for incorrectly heard words or phrases. The purpose of my project was to

  16. Algorithm for programming function generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper deals with a mathematical problem, encountered when driving a fully programmable μ-processor controlled function generator. An algorithm is presented to approximate a desired function by a set of straight segments in such a way that additional restrictions (hardware imposed) are also satisfied. A computer program which incorporates this algorithm and automatically generates the necessary input for the function generator for a broad class of desired functions is also described

  17. Functional Angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Tewari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angiography underestimates or overestimates lesion severity, but still remains the cornerstone in the decision making for revascularization for an overwhelming majority of interventional cardiologists. Guidelines recommend and endorse non invasive functional evaluation ought to precede revascularization. In real world practice, this is adopted in less than 50% of patients who go on to have some form of revascularization. Fractional flow reserve (FFR is the ratio of maximal blood flow in a stenotic coronary relative to maximal flow in the same vessel, were it normal. Being independent of changes in heart rate, BP or prior infarction; and take into account the contribution of collateral blood flow. It is a majorly specific index with a reasonably high sensitivity (88%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and overall accuracy (93%. Whilst FFR provides objective determination of ischemia and helps select appropriate candidates for revascularization (for both CABG and PCI in to cath lab itself before intervention, whereas intravascular ultrasound/optical coherence tomography guidance in PCI can secure the procedure by optimizing stent expansion. Functional angioplasty simply is incorporating both intravascular ultrasound and FFR into our daily Intervention practices.

  18. Incorporation of IAEA recommendations in the Spanish nuclear emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, D.; Diaz de la Cruz, F.; Murtra, J.; Ruiz del Arbol, E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the way in which the Spanish authorities have incorporated the IAEA recommendations on the planning of action to be taken in the event of a nuclear accident, taking into account the national organization's own approach to the problem of dealing with a radiation emergency. First, the criteria and principles applied in devising the emergency plans are described. The criteria are concerned with the radiation problem as such and the principles take into account the sum total of problems associated with an emergency. Organizational and operational aspects of the plan are then discussed. The extent to which these arrangements are brought into play is determined by the type of abnormal event which occurs in the facility; since the evolution of this event cannot be exactly predicted, there must be enough flexibility in the operational plan so that it can be adapted rapidly and effectively to the circumstances. Another section deals with protection measures as a function of intervention (or reference) levels. Although non-radiological considerations may affect the measures adopted, a knowledge of the risks associated with the various intervention levels gives the authority a better understanding of the situation. The Nuclear Safety Board has had to inform the civil protection authorities of the distances at which specific protection measures should be taken. Considerations and hypotheses are described which, when applied, lead to general evacuation for distances of up to 3 km from the plant, partial evacuation for up to 5 km, containment and prophylactic measures up to 10 km and water and food monitoring up to 30 km. Finally, details are given of the Training and Information Plan which is being applied at present in Spain. (author)

  19. Leach behavior of hydrofracture grout incorporating radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Rates at which Sr, Cs, Pu, and Cm are leached from hydrofracture grout were measured. The fraction of an isotope leached varied with the square root of time if the leachant was replaced more frequently than once per day, but was inhibited or depressed if replacement was made less often. The amount of Sr or Cs leached from the grout varied directly with the degree of drying during curing and inversely with the time of curing. Of the clay additives studied for enhancing cesium retention, Grundite, while satisfactory, was the least effective. In general, the isotope leach rate followed the order: Cs greater than Sr greater than Cm greater than Pu. The amount leached as a function of the leachant varied in the order: distilled water greater than tap water greater than grout water. Concentrating the waste by a factor of up to 4 before grouting had little effect on the leach rate. Comparison with results for other products indicates that the grout can provide leach rates comparable to those for wastes incorporated into borosilicate glass. Theoretical relationships that consider diffusion and instantaneous reaction (an equilibrium or time-dependent relationship between mobile and immobile forms of a species) were in good agreement with the data for the 28-day-cured grout when the leachant was initially replaced twice per day. The credibility of laboratory results with simulated waste was substantiated by a short-term continuous leach test made on a fragment of a core sample of actual hydrofracture grout. The modified effective diffusivities (10 -11 to 10 -10 cm 2 /s, equivalent to a leach rate of the order of 10 -7 g cm -2 day -1 ) for Sr and Cs calculated from these data are comparable to laboratory values. 17 figures, 5 tables

  20. Incorporation of phosphate into glycogen by glycogen synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Christopher J; Segvich, Dyann M; Mahalingan, Krishna; Chikwana, Vimbai M; Kirley, Terence L; Hurley, Thomas D; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    The storage polymer glycogen normally contains small amounts of covalently attached phosphate as phosphomonoesters at C2, C3 and C6 atoms of glucose residues. In the absence of the laforin phosphatase, as in the rare childhood epilepsy Lafora disease, the phosphorylation level is elevated and is associated with abnormal glycogen structure that contributes to the pathology. Laforin therefore likely functions in vivo as a glycogen phosphatase. The mechanism of glycogen phosphorylation is less well-understood. We have reported that glycogen synthase incorporates phosphate into glycogen via a rare side reaction in which glucose-phosphate rather than glucose is transferred to a growing polyglucose chain (Tagliabracci et al. (2011) Cell Metab13, 274-282). We proposed a mechanism to account for phosphorylation at C2 and possibly at C3. Our results have since been challenged (Nitschke et al. (2013) Cell Metab17, 756-767). Here we extend the evidence supporting our conclusion, validating the assay used for the detection of glycogen phosphorylation, measurement of the transfer of (32)P from [β-(32)P]UDP-glucose to glycogen by glycogen synthase. The (32)P associated with the glycogen fraction was stable to ethanol precipitation, SDS-PAGE and gel filtration on Sephadex G50. The (32)P-signal was not affected by inclusion of excess unlabeled UDP before analysis or by treatment with a UDPase, arguing against the signal being due to contaminating [β-(32)P]UDP generated in the reaction. Furthermore, [(32)P]UDP did not bind non-covalently to glycogen. The (32)P associated with glycogen was released by laforin treatment, suggesting that it was present as a phosphomonoester. The conclusion is that glycogen synthase can mediate the introduction of phosphate into glycogen, thereby providing a possible mechanism for C2, and perhaps C3, phosphorylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Arwa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores a novel strategy based on the site-selective incorporation of unnatural, metal binding amino acids into a host protein. The unnatural amino acids can either serve directly as metal binding centers can

  2. Incorporating Political Socialization Theory into Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra Godman

    1996-01-01

    Nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity to meet the future challenges of the health care system. Political socialization theory can assist faculty in adding a political thread to the curriculum. (SK)

  3. Investigating the Incorporation of Personality Constructs into IMPRINT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickason, David; Sargent, Bob; Bagnall, Tim

    2009-01-01

    ... in the Army, for use in Navy ship acquisitions. The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to incorporate non-cognitive attributes such as stress tolerance into IMPRINT for use as human performance moderators...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this part. Only... Administration (OSHA), or at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room...

  5. Incorporating direct marketing activity into latent attrition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George

    2013-01-01

    When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition,

  6. Incorporation of Consumer Products in the Teaching of Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes eight experiments involving the use of common consumer products that could be incorporated into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories. Discusses these activities in terms of illustration of principles, awareness, and critical thinking. (CW)

  7. 30 CFR 77.403-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.403-2 Incorporation by reference. In accordance with 5 U..., Engineering and Research Center, Denver, Colorado. SAE documents are available from the Society of Automotive...

  8. Incorporating modern OpenGL into computer graphics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Guido; Muller, Thomas; Ertl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    University of Stuttgart educators have updated three computer science courses to incorporate forward-compatible OpenGL. To help students, they developed an educational framework that abstracts some of modern OpenGL's difficult aspects.

  9. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Bilal; Ahmad, Sultan; Parwaz, M.; Rahul, Khan, Zishan H.

    2018-05-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of pure and Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires. These nanowires are synthesized using thermal vapor transport method. The luminescence intensity of Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires are recorded to be higher than that of pure Alq3 nanowires, which is found to increase with the increase in Au concentration. Fluorescence quenching is also observed when Au concentration is increased beyond the certain limit.

  11. Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    polymerizations and main-chain supramolecular polymers . Macromolecules. 2009;42:6823–6835. 17. Wojtecki RJ, Meador MA, Rowan SJ. Using the dynamic bond...ARL-TR-7687 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer by...Laboratory Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer by Alice M Savage Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education

  12. Context incorporation using context-aware language features

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachostergiou, Aggeliki; Marandianos, George; Kollias, Stefanos

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of context incorporation into human language systems and particular in Sentiment Analysis (SA) systems. So far, the analysis of how different features, when incorporated into such systems, improve their performance, has been discussed in a number of studies. However, a complete picture of their effectiveness remains unexplored. With this work, we attempt to extend the pool of the context - aware language features at the sentence level and to provide the ...

  13. Conceptualising how SMEs incorporate green content in their websites

    OpenAIRE

    Craig M. Parker; Emilia Bellucci; Luba Torlina; Ambika Zutshi; Bardo Fraunholz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework on how Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) can proactively incorporate content relating to their ecological responsibility (or green) activities in their websites. SME studies offer limited guidance on, and conceptualisation of, how organisations can incorporate different types of content into their website designs. This paper addresses this problem by presenting the results of an exploratory, qualitative content analysis of Australian SME websites where emerge...

  14. In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle models incorporating electromechanical coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail eAdeniran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarisation, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favourable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle models to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and results: The Rice et al. mechanical model was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell model. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were incorporated. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch activated channel current (Isac. Without Isac, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was incorporated, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell models were then incorporated into 3D human ventricular tissue models. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The incorporation of Isac appears to be an important consideration in modelling functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole.

  15. Dopant Adsorption and Incorporation at Irradiated GaN Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, Thomas; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-03-01

    Mg and O are two of the common dopants in GaN, but, in spite of extensive investigation, the atomic scale understanding of their adsorption and incorporation is still incomplete. In particular, high-energy electron irradiation, such as occurring during RHEED, has been reported to have an important effect on the incorporation of these impurities, but no study has addressed the detailed mechanisms of this effect yet. Here we use DFT calculations to study the adsorption and incorporation of Mg and O at the Ga- and N-polar GaN surfaces under various Ga, Mg and O coverage conditions as well as in presence of light or electron beam-induced electronic excitation. We find that the adsorption and incorporation of the two impurities have opposite surface polarity dependence: substitutional Mg prefers to incorporate at the GaN(0001) surface, while O prefers to adsorb and incorporate at the N-polar surface. In addition, our results indicate that in presence of light irradiation the tendency of Mg to surface-segregate is reduced. The O adsorption energy on the N-polar surface is also significantly reduced, consistent with the experimental observation of a much smaller concentration of oxygen in the irradiated samples.

  16. Sleep problems and functional disability in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders: An examination of the potential mediating effects of physical and emotional symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurman Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1 to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2 to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population. Methods Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms. Results Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical

  17. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing acc...

  18. Inter-relationships between light and respiration in the control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Yu, Jianping; Gómez, Facundo; Fernández, Laura; McIntosh, Lee; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-01-01

    The effects of growth irradiance and respiration on ascorbic acid (AA) synthesis and accumulation were studied in the leaves of wild-type and transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with modified amounts of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein. Plants were grown under low (LL; 50 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), intermediate (IL; 100 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), or high (HL; 250 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) light. Increasing growth irradiance progressively elevated leaf AA content and hence the values of dark-induced disappearance of leaf AA, which were 11, 55, and 89 nmol AA lost g(-1) fresh weight h(-1), from LL-, IL-, and HL-grown leaves, respectively. When HL leaves were supplied with L-galactone-1,4-lactone (L-GalL; the precursor of AA), they accumulated twice as much AA and had double the maximal L-galactone-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (L-GalLDH) activities of LL leaves. Growth under HL enhanced dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. Leaf respiration rates were highest in the HL leaves, which also had higher amounts of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activities, as well as enhanced capacity of the AOX and CCO electron transport pathways. Leaves of the AOX-overexpressing lines accumulated more AA than wild-type or antisense leaves, particularly at HL. Intact mitochondria from AOX-overexpressing lines had higher AA synthesis capacities than those from the wild-type or antisense lines even though they had similar L-GalLDH activities. AOX antisense lines had more cytochrome c protein than wild-type or AOX-overexpressing lines. It is concluded that regardless of limitations on L-GalL synthesis by regulation of early steps in the AA synthesis pathway, the regulation of L-GalLDH activity via the interaction of light and respiratory controls is a crucial determinant of the overall ability of leaves to produce and accumulate AA.

  19. Semen quality parameters, their inter-relationship and post-washing sperm attributes of Rhode Island Red roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Richard Churchil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiments were conducted (a to evaluate the semen attributes of older Rhode Island Red (RIR roosters and the inter-trait relationships, (b to test sperm washing and storage duration suitable for gene transfer experiments. Materials and Methods: The semen characteristics of older RIR roosters were studied, and Pearson correlation analysis was done to demonstrate the inter-trait relationships. Progressive motility and percent live sperms were tested at different post-washing intervals to identify suitable sperm processing conditions for gene transfer experiments. Results: The volume, appearance score, initial motility, sperm count and percent live and abnormal spermatozoa were 0.38 ml, 3.58, 80.34%, 4.03 × 109 sperms/ml, 83.18% and 4.52% respectively. Positive correlation was observed among appearance score, motility, live sperm and sperm count. Semen volume is negatively correlated with all the other characters except live sperms, whereas, percent abnormal sperms negatively associated with all the other traits. Significant (p<0.05 decrease in terms of motility and live sperm was recorded at 60 min post-washing. Conclusion: The semen attributes of RIR roosters compares well with the other breeds of chicken. The appearance score can be used to assess fertility where microscopic evaluation facilities are limited. The sperm washing protocol tested in the experiment is suitable for gene transfer experiments.

  20. An Investigation into the Inter-relationship among Work, Family and Part-time Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Humphry; Mondejar, Reuben

    2001-01-01

    A study of 459 part-time graduate and undergraduate students with full-time jobs in Hong Kong found that support of employers and families had a significant relationship with perceived job performance and satisfaction with family and work life. Academic performance was not significantly correlated with perceived employer and family support.…

  1. The inter-relationship between work-life balance and organisational culture: an empirical study of Nigerian health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin, A

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the work-life balance and organisational culture of medical doctors and nurses in Nigeria. There has been an overwhelming majority of work-life balance studies undertaken in Western countries. This leaves Africa, most notably Nigeria, an understudied area of investigations. In order to achieve this objective, this study applie...

  2. Exploring the inter-relationship of smoking age-at-onset, cigarette consumption and smoking persistence: genes or environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Katherine I; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Treloar, Susan A; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to covariation between smoking age-at-onset, cigarette consumption and smoking persistence. Multivariate biometrical modelling methods were applied to questionnaire data from Australian twins and their siblings (14 472 individuals from 6247 families). The contributions of genetic and environmental factors to covariation between the three traits were estimated, allowing for sex differences in both trait prevalence and the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects. All traits were moderately heritable in males and females (estimates between 0.40 and 0.62), but there were sex differences in the extent to which additive genetic influences were shared across traits. Twin-specific environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in smoking age-at-onset in females (0.19) and males (0.12), but had little influence (smoking age-at-onset (0.17 for females, 0.19 for males), but a stronger influence on other traits (between 0.39 and 0.49). These results provide some insight into observed sex differences in smoking behaviour, and suggest that searching for pleiotropic genes may prove fruitful. However, further work on phenotypic definitions of smoking behaviour, particularly persistence, is warranted.

  3. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone-M, magnesium and calcium and their inter-relationship in patients with acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qi; Zhou Li; Lu Yuanhan; Wang Yan; Wang Yan; Liu Huarong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum parathyroid hormone-M, magnesium, and calcium levels and their interrelationships in patients with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: Serum level of PTH-M was measured by means of radioimmunoassay, serum magnesium and calcium levels were determines with automatic biochemical analytical apparatus. Results: 1) Serum levels of PTH-M in acute period and daring recovery in patients with MAP and SAP were not significant different from those in controls (p > 0.05); serum levels of magnesium and calcium in cute period of patients with SAP were significantly lower than those in controls (p<0.01); 2) There was a linear positive correlation between serum levels of PTH-M and serum magnesium in acute-phase of SAP patients, correlation coefficient r = 0.413 (p<0.05). Conclusion: That presence of hypocalcemia in patients with severe acute pancreatitis did not lead to parathyroid hormone-M responsive rise, that might be due to the presence of hypomagnesemia

  4. Understanding the inter-relationship between improved glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and weight change within a long-term economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, P; Evans, M; Kan, H; Bergenheim, K

    2010-05-01

    Current guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes advocate the attainment of sustained near normal glycaemia levels. Metformin is widely accepted as the treatment of choice for the initiation of pharmacotherapy; however, secondary failure of oral monotherapy occurs in 60% of patients resulting in the need for multiple pharmacotherapies. Therapy-related consequences of treatment, such as weight gain and hypoglycaemia impact on the cost-effectiveness profile of various agents. We therefore sought to ascertain the respective contribution of hypoglycaemia, weight change and improved blood glucose control on second-line therapy options added to metformin. This study uses a simulation model designed to evaluate the cost utility of new therapies in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Standard model outputs include incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications and diabetes-specific and all-cause mortality. The mean discounted quality-adjusted life year (QALY) predicted by the model was 12.31 years. Reducing Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) by 1% gave a predicted gain of 0.413 QALYs per patient. A 3-kg weight loss and 30% reduction in hypoglycaemia frequency produced a combined QALY gain of 0.355, whereas the reverse gave a QALY decrement of 0.356. The results of this analysis quantify the QALY decrement that may result from adverse therapy effects. The beneficial effects of improved glycaemic control on QALYs may be offset by characteristic treatment-specific adverse effects, such as weight gain and hypoglycaemia frequency.

  5. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S

    2012-01-01

    India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  6. Study on the inter-relationship between serum cytokines levels and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongchun; Xie Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role played by serum cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 27 diabetic patients without complications, 18 patients with early nephro or retinopathy and 33 controls. Results: (1) Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly higher in the diabetic patients than those in controls (P<0.01). (2) Levels of the cytokines in diabetic patients with early complications were significantly higher than those in patients without complications (P<0.02). (3) The serum levels of these cytokines were mutually positively correlated. Conclusion: The cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α participated in the development and pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and monitoring their plasma level changes would be clinically useful. (authors)

  7. Seasonal inter-relationships in atmospheric methane and companion delta13C values: effects of sinks and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K. R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E. (NIWA, Wellington (New Zealand)), e-mail: k.lassey@niwa.co.nz; Allan, W. (Allan Planning and Research Ltd., Petone (New Zealand))

    2011-07-15

    Recent developments in applying carbon-isotope information to better understand regional and global methane budgets infer a strong role by a highly fractionating seasonal sink such as atomic chlorine. Specifically, OH as the predominant seasonal sink cannot account for the 'phase ellipses' based on observed seasonal cycles of methane mixing ratio and isotope ratio, delta13C. Although a strong role by atomic chlorine is inferred empirically, open questions remain about the interplay between sources and sinks in determining the properties of phase ellipses. This paper employs a simple didactic model of the seasonal cycling of atmospheric methane to understand such interplay. We demonstrate that a single seasonal sink and seasonal source act together to imprint anti-phase seasonalities on atmospheric methane and delta13C, which lead to phase ellipses that collapse onto a straight line with slope characteristic of that sink. This explains empirical findings of these anti-phase relationships in three-dimensional modelling studies. We also demonstrate that multiple seasonal sinks acting with a seasonal source can yield surprising properties for the phase ellipse that not only explain some features of phase ellipses reported in modelling studies but also have the potential to explain marked inter-annual variation in phase ellipses based on observation

  8. The Teaching and Learning of Foreign Languages in Spain from the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Influences and Inter-Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Suso

    2018-01-01

    This study of the learning of foreign languages in Spain between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries sets out to demonstrate the importance of situating research on any given era in a pan-European plurilingual context. A brief historiographical overview is followed by a discussion of language teaching materials and methods from a sociocultural…

  9. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between…

  10. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  11. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svetlichnyy, V.; Müller, P.; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols...... containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids....... The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18...

  12. Incorporation of Uranium into Hematite during Crystallization from Ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ferrihydrite was exposed to U(VI)-containing cement leachate (pH 10.5) and aged to induce crystallization of hematite. A combination of chemical extractions, TEM, and XAS techniques provided the first evidence that adsorbed U(VI) (≈3000 ppm) was incorporated into hematite during ferrihydrite aggregation and the early stages of crystallization, with continued uptake occurring during hematite ripening. Analysis of EXAFS and XANES data indicated that the U(VI) was incorporated into a distorted, octahedrally coordinated site replacing Fe(III). Fitting of the EXAFS showed the uranyl bonds lengthened from 1.81 to 1.87 Å, in contrast to previous studies that have suggested that the uranyl bond is lost altogether upon incorporation into hematite. The results of this study both provide a new mechanistic understanding of uranium incorporation into hematite and define the nature of the bonding environment of uranium within the mineral structure. Immobilization of U(VI) by incorporation into hematite has clear and important implications for limiting uranium migration in natural and engineered environments. PMID:24580024

  13. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, I; Ivanko, S [Vysoka Skola Polnohospodarska, Nitra (Czechoslovakia)

    1976-01-01

    /sup 32/P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of /sup 32/P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of /sup 32/P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The /sup 32/P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time.

  14. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  15. Monitoring the Orientational Changes of Alamethicin during Incorporation into Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrig, Enrico; Staffa, Jana K; Salewski, Johannes; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Hildebrandt, Peter; Kozuch, Jacek

    2018-02-13

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the first line of defense after contact of an infectious invader, for example, bacterium or virus, with a host and an integral part of the innate immune system of humans. Their broad spectrum of biological functions ranges from cell membrane disruption over facilitation of chemotaxis to interaction with membrane-bound or intracellular receptors, thus providing novel strategies to overcome bacterial resistances. Especially, the clarification of the mechanisms and dynamics of AMP incorporation into bacterial membranes is of high interest, and different mechanistic models are still under discussion. In this work, we studied the incorporation of the peptaibol alamethicin (ALM) into tethered bilayer lipid membranes on electrodes in combination with surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy. This approach allows monitoring the spontaneous and potential-induced ion channel formation of ALM in situ. The complex incorporation kinetics revealed a multistep mechanism that points to peptide-peptide interactions prior to penetrating the membrane and adopting the transmembrane configuration. On the basis of the anisotropy of the backbone amide I and II infrared absorptions determined by density functional theory calculations, we employed a mathematical model to evaluate ALM reorientations monitored by SEIRA spectroscopy. Accordingly, ALM was found to adopt inclination angles of ca. 69°-78° and 21° in its interfacially adsorbed and transmembrane incorporated states, respectively. These orientations can be stabilized efficiently by the dipolar interaction with lipid head groups or by the application of a potential gradient. The presented potential-controlled mechanistic study suggests an N-terminal integration of ALM into membranes as monomers or parallel oligomers to form ion channels composed of parallel-oriented helices, whereas antiparallel oligomers are barred from intrusion.

  16. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  17. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  18. Incorporation of carbohydrate residues into peroxidase isoenzymes in horseradish roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, J Y; Shannon, L M

    1973-11-01

    Sliced root tissue of the horseradish plant (Armoracia rusticana), when incubated with mannose-U-(14)C, incorporated radioactivity into peroxidase isoenzymes. Over 90% of the radioactivity in the highly purified peroxidase isoenzymes was present in the neutral sugar residues of the molecule, i.e. fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose. When the root slices were incubated simultaneously with leucine-4,5-(3)H and mannose-U-(14)C, cycloheximide strongly inhibited leucine incorporation into the peptide portion of peroxidase isoenzymes but had little effect on the incorporation of (14)C into the neutral sugars. These results indicated that synthesis of the peptide portion of peroxidase was completed before the monosaccharide residues were attached to the molecule. This temporal relationship between the synthesis of protein and the attachment of carbohydrate residues in the plant glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, appears to be similar to that reported for glycoprotein biosynthesis in many mammalian systems.

  19. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  20. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Repo, Susanna T; Brenner, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called 'phylogenomics') is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  1. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: chemist@126.com, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [Northeast Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-11-15

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m{sup 3} cm/m{sup 2} h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.Graphical abstractNi-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation and gas permseparation.

  2. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  3. Incorporating political socialization theory into baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S G

    1996-01-01

    Political socialization theory explains how an individual develops a political belief system. As the health care system undergoes dramatic changes, nursing faculty should use political socialization theory to enhance the education of student nurses. A political thread can be woven through the nursing curricula, and students can be socialized to the political role. The new generation of nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity. Political socialization theory can guide nursing faculty as knowledge of the political system and political skills are incorporated into nursing curricula.

  4. Biochemical properties of Hemigraphis alternata incorporated chitosan hydrogel scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapoorna, M; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Lakshman, Lakshmi R; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-02-15

    In this work, Hemigraphis alternata extract incorporated chitosan scaffold was synthesized and characterized for wound healing. The antibacterial activity of Hemigraphis incorporated chitosan scaffold (HIC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated which showed a reduction in total colony forming units by 45-folds toward E. coli and 25-fold against S. aureus respectively. Cell viability studies using Human Dermal Fibroblast cells (HDF) showed 90% viability even at 48 h when compared to the chitosan control. The herbal scaffold made from chitosan was highly haemostatic and antibacterial. The obtained results were in support that the herbal scaffold can be effectively applied for infectious wounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. True dose from incorporated activities. Models for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Eschner, W.; Nosske, D.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of doses after incorporation of radionuclides cannot use direct measurements of the doses, as for example dosimetry in external radiation fields. The only observables are activities in the body or in excretions. Models are used to calculate the doses based on the measured activities. The incorporated activities and the resulting doses can vary by more than seven orders of magnitude between occupational and medical exposures. Nevertheless the models and calculations applied in both cases are similar. Since the models for the different applications have been developed independently by ICRP and MIRD different terminologies have been used. A unified terminology is being developed. (orig.)

  6. A Market for Company Incorporations in the European Union?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)......The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)...

  7. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  8. Physicochemical properties of prepared ion-exchangers from cellulose incorporated with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; Adel, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bagasse raw material and bleached bagasse pulp was used to prepare carbamoyl ethyl and Carboxylated cellulose ion exchangers. The effect of presence of lignin in the bagasse on the properties of the produced resin was estimated. The effect of crosslinking on the properties of the carbamoyl ethyl and carboxyl cellulose was investigated. The molecular structure of the produced resin is followed by using infrared spectroscopy. A new bands was seen at wavenumber 2152 cm-1 and a shoulder at 3140 cm-1 which are characteristic to the cyano group in cyanoethylated cellulose and to amino group in the carbamoyl ethyl cellulose. Also, a band was formed at 1715 cm-1 which formed by hydrolysis of cyanoethyl or carbamoyl ethyl cellulose and was characteristic to carboxyl group. A thermal gravimetric of the produced resin was investigated. The cyano group and carbamoyl group increases the resistance of cellulose toward thermal treatment. The efficiency of the produced resin toward metal ion uptake (Cu, Ni and Cr) from solution was studied

  9. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild

    2004-01-01

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes

  10. An Ugi Reaction Incorporating a Redox-Neutral Amine C-H Functionalization Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengbo; Seidel, Daniel

    2016-02-19

    Pyrrolidine and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) undergo redox-neutral α-amidation with concurrent N-alkylation upon reaction with aromatic aldehydes and isocyanides. Reactions are promoted by acetic acid and represent a new variant of the Ugi reaction.

  11. Incorporating functional requirements into the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiu, F.J.; Ng, C.K.; Almuti, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vitrification Building-type structures have unique features and design needs. The structural design requires new concepts and custom detailing. The above special structural designs have demonstrated the importance of the five design considerations listed in the introduction. Innovative ideas and close coordination are required to achieve the design objectives. Many of these innovations have been applied to the DWPF facility which is a first of a kind

  12. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  13. Assembly of functional photosystem complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporating carotenoids from the spirilloxanthin pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuang C.; Mothersole, David J.; Dilbeck, Preston; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Pu; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Grayson, Katie J.; Jackson, Philip J.; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Li, Ying; Holten, Dewey; Neil Hunter, C.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon–carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N = 10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2′-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry. Premature termination of this new pathway by inactivating crtC or crtD produced strains with lycopene or rhodopin as major carotenoids. All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC–LH1–PufX complexes. The efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer for 2,2′-diketo-spirilloxanthin (15 conjugated C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 C bonds; N = 15) in LH2 complexes is low, at 35%. High energy transfer efficiencies were obtained for neurosporene (N = 9; 94%), spheroidene (N = 10; 96%) and spheroidenone (N = 11; 95%), whereas intermediate values were measured for lycopene (N = 11; 64%), rhodopin (N = 11; 62%) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13; 39%). The variety and stability of these novel Rba. sphaeroides antenna complexes make them useful experimental models for investigating the energy transfer dynamics of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis. PMID:25449968

  14. A data-driven model for influenza transmission incorporating media effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Ross, Joshua V

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to model the effect of mass media on the transmission of diseases such as influenza; however, quantitative data on media engagement has until recently been difficult to obtain. With the recent explosion of 'big data' coming from online social media and the like, large volumes of data on a population's engagement with mass media during an epidemic are becoming available to researchers. In this study, we combine an online dataset comprising millions of shared messages relating to influenza with traditional surveillance data on flu activity to suggest a functional form for the relationship between the two. Using this data, we present a simple deterministic model for influenza dynamics incorporating media effects, and show that such a model helps explain the dynamics of historical influenza outbreaks. Furthermore, through model selection we show that the proposed media function fits historical data better than other media functions proposed in earlier studies.

  15. 40 CFR 432.5 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 432.5 Incorporation by reference. (a... Federal Register. The material is available for purchase at the address in paragraph (b) of this section..., Washington, DC. (b) The following material is available for purchase from the National Technical Information...

  16. Incorporating behavioral techniques into a serious video game for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how to design serious video games for children. The purpose of this paper is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious video game to help children consume more fruit and vegetables, and the extent to which these techn...

  17. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  18. Preparing Preservice Teachers to Incorporate Geospatial Technologies in Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of geospatial technology (GT) learning experiences in two geography curriculum courses to determine their effectiveness for developing preservice teacher confidence and preparing preservice teachers to incorporate GT in their teaching practices. Surveys were used to collect data from preservice teachers at three…

  19. In vitro incorporation of the phage Phi29 connector complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chiyu; Prevelige, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of the DNA packaging connector complex during lambdoid phage assembly in vivo is strictly controlled-one and only one of the twelve identical icosahedral vertices is differentiated by the inclusion of a portal or connector dodecamer. Proposed control mechanisms include obligate nucleation from a connector containing complex, addition of the connector as the final step during assembly, and a connector-mediated increase in the growth rate. The inability to recapitulate connector incorporation in vitro has made it difficult to obtain direct biochemical evidence in support of one model over another. Here we report the development an in vitro assembly system for the well characterized dsDNA phage Phi29 which results in the co-assembly of connector with capsid and scaffolding proteins to form procapsid-like particles (PLPs). Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrates the specific incorporation of connector vertex in PLPs. The connector protein increases both the yield and the rate of capsid assembly suggesting that the incorporation of the connector in Phi29 likely promotes nucleation of assembly.

  20. Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…

  1. Incorporating Contaminant Bioavailability into Sediment Quality Assessment Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the State of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence(LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemis...

  2. 76 FR 50414 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... of providing affordable, universal mail service. It continues to: (1) increase the user's ability to find information; (2) increase the users' confidence that they have found the information they need...] Internet site at http://pe.usps.com . List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations; Incorporation...

  3. Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

  4. Incorporating Learning Outcomes into an Introductory Geotechnical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding…

  5. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  6. Efficient Incorporation of Markov Random Fields in Change Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2009-01-01

    of noise, implying that the pixel-wise classifier is also noisy. There is thus a need for incorporating local homogeneity constraints into such a change detection framework. For this modelling task Markov Random Fields are suitable. Markov Random Fields have, however, previously been plagued by lack...

  7. Nanofibers extraction from palm mesocarp fiber for biodegradable polymers incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuana, Vanessa A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa B.; Takahashi, Marcio C.; Campos, Adriana de; Sena Neto, Alfredo R.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Marconcini, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The palm mesocarp fibers are residues produced by the palm oil industries. The objective of this paper is to determine an efficient treatment to extract crystal cellulose nanofibers from the palm mesocarp fibers to be incorporated in biodegradable polymeric composites. The fibers were saponified, bleached and analyzed with thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  8. Forgiveness in Criminal Law through Incorporating Restorative Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph, the author argues for the integration of the concept of forgiveness into criminal law through incorporating restorative justice practices such as victim-offender mediation. Although forgiveness is not a purpose in itself nor can it be enforced, criminal law should provide room for

  9. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 433.3 Section 433.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND...) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations...

  10. 49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 393.104(e). (20) Recommended Standard Specification for Synthetic Web Tiedowns, Web Sling and Tiedown..., 2nd Edition, Wire Rope Technical Board November 1985, incorporation by reference approved for § 393... Composite Rope Specifications, Three-Strand and Eight-Strand Standard Construction, May 1979; (iv) NRS-1...

  11. Incorporating risk in the economic evaluation of road infrastructure projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available credibility to the process and ensure strategic decisions that are more defendable. In this study, a prosedure for incorporating risk is suggested. It involves the identification of inputs critical to the economic success of the project, the quantification...

  12. Incorporating Published Autobiographies into the Abnormal Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C.; Sommer, Robert; Clifford, Jennifer S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores six methods for incorporating into courses published autobiographies written by individuals suffering from mental disorders: (1) outside readings; (2) examples for classroom lectures; (3) primary texts for discussion sections; (4) remedial or extra-credit assignments; (5) information resources; and (6) source books for topical seminars.…

  13. Coumarin incorporated triazoles: a new class of anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mashooq A; Al-Omar, Mohammed A

    2011-01-01

    A series of coumarin incorporated 1,2,4- triazole compounds (1-14) were evaluated for their possible anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties, log P values, pharmacophoric mapping and three dimensional structure analysis. Compound (6) with para-fluoro substitution showed significant anticonvulsant activity.

  14. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  15. 33 CFR 96.130 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (ISM) Code by Administrations, November 23, 1995—96.320, 96.440 Resolution A.739(18), Guidelines for.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) The material approved for incorporation by...), International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, November 4, 1993—96...

  16. The incorporation of gender perspective into Spanish health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Izabella; Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta

    2007-12-01

    Most studies into social determinants of health conducted in Spain based on data from health surveys have focused on social class inequalities. This paper aims to review the progressive incorporation of gender perspective and sex differences into health surveys in Spain, and to suggest design, data collection and analytical proposals as well as to make policy proposals. Changes introduced into health surveys in Spain since 1995 to incorporate gender perspective are examined, and proposals for the future are made, which would permit the analysis of differences in health between women and men as a result of biology or because of gender inequalities. The introduction of gender perspective in health surveys requires the incorporation of questions related to family setting and reproductive work, workplace and society in general to detect gender differences and inequalities (for example, domestic work, intimate partner violence, discrimination, contract type or working hours). Health indicators reflecting differential morbidity and taking into account the different life cycle stages must also be incorporated. Analyses ought to be disaggregated by sex and interpretation of results must consider the complex theoretical frameworks explaining the differences in health between men and women based on sex differences and those related to gender. Analysis of survey data ought to consider the impact of social, political and cultural constructs of each society. Any significant modification in procedures for collection of data relevant to the study of gender will require systematic coordination between institutions generating the data and researchers who are trained in and sensitive to the topic.

  17. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-1297 “Peer Review for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories... Characterization of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories” (excluding section 2.1 (b) and (c)); IBR approved for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publications incorporated by reference...

  18. INCORPORATING GOOD LAND GOVERNANCE IN THE DISASTER REGION OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land is one of the most major capitals in our life. Without it, sustainability of human existence is very impossible. Unfortunately, land problems in Indonesia have unique challenges compared to other countries. Many of kinds of challenges are in the form of the natural disasters. This paper is going to measure how well the principles of good governance has been incorporated in the Yogyakarta Special Region Land administration System generally by studying on the Merapi Disaster Mitigation, particularly in how  land planning for the Merapi Disaster’s victims is performed. The research methodology employs a combined research method, it means that fundamental principles in process and its output of both the doctrinal and non doctrinal approaches is synergized to based on the research’s activity unites. Configuration of  the land administration systems in achieving people prosperity has been affected by evolution of political, cultural, and legal awareness of local communities and central government policy. To conclude, incorporating a disaster response based land policy principles requires an integrated law and policy making system among parties through the implementation of good governance principle in the record of public participation voices and sustainable development interests. Notable reports illustrate that the good land governance incorporation encouraged and inspired land planning system to be more efficient and effective. Particularly in the natural disaster mitigation and reconstruction, incorporating good land governance principles furthermore encourages land policy makers to achieve the responsive land management in line with social demands and sustainable development programs.

  19. POF based glucose sensor incorporating grating wavelength filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Aasmul, Søren; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AND RESEARCH IN POLYMER OPTICAL DEVICES; TRIPOD. Within the domain of TRIPOD, research is conducted on "Plastic Optical Fiber based Glucose Sensors Incorporating Grating Wavelength Filters". Research will be focused to optimized fiber tips for better coupling efficiency, reducing the response time of sensor...

  20. Incorporating a priori knowledge into initialized weights for neural classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhe; Feng, T.J.; Feng, Tian-Jin; Houkes, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), especially, multilayer perceptrons (MLP) have been widely used in pattern recognition and classification. Nevertheless, how to incorporate a priori knowledge in the design of ANNs is still an open problem. The paper tries to give some insight on this topic

  1. The necessity of incorporating gynaecological tests in antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presenting with cervical cancer despite relatively high. CD4 counts. Discussion. These cases demonstrate the importance and necessity of incorporating simple gynaecological tests and consultations as part of routine examination of HIV- infected women attending care settings. The majority of cervical cancer cases can be ...

  2. Incorporation of Ba in Al and Fe pollucite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Eric R., E-mail: erv@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Gregg, Daniel J.; Griffiths, Grant J. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Gaugliardo, Paul R. [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Grant, Charmaine [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Ba, the transmutation product of radioactive Cs, can be incorporated at levels of up to ∼0.07 formula units in Cs{sub (1−2x)}Ba{sub x}AlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} aluminium pollucite formed by sol-gel methods and sintering at 1400 °C, with more Ba forming BaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} phases. The effect of Ba substitution in pollucite-structured CsFeSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} was also studied and no evidence of Ba substitution in the pollucite structure via cation vacancies or Fe{sup 2+} formation was obtained. The Ba entered a Fe-silicate glass structure. Charge compensation was also attempted with a Cs{sup +} + Fe{sup 3+} ↔ Ba{sup 2+} + Ni{sup 2+} scheme but again the Ba formed a glass and NiO was evident. PCT leaching data showed CsFeSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} to be very leach resistant. - Highlights: • Barium can be incorporated into aluminium pollucite. • Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy supports a charge vacancy mechanism of incorporation. • Iron pollucite does not appear to incorporate any barium with either vacancy or charge compensation mechanisms. • Leaching data suggest iron pollucite is very leach resistant.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2013 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL... incorporated materials are available for inspection in the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... referenced material 49 CFR Reference A. American Gas Association (AGA): (1) “Purging Principles and Practices...

  4. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  5. Virtual LEGOs: Incorporating Minecraft into the Art Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra; Jones, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    What could video games bring to a K-12 visual arts curriculum? Overby and Jones were skeptical about incorporating gaming and virtual worlds into the classroom, but watching their own children engaging in the video game Minecraft changed their perception. As they started researching the game and how these kids were operating within the space, they…

  6. GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing microtubules modulates polymer stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiron, Odile; Arnal, Isabelle; Caudron, Nicolas; Job, Didier

    2010-06-04

    Microtubule growth proceeds through the endwise addition of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers. The microtubule wall is composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, which are thought to come exclusively from the incorporation of GTP-tubulin complexes at microtubule ends followed by GTP hydrolysis within the polymer. The possibility of a direct GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing polymers is regarded as hardly compatible with recent structural data. Here, we have examined GTP-tubulin and GDP-tubulin incorporation into polymerizing microtubules using a minimal assembly system comprised of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers, in the absence of free nucleotide. We find that GDP-tubulin complexes can efficiently co-polymerize with GTP-tubulin complexes during microtubule assembly. GDP-tubulin incorporation into microtubules occurs with similar efficiency during bulk microtubule assembly as during microtubule growth from seeds or centrosomes. Microtubules formed from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures display altered microtubule dynamics, in particular a decreased shrinkage rate, apparently due to intrinsic modifications of the polymer disassembly properties. Thus, although microtubules polymerized from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures or from homogeneous GTP-tubulin solutions are both composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, they have different dynamic properties, and this may reveal a novel form of microtubule "structural plasticity."

  7. The Legal Duty to Incorporate Mistakes of the Victim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In many jurisdictions, potential injurers are under a legal duty to incorporate possible mistakes of the potential victim. I distinguish three types of mistakes. First, victims might make mistakes because it is too costly to avoid them (e.g. little children in traffic). Second,

  8. How Do You Incorporate History into the English Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkassabany, Amani; Johnston, Christine B.; Lucas, Tina; Conway, Jane; Lyle, Robin; Budd, Jonathan S.; Rice, Anne M.; Smith, Maria Cassano; Tensen, Tracy Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Presents brief descriptions from 8 middle and high school teachers of various ways they have successfully incorporated history into the English curriculum, including using historical fiction; doing prior research; using interdisciplinary projects coordinated with the history teacher; a women's suffrage unit; linking world literature with classes…

  9. Incorporating solar home system for smart grid application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alipuria, B.; Asare-Bediako, B.; Groot, de R.J.W.; Sarker, M.J.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Smart Grids have been one of the prime focuses of studies for the past few years on power systems. The goal is to make the power infrastructure more reliable and effective to cater for the needs of the future. Another goal for improving the power infrastructure is to incorporate renewable energy

  10. Incorporating business process management into RFID-enabled application systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The emergence of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology promises enormous opportunities to shift business process automation up to the wire level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the methodology of incorporating business logics into RFID edge systems, and thereby

  11. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  12. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  13. 78 FR 27005 - Airworthiness Directives; Revo, Incorporated Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    .... That AD currently requires a one-time, dye-penetrant inspection of the horizontal stabilizer attachment... from Revo, Incorporated that, while the drawing numbers are different, the attachment fittings on the... FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust St., Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the...

  14. 49 CFR 572.160 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.160 Incorporation by reference. (a) The following... package entitled “Parts List and Drawings, Part 572 Subpart S, Hybrid III Weighted Six-Year Old Child Test... part of a complete dummy assembly; (iii) Drawing No. 167-2020 Revision A, dated December 8, 2005, Spine...

  15. The effects of Mg incorporation and annealing temperature on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 88; Issue 2. The effects of Mg incorporation and annealing temperature on the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity against {\\it Listeria monocytogenes} of ZnO nanoparticles. NIMA SHADAN ALI ABDOLAHZADEH ZIABARI RAFIEH MERAAT KAMYAR ...

  16. Crafting user experiences by incorporating dramaturgical techniques of storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atasoy, B.; Martens, J.B.O.S.

    2011-01-01

    Design is changing into an experience-oriented discipline and therefore designers need appropriate tools and methods to incorporate experiential aspects into their designs. We argue that the creative skills required of designers are starting to overlap with those required of professional

  17. Incorporation of Certain Hydrophobic Excipients in the Core of Melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    incorporation of hydrophobic materials (talc or magnesium stearate) in the core of such granules may further retard .... (500mg) was filled into a capsule shell and ... of the drug particles. The effect of melt granulation on the release profiles of paracetamol is shown in Fig 1. The melt granulations displayed a retarded release.

  18. IN SITU AND POST REACTION COBALT-INCORPORATION INTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy show that the surfactant is removed by solvent extraction. Cobalt ion incorporation is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. KEY WORDS: Bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica, 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane, ...

  19. Incorporating Sustainability Issues into the Financial Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Daniel L.; Burke, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the views that society holds of capital allocation suggest that sustainability reporting needs to be incorporated into the financial accounting curriculum. This paper reviews the background and history of corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting and discusses formation of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board…

  20. Incorporation of nanoparticles within mammalian spermatozoa using in vitro capacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is still much unknown about the journey of spermatozoa within the female genital tract. Recent studies have investigated mammalian spermatozoa labeling with fluorescent quantum dot nanoparticles (QD) for non-invasive imaging. Furthermore, the incorporation of these QD within the spermatozoa ma...

  1. Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of molybdenum to nano level ... Keywords. Polyoxometalate; green synthesis; nanostructures; surfactant. ... The effects of reaction parameters such as concentration of surfactant, temperature and pH of solution on the synthesis of nanospheres were investigated.

  2. Incorporating human aspects in ambient intelligence and smart environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Klein, M.C.A.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we propose to outline the scientific area that addresses Ambient Intelligence applications in which not only sensor data, but also knowledge from the human-directed sciences such as biomedical science, neuroscience, and psychological and social sciences is incorporated. This

  3. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  4. The value of incorporating avoidable factors into perinatal audits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...

  5. Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John F. Klepac

    2003-01-01

    A study was installed in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA that sought to examine the impact of incorporating downed slash materials into subsoil layers on soil chemical and physical properties as compared with the effect of slash materials left on the soil surface. Baseline levels of slash were estimated by establishing transects within harvested stands...

  6. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  7. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  8. Incorporating Wind Excerpts in the School Band Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Professional musicians and college students commonly study orchestral excerpts, but a similar practice has yet to be implemented in the band field. Due to their widespread use in orchestral auditions, excerpts have been incorporated as a tool for musical development. Many college professors regularly assign excerpt study as part of their…

  9. Asymmetric incorporation of Na+, K+-ATPase into phospholipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, R.L.; Verkleij, A.J.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Lane, L.K.; Schwartz, A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    Purified lamb kidney Na+, K+-ATPase, consisting solely of the Mτ = 95,000 catalytic subunit and the Mτ- 44,000 glycoprotein, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and incorporated into unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of the vesicles showed intramembranous particles

  10. The incorporation of double taxation agreements into South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are different opinions as to the process whereby double taxation agreements (DTAs) are incorporated into South African law. This contribution aims to discuss some of the existing opinions and to offer a further perspective on the matter. At the heart of the debate lies the interpretation of two provisions, namely section ...

  11. Incorporating rural users in small-scale growing container ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the users of products developed for them are incorporated in the design process it is more likely that an acceptable and usable outcome will be achieved. A user-centred design process places a stronger emphasis on user involvement. In cases where the users live far away from the design facilities, certain logistical and ...

  12. incorporating digital technology in the teaching and learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating the latest digital technology into traditional language teaching systems has opened up a wealth of multimedia and interactive applications available to bring teaching methods into the 21st century. In the last 10 years, the world has experienced a sudden increase of technology, and this has had a lot of impact ...

  13. Incorporation of high-level nuclear waste in gel spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Bond, W.D.; Angelini, P.; Stinton, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Waste sludge is incorporated in gel spheres by the method of internal gelation. Gel spheres containing up to 90 wt % waste have been produced from defense and commercial wastes. A generic cesium-bearing waste form has been developed. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coatings reduce the leachability of all tested articles to the detection limits

  14. 7 CFR 1755.901 - Incorporation by Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...”), incorporation by reference approved for § 1755.902(h). (e) The following Telecommunications Industry Association... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS... Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable, approved March 10...

  15. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  16. Incorporating Emotional Intelligence in Legal Education: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Susan

    2015-01-01

    "Thinking like a lawyer" is traditionally associated with rational-analytical problem solving and an adversarial approach to conflict. These features have been correlated with problems of psychological, or emotional, distress amongst lawyers and law students. These problems provide a strong argument for incorporating a consideration of…

  17. Growth Inhibition of Sporomusa ovata by Incorporation of Benzimidazole Bases into Cobamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolyl cobamides are unique members of a class of cobalt-containing cofactors that includes vitamin B12 (cobalamin). Cobamide cofactors facilitate diverse reactions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Phenolyl cobamides are structurally and chemically distinct from the more commonly used benzimidazolyl cobamides such as cobalamin, as the lower axial ligand is a phenolic group rather than a benzimidazole. The functional significance of this difference is not well understood. Here we show that in the bacterium Sporomusa ovata, the only organism known to synthesize phenolyl cobamides, several cobamide-dependent acetogenic metabolisms have a requirement or preference for phenolyl cobamides. The addition of benzimidazoles to S. ovata cultures results in a decrease in growth rate when grown on methanol, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, H2 plus CO2, or betaine. Suppression of native p-cresolyl cobamide synthesis and production of benzimidazolyl cobamides occur upon the addition of benzimidazoles, indicating that benzimidazolyl cobamides are not functionally equivalent to the phenolyl cobamide cofactors produced by S. ovata. We further show that S. ovata is capable of incorporating other phenolic compounds into cobamides that function in methanol metabolism. These results demonstrate that S. ovata can incorporate a wide range of compounds as cobamide lower ligands, despite its preference for phenolyl cobamides in the metabolism of certain energy substrates. To our knowledge, S. ovata is unique among cobamide-dependent organisms in its preferential utilization of phenolyl cobamides. PMID:23417488

  18. Gait and Cognition: A Complementary Approach to Understanding Brain Function and the Risk of Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Verghese, Joe; Beauchet, Olivier; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, clinicians and researchers have performed gait assessments and cognitive assessments separately when evaluating older adults. Increasing evidence from clinical practice, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials shows that gait and cognition are inter-related in older adults. Quantifiable alterations in gait among older adults are associated with falls, dementia, and disability. At the same time, emerging evidence indicates that early disturbances in cognitive processes such as attention, executive function, and working memory are associated with slower gait and gait instability during single and dual-task testing, and that these cognitive disturbances assist in the prediction of future mobility loss, falls, and progression to dementia. This paper reviews the importance of the gait-cognition inter-relationship in aging and presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunctions, and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. To this end, the benefits of dual-task gait assessments (e.g., walking while performing an attention-demanding task) as a marker of fall risk are summarized. Further, we also present a potential complementary approach for reducing the risk of falls by improving certain aspects of cognition through both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Untangling the relationship between early gait disturbances and early cognitive changes may be helpful for identifying older adults at higher risk of experiencing mobility decline, falls and the progression to dementia. PMID:23110433

  19. Is verbal episodic memory in elderly with amyloid deposits preserved through altered neuronal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Madison, Cindee; Oh, Hwamee; Wirth, Miranka; van Berckel, Bart N M; Jagust, William J

    2014-08-01

    A potential mechanism that enables intellectual preservation in cognitively normal elderly that harbor beta-amyloid (Aβ) pathology is heightened cerebral glucose metabolism. To investigate cross-sectional inter-relationships between Aβ, glucose metabolism, and cognition, 81 subjects (mean age: 75 ± 7 years) underwent [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound-B and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and neuropsychological testing. They were divided into low-Aβ (n = 53), intermediate-Aβ (n = 13) and high-Aβ (n = 15) groups as defined by their global cortical [(11)C]PIB retention. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a MetaROI mask that covers metabolically critical regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., posterior cingulate and bilateral angular and inferior temporal gyri). Previously validated factor scores for verbal and visual episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, and executive functioning were used to evaluate cognitive performances. Greater Aβ deposition in the precuneus was associated with higher metabolic activity (at trend level) and lower visual episodic memory scores. Glucose metabolism did not correlate with cognition across all subjects. However, heightened metabolic activity was associated with better verbal episodic memory performance in subjects with elevated amyloid levels. This preliminary study suggests that neural compensation, as a manifestation of brain reserve, enables elderly supposedly on the path to AD, at least temporarily, to preserve cognitive function. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. NODDI and Tensor-Based Microstructural Indices as Predictors of Functional Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Deligianni

    Full Text Available In Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging (DWI, the signal is affected by the biophysical properties of neuronal cells and their relative placement, as well as extra-cellular tissue compartments. Typically, microstructural indices, such as fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD, are based on a tensor model that cannot disentangle the influence of these parameters. Recently, Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI has exploited multi-shell acquisition protocols to model the diffusion signal as the contribution of three tissue compartments. NODDI microstructural indices, such as intra-cellular volume fraction (ICVF and orientation dispersion index (ODI are directly related to neuronal density and orientation dispersion, respectively. One way of examining the neurophysiological role of these microstructural indices across neuronal fibres is to look into how they relate to brain function. Here we exploit a statistical framework based on sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis (sCCA and randomised Lasso to identify structural connections that are highly correlated with resting-state functional connectivity measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Our results reveal distinct structural fingerprints for each microstructural index that also reflect their inter-relationships.

  1. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P; Schepman, Sanneke M; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective.

  2. A first-principles study of He, Xe, Kr and O incorporation in thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. Understanding the incorporation of fission products and oxygen is very important to predict the behavior of nuclear fuels. A first approach to this goal is the study of the incorporation energies and stability of these elements in the material. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we calculate the incorporation energies of He, Xe, Kr and O atoms in Th and C vacancy sites, in tetrahedral interstitials and in Schottky defects along the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈1 0 0〉 directions. We also analyze atomic displacements, volume modifications and Bader charges. This kind of results for ThC, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. This should deal as a starting point towards the study of the complex behavior of fission products in irradiated ThC.

  3. Influence of incorporation method of sulfated zirconia in MCM-41 molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.E.; Santos, J.S.B.; Cavalcante, J.N.A.; Andrade, M.R.A.; Sousa, B.V.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfated metal oxides and sulfated zirconia have attracted great attention in recent years due to its high catalytic activity. The sulfated zirconia has the function of assigning the acidic material, through the formation of Bronsted acids and Lewis sites. The incorporation of sulfated zirconia in MCM-41 molecular sieve was carried out through the techniques: dry and wet. The wet process involves the use of an excess of solution on the volume of the support pores. Therefore, the concentration of the metal precursor on the support depends on the solution concentration and the pore volume of the support. In the process of incorporating by dry, the volume of the solution containing the precursor does not exceed the pore volume of the support. After either procedure, the impregnated support must be dried in order to allow the precursor compound can be converted into a catalytically active phase. This study aims to evaluate two methods of incorporation of sulfated zirconia in the mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41. The process of merger took for wet and dry impregnation. Through the XRD patterns it was possible to identify the presence of the hexagonal structure of the molecular sieve, as well as the tetragonal and monoclinic phases of zirconia. From the spectroscopic analysis in the infrared region to the method the wet, it was possible to identify the vibrational frequencies related to the merger of sulfated zirconia in the MCM-41 structure of the molecular sieve. (author)

  4. Preparation and characterization of polyhedral oligomer silsesquioxane nanocomposites incorporated in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, Marielen; Zini, Lucas Pandolphi; Birriel, Eliena Jonko; Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Zattera, Ademir Jose

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of nanofiller in thermosetting like epoxy resin as has been studied in order to modify its properties. In this research, nanocomposites were obtained by incorporating 5% by weight of three polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with different number of functionalization: Glicidilisobutil-POSS, Triglicidilisobutil- POSS and Glicicil POSS in an epoxy matrix by sonification process. The nanocomposites were characterized by analysis of X-ray diffraction (DRX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The DRX analysis showed the characteristic peak of POSS and TEM images showed that there is a difference in the dispersion of nanocages for the difference in the number of epoxy groups on the POSS. The incorporation of Glicidilisobutil-POSS showed a significant increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) value, and also that the most effective from the viewpoint of the dispersion, on the other hand, the Glycidyl-POSS had a greater influence on the thermal stability demonstrating that the dispersion medium is an important characteristic to define the most desirable properties. (author)

  5. Reduced incorporation of the influenza B virus BM2 protein in virus particles decreases infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, David; Zuercher, Thomas; Barclay, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    BM2 is the fourth integral membrane protein encoded by the influenza B virus genome. It is synthesized late in infection and transported to the plasma membrane from where it is subsequently incorporated into progeny virus particles. It has recently been reported that BM2 has ion channel activity and may be the functional homologue of the influenza A virus M2 protein acting as an ion channel involved in viral entry. Using a reverse genetic approach it was not possible to recover virus which lacked BM2. A recombinant influenza B virus was generated in which the BM2 AUG initiation codon was mutated to GUG. This decreased the efficiency of translation of BM2 protein such that progeny virions contained only 1/8 the amount of BM2 seen in wild-type virus. The reduction in BM2 incorporation resulted in a reduction in infectivity although there was no concomitant decrease in the numbers of virions released from the infected cells. These data imply that the incorporation of sufficient BM2 protein into influenza B virions is required for infectivity of the virus particles

  6. Impact of whey protein coating incorporated with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on sliced ham properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odila Pereira, Joana; Soares, José; J P Monteiro, Maria; Gomes, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2018-05-01

    Edible coatings/films with functional ingredients may be a solution to consumers' demands for high-quality food products and an extended shelf-life. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of edible coatings incorporated with probiotics on sliced ham preservation. Coatings was developed based on whey protein isolates with incorporation of Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12® or Lactobacillus casei-01. The physicochemical analyses showed that coating decreased water and weight loss on the ham. Furthermore, color analysis showed that coated sliced ham, exhibited no color change, comparatively to uncoated slices. The edible coatings incorporating the probiotic strains inhibited detectable growth of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds, at least, for 45days of storage at 4°C. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that there was a preference for the sliced coated ham. Probiotic bacteria viable cell numbers were maintained at ca. 10 8 CFU/g throughout storage time, enabling the slice of ham to act as a suitable carrier for the beneficial bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combinatorial delivery of small interfering RNAs reduces RNAi efficacy by selective incorporation into RISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanotto, Daniela; Sakurai, Kumi; Lingeman, Robert; Li, Haitang; Shively, Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Soifer, Harris; Gatignol, Anne; Riggs, Arthur; Rossi, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both synthetic siRNAs and expressed shRNAs compete against each other and with the endogenous microRNAs for transport and for incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The same siRNA sequences do not display competition when expressed from a microRNA backbone. We also show that TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) is one of the sensors for selection and incorporation of the guide sequence of interfering RNAs. These findings reveal that combinatorial siRNA approaches can be problematic and have important implications for the methodology of expression and use of therapeutic interfering RNAs. PMID:17660190

  8. A New Achiral Linker Reagent for the Incorporation of Multiple Amino Groups Into Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new functionalized achiral linker reagent for incorporating multiple primary amino groups or reporter groups into oligonucleotides following the phosphoramidite methodology. It is possible to substitute any ribodeoxynucleotide, deoxynucleotide, or nucleotide......-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine), TEMPO (N-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), dinitrophenyl, texas red, tetramethyl rhodamine, 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1-diazole (NBD), or pyrene. The present invention also relates to a solid phase support, e.g. a Controlled Pore Glass (CPG), immobilized linker reagent...

  9. Effects of alpha radiation on plutonium incorporated in dosimetric materials by ESR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, M.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Mohapatra, Manoj; Godbole, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    The in situ alpha irradiation effects of some ESR dosimetric materials namely alanine, 2-methyl alanine and ammonium tartrate were studied by incorporating 1% plutonium by weight in them. The radical intensity was monitored as a function of alpha dose. It was found that in the dose region 1-35 kGy ammonium tartrate showed better signal intensity, linearity and dose response as compared to the other materials. This was attributed to the single radical produced in case of the tartrate giving a sharp spectrum and the fast relaxation times owing to less saturation of ESR signals. (author)

  10. Incorporation and release of drug into/from superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maver, Uros; Bele, Marjan [National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko; Campelj, Stanislav [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jamnik, Janko [National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gaberscek, Miran [National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: miran.gaberscek@ki.si

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to attach a model drug (naproxen) onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). First, SPION were coated with thin layer of silica that contained micropores. We demonstrated that such surface functionalization could be optimized by the use of citric acid which prevented SPION agglomeration during the procedure. HRTEM investigation showed a uniform 1-2-nm-thick silica coating around SPION. This coating did not affect significantly the magnetic properties of the SPION. Into the coated SPION we successfully incorporated about 30 wt% of naproxen. The latter was readily released after immersion into a testing solution. The composites could be interesting for potential use in diagnostics.

  11. Incorporation and release of drug into/from superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maver, Uros; Bele, Marjan; Makovec, Darko; Campelj, Stanislav; Jamnik, Janko; Gaberscek, Miran

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attach a model drug (naproxen) onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). First, SPION were coated with thin layer of silica that contained micropores. We demonstrated that such surface functionalization could be optimized by the use of citric acid which prevented SPION agglomeration during the procedure. HRTEM investigation showed a uniform 1-2-nm-thick silica coating around SPION. This coating did not affect significantly the magnetic properties of the SPION. Into the coated SPION we successfully incorporated about 30 wt% of naproxen. The latter was readily released after immersion into a testing solution. The composites could be interesting for potential use in diagnostics.

  12. International network on incorporation of ageing effects into PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.; Patrik, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the background and status of a new International Network on ''Incorporating Ageing Effects into Probabilistic Safety Assessment''. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission organized in September 2004 the kickoff meeting of this Network at JRC's Institute for Energy in Petten, Netherlands, with the aims to open the APSA Network, to start discussion of ageing issues in relation to incorporating ageing effects into PSA tools and to come to consensus on objectives and work packages of the Network, taking into account the specific expectations of potential Network partners. The presentations and discussions at the meeting confirmed the main conclusion from the previously organized PSAM 7 pre-conference workshop on ''Incorporating PSA into Ageing Management'', Budapest, June 2004, namely that incorporating ageing effects into PSA seems to be more and more a hot topic particularly for risk assessment and ageing management of nuclear power plants operating at advanced age (more than 25-30 years) and for the purpose of plant life extension. However, it also appeared that, especially regarding the situation in Europe, at present there are several on-going feasibility or full studies in this area, but not yet a completed Ageing PSA leading to applications. The project's working method is a NETWORK of operators, industry, research, academia and consultants with an active interest in the area (physical networking via a series of workshops and virtual networking via the Internet). The resulting knowledge should help PSA developers and users to incorporate the effects of equipment ageing into current PSA tools and models, to identify and/or develop most effective corresponding methods, to focus on dominant ageing contributors and components and to promote the use of PSA for ageing management of Nuclear Power Plants. (orig.)

  13. Down the slippery slop: Utility incorporation of environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, A.J.; Tempchin, R.S.; Mitnick, S.A.; Harron, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Advocates of incorporating environmental externalities in electric utility decision-making have concentrated on new electric generating resources, with some success. Such public utility commission actions compel utilities to consider, explicitly, the cost of sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and other emission of power-plants when comparing the economics of new generating resources with those of other resource options (e.g., demand-side management and gas-fired non-utility generator projects). This paper summarizes a study which estimated costs of incorporating externalities in utility system operations. We also present an analysis of the Tellus work in this area, and contrast Tellus' methodology, assumptions and results with our own. Estimates of the cost of incorporating externalities in system operations is rather large, in terms of the increased fuel and purchased power cost that ratepayers would have to bear. For the eight cases we examined, the incorporation of externalities caused fuel and purchased power cost to be 9.3 to 69.5 percent higher, relative to what it would have been under traditional generating unit commitment and dispatch. Furthermore, we believe that these estimates of fuel and purchased power cost increases are conservative. In particular, because our analyses focused on utility system operations in 1995, the key assumption about the fuel cost differential (i.e., coal versus natural gas) probably underestimates the differential in later years, significantly, when virtually all forecasters foresee faster cost escalation rates for gas. In general, the higher the fuel cost differential, the faster cost escalation rates for gas. In general, the higher the fuel cost differential, the greater the cost of an externality policy. Unless the record is set straight soon, the idea that incorporating externalities is virtually costless will further spread in the regulatory community and among government policy-makers

  14. Ohio dentists' awareness and incorporation of the dental home concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersmith, Kimberly J; Siegal, Mark D; Casamassimo, Paul S; Amini, Homa

    2013-06-01

    The authors measured the awareness of the dental home concept among pediatric dentists (PDs) and general practice dentists (GPs) in Ohio and determined whether they included dental home characteristics for children 5 years and younger into their practices. The authors sent a pretested 20-question survey to all Ohio PDs and to a random sample of approximately 20 percent of GPs in Ohio. The authors designed the survey to elicit information about dental home awareness and the extent to which dental home characteristics were incorporated into dental practices. More than 90 percent of both GPs and PDs incorporated or intended to incorporate into their dental practices the specific dental home characteristics mentioned in 20 of 41 items related to dental home characteristics. Of the respondents who did not already incorporate dental home characteristics into their practices, however, most did not intend to do so. Less than 50 percent of respondents in both groups responded positively to some items in the culturally effective group, and GPs were less likely than were PDs to provide a range of behavior management services and to provide treatment for patients with complex medical and dental treatment needs. PDs were more likely than were GPs to accept Ohio Medicaid (64 versus 33 percent). PDs were more likely than were GPs (78 versus 18 percent) to be familiar with the term "dental home." More recent dental school graduates were more familiar with the term. Most Ohio PDs' and GPs' practices included characteristics found in the definition of dental home, despite a general lack of concept awareness on the part of GPs. Research is needed to provide an evidence base for the dental home. Practical Implications. Once an evidence base is developed for the important aspects of the dental home and the definition is revised, efforts should be made to incorporate these aspects more broadly into dental practice.

  15. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuzawa, Y.; Okano, S.; Waku, K.; Sprecher, H.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Three 14 C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[ 14 C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[ 14 C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[ 14 C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

  16. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking through the Endosomal Recycling Compartment Is Required for Particle Incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Junghwa; Qi, Mingli; Ding, Lingmei; Hammonds, Jason; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) encodes specific trafficking signals within its long cytoplasmic tail (CT) that regulate incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Rab11-family interacting protein 1C (FIP1C) and Rab14 are host trafficking factors required for Env particle incorporation, suggesting that Env undergoes sorting from the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) to the site of particle assembly on the plasma membrane. We disrupted outward sorting from the ERC by expressing a C-terminal fragment of FIP1C (FIP1C 560-649 ) and examined the consequences on Env trafficking and incorporation into particles. FIP1C 560-649 reduced cell surface levels of Env and prevented its incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Remarkably, Env was trapped in an exaggerated perinuclear ERC in a CT-dependent manner. Mutation of either the Yxxϕ endocytic motif or the YW 795 motif in the CT prevented Env trapping in the ERC and restored incorporation into particles. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Env was not retained in the ERC, while substitution of the HIV-1 CT for the SIV CT resulted in SIV Env retention in this compartment. These results provide the first direct evidence that Env traffics through the ERC and support a model whereby HIV-1 Env is specifically targeted to the ERC prior to FIP1C- and CT-dependent outward sorting to the particle assembly site on the plasma membrane. IMPORTANCE The HIV envelope protein is an essential component of the viral particle. While many aspects of envelope protein structure and function have been established, the pathway it follows in the cell prior to reaching the site of particle assembly is not well understood. The envelope protein has a very long cytoplasmic tail that interacts with the host cell trafficking machinery. Here, we utilized a truncated form of the trafficking adaptor FIP1C protein to arrest the intracellular transport of the envelope protein, demonstrating that it becomes

  17. Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, Ewan; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Dutta, Anindya; Guigó, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R; Margulies, Elliott H; Weng, Zhiping; Snyder, Michael; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Thurman, Robert E; Kuehn, Michael S; Taylor, Christopher M; Neph, Shane; Koch, Christoph M; Asthana, Saurabh; Malhotra, Ankit; Adzhubei, Ivan; Greenbaum, Jason A; Andrews, Robert M; Flicek, Paul; Boyle, Patrick J; Cao, Hua; Carter, Nigel P; Clelland, Gayle K; Davis, Sean; Day, Nathan; Dhami, Pawandeep; Dillon, Shane C; Dorschner, Michael O; Fiegler, Heike; Giresi, Paul G; Goldy, Jeff; Hawrylycz, Michael; Haydock, Andrew; Humbert, Richard; James, Keith D; Johnson, Brett E; Johnson, Ericka M; Frum, Tristan T; Rosenzweig, Elizabeth R; Karnani, Neerja; Lee, Kirsten; Lefebvre, Gregory C; Navas, Patrick A; Neri, Fidencio; Parker, Stephen C J; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Shafer, Anthony; Vetrie, David; Weaver, Molly; Wilcox, Sarah; Yu, Man; Collins, Francis S; Dekker, Job; Lieb, Jason D; Tullius, Thomas D; Crawford, Gregory E; Sunyaev, Shamil; Noble, William S; Dunham, Ian; Denoeud, France; Reymond, Alexandre; Kapranov, Philipp; Rozowsky, Joel; Zheng, Deyou; Castelo, Robert; Frankish, Adam; Harrow, Jennifer; Ghosh, Srinka; Sandelin, Albin; Hofacker, Ivo L; Baertsch, Robert; Keefe, Damian; Dike, Sujit; Cheng, Jill; Hirsch, Heather A; Sekinger, Edward A; Lagarde, Julien; Abril, Josep F; Shahab, Atif; Flamm, Christoph; Fried, Claudia; Hackermüller, Jörg; Hertel, Jana; Lindemeyer, Manja; Missal, Kristin; Tanzer, Andrea; Washietl, Stefan; Korbel, Jan; Emanuelsson, Olof; Pedersen, Jakob S; Holroyd, Nancy; Taylor, Ruth; Swarbreck, David; Matthews, Nicholas; Dickson, Mark C; Thomas, Daryl J; Weirauch, Matthew T; Gilbert, James; Drenkow, Jorg; Bell, Ian; Zhao, XiaoDong; Srinivasan, K G; Sung, Wing-Kin; Ooi, Hong Sain; Chiu, Kuo Ping; Foissac, Sylvain; Alioto, Tyler; Brent, Michael; Pachter, Lior; Tress, Michael L; Valencia, Alfonso; Choo, Siew Woh; Choo, Chiou Yu; Ucla, Catherine; Manzano, Caroline; Wyss, Carine; Cheung, Evelyn; Clark, Taane G; Brown, James B; Ganesh, Madhavan; Patel, Sandeep; Tammana, Hari; Chrast, Jacqueline; Henrichsen, Charlotte N; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa; Wu, Jiaqian; Lian, Zheng; Lian, Jin; Newburger, Peter; Zhang, Xueqing; Bickel, Peter; Mattick, John S; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Weissman, Sherman; Hubbard, Tim; Myers, Richard M; Rogers, Jane; Stadler, Peter F; Lowe, Todd M; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Yijun; Struhl, Kevin; Gerstein, Mark; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Fu, Yutao; Green, Eric D; Karaöz, Ulaş; Siepel, Adam; Taylor, James; Liefer, Laura A; Wetterstrand, Kris A; Good, Peter J; Feingold, Elise A; Guyer, Mark S; Cooper, Gregory M; Asimenos, George; Dewey, Colin N; Hou, Minmei; Nikolaev, Sergey; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Löytynoja, Ari; Whelan, Simon; Pardi, Fabio; Massingham, Tim; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Nancy R; Holmes, Ian; Mullikin, James C; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Paten, Benedict; Seringhaus, Michael; Church, Deanna; Rosenbloom, Kate; Kent, W James; Stone, Eric A; Batzoglou, Serafim; Goldman, Nick; Hardison, Ross C; Haussler, David; Miller, Webb; Sidow, Arend; Trinklein, Nathan D; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Barrera, Leah; Stuart, Rhona; King, David C; Ameur, Adam; Enroth, Stefan; Bieda, Mark C; Kim, Jonghwan; Bhinge, Akshay A; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jun; Yao, Fei; Vega, Vinsensius B; Lee, Charlie W H; Ng, Patrick; Shahab, Atif; Yang, Annie; Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Zhu, Zhou; Xu, Xiaoqin; Squazzo, Sharon; Oberley, Matthew J; Inman, David; Singer, Michael A; Richmond, Todd A; Munn, Kyle J; Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Wallerman, Ola; Komorowski, Jan; Fowler, Joanna C; Couttet, Phillippe; Bruce, Alexander W; Dovey, Oliver M; Ellis, Peter D; Langford, Cordelia F; Nix, David A; Euskirchen, Ghia; Hartman, Stephen; Urban, Alexander E; Kraus, Peter; Van Calcar, Sara; Heintzman, Nate; Kim, Tae Hoon; Wang, Kun; Qu, Chunxu; Hon, Gary; Luna, Rosa; Glass, Christopher K; Rosenfeld, M Geoff; Aldred, Shelley Force; Cooper, Sara J; Halees, Anason; Lin, Jane M; Shulha, Hennady P; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Mousheng; Haidar, Jaafar N S; Yu, Yong; Ruan, Yijun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Green, Roland D; Wadelius, Claes; Farnham, Peggy J; Ren, Bing; Harte, Rachel A; Hinrichs, Angie S; Trumbower, Heather; Clawson, Hiram; Hillman-Jackson, Jennifer; Zweig, Ann S; Smith, Kayla; Thakkapallayil, Archana; Barber, Galt; Kuhn, Robert M; Karolchik, Donna; Armengol, Lluis; Bird, Christine P; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kern, Andrew D; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Martin, Joel D; Stranger, Barbara E; Woodroffe, Abigail; Davydov, Eugene; Dimas, Antigone; Eyras, Eduardo; Hallgrímsdóttir, Ingileif B; Huppert, Julian; Zody, Michael C; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Estivill, Xavier; Bouffard, Gerard G; Guan, Xiaobin; Hansen, Nancy F; Idol, Jacquelyn R; Maduro, Valerie V B; Maskeri, Baishali; McDowell, Jennifer C; Park, Morgan; Thomas, Pamela J; Young, Alice C; Blakesley, Robert W; Muzny, Donna M; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Jiang, Huaiyang; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A; Graves, Tina; Fulton, Robert; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Clamp, Michele; Cuff, James; Gnerre, Sante; Jaffe, David B; Chang, Jean L; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lander, Eric S; Koriabine, Maxim; Nefedov, Mikhail; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Zhu, Baoli; de Jong, Pieter J

    2007-06-14

    We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.

  18. The role of function analysis in the ACR control centre design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, R.P.; Davey, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    An essential aspect of control centre design is the need to characterize: plant functions and their inter-relationships to support the achievement of operational goals, and roles for humans and automation in sharing and exchanging the execution of functions across all operational phases. Function analysis is a design activity that has been internationally accepted as an approach to satisfy this need. It is recognized as a fundamental and necessary component in the systematic approach to control centre design and is carried out early in the design process. A function analysis can provide a clear basis for: the control centre design for the purposes of design team communication, and customer or regulatory review, the control centre display and control systems, the staffing and layout requirements of the control centre, assessing the completeness of control centre displays and controls prior and supplementary to mock-up walkthroughs or simulator evaluations, and the design of operating procedures and training programs. This paper will explore the role for function analysis in supporting the design of the control centre. The development of the ACR control room will be used as an illustrative context for the discussion. The paper will also discuss the merits of using function analysis in a goal-or function-based approach resulting in a more robust, operationally compatible, and cost-effective design over the life of the plant. Two former papers have previously outlined, the evolution in AECL's application approach and lessons learned in applying function analysis in support of control room design. This paper provides the most recent update to this progression in application refinement. (author)

  19. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  20. The effects of music therapy incorporated with applied behavior analysis verbal behavior approach for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A; Draper, Ellary

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a common form of Applied Behavior Analysis Verbal Behavior (ABA VB) approach and music incorporated with ABA VB method as part of developmental speech-language training in the speech production of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study explored how the perception of musical patterns incorporated in ABA VB operants impacted the production of speech in children with ASD. Participants were 22 children with ASD, age range 3 to 5 years, who were verbal or pre verbal with presence of immediate echolalia. They were randomly assigned a set of target words for each of the 3 training conditions: (a) music incorporated ABA VB, (b) speech (ABA VB) and (c) no-training. Results showed both music and speech trainings were effective for production of the four ABA verbal operants; however, the difference between music and speech training was not statistically different. Results also indicated that music incorporated ABA VB training was most effective in echoic production, and speech training was most effective in tact production. Music can be incorporated into the ABA VB training method, and musical stimuli can be used as successfully as ABA VB speech training to enhance the functional verbal production in children with ASD.

  1. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  2. Syntheses and characterization of liposome-incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekutor, Marina; Štimac, Adela; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Ruža

    2014-08-21

    A series of mono and bis-aminoguanidinium adamantane derivatives has been synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. They combine two biomedically significant molecules, the adamantane moiety and the guanidinium group. The adamantane moiety possesses the membrane compatible features while the cationic guanidinium subunit was recognized as a favourable structural feature for binding to complementary molecules comprising phosphate groups. The liposome formulations of adamantyl aminoguanidines were characterized and it was shown that the entrapment efficiency of the examined compounds is significant. In addition, it was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines effectively recognized the complementary liposomes via the phosphate group. These results indicate that adamantane derivatives bearing guanidinium groups might be versatile tools for biomedical application, from studies of molecular recognition processes to usage in drug formulation and cell targeting.

  3. Incorporation of transuranic elements in titanate nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.J.; Ray, I.L.F.; Theile, H.; Trisoglio, C.; Walker, C.T.; White, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of actinide elements and their rare-earth element analogues in titanate nuclear waste forms in reviewed. New partitioning data are presented for three waste forms containing Purex waste simulant in combination with either NpO 2 , PuO 2 , or Am 2 O 3 . The greater proportion of transuranics partition between perovskite and zirconolite, while some americium may enter loveringite. Autoradiography revealed clusters of plutonium atoms which have been interpreted as unreacted dioxide or sesquioxide. It is concluded that the solid-state behavior of transuranic elements in titanate waste forms is poorly understood, certainly not well enough to tailor a ceramic for the incorporation of waste from reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuel in which transuranic species are more abundant than in Purex waste

  4. Cesium incorporation in hollandite-rich multiphasic ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumurugoti, P.; Clark, B.M. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Amoroso, Jake [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Sundaram, S.K. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Hollandite-rich multiphase waste form compositions processed by melt-solidification and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were characterized, compared, and validated for nuclear waste incorporation. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) confirmed hollandite as the major phase present in these samples along with perovskite, pyrochlore and zirconolite. Distribution of selected elements observed by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) maps indicated that Cs formed a secondary phase during SPS processing, which was considered undesirable. On the other hand, Cs partitioned into the hollandite phase in melt-processed samples. Further analysis of hollandite structure in melt-processed composition by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed ordered arrangement of tunnel ions (Ba/Cs) and vacancies, suggesting efficient Cs incorporation into the lattice.

  5. Strategies for incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into garments and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    device as a structural element. The total area of the device on PET was typically much smaller than the active area due to the decorative design of the aluminium electrode. Elaborate integration of the photovoltaic device into the textile material involved the lamination of a polyethylene (PE) film onto......The incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into textiles was demonstrated following two different strategies. Simple incorporation of a polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) substrate carrying the polymer photovoltaic device prepared by a doctor blade technique necessitated the use of the photovoltaic...... a suitably transparent textile material that was used as substrate. Plasma treatment of the PE-surface allowed the application of a PEDOT electrode that exhibited good adherence. Screen printing of a designed pattern of poly 1,4(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy))phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) from chlorobenzene...

  6. Enzymatic Incorporation of Modified Purine Nucleotides in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El Asrar, Rania; Margamuljana, Lia; Abramov, Mikhail; Bande, Omprakash; Agnello, Stefano; Jang, Miyeon; Herdewijn, Piet

    2017-12-14

    A series of nucleotide analogues, with a hypoxanthine base moiety (8-aminohypoxanthine, 1-methyl-8-aminohypoxanthine, and 8-oxohypoxanthine), together with 5-methylisocytosine were tested as potential pairing partners of N 8 -glycosylated nucleotides with an 8-azaguanine or 8-aza-9-deazaguanine base moiety by using DNA polymerases (incorporation studies). The best results were obtained with the 5-methylisocytosine nucleotide followed by the 1-methyl-8-aminohypoxanthine nucleotide. The experiments demonstrated that small differences in the structure (8-azaguanine versus 8-aza-9-deazaguanine) might lead to significant differences in recognition efficiency and selectivity, base pairing by Hoogsteen recognition at the polymerase level is possible, 8-aza-9-deazaguanine represents a self-complementary base pair, and a correlation exists between in vitro incorporation studies and in vivo recognition by natural bases in Escherichia coli, but this recognition is not absolute (exceptions were observed). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. INTERIM REPORT IMPROVED METHODS FOR INCORPORATING RISK IN DECISION MAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, M. J.; Fraley, D. W.; Denning, R. S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports observations and preliminary investigations in the first phase of a research program covering methodologies for making safety-related decisions. The objective has been to gain insight into NRC perceptions of the value of formal decision methods, their possible applications, and how risk is, or may be, incorporated in decision making. The perception of formal decision making techniques, held by various decision makers, and what may be done to improve them, were explored through interviews with NRC staff. An initial survey of decision making methods, an assessment of the applicability of formal methods vis-a-vis the available information, and a review of methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty have also been conducted.

  8. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed......Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  9. Estimations of internal dosimetry: practical calculations of incorporated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)

  10. Characterization of civil construction waste and its incorporation to mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    As the preservation of the environment is a big concern nowadays, plenty of studies have arisen in order to decrease the production or reuse the waste from human activities. In this context, the civil construction industry comes up, as it is able to incorporate waste to mortar, being a great alternative for the reuse of solid waste. The scope of this work has been the characterization of Construction and Demolishment Waste (RCD) and its incorporation to the mortar aiming at the development of alternative construction materials in the future for the economical reutilization of waste discharged in embankments and landfills so far preserving the environment so far. The experimental studies taken with sample bodies, such as water absorption, resistance to compression, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy, elicits the viability of the partial substitution of cement by RCD mixed waste, taking its different applications into consideration. (author)

  11. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    106. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground granulated blast furnace slag at high-temperature. Comportement à haute température du béton à haute résistance à base de laitier granulé de haut fourneau. Imene Saadi*1 & Abdelaziz Benmarce2. 1Laboratoire Matériaux Géométraux et Environnement, ...

  12. Glass-crystalline materials for active waste incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichenko, V.V.; Krylova, N.V.; Vlasov, V.I.; Polyakov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the possibility and conditions for using glass-crystalline materials for the incorporation of radionuclides. Materials of a cast pyroxene type that are obtained by smelting calcined wastes with acid blast furnace slags are described. A study was also made of materials of a basalt type prepared from wastes with and without alkali metal salt. Changes in the structure and properties of materials in the process of storage at different temperatures have been studied

  13. A parallel ILP algorithm that incorporates incremental batch learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Fonseca; Rui Camacho; Fernado Silva

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problems of eciency and scala-bility faced by Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) systems. We proposethe use of parallelism to improve eciency and the use of an incrementalbatch learning to address the scalability problem. We describe a novelparallel algorithm that incorporates into ILP the method of incremen-tal batch learning. The theoretical complexity of the algorithm indicatesthat a linear speedup can be achieved.

  14. Incorporation of quantum statistical features in molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Akira; Randrup, J.

    1995-01-01

    We formulate a method for incorporating quantum fluctuations into molecular-dynamics simulations of many-body systems, such as those employed for energetic nuclear collision processes. Based on Fermi's Golden Rule, we allow spontaneous transitions to occur between the wave packets which are not energy eigenstates. The ensuing diffusive evolution in the space of the wave packet parameters exhibits appealing physical properties, including relaxation towards quantum-statistical equilibrium. (author)

  15. Incorporation of various uncertainties in dependent failure-probability estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Mitra, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that allows the incorporation of various types of uncertainties in the estimation of dependent failure (common mode failure) probability. The types of uncertainties considered are attributable to data, modeling and coupling. The method developed is applied to a class of dependent failures, i.e., multiple human failures during testing, maintenance and calibration. Estimation of these failures is critical as they have been shown to be significant contributors to core melt probability in pressurized water reactors

  16. Photoconductivity of Germanium Nanowire Arrays Incorporated in Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, B; Prikulis, J; Grigorjeva, L; Millers, D; Daly, B; Holmes, J D; Erts, D

    2007-01-01

    Photoconductivity of germanium nanowire arrays of 50 and 100 nm diameter incorporated into Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes illuminated with visible light is investigated. Photocurrent response to excitation radiation with time constants faster than 10 -4 s were governed by absorption of incident light by nanowires, while photokinetics with time constants of the order of 10 -3 s originates from the photoluminescence of the AAO matrix. Possible applications of nanowire arrays inside AAO as photoresistors are discussed

  17. Novel retrofit technologies incorporating silica aerogel for lower energy buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Dowson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Engineering and was awarded by Brunel University. The aim of this Engineering Doctorate is to design, build and test novel environmental retrofit technologies to reduce energy consumption in existing buildings. Three contributions to knowledge are documented. The first contribution is the technical verification of a novel proof-of-principle prototype incorporating translucent silica aerogel granules to improve the thermal performance of...

  18. From Words to Action: Incorporation of Sustainability in Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiossadat Hassanpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Schools of architecture play a major role in motivating and inspiring students to gain competencies in sustainability through pedagogical practices. However, at the operational level, the incorporation of sustainability within architectural programmes needs to be integrated into both the curricula and teaching methods. There are few studies on how architectural programmes’ curricula and pedagogical practices can be institutionally articulated, as well as on how the required coherency among components can be empowered operationally. Since the interrelation of the courses form the structure of the curricula and provide certain inputs for the students’ knowledge and skill, any operational risk can harm the quality assurance. Therefore, an operational framework aimed for a coordinated incorporation of sustainability in architectural programmes is required. In order to achieve this, scrutinising substantial equivalence programmes could provide constructive outcomes for the improvement of the existing programmes and future experiences for students. In order to determine the articulation of sustainability issues in architectural education, in this research, a recently accredited school in the Eastern Mediterranean region was chosen as a case study. The study includes an analysis of course descriptions, teaching methods, and teacher and student perceptions about the incorporation of sustainability into the courses. Also, jury sessions’ evaluation criteria are assessed as a pedagogical tool. Then, the horizontal and vertical articulation of courses within the curricula and their coordination were studied accordingly. The findings reveal that horizontal and vertical relations between different course types that share similar learning objectives are very important. However, this relation and continuum should be perceivable by students, tutors, and the relevant stakeholders; otherwise, any attempt would remain superficial. Accordingly, the association

  19. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  20. Investigation of tritium incorporation by means of excreted metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.; Szilagyi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The commonly accepted urine analysis by liquid scintillation method was applied for whole body dose estimating. After the separation of metabolite fractions the organically bound tritium in urine could be measured. Urine samples from workers repeatedly exposed to tritium incorporation during the chemical processing of various labeled compounds have been collected and analyzed. The time dependence of tritium activity in certain metabolites was found to be characteristic, significantly differing from the 3 H concentration curve of the native or treated urine sample. (Auth.)