McDonough, Ian M; Cervantes, Sasha N; Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A
Episodic memory decline is a hallmark of normal cognitive aging. Here, we report the first event-related fMRI study to directly investigate age differences in the neural reactivation of qualitatively rich perceptual details during recollection. Younger and older adults studied pictures of complex scenes at different presentation durations along with descriptive verbal labels, and these labels subsequently were used during fMRI scanning to cue picture recollections of varying perceptual detail. As expected from prior behavioral work, the two age groups subjectively rated their recollections as containing similar amounts of perceptual detail, despite objectively measured recollection impairment in older adults. In both age groups, comparisons of retrieval trials that varied in recollected detail revealed robust activity in brain regions previously linked to recollection, including hippocampus and both medial and lateral regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Critically, this analysis also revealed recollection-related activity in visual processing regions that were active in an independent picture-perception task, and these regions showed age-related reductions in activity during recollection that cannot be attributed to age differences in response criteria. These fMRI findings provide new evidence that aging reduces the absolute quantity of perceptual details that are reactivated from memory, and they help to explain why aging reduces the reliability of subjective memory judgments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Jyoti; Rolle, Camarin; Gazzaley, Adam
Healthy aging is associated with a decline in basic perceptual abilities, as well as higher-level cognitive functions such as working memory. In a recent perceptual training study using moving sweeps of Gabor stimuli, Berry et al. (2010) observed that older adults significantly improved discrimination abilities on the most challenging perceptual tasks that presented paired sweeps at rapid rates of 5 and 10 Hz. Berry et al. further showed that this perceptual training engendered transfer-of-benefit to an untrained working memory task. Here, we investigated the neural underpinnings of the improvements in these perceptual tasks, as assessed by event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Early visual ERP components time-locked to stimulus onset were compared pre- and post-training, as well as relative to a no-contact control group. The visual N1 and N2 components were significantly enhanced after training, and the N1 change correlated with improvements in perceptual discrimination on the task. Further, the change observed for the N1 and N2 was associated with the rapidity of the perceptual challenge; the visual N1 (120-150 ms) was enhanced post-training for 10 Hz sweep pairs, while the N2 (240-280 ms) was enhanced for the 5 Hz sweep pairs. We speculate that these observed post-training neural enhancements reflect improvements by older adults in the allocation of attention that is required to accurately dissociate perceptually overlapping stimuli when presented in rapid sequence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory Å. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kuo, M C C; Liu, K P Y; Ting, K H; Chan, C C H
This study examined the age-related subsequent memory effect (SME) in perceptual and semantic encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen younger adults and 17 older adults studied a series of Chinese characters either perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining whether the depicted object makes sounds). The two tasks had similar levels of difficulty. The participants made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Younger adults performed better in both conditions, with significant SMEs detected in the time windows of P2, N3, P550, and late positive component (LPC). In the older group, SMEs were observed in the P2 and N3 latencies in both conditions but were only detected in the P550 in the semantic condition. Between-group analyses showed larger frontal and central SMEs in the younger sample in the LPC latency regardless of encoding type. Aging effect appears to be stronger on influencing perceptual than semantic encoding processes. The effects seem to be associated with a decline in updating and maintaining representations during perceptual encoding. The age-related decline in the encoding function may be due in part to changes in frontal lobe function. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanni SM Kiiski
Full Text Available Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with ageing, with an age-related bias in favouring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together
Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L.; Newell, Fiona N.
Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged
Madden, David J.; Langley, Linda K.
Three visual search experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that age differences in selective attention vary as a function of perceptual load (E. A. Maylor & N. Lavie, 1998). Under resource-limited conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), the distraction from irrelevant display items generally decreased as display size (perceptual load) increased. This perceptual load effect was similar for younger and older adults, contrary to the findings of Maylor and Lavie. Distraction at low perceptua...
Boutet, Isabelle; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana
We simultaneously investigated the role of three hypotheses regarding age-related differences in face processing: perceptual degradation, impaired holistic processing, and an interaction between the two. Young adults (YA) aged 20-33-year olds, middle-age adults (MA) aged 50-64-year olds, and older adults (OA) aged 65-82-year olds were tested on the context congruency paradigm, which allows measurement of face-specific holistic processing across the life span (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike & Meinhardt, 2014. Acta Psychologica, 151, 155-163). Perceptual degradation was examined by measuring performance with faces that were not filtered (FSF), with faces filtered to preserve low spatial frequencies (LSF), and with faces filtered to preserve high spatial frequencies (HSF). We found that reducing perceptual signal strength had a greater impact on MA and OA for HSF faces, but not LSF faces. Context congruency effects were significant and of comparable magnitude across ages for FSF, LSF, and HSF faces. By using watches as control objects, we show that these holistic effects reflect face-specific mechanisms in all age groups. Our results support the perceptual degradation hypothesis for faces containing only HSF and suggest that holistic processing is preserved in aging even under conditions of reduced signal strength. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kennedy, Kristen M; Partridge, Ty; Raz, Naftali
Aging is associated with reduced performance on information processing speed, memory, and executive functions tasks. Although older adults are also less apt in acquiring new perceptual-motor skills, it is unclear whether and how skill acquisition difficulties are associated with age-related general cognitive differences. We addressed this question by examining structural relations among measures of cognitive resources (working memory) and indices of perceptual-motor skill acquisition (pursuit rotor and mirror tracing) in 96 healthy adults aged 19-80 years of age. Three competing structural models were tested: a single (common) factor model, a dual correlated factors model, and a hierarchical dual-factor model. The third model provided the best fit to the data, indicating age differences in simple perceptual-motor skill are partially mediated by more complex abilities.
Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Head, Denise; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Raz, Naftali
Our objectives were to assess age differences in perceptual repetition priming and perceptual skill learning, and to determine whether they are mediated by cognitive resources and regional cerebral volume differences. Fragmented picture identification paradigm allows the study of both priming and learning within the same task. We presented this task to 169 adults (ages 18–80), assessed working memory and fluid intelligence, and measured brain volumes of regions that were deemed relevant to th...
van Andel, Steven; Cole, Michael H; Pepping, Gert-Jan
Perceptual-motor calibration has been described as a mapping between perception and action, which is relevant to distinguish possible from impossible opportunities for action. To avoid movement errors, it is relevant to rapidly calibrate to immediate changes in capabilities and therefore this study sought to explain in what conditions calibration is most efficient. A systematic search of seven databases was conducted to identify literature concerning changes in calibration in response to changes in action capabilities. Twenty-three papers satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data revealed that calibration occurs rapidly if there is a good match between the task that requires calibration and the sources of perceptual-motor information available for exploration (e.g. when exploring maximal braking capabilities by experiencing braking). Calibration can take more time when the perceptual-motor information that is available is less relevant. The current study identified a number of limitations in the field of perceptual-motor research. Most notably, the mean participant age in the included studies was between 18 and 33years of age, limiting the generalizability of the results to other age groups. Also, due to inconsistent terminology used in the field of perceptual-motor research, we argue that investigating calibration in older cohorts should be a focus of future research because of the possible implications of impaired calibration in an aging society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maylor, E A; Lavie, N
The effect of perceptual load on age differences in visual selective attention was examined in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults made speeded choice responses indicating which of 2 target letters was present in a relevant set of letters in the center of the display while they attempted to ignore an irrelevant distractor in the periphery. The perceptual load of relevant processing was manipulated by varying the central set size. When the relevant set size was small, the adverse effect of an incompatible distractor was much greater for the older participants than for the younger ones. However, with larger relevant set sizes, this was no longer the case, with the distractor effect decreasing for older participants at lower levels of perceptual load than for younger ones. In Experiment 2, older adults were tested with the empty locations in the central set either unmarked (as in Experiment 1) or marked by small circles to form a group of 6 items irrespective of set size; the 2 conditions did not differ markedly, ruling out an explanation based entirely on perceptual grouping.
Astle, Andrew T; Blighe, Alan J; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V
We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach.
Borst, G; Poirel, N; Pineau, A; Cassotti, M; Houdé, O
Most children under 7 years of age presented with 10 daisies and 2 roses fail to indicate that there are more flowers than daisies. Instead of the appropriate comparison of the relative numerosities of the superordinate class (flowers) to its subordinate class (daisies), they perform a direct perceptual comparison of the extensions of the 2 subordinate classes (daisies vs. roses). In our experiment, we investigated whether increasing efficiency in solving the Piagetian class-inclusion task is related to increasing efficiency in the ability to resist (inhibit) this direct comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions. Ten-year-old and young adult participants performed a computerized priming version of a Piaget-like class-inclusion task. The experimental design was such that the misleading perceptual strategy to inhibit on the prime (in which a superordinate class had to be compared with a subordinate class) became a congruent strategy to activate on the probe (in which the two subordinate classes' extensions were directly compared). We found a negative priming effect of 291 ms in children and 129 ms in adults. These results provide evidence for the first time (a) that adults still need to inhibit the comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions in class-inclusion tasks and (b) that the ability to inhibit this heuristic increases with age (resulting in a lower executive cost). Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the neo-Piagetian approach of cognitive development that suggests that the acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge is based on the ability to resist (inhibit) heuristics and previously acquired knowledge.
Li, Xuan; Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching; Yamamoto, Naohide
Previous studies on perceptual learning, acquiring a new skill through practice, appear to stimulate brain plasticity and enhance performance (Fiorentini & Berardi, 1981). The present study aimed to determine (a) whether perceptual learning can be used to compensate for age-related declines in perceptual abilities, and (b) whether the effect of perceptual learning can be transferred to untrained stimuli and subsequently improve capacity of visual working memory (VWM). We tested both healthy younger and older adults in a 3-day training session using an orientation discrimination task. A matching-to-sample psychophysical method was used to measure improvements in orientation discrimination thresholds and reaction times (RTs). Results showed that both younger and older adults improved discrimination thresholds and RTs with similar learning rates and magnitudes. Furthermore, older adults exhibited a generalization of improvements to 3 untrained orientations that were close to the training orientation and benefited more compared with younger adults from the perceptual learning as they transferred learning effects to the VWM performance. We conclude that through perceptual learning, older adults can partially counteract age-related perceptual declines, generalize the learning effect to other stimulus conditions, and further overcome the limitation of using VWM capacity to perform a perceptual task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Burke, Sara N.; Setlow, Barry; Smith, David W.; Bizon, Jennifer L.
Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one’s environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits. Taking advantage of rodents’ exceptional olfactory abilities, the present study applied rigorous psychophysical techniques to the evaluation of discrimination learning in young and aged F344 rats. Aging did not influence odor detection thresholds or the ability to discriminate between perceptually distinct odorants. In contrast, aged rats were disproportionately impaired relative to young on problems that required discriminations between perceptually similar olfactory stimuli. Importantly, these disproportionate impairments in discrimination learning did not simply reflect a global learning impairment in aged rats, as they performed other types of difficult discriminations on par with young rats. Among aged rats, discrimination deficits were strongly associated with spatial learning deficits. These findings reveal a new, sensitive behavioral approach for elucidating the neural mechanisms of cognitive decline associated with normal aging. PMID:28259065
Lortie, Catherine L.; Deschamps, Isabelle; Guitton, Matthieu J.; Tremblay, Pascale
Purpose: The factors that influence the evaluation of voice in adulthood, as well as the consequences of such evaluation on social interactions, are not well understood. Here, we examined the effect of listeners' age and the effect of talker age, sex, and smoking status on the auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice, voice-related psychosocial…
Nešić Blagoje V.
Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher
Gutherie, Audrey H; Seely, Peter W; Beacham, Lauren A; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William A; Moore, Anna Bacon
The impact of age-related changes in visual-perceptual processing on naming ability has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 6 levels of spatial frequency and 6 levels of contrast on accuracy and latency to name objects in 14 young and 13 older neurologically normal adults with intact lexical-semantic functioning. Spatial frequency and contrast manipulations were made independently. Consistent with the hypotheses, variations in these two visual parameters impact naming ability in young and older subjects differently. The results from the spatial frequency-manipulations revealed that, in general, young vs. older subjects are faster and more accurate to name. However, this age-related difference is dependent on the spatial frequency on the image; differences were only seen for images presented at low (e.g., 0.25-1 c/deg) or high (e.g., 8-16 c/deg) spatial frequencies. Contrary to predictions, the results from the contrast manipulations revealed that overall older vs. young adults are more accurate to name. Again, however, differences were only seen for images presented at the lower levels of contrast (i.e., 1.25%). Both age groups had shorter latencies on the second exposure of the contrast-manipulated images, but this possible advantage of exposure was not seen for spatial frequency. Category analyses conducted on the data from this study indicate that older vs. young adults exhibit a stronger nonliving-object advantage for naming spatial frequency-manipulated images. Moreover, the findings suggest that bottom-up visual-perceptual variables integrate with top-down category information in different ways. Potential implications on the aging and naming (and recognition) literature are discussed.
Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon
Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....
Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka
Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Small, B J; Hultsch, D F; Masson, M E
Implicit tests of memory assess the influence of recent experience without requiring awareness of remembering. Evidence concerning age differences on implicit tests of memory suggests small age differences in favor of younger adults. However, the majority of research examining this issue has relied upon perceptually based implicit tests. Recently, a second type of implicit test, one that relies upon conceptually based processes, has been identified. The pattern of age differences on this second type of implicit test is less clear. In the present study, we examined the pattern of age differences on one conceptually based (fact completion) and one perceptually based (stem completion) implicit test of memory, as well as two explicit tests of memory (fact and word recall). Tasks were administered to 403 adults from three age groups (19-34 years, 58-73 years, 74-89 years). Significant age differences in favor of the young were found on stem completion but not fact completion. Age differences were present for both word and fast recall. Correlational analyses examining the relationship of memory performance to other cognitive variables indicated that the implicit tests were supported by different components than the explicit tests, as well as being different from each other.
Full Text Available Attention and awareness are known to be linked (e.g. see Lavie, Beck, & Konstantinou, 2014, for a review. However the extent to which this link changes over development is not fully understood. Most research concerning the development of attention has investigated the effects of attention on distraction, visual search and spatial orienting, typically using reaction time measures which cannot directly support conclusions about conscious awareness. Here we used Lavie’s Load Theory of Attention and Cognitive Control to examine the development of attention effects on awareness. According to Load Theory awareness levels are determined by the availability of attentional capacity. We hypothesised that attentional capacity develops with age, and consequently that awareness rates should increase with development due to the enhanced capacity. Thus we predicted that greater rates of inattentional blindness (IB would be found at a younger age, and that lower levels of perceptual load will be sufficient to exhaust capacity and cause IB in children but not adults. We tested this hypothesis using an IB paradigm with adults and children aged 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13 years old. Participants performed a line-length judgment task (indicating which arm of a cross is longer and on the last trial were asked to report whether they noticed an unexpected task-irrelevant stimulus (a small square in the display. Perceptual load was varied by changing the line-length difference (with a smaller difference in the conditions of higher load. The results supported our hypothesis: levels of awareness increased with age, and a moderate increase in the perceptual load of the task led to greater IB for children but not adults. These results extended across both peripheral and central presentations of the task stimuli. Overall, these findings establish the development of capacity for awareness and demonstrate the critical role of the perceptual load in the attended task.
Doesburg, Sam M; Chau, Cecil M; Cheung, Teresa P L; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E
Children born very prematurely (pain-related stress during neonatal intensive care has been proposed to contribute to altered neurocognitive development in these children. Due to critical periods in the development of thalamocortical systems, the immature brain of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; pain. In a cohort of school-age children followed since birth we assessed relations between functional brain activity measured using magnetoencephalogragy (MEG), visual-perceptual abilities and cumulative neonatal pain. We demonstrated alterations in the spectral structure of spontaneous cortical oscillatory activity in ELGA children at school-age. Cumulative neonatal pain-related stress was associated with changes in background cortical rhythmicity in these children, and these alterations in spontaneous brain oscillations were negatively correlated with visual-perceptual abilities at school-age, and were not driven by potentially confounding neonatal variables. These findings provide the first evidence linking neonatal pain-related stress, the development of functional brain activity, and school-age cognitive outcome in these vulnerable children. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dennis, Nancy A; Turney, Indira C
Previous false memory research has suggested that older adults' false memories are based on an overreliance on gist processing in the absence of item-specific details. Yet, false memory studies have rarely taken into consideration the precise role of item-item similarity on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying perceptual false memories in older adults. In addition, work in our laboratory has suggested that when investigating the neural basis of false memories in older adults, it is equally as critical to take into account interindividual variability in behavior. With both factors in mind, the present study was the first to examine how both controlled, systematic differences in perceptual relatedness between targets and lures and individual differences in true and false recognition contribute to the neural basis of both true and false memories in older adults. Results suggest that between-subject variability in memory performance modulates neural activity in key regions associated with false memories in aging, whereas systematic differences in perceptual similarity did not modulate neural activity associated with false memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Remington, Anna; Cartwright-Finch, Ula; Lavie, Nilli
Attention and awareness are known to be linked (e.g., see Lavie et al., 2014, for a review). However the extent to which this link changes over development is not fully understood. Most research concerning the development of attention has investigated the effects of attention on distraction, visual search and spatial orienting, typically using reaction time measures which cannot directly support conclusions about conscious awareness. Here we used Lavie's Load Theory of Attention and Cognitive Control to examine the development of attention effects on awareness. According to Load Theory, awareness levels are determined by the availability of attentional capacity. We hypothesized that attentional capacity develops with age, and consequently that awareness rates should increase with development due to the enhanced capacity. Thus we predicted that greater rates of inattentional blindness (IB) would be found at a younger age, and that lower levels of load will be sufficient to exhaust capacity and cause IB in children but not adults. We tested this hypothesis using an IB paradigm with adults and children aged 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13 years old. Participants performed a line-length judgment task (indicating which arm of a cross is longer) and on the last trial were asked to report whether they noticed an unexpected task-irrelevant stimulus (a small square) in the display. Perceptual load was varied by changing the line-length difference (with a smaller difference in the conditions of higher load). The results supported our hypothesis: levels of awareness increased with age, and a moderate increase in the perceptual load of the task led to greater IB for children but not adults. These results extended across both peripheral and central presentations of the task stimuli. Overall, these findings establish the development of capacity for awareness and demonstrate the critical role of the perceptual load in the attended task.
Inge Linda Wilms
Full Text Available Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory of Visual Attention (TVA. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.
Goldhammer, Frank; Rauch, Wolfgang A.; Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried
The study investigates the effects of intelligence, perceptual speed and age on intraindividual growth in attentional speed and attentional accuracy over the course of a 6-minute testing session. A sample of 193 subjects completed the Advanced Progressive Matrices and the Vienna Matrices Test representing intelligence, the tests Alertness and…
Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W
The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5 min rest between efforts. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 s sprint (10SST), 30-min time trial (30TT) performance, creatine kinase concentration (CK) and perceptual measures of motivation, total recovery, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected at baseline and at standardised time points across the 48 h recovery period. No significant group-time interactions were observed for performance of MVC, 10SST, 30TT and CK (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in 10SST peak power was found in both masters (P = 0.002) and young (P = 0.003) cyclists at 1 h post exercise, however, both groups physically recovered at similar rates. Neither group showed significant (P > 0.05) or practically meaningful increases in CK (%∆ < 10%). A significant age-related difference was found for perceptual fatigue (P = 0.01) and analysis of effect size (ES) showed that perceptual recovery was delayed with masters cyclists reporting lower motivation (ES ±90%CI = 0.69 ± 0.77, moderate), greater fatigue (ES = 0.75 ± 0.93, moderate) and muscle soreness (ES = 0.61 ± 0.70, moderate) after 48 h of recovery. The delay in perceived recovery may have negative effects on long-term participation to systematic training.
Abigail M. Dean
Full Text Available Several individual differences including age have been suggested to affect the perception of slant. A cross-sectional study of outdoor hill estimation (N = 106 was analyzed using individual difference measures of age, experiential knowledge, fitness, personality traits, and sex. Of particular note, it was found that for participants who reported any experiential knowledge about slant, estimates decreased (i.e., became more accurate as conscientiousness increased, suggesting that more conscientious individuals were more deliberate about taking their experiential knowledge (rather than perception into account. Effects of fitness were limited to those without experiential knowledge, suggesting that they, too, may be cognitive rather than perceptual. The observed effects of age, which tended to produce lower, more accurate estimates of hill slant, provide more evidence that older adults do not see hills as steeper. The main effect of age was to lower slant estimates; such effects may be due to implicit experiential knowledge acquired over a lifetime. The results indicate the impact of cognitive, rather than perceptual factors on individual differences in slant estimation.
Blais, Mélody; Martin, Elodie; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Tallet, Jessica
Despite the apparent age-related decline in perceptual-motor performance, recent studies suggest that the elderly people can improve their reaction time when relevant sensory information are available. However, little is known about which sensory information may improve motor behaviour itself. Using a synchronization task, the present study investigates how visual and/or auditory stimulations could increase accuracy and stability of three bimanual coordination modes produced by elderly and young adults. Neurophysiological activations are recorded with ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) to explore neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects. Results reveal that the elderly stabilize all coordination modes when auditory or audio-visual stimulations are available, compared to visual stimulation alone. This suggests that auditory stimulations are sufficient to improve temporal stability of rhythmic coordination, even more in the elderly. This behavioural effect is primarily associated with increased attentional and sensorimotor-related neural activations in the elderly but similar perceptual-related activations in elderly and young adults. This suggests that, despite a degradation of attentional and sensorimotor neural processes, perceptual integration of auditory stimulations is preserved in the elderly. These results suggest that perceptual-related brain plasticity is, at least partially, conserved in normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tjakko J van Ham
Full Text Available Inclusions in the brain containing alpha-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, but how these inclusions are formed and how this links to disease is poorly understood. We have developed a C. elegans model that makes it possible to monitor, in living animals, the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions. In worms of old age, inclusions contain aggregated alpha- synuclein, resembling a critical pathological feature. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify processes involved in inclusion formation, and identified 80 genes that, when knocked down, resulted in a premature increase in the number of inclusions. Quality control and vesicle-trafficking genes expressed in the ER/Golgi complex and vesicular compartments were overrepresented, indicating a specific role for these processes in alpha-synuclein inclusion formation. Suppressors include aging-associated genes, such as sir-2.1/SIRT1 and lagr-1/LASS2. Altogether, our data suggest a link between alpha-synuclein inclusion formation and cellular aging, likely through an endomembrane-related mechanism. The processes and genes identified here present a framework for further study of the disease mechanism and provide candidate susceptibility genes and drug targets for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synuclein related disorders.
Revision of the Competency Standards for Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors: An overview of the evidence for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual assessments within fitness-to-drive evaluations.
Fields, Sally M; Unsworth, Carolyn A
Determination of fitness-to-drive after illness or injury is a complex process typically requiring a comprehensive driving assessment, including off-road and on-road assessment components. The competency standards for occupational therapy driver assessors (Victoria, Australia) define the requirements for performance of a comprehensive driving assessment, and we are currently revising these. Assessment of cognitive and perceptual skills forms an important part of the off-road assessment. The aim of this systematic review of systematic reviews (known as an overview) is to identify what evidence exists for including assessment of cognitive and perceptual skills within fitness-to-drive evaluations to inform revision of the competency standards. Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, OT Seeker) were systematically searched. Systematic review articles were appraised by two authors for eligibility. Methodological quality was independently assessed using the AMSTAR tool. Narrative analysis was conducted to summarise the content of eligible reviews. A total of 1228 results were retrieved. Fourteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Reviews indicated that the components of cognition and perception most frequently identified as being predictive of fitness-to-drive were executive function (n = 13), processing speed (n = 12), visuospatial skills, attention, memory and mental flexibility (n = 11). Components less indicative were perception, concentration (n = 10), praxis (n = 9), language (n = 7) and neglect (n = 6). This overview of systematic reviews supports the inclusion of assessment of a range of cognitive and perceptual skills as key elements in a comprehensive driver assessment and therefore should be included in the revised competency standards for occupational therapy driver assessors. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Belka, D E
Multiple regression equations were generated to predict cognitive achievement for 40 children (ages 57 to 68 mo.) 1 yr. after administration of a battery of 6 perceptual and perceptual-motor tests to determine if previous results from Toledo could be replicated. Regression equations generated from maximum R2 improvement techniques indicated that performance at prekindergarten is useful for prediction of cognitive performance (total score and total score without the copying subtest on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests) 1 yr. later at the end of kindergarten. The optimal battery included scores on auditory perception, fine perceptual-motor, and gross perceptual-motor tasks. The moderate predictive power of the equations obtained was compared with high predictive power generated in the Toledo study.
LAVERGNE, Francis; SAB, Karam; SANAHUJA, Julien; BORNERT, Michel; TOULEMONDE, Charles
A multi-scale homogenization scheme is proposed to estimate the time-dependent strains of fiber-reinforced concrete. This material is modeled as an aging linear viscoelastic composite material featuring ellipsoidal inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic cementitious matrix characterized by a time-dependent Poisson's ratio. To this end, the homogenization scheme proposed in Lavergne et al.  is adapted to the case of a time-dependent Poisson's ratio and it is successfully validated on a non-a...
Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Benasich, April A
During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear. A group of typically developing infants born into monolingual English families, were followed from 6 to 12 months and presented with English and Spanish syllable contrasts varying in voice-onset time. Brain responses were recorded with high-density electroencephalogram, and sources of event-related potential generators identified at right and left auditory cortices at 6 and 12 months and also at frontal cortex at 6 months. Time-frequency analyses conducted at source level found variations in both θ and γ ranges across age. Compared with 6-month-olds, 12-month-olds' responses to native phonemes showed smaller and faster phase synchronization and less spectral power in the θ range, and increases in left phase synchrony as well as induced high-γ activity in both frontal and left auditory sources. These results demonstrate that infants become more automatized and efficient in processing their native language as they approach 12 months of age via the interplay between θ and γ oscillations. We suggest that, while θ oscillations support syllable processing, γ oscillations underlie phonemic perceptual narrowing, progressively favoring mapping of native over non-native language across the first year of life. During early language acquisition, typically developing infants gradually construct phonemic maps of their native language in auditory cortex. It is well
Seitz, Aaron R
Perceptual learning refers to how experience can change the way we perceive sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touch. Examples abound: music training improves our ability to discern tones; experience with food and wines can refine our pallet (and unfortunately more quickly empty our wallet), and with years of training radiologists learn to save lives by discerning subtle details of images that escape the notice of untrained viewers. We often take perceptual learning for granted, but it has a profound impact on how we perceive the world. In this Primer, I will explain how perceptual learning is transformative in guiding our perceptual processes, how research into perceptual learning provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of learning and brain processes, and how knowledge of perceptual learning can be used to develop more effective training approaches for those requiring expert perceptual skills or those in need of perceptual rehabilitation (such as individuals with poor vision). I will make a case that perceptual learning is ubiquitous, scientifically interesting, and has substantial practical utility to us all. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing
This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.
Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Mauro, Samantha; Cao, Bo; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
The effects of age on the ability to resolve perceptual ambiguity are unknown, though it depends on fronto-parietal attentional networks known to change with age. We presented the bistable Necker cube to 24 middle-aged and older adults (OA; 56–78 years) and 20 younger adults (YA; 18–24 years) under passive-viewing and volitional control conditions: Hold one cube percept and Switch between cube percepts. During passive viewing, OA had longer dominance durations (time spent on each percept) than YA. In the Hold condition, OA were less able than YA to increase dominance durations. In the Switch condition, OA and YA did not differ in performance. Dominance durations in either condition correlated with performance on tests of executive function mediated by the frontal lobes. Eye movements (fixation deviations) did not differ between groups. These results suggest that OA’s reduced ability to hold a percept may arise from reduced selective attention. The lack of correlation of performance between Hold and executive-function measures suggests at least a partial segregation of underlying mechanisms. PMID:27116194
Chang, Li-Hung; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Andersen, George J; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo
One of the biggest questions in learning is how a system can resolve the plasticity and stability dilemma. Specifically, the learning system needs to have not only a high capability of learning new items (plasticity) but also a high stability to retain important items or processing in the system by preventing unimportant or irrelevant information from being learned. This dilemma should hold true for visual perceptual learning (VPL), which is defined as a long-term increase in performance on a visual task as a result of visual experience. Although it is well known that aging influences learning, the effect of aging on the stability and plasticity of the visual system is unclear. To address the question, we asked older and younger adults to perform a task while a task-irrelevant feature was merely exposed. We found that older individuals learned the task-irrelevant features that younger individuals did not learn, both the features that were sufficiently strong for younger individuals to suppress and the features that were too weak for younger individuals to learn. At the same time, there was no plasticity reduction in older individuals within the task tested. These results suggest that the older visual system is less stable to unimportant information than the younger visual system. A learning problem with older individuals may be due to a decrease in stability rather than a decrease in plasticity, at least in VPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farkas, Mitchell S.; Hoyer, William J.
Examined adult age differences in the effects of perceptual grouping on attentional performance. All three age groups were slowed by the presence of similar irrelevant information, but the elderly were slowed more than were the young adults. (Author)
Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Schmid, Simone
In two experiments, we transferred perceptual load theory to the dynamic field of team sports and tested the predictions derived from the theory using a novel task and stimuli. We tested a group of college students (N = 33) and a group of expert team sport players (N = 32) on a general perceptual load task and a complex, soccer-specific perceptual load task in order to extend the understanding of the applicability of perceptual load theory and further investigate whether distractor interference may differ between the groups, as the sport-specific processing task may not exhaust the processing capacity of the expert participants. In both, the general and the specific task, the pattern of results supported perceptual load theory and demonstrates that the predictions of the theory also transfer to more complex, unstructured situations. Further, perceptual load was the only determinant of distractor processing, as we neither found expertise effects in the general perceptual load task nor the sport-specific task. We discuss the heuristic utility of using response-competition paradigms for studying both general and domain-specific perceptual-cognitive adaptations.
Full Text Available Introduction: Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL. Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL.Methods: 56 listeners (60-72 y/o, 35 participants with ARHL and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training and no-training group. Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1 Speech-in-noise (2 time compressed speech and (3 competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results: Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions: ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to
Pedersen, Søren Nygaard
The research presented in this PhD thesis has focused on a perceptual approach to robust design. The results of the research and the original contribution to knowledge is a preliminary framework for understanding, positioning, and applying perceptual robust design. Product quality is a topic...... been presented. Therefore, this study set out to contribute to the understanding and application of perceptual robust design. To achieve this, a state-of-the-art and current practice review was performed. From the review two main research problems were identified. Firstly, a lack of tools...... for perceptual robustness was found to overlap with the optimum for functional robustness and at most approximately 2.2% out of the 14.74% could be ascribed solely to the perceptual robustness optimisation. In conclusion, the thesis have offered a new perspective on robust design by merging robust design...
Berry, Anne S; Zanto, Theodore P; Clapp, Wesley C; Hardy, Joseph L; Delahunt, Peter B; Mahncke, Henry W; Gazzaley, Adam
Normal aging is associated with a degradation of perceptual abilities and a decline in higher-level cognitive functions, notably working memory. To remediate age-related deficits, cognitive training programs are increasingly being developed. However, it is not yet definitively established if, and by what mechanisms, training ameliorates effects of cognitive aging. Furthermore, a major factor impeding the success of training programs is a frequent failure of training to transfer benefits to untrained abilities. Here, we offer the first evidence of direct transfer-of-benefits from perceptual discrimination training to working memory performance in older adults. Moreover, using electroencephalography to evaluate participants before and after training, we reveal neural evidence of functional plasticity in older adult brains, such that training-induced modifications in early visual processing during stimulus encoding predict working memory accuracy improvements. These findings demonstrate the strength of the perceptual discrimination training approach by offering clear psychophysical evidence of transfer-of-benefit and a neural mechanism underlying cognitive improvement.
Anne S Berry
Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with a degradation of perceptual abilities and a decline in higher-level cognitive functions, notably working memory. To remediate age-related deficits, cognitive training programs are increasingly being developed. However, it is not yet definitively established if, and by what mechanisms, training ameliorates effects of cognitive aging. Furthermore, a major factor impeding the success of training programs is a frequent failure of training to transfer benefits to untrained abilities. Here, we offer the first evidence of direct transfer-of-benefits from perceptual discrimination training to working memory performance in older adults. Moreover, using electroencephalography to evaluate participants before and after training, we reveal neural evidence of functional plasticity in older adult brains, such that training-induced modifications in early visual processing during stimulus encoding predict working memory accuracy improvements. These findings demonstrate the strength of the perceptual discrimination training approach by offering clear psychophysical evidence of transfer-of-benefit and a neural mechanism underlying cognitive improvement.
Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cao, Bo; Mauro, Samantha A; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal aging have been associated with changes in visual perception, including reliance on external cues to guide behavior. This raises the question of the extent to which these groups use visual cues when disambiguating information. Twenty-seven individuals with PD, 23 normal control adults (NC), and 20 younger adults (YA) were presented a Necker cube in which one face was highlighted by thickening the lines defining the face. The hypothesis was that the visual cues would help PD and NC to exert better control over bistable perception. There were three conditions, including passive viewing and two volitional-control conditions (hold one percept in front; and switch: speed up the alternation between the two). In the Hold condition, the cue was either consistent or inconsistent with task instructions. Mean dominance durations (time spent on each percept) under passive viewing were comparable in PD and NC, and shorter in YA. PD and YA increased dominance durations in the Hold cue-consistent condition relative to NC, meaning that appropriate cues helped PD but not NC hold one perceptual interpretation. By contrast, in the Switch condition, NC and YA decreased dominance durations relative to PD, meaning that the use of cues helped NC but not PD in expediting the switch between percepts. Provision of low-level cues has effects on volitional control in PD that are different from in normal aging, and only under task-specific conditions does the use of such cues facilitate the resolution of perceptual ambiguity.
Yoshida, Katherine A; Iversen, John R; Patel, Aniruddh D; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F
Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and English-learning infants of 5-6 and 7-8 months of age to explore the development of grouping preferences. At 5-6 months, neither the Japanese nor the English infants revealed any systematic perceptual biases. However, by 7-8 months, the same age as when linguistic phrasal grouping develops, infants developed non-linguistic grouping preferences consistent with their language's structure (and the grouping biases found in adulthood). These results reveal an early difference in non-linguistic perception between infants growing up in different language environments. The possibility that infants' linguistic phrasal grouping is bootstrapped by abstract perceptual principles is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koff, E; Boyle, P; Pueschel, S M
Children with treated phenylketonuria (PKU) have been described as being at high risk for perceptual-motor dysfunction. In this study, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Bender Gestalt test were administered to 19 school age children with treated PKU and of average intelligence who have been off diet from five months to six years four months. Perceptual-motor performance was evaluated, and school functioning was rated by classroom teachers. Substantial impairment of perceptual-motor functioning as measured by the Bender Gestalt test and lower WISC performance IQs than verbal IQs were observed in children of average intelligence. Quality of dietary control was found to be associated with performance on the Bender Gestalt test. These findings suggest the possibility of a specific deficit that could seriously interfere with academic progress, but which is not signalled by obvious impairment of overall intellectual functioning.
Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.
Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Strauß, Bernd; Tirp, Judith; Büsch, Dirk; Schorer, Jörg
There is little research investigating the maintenance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in general and even less comparing coaches of different ages. The aim of this study was to test for perceptual-cognitive differences between age groups, licence levels, and their interaction. This study investigated differences in skilled performance between young and middle-aged coaches of three different skill levels. Participants performed an accuracy-oriented pattern recall (mean distance in pixel) and a time-oriented flicker test (mean detection time in ms). There were some significant differences between age groups and between skill groups for both tests, but no interactions. For the pattern recall test, the effect sizes were larger for skill level differences, while for the flicker test effects were larger for ageing. These results suggest coaches are able to maintain accuracy skills better than reaction timed tasks. This is in line with findings on speeded performance in general populations, which show declines with age. Moreover, results also support findings on perceptual expertise in skills where accuracy was important.
Dosher, Barbara; Lu, Zhong-Lin
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision. Models, especially computational models, play a key role in behavioral and physiological investigations of the mechanisms of perceptual learning and for understanding, predicting, and optimizing human perceptual processes, learning, and performance. Performance improvements resulting from reweighting or readout of sensory inputs to decision provide a strong theoretical framework for interpreting perceptual learning and transfer that may prove useful in optimizing learning in real-world applications.
Kellman, Philip J; Garrigan, Patrick
We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual
Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick
We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual
Bélanger, Nathalie N; Lee, Michelle; Schotter, Elizabeth R
Recently, Bélanger, Slattery, Mayberry and Rayner (2012) showed, using the moving window paradigm, that profoundly deaf adults have a wider perceptual span during reading relative to hearing adults matched on reading level. This difference might be related to the fact that deaf adults allocate more visual attention to simple stimuli in the parafovea (Bavelier, Dye & Hauser, 2006). Importantly, this reorganization of visual attention in deaf individuals is already manifesting in deaf children (Dye, Hauser & Bavelier, 2009). This leads to questions about the time course of the emergence of an enhanced perceptual span (which is under attentional control; Rayner, 2014; Miellet, O'Donnell, & Sereno, 2009) in young deaf readers. The present research addressed this question by comparing the perceptual spans of young deaf readers (age 7-15) and young hearing children (age 7-15). Young deaf readers, like deaf adults, were found to have a wider perceptual span relative to their hearing peers matched on reading level, suggesting that strong and early reorganization of visual attention in deaf individuals goes beyond the processing of simple visual stimuli and emerges into more cognitively complex tasks, such as reading.
Lametti, D.R.; Oostwoud Wijdenes, L.; Bonaiuto, J.; Bestmann, S.; Rothwell, J.C.
Neuroimaging studies suggest that the cerebellum might play a role in both speech perception and speech perceptual learning. However, it remains unclear what this role is: does the cerebellum directly contribute to the perceptual decision? Or does it contribute to the timing of perceptual decisions?
Gulya, Michelle; Rossi-George, Alba; Hartshorn, Kristen; Vieira, Aurora; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Johnson, Marcia K.; Chalfonte, Barbara L.
Three experiments with 164 individuals between 4 and 80 years old examined age-related changes in explicit memory for three perceptual features: item identity, color, and location. Findings indicated that performance on explicit memory tests was not a consistent inverted U-shaped function of age across various features, but depended on the…
Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.
Phenotypic variability within the inclusion body spectrum of basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease in frontotemporal lobar degenerations with FUS-positive inclusions.
Gelpi, Ellen; Lladó, Albert; Clarimón, Jordi; Rey, Maria Jesús; Rivera, Rosa Maria; Ezquerra, Mario; Antonell, Anna; Navarro-Otano, Judith; Ribalta, Teresa; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Pérez, Anna; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Ferrer, Isidre
Basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) are rare diseases included among frontotemporal lobar degenerations with FUS-positive inclusions (FTLD-FUS). We report clinical and pathologic features of 2 new patients and reevaluate neuropathologic characteristics of 2 previously described cases, including an early-onset case of basophilic inclusion body disease (aged 38 years) with a 5-year disease course and abundant FUS-positive inclusion bodies and 3 NIFID cases. One NIFID case (aged 37 years) presented with early-onset psychiatric disturbances and rapidly progressive cognitive decline. Two NIFID cases had later onset (aged 64 years and 70 years) and complex neurologic deficits. Postmortem neuropathologic studies in late-onset NIFID cases disclosed α-internexin-positive "hyaline conglomerate"-type inclusions that were positive with 1 commercial anti-FUS antibody directed to residues 200 and 250, but these were negative to amino acids 90 and 220 of human FUS. Early-onset NIFID had similar inclusions that were positive with both commercial anti-FUS antibodies. Genetic testing performed on all cases revealed no FUS gene mutations. These findings indicate that phenotypic variability in NIFID, including clinical manifestations and particular neuropathologic findings, may be related to the age at onset and individual differences in the evolution of lesions.
van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.
According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…
Thordis Marisa Neger
Full Text Available Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech.In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with sixty meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory and processing speed. Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly.
Full Text Available This study investigated semantic and perceptual influences on false recognition in older and young adults in a variant on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In two experiments, participants encoded intermixed sets of semantically associated words, and sets of unrelated words. Each set was presented in a shared distinctive font. Older adults were no more likely to falsely recognize semantically associated lure words compared to unrelated lures also presented in studied fonts. However, they showed an increase in false recognition of lures which were related to studied items only by a shared font. This increased false recognition was associated with recollective experience. The data show that older adults do not always rely more on prior knowledge in episodic memory tasks. They converge with other findings suggesting that older adults may also be more prone to perceptually-driven errors.
Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.
Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…
Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M
Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.
Nippold, M A; Sullivan, M P
In contrast to the common assumption that young children have little or no ability to reason by analogy or to comprehend proportional metaphors, the present study demonstrated that children as young as age 5 years have an emerging ability to solve both verbal and perceptual proportional analogy problems and to detect the meanings of proportional metaphoric sentences. These results were largely because the experimental tasks were designed to minimize the number of factors that would restrict the performance of young children. The results indicated that the years between 5 and 7 mark a steady improvement in analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension, but that children ages 5, 6, and 7 display a wide-ranging ability in these areas. It was also found that perceptual analogical reasoning was statistically related to verbal analogical reasoning and to proportional metaphor comprehension, and that perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension were both statistically related to receptive vocabulary development.
Alibali, Martha W; Crooks, Noelle M; McNeil, Nicole M
Over time, children shift from using less optimal strategies for solving mathematics problems to using better ones. But why do children generate new strategies? We argue that they do so when they begin to encode problems more accurately; therefore, we hypothesized that perceptual support for correct encoding would foster strategy generation. Fourth-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __) in a pre-test. They were then randomly assigned to one of three perceptual support conditions or to a Control condition. Participants in all conditions completed three mathematical equivalence problems with feedback about correctness. Participants in the experimental conditions received perceptual support (i.e., highlighting in red ink) for accurately encoding the equal sign, the right side of the equation, or the numbers that could be added to obtain the correct solution. Following this intervention, participants completed a problem-solving post-test. Among participants who solved the problems incorrectly at pre-test, those who received perceptual support for correctly encoding the equal sign were more likely to generate new, correct strategies for solving the problems than were those who received feedback only. Thus, perceptual support for accurate encoding of a key problem feature promoted generation of new, correct strategies. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? With age and experience, children shift to using more effective strategies for solving math problems. Problem encoding also improves with age and experience. What the present study adds? Support for encoding the equal sign led children to generate correct strategies for solving equations. Improvements in problem encoding are one source of new strategies. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Learning with mobiles in UK universities is not new and is not novel. It is, in fact, at least 10 years old, well-documented and comparable to activity in universities elsewhere in Western Europe, America and Asia Pacific. Continued and dramatic changes in the ownership, access and expectations of mobiles amongst university students and equally across UK society have suddenly propelled learning with mobiles to centre-stage as a feasible proposition but, it is now argued, only if students can bring-your-own-device. This has already catalysed discussion about authority, agency and control within university settings but the equally significant and profound implications for the inclusion agenda have not been articulated. This paper begins that process. A theoretical framework for social inclusion in this context is considered, identified and discussed. The paper reviews the progress and problems of the substantial and unique programme of mobile learning across UK higher education since 2000 in relation to its stance on inclusion, where this is apparent. These are all well-documented in academic and official sources; the paper does however also draw on the author's involvement in many of the events and initiatives. The paper raises however significant questions about this programme's meaning and direction in a world where now there is more, better, cheaper, faster, newer but different digital technology in the hands of students, potential students and everyone else than there is routinely in the educational institutions themselves. This digital technology, mobile technology, now allows learners to create, own, transform, discuss, discard, share, store and broadcast ideas, opinions, images and information, and to create and transform identities and communities. The paper argues that this epistemological revolution may mean that universities and colleges are no longer credible and authoritative gatekeepers to knowledge and its technologies and so the
Yehezkel, Oren; Sterkin, Anna; Lev, Maria; Levi, Dennis M; Polat, Uri
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the dependence of perceptual learning gains on initial visual acuity (VA), in a large sample of subjects with a wide range of VAs. A large sample of normally sighted and presbyopic subjects (N = 119; aged 40 to 63) with a wide range of uncorrected near visual acuities (VA, -0.12 to 0.8 LogMAR), underwent perceptual learning. Training consisted of detecting briefly presented Gabor stimuli under spatial and temporal masking conditions. Consistent with previous findings, perceptual learning induced a significant improvement in near VA and reading speed under conditions of limited exposure duration. Our results show that the improvements in VA and reading speed observed following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial VA, with only a minor fraction of the observed improvement that may be attributed to the additional sessions performed by those with the worse VA.
Cannito, Michael P; Doiuchi, Maki; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E
To examine the perceptual structure of voice attributes in adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin treatment and identify acoustic correlates of underlying perceptual factors. Reliability of perceptual judgments is considered in detail. Pre- and posttreatment trial with comparison to healthy controls, using single-blind randomized listener judgments of voice qualities, as well as retrospective comparison with acoustic measurements. Oral readings were recorded from 42 ADSD speakers before and after treatment as well as from their age- and sex-matched controls. Experienced judges listened to speech samples and rated attributes of overall voice quality, breathiness, roughness, and brokenness, using computer-implemented visual analog scaling. Data were adjusted for regression to the mean and submitted to principal components factor analysis. Acoustic waveforms, extracted from the reading samples, were analyzed and measurements correlated with perceptual factor scores. Four reliable perceptual variables of ADSD voice were effectively reduced to two underlying factors that corresponded to hyperadduction, most strongly associated with roughness, and hypoadduction, most strongly associated with breathiness. After treatment, the hyperadduction factor improved, whereas the hypoadduction factor worsened. Statistically significant (P<0.01) correlations were observed between perceived roughness and four acoustic measures, whereas breathiness correlated with aperiodicity and cepstral peak prominence (CPPs). This study supported a two-factor model of ADSD, suggesting perceptual characterization by both hyperadduction and hypoadduction before and after treatment. Responses of the factors to treatment were consistent with previous research. Correlations among perceptual and acoustic variables suggested that multiple acoustic features contributed to the overall impression of roughness. Although CPPs appears to be a partial correlate of perceived
Jacobs, Robert A
New technologies and new ways of thinking have recently led to rapid expansions in the study of perceptual learning. We describe three themes shared by many of the nine articles included in this topic on Integrated Approaches to Perceptual Learning. First, perceptual learning cannot be studied on its own because it is closely linked to other aspects of cognition, such as attention, working memory, decision making, and conceptual knowledge. Second, perceptual learning is sensitive to both the stimulus properties of the environment in which an observer exists and to the properties of the tasks that the observer needs to perform. Moreover, the environmental and task properties can be characterized through their statistical regularities. Finally, the study of perceptual learning has important implications for society, including implications for science education and medical rehabilitation. Contributed articles relevant to each theme are summarized. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 3 (FREM3) single-nucleotide polymorphism effects on gene expression, amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed: An accelerated aging pathway of depression risk
Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Iruku, Swetha P.; Lin, Chien-Wei; Conley, Emily Drabant; Puralewski, Rachel; French, Beverly; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Sibille, Etienne
The A allele of the FRAS1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3) rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD) in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here, we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) (192 women, mean age 19.7 ± 1.2). Perceptual processing speed was indexed by reaction times in the same task and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The effect of rs7676614 on FREM3 mRNA brain expression levels was probed in a postmortem cohort of 169 Caucasian individuals (44 women, mean age 50.8 ± 14.9). The A allele of rs7676614 was associated with blunted amygdala reactivity to faces, slower reaction times in the face-matching condition (p < 0.04), as well as marginally slower performance on TMT Part B (p = 0.056). In the postmortem cohort, the T allele of rs6537170 (proxy for the rs7676614 A allele), was associated with trend-level reductions in gene expression in Brodmann areas 11 and 47 (p = 0.066), reminiscent of patterns characteristic of older age. The low-expressing allele of another FREM3 SNP (rs1391187) was similarly associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and slower TMT Part B speed, in addition to reduced BA47 activity and extraversion (p < 0.05). Together, these results suggest common genetic variation associated with reduced FREM3 expression may confer risk for a subtype of depression characterized by reduced reactivity to environmental stimuli and slower perceptual processing speed, possibly suggestive of
Full Text Available Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.
Normand, Alice; Autin, Frédérique; Croizet, Jean-Claude
Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high perceptual load preventing distraction by any irrelevant information. However, when under evaluative pressure, individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them more distractible from task-relevant distractors. One study tested whether the top-down modulation of attention under evaluative pressure overcomes the beneficial bottom-up effect of high perceptual load on distraction. Using a response-competition task, we replicated previous findings that high levels of perceptual load suppress task-relevant distractor response interference, but only for participants in a control condition. Participants under evaluative pressure (i.e., who believed their intelligence was assessed) showed interference from task-relevant distractor at all levels of perceptual load. This research challenges the assumptions of the perceptual load theory and sheds light on a neglected determinant of distractibility: the self-relevance of the performance situation in which attentional control is solicited.
Spaniol, Julia; Voss, Andreas; Bowen, Holly J; Grady, Cheryl L
This study examined whether motivational incentives modulate age-related perceptual deficits. Younger and older adults performed a perceptual discrimination task in which bicolored stimuli had to be classified according to their dominating color. The valent color was associated with either a positive or negative payoff, whereas the neutral color was not associated with a payoff. Effects of incentives on perceptual efficiency and response bias were estimated using the diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978). Perception of neutral stimuli showed age-related decline, whereas perception of valent stimuli, both positive and negative, showed no age difference. This finding is interpreted in terms of preserved top-down control over the allocation of perceptual processing resources in healthy aging.
Dully, Jessica; McGovern, David P; O'Connell, Redmond G
It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this work which is beginning to offer new insights into the core psychological processes that mediate age-related cognitive decline in adults aged 65 years and over. Mathematical modelling studies have consistently reported that older adults display longer non-decisional processing times and implement more conservative decision policies than their younger counterparts. However, there are limits on what we can learn from behavioural modeling alone and neurophysiological analyses can play an essential role in empirically validating model predictions and in pinpointing the precise neural mechanisms that are impacted by aging. Although few studies to date have explicitly examined correspondences between computational models and neural data with respect to cognitive aging, neurophysiological studies have already highlighted age-related changes at multiple levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy that are likely to be consequential for decision making behaviour. Here, we provide an overview of this literature and suggest some future directions for the field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Szpiro, Sarit F A; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training led to greater overestimation and, remarkably, it modified untrained smooth pursuit. In contrast, pursuit training did not affect overestimation in either pursuit or perception, even though observers in both training groups were exposed to the same stimuli for the same time period. A second experiment revealed that estimation training also improved discrimination, indicating that overestimation may optimize perceptual sensitivity. Hence, active perceptual training is necessary to alter perceptual responses, and an acquired change in perception suffices to modify pursuit, a motor response. © 2014 ARVO.
Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P
Attentional capture by abrupt onsets can be modulated by several factors, including the complexity, or perceptual load, of a scene. We have recently demonstrated that observers are less likely to be captured by abruptly appearing, task-irrelevant stimuli when they perform a search that is high, as opposed to low, in perceptual load (Cosman & Vecera, 2009), consistent with perceptual load theory. However, recent results indicate that onset frequency can influence stimulus-driven capture, with infrequent onsets capturing attention more often than did frequent onsets. Importantly, in our previous task, an abrupt onset was present on every trial, and consequently, attentional capture might have been affected by both onset frequency and perceptual load. In the present experiment, we examined whether onset frequency influences attentional capture under conditions of high perceptual load. When onsets were presented frequently, we replicated our earlier results; attentional capture by onsets was modulated under conditions of high perceptual load. Importantly, however, when onsets were presented infrequently, we observed robust capture effects. These results conflict with a strong form of load theory and, instead, suggest that exposure to the elements of a task (e.g., abrupt onsets) combines with high perceptual load to modulate attentional capture by task-irrelevant information.
Szpiro, Sarit F. A.; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training...
Full Text Available Barsalou's (1999 perceptual theory of knowledge echoes the pre-20th century tradition of conceptualizing all knowledge as inherently perceptual. Hence conceptual space has an infinite number of dimensions and heavily relies on perceptual experience. Osgood's (1952 semantic differential technique was developed as a bridge between perception and semantics. We updated Osgood's methodology in order to investigate current issues in visual cognition by: (1 using a 2D rather than a 1D space to place the concepts, (2 having dimensions that were perceptual while the targets were conceptual, (3 coupling visual experience with another two perceptual domains (audition and touch, (4 analyzing the data using MDS (not factor analysis. In three experiments, subjects (N = 57 judged five concrete and five abstract words on seven bipolar scales in three perceptual modalities. The 2D space led to different patterns of response compared to the classic 1D space. MDS revealed that perceptual modalities are not equally informative for mapping word-meaning distances (Mantel min = −.23; Mantel max = .88. There was no reliable differences due to test administration modality (paper vs. computer, nor scale orientation. The present findings are consistent with multidimensionality of conceptual space, a perceptual basis for knowledge, and dynamic characteristics of concepts discussed in contemporary theories.
Choi, Lark Kwon; You, Jaehee; Bovik, Alan Conrad
We propose a referenceless perceptual fog density prediction model based on natural scene statistics (NSS) and fog aware statistical features. The proposed model, called Fog Aware Density Evaluator (FADE), predicts the visibility of a foggy scene from a single image without reference to a corresponding fog-free image, without dependence on salient objects in a scene, without side geographical camera information, without estimating a depth-dependent transmission map, and without training on human-rated judgments. FADE only makes use of measurable deviations from statistical regularities observed in natural foggy and fog-free images. Fog aware statistical features that define the perceptual fog density index derive from a space domain NSS model and the observed characteristics of foggy images. FADE not only predicts perceptual fog density for the entire image, but also provides a local fog density index for each patch. The predicted fog density using FADE correlates well with human judgments of fog density taken in a subjective study on a large foggy image database. As applications, FADE not only accurately assesses the performance of defogging algorithms designed to enhance the visibility of foggy images, but also is well suited for image defogging. A new FADE-based referenceless perceptual image defogging, dubbed DEnsity of Fog Assessment-based DEfogger (DEFADE) achieves better results for darker, denser foggy images as well as on standard foggy images than the state of the art defogging methods. A software release of FADE and DEFADE is available online for public use: http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/fog/index.html.
Farran, E. K.; Brown, J. H.; Cole, V. L.; Houston-Price, C.; Karmiloff-Smith, A.
Perceptual grouping by luminance similarity and by proximity was investigated in infants with Williams syndrome (WS) aged between 6 and 36 months (visit 1, N=29). WS infants who were still under 36 months old, 8 months later, repeated the testing procedure (visit 2, N=15). Performance was compared to typically developing (TD) infants aged from 2 to 20 months (N=63). Consistent with the literature, TD participants showed grouping by luminance at the youngest testing age, 2 months. Grouping by ...
Mulligan, Neil W.; Dew, Ilana T. Z.
The generation manipulation has been critical in delineating differences between implicit and explicit memory. In contrast to past research, the present experiments indicate that generating from a rhyme cue produces as much perceptual priming as does reading. This is demonstrated for 3 visual priming tasks: perceptual identification, word-fragment…
Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den
Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper
Anne S Berry; Theodore P Zanto; Wesley C Clapp; Joseph L Hardy; Peter B Delahunt; Henry W Mahncke; Adam Gazzaley
Normal aging is associated with a degradation of perceptual abilities and a decline in higher-level cognitive functions, notably working memory. To remediate age-related deficits, cognitive training programs are increasingly being developed. However, it is not yet definitively established if, and by what mechanisms, training ameliorates effects of cognitive aging. Furthermore, a major factor impeding the success of training programs is a frequent failure of training to transfer benefits to un...
Fahrenfort, Johannes J; van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Olivers, Christian N L; Hogendoorn, Hinze
The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is required to complete perceptual integration. To investigate this question, we manipulated access to consciousness using the attentional blink. We show that, behaviorally, the attentional blink impairs conscious decisions about the presence of integrated surface structure from fragmented input. However, despite conscious access being impaired, the ability to decode the presence of integrated percepts remains intact, as shown through multivariate classification analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In contrast, when disrupting perception through masking, decisions about integrated percepts and decoding of integrated percepts are impaired in tandem, while leaving feedforward representations intact. Together, these data show that access consciousness and perceptual integration can be dissociated.
Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; Van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Olivers, Christian N.L.; Hogendoorn, Hinze
The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is
Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R
Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig
This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach...... will entail, and why it might be beneficial to research in inclusive education...
Deluca, Cristina; Golzar, Ashkan; Santandrea, Elisa; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Eštočinová, Jana; Moretto, Giuseppe; Fiaschi, Antonio; Panzeri, Marta; Mariotti, Caterina; Tinazzi, Michele; Chelazzi, Leonardo
Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and recalibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor versus
Gilbert, Charles D; Li, Wu; Piech, Valentin
The visual cortex retains the capacity for experience-dependent changes, or plasticity, of cortical function and cortical circuitry, throughout life. These changes constitute the mechanism of perceptual learning in normal visual experience and in recovery of function after CNS damage. Such plasticity can be seen at multiple stages in the visual pathway, including primary visual cortex. The manifestation of the functional changes associated with perceptual learning involve both long term modification of cortical circuits during the course of learning, and short term dynamics in the functional properties of cortical neurons. These dynamics are subject to top-down influences of attention, expectation and perceptual task. As a consequence, each cortical area is an adaptive processor, altering its function in accordance to immediate perceptual demands.
Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C
Perceptual inference refers to the ability to infer sensory stimuli from predictions that result from internal neural representations built through prior experience. Methods of Bayesian statistical inference and decision theory model cognition adequately by using error sensing either in guiding action or in "generative" models that predict the sensory information. In this framework, perception can be seen as a process qualitatively distinct from sensation, a process of information evaluation using previously acquired and stored representations (memories) that is guided by sensory feedback. The stored representations can be utilised as internal models of sensory stimuli enabling long term associations, for example in operant conditioning. Evidence for perceptual inference is contributed by such phenomena as the cortical co-localisation of object perception with object memory, the response invariance in the responses of some neurons to variations in the stimulus, as well as from situations in which perception can be dissociated from sensation. In the context of perceptual inference, sensory areas of the cerebral cortex that have been facilitated by a priming signal may be regarded as comparators in a closed feedback loop, similar to the better known motor reflexes in the sensorimotor system. The adult cerebral cortex can be regarded as similar to a servomechanism, in using sensory feedback to correct internal models, producing predictions of the outside world on the basis of past experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loreto, Elisa S. G.
Full Text Available Este artigo discute desafios e oportunidades da Inclusão Digital da Terceira Idade com base em uma pesquisa empírica, que teve como objetivo analisar a formação para a Inclusão Digital oferecida em um Curso de Informática de uma Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade. A pesquisa, de cunho qualitativo, contou com 26 participantes (23 alunos, dois professores e um coordenador de curso e utilizou uma combinação de métodos de coleta de dados (observação participante, questionários, entrevistas, grupos focais e fontes documentais e a análise de conteúdo. O texto sugere que, apesar de possuir diversas limitações estruturais e organizacionais, o curso promove uma forma básica de inclusão digital, a qual, embora limitada em relação às possibilidades do ciberespaço e da cibercultura, tem enorme valor para seu público. This paper discusses opportunities and challenges that arise with respect to the digital inclusion of the elderly. It is based on a piece of empirical research that investigated a computer course offered by a University of the Third Age. This qualitative study used a combination of data collection methods (participant observation, questionnaires, interviews, focal groups, and documental sources and content analysis. The group of participants included 23 elderly learners, two lecturers, and a course coordinator. The text suggests that, despite the various structural and organizational shortcomings, the course promotes a basic form of digital inclusion which is of great value to its audience, although limited compared to the possibilities offered by cyberspace and cyberculture.
Vanessa de Sousa
Full Text Available Abstract: Although the relationship between perceptual motor skills and attention is reported in the literature, few studies have empirically explored this association. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between these constructs, using the Bender-Gestalt Test: Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG and the Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA. The participants were 320 children from four public schools in a city located in the South of the state of Minas Gerais, with ages ranging from seven to 10 years (M = 8.39, SD = 1.10 and 196 (55.9 % female. The results showed negative, moderate and significant correlations between the total scores of the instruments, indicating the relationship between the constructs. Although the data has confirmed the existence of a relationship between perceptual motor skills and attention, further studies with samples from other regions are necessary.
Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole
We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.
Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue
Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…
Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Shuo
People often make perceptual decisions with ambiguous information, but it remains unclear whether the brain has a common neural substrate that encodes various forms of perceptual ambiguity. Here, we used three types of perceptually ambiguous stimuli as well as task instructions to examine the neural basis for both stimulus-driven and task-driven perceptual ambiguity. We identified a neural signature, the late positive potential (LPP), that encoded a general form of stimulus-driven perceptual ambiguity. In addition to stimulus-driven ambiguity, the LPP was also modulated by ambiguity in task instructions. To further specify the functional role of the LPP and elucidate the relationship between stimulus ambiguity, behavioral response, and the LPP, we employed regression models and found that the LPP was specifically associated with response latency and confidence rating, suggesting that the LPP encoded decisions under perceptual ambiguity. Finally, direct behavioral ratings of stimulus and task ambiguity confirmed our neurophysiological findings, which could not be attributed to differences in eye movements either. Together, our findings argue for a common neural signature that encodes decisions under perceptual ambiguity but is subject to the modulation of task ambiguity. Our results represent an essential first step toward a complete neural understanding of human perceptual decision making.
Deroost, Natacha; Coomans, Daphné
We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task. Sequence awareness after the sequence learning task was tested by means of a questionnaire and the process-dissociation-procedure. The results showed that the instruction manipulation had no effect on the amount of perceptual sequence learning. Based on their report to have actively applied their sequence knowledge during the experiment, participants were subsequently regrouped in a sequence strategy group (n = 14, of which 4 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 10 participants from the explicit instruction condition) and a no-sequence strategy group (n = 16, of which 11 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 5 participants from the explicit instruction condition). Only participants of the sequence strategy group showed reliable perceptual sequence learning and sequence awareness. These results indicate that perceptual sequence learning depends upon the continuous employment of strategic cognitive control processes on sequence knowledge. Sequence awareness is suggested to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for perceptual learning to take place. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois
We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…
Molbæk, Mette; Hansen, Janne Hedegaard; Lassen, Mikkel
The article presents the results of a review of international research investigating mechanisms and processes of inclusion and exclusion as an ongoing part of social practice in a school context. The review forms part of a research project investigating the social practices of inclusive education...... in primary and lower-secondary education (age 6–16) in public schools as constituted by processes of inclusion and exclusion. The project aims to shift the scientific focus of research in inclusive education from the development of pedagogical and didactic practice to the importance of community construction...... through inclusion and exclusion processes. The project arises in context of Danish education policy, while the review looked for international research findings on the limits between inclusion and exclusion: how they are drawn, by whom, for what reasons, and for whose benefit? On the background...
Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD. Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor and sensorimotor integration, auditory cueing can be expected to affect both motor and perceptual timing. Here we tested this hypothesis by assessing perceptual and motor timing in 15 IPD patients before and after a four-week music training program with rhythmic auditory cueing. Long-term effects were assessed one month after the end of the training. Perceptual and motor timing was evaluated with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA and compared to that of age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Prior to training, IPD patients exhibited impaired perceptual and motor timing. Training improved patients’ performance in tasks requiring synchronization with isochronous sequences, and enhanced their ability to adapt to durational changes in a sequence in hand tapping tasks. Benefits of cueing extended to time perception (duration discrimination and detection of misaligned beats in musical excerpts. The current results demonstrate that auditory cueing leads to benefits beyond gait and support the idea that coupling gait to rhythmic auditory cues in IPD patients relies on a neuronal network engaged in both perceptual and motor timing.
Calvillo, Dustin P; Jackson, Russell E
Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice unexpected objects in a visual scene while engaging in an attention-demanding task. We examined the effects of animacy and perceptual load on inattentional blindness. Participants searched for a category exemplar under low or high perceptual load. On the last trial, the participants were exposed to an unexpected object that was either animate or inanimate. Unexpected objects were detected more frequently when they were animate rather than inanimate, and more frequently with low than with high perceptual loads. We also measured working memory capacity and found that it predicted the detection of unexpected objects, but only with high perceptual loads. The results are consistent with the animate-monitoring hypothesis, which suggests that animate objects capture attention because of the importance of the detection of animate objects in ancestral hunter-gatherer environments.
Damon, Fabrice; Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Méary, David; Dupierrix, Eve; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier
Perceptual narrowing has been observed in human infants for monkey faces: 6-month-olds can discriminate between them, whereas older infants from 9 months of age display difficulty discriminating between them. The difficulty infants from 9 months have processing monkey faces has not been clearly identified. It could be due to the structural characteristics of monkey faces, particularly the key facial features that differ from human faces. The current study aimed to investigate whether the information conveyed by the eyes is of importance. We examined whether the presence of Caucasian human eyes in monkey faces allows recognition to be maintained in 6-month-olds and facilitates recognition in 9- and 12-month-olds. Our results revealed that the presence of human eyes in monkey faces maintains recognition for those faces at 6 months of age and partially facilitates recognition of those faces at 9 months of age, but not at 12 months of age. The findings are interpreted in the context of perceptual narrowing and suggest that the attenuation of processing of other-species faces is not reversed by the presence of human eyes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Belaïd, N.; Martens, J.B.
One way of optimizing a display is to maximize the number of distinguishable grey levels, which in turn is equivalent to perceptually linearizing the display. Perceptual linearization implies that equal steps in grey value evoke equal steps in brightness sensation. The key to perceptual
A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); O. Tanrı dağ
htmlabstractHumans perceive the world through different perceptual modalities, which are processed in the brain by modality-specific areas and structures. However, there also exist multimodal neurons and areas, specialized in integrating perceptual information to enhance or suppress brain response.
Full Text Available The perceptual hash algorithm is a technique to authenticate the integrity of images. While a few scholars have worked on mono-spectral image perceptual hashing, there is limited research on multispectral image perceptual hashing. In this paper, we propose a perceptual hash algorithm for the content authentication of a multispectral remote sensing image based on the synthetic characteristics of each band: firstly, the multispectral remote sensing image is preprocessed with band clustering and grid partition; secondly, the edge feature of the band subsets is extracted by band fusion-based edge feature extraction; thirdly, the perceptual feature of the same region of the band subsets is compressed and normalized to generate the perceptual hash value. The authentication procedure is achieved via the normalized Hamming distance between the perceptual hash value of the recomputed perceptual hash value and the original hash value. The experiments indicated that our proposed algorithm is robust compared to content-preserved operations and it efficiently authenticates the integrity of multispectral remote sensing images.
Rennels, Jennifer L.; Juvrud, Joshua; Kayl, Andrea J.; Asperholm, Martin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Herlitz, Agneta
This research examined whether infants tested longitudinally at 10, 14, and 16 months of age (N = 58) showed evidence of perceptual narrowing based on face gender (better discrimination of female than male faces) and whether changes in caregiving experience longitudinally predicted changes in infants' discrimination of male faces. To test face…
Gao, Ying; Dong, Junyu; Lou, Jianwen; Qi, Lin; Liu, Jun
A typical texture retrieval system performs feature comparison and might not be able to make human-like judgments of image similarity. Meanwhile, it is commonly known that perceptual texture similarity is difficult to be described by traditional image features. In this paper, we propose a new texture retrieval scheme based on texture perceptual similarity. The key of the proposed scheme is that prediction of perceptual similarity is performed by learning a non-linear mapping from image features space to perceptual texture space by using Random Forest. We test the method on natural texture dataset and apply it on a new wallpapers dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed texture retrieval scheme with perceptual similarity improves the retrieval performance over traditional image features.
Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M
The present study used eye tracking methodology to examine rereading benefits for spatially transformed text. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either applying the same type of transformation to the word during the first and second presentations (i.e., the congruent condition), or employing two different types of transformations across the two presentations of the word (i.e., the incongruent condition). Perceptual specificity effects were demonstrated such that fixation times for the second presentation of the target word were shorter for the congruent condition compared to the incongruent condition. Moreover, we demonstrated an additional perceptually non-specific effect such that second reading fixation times were shorter for the incongruent condition relative to a baseline condition that employed a normal typography (i.e., non-transformed) during the first presentation and a transformation during the second presentation. Both of these effects (i.e., perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific) were similar in magnitude for high and low frequency words, and both effects persisted across a 1 week lag between the first and second readings. We discuss the present findings in the context of the distinction between conscious and unconscious memory, and the distinction between perceptually versus conceptually driven processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steenbergen, Peter; Buitenweg, Jan R; Trojan, Jörg; Veltink, Peter H
Various studies have shown subjects to mislocalize cutaneous stimuli in an idiosyncratic manner. Spatial properties of individual localization behavior can be represented in the form of perceptual maps. Individual differences in these maps may reflect properties of internal body representations, and perceptual maps may therefore be a useful method for studying these representations. For this to be the case, individual perceptual maps need to be reproducible, which has not yet been demonstrated. We assessed the reproducibility of localizations measured twice on subsequent days. Ten subjects participated in the experiments. Non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli were applied at seven sites on the lower arm. Subjects localized the stimuli on a photograph of their own arm, which was presented on a tablet screen overlaying the real arm. Reproducibility was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the mean localizations of each electrode site and the slope and offset of regression models of the localizations, which represent scaling and displacement of perceptual maps relative to the stimulated sites. The ICCs of the mean localizations ranged from 0.68 to 0.93; the ICCs of the regression parameters were 0.88 for the intercept and 0.92 for the slope. These results indicate a high degree of reproducibility. We conclude that localization patterns of non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli on the arm are reproducible on subsequent days. Reproducibility is a necessary property of perceptual maps for these to reflect properties of a subject's internal body representations. Perceptual maps are therefore a promising method for studying body representations.
Harrar, Vanessa; Spence, Charles; Makin, Tamar R
Perceptual learning can improve our sensory abilities. Understanding its underlying mechanisms, in particular, when perceptual learning generalizes, has become a focus of research and controversy. Specifically, there is little consensus regarding the extent to which tactile perceptual learning generalizes across fingers. We measured tactile orientation discrimination abilities on 4 fingers (index and middle fingers of both hands), using psychophysical measures, before and after 4 training sessions on 1 finger. Given the somatotopic organization of the hand representation in the somatosensory cortex, the topography of the cortical areas underlying tactile perceptual learning can be inferred from the pattern of generalization across fingers; only fingers sharing cortical representation with the trained finger ought to improve with it. Following training, performance improved not only for the trained finger but also for its adjacent and homologous fingers. Although these fingers were not exposed to training, they nevertheless demonstrated similar levels of learning as the trained finger. Conversely, the performance of the finger that was neither adjacent nor homologous to the trained finger was unaffected by training, despite the fact that our procedure was designed to enhance generalization, as described in recent visual perceptual learning research. This pattern of improved performance is compatible with previous reports of neuronal receptive fields (RFs) in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) spanning adjacent and homologous digits. We conclude that perceptual learning rooted in low-level cortex can still generalize, and suggest potential applications for the neurorehabilitation of syndromes associated with maladaptive plasticity in SI. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Healey, Chris G.; St. Amant, Robert; Elhaddad, Mahmoud S.
This paper describes an automated visualized assistant called ViA. ViA is designed to help users construct perceptually optical visualizations to represent, explore, and analyze large, complex, multidimensional datasets. We have approached this problem by studying what is known about the control of human visual attention. By harnessing the low-level human visual system, we can support our dual goals of rapid and accurate visualization. Perceptual guidelines that we have built using psychophysical experiments form the basis for ViA. ViA uses modified mixed-initiative planning algorithms from artificial intelligence to search of perceptually optical data attribute to visual feature mappings. Our perceptual guidelines are integrated into evaluation engines that provide evaluation weights for a given data-feature mapping, and hints on how that mapping might be improved. ViA begins by asking users a set of simple questions about their dataset and the analysis tasks they want to perform. Answers to these questions are used in combination with the evaluation engines to identify and intelligently pursue promising data-feature mappings. The result is an automatically-generated set of mappings that are perceptually salient, but that also respect the context of the dataset and users' preferences about how they want to visualize their data.
Dutilh, Gilles; Rieskamp, Jörg
Perceptual and preferential decision making have been studied largely in isolation. Perceptual decisions are considered to be at a non-deliberative cognitive level and have an outside criterion that defines the quality of decisions. Preferential decisions are considered to be at a higher cognitive level and the quality of decisions depend on the decision maker's subjective goals. Besides these crucial differences, both types of decisions also have in common that uncertain information about the choice situation has to be processed before a decision can be made. The present work aims to acknowledge the commonalities of both types of decision making to lay bare the crucial differences. For this aim we examine perceptual and preferential decisions with a novel choice paradigm that uses the identical stimulus material for both types of decisions. This paradigm allows us to model the decisions and response times of both types of decisions with the same sequential sampling model, the drift diffusion model. The results illustrate that the different incentive structure in both types of tasks changes people's behavior so that they process information more efficiently and respond more cautiously in the perceptual as compared to the preferential task. These findings set out a perspective for further integration of perceptual and preferential decision making in a single ramework.
Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H
Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aaron V Berard
Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.
Berard, Aaron V; Cain, Matthew S; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka
Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois
We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qian, Miao K.; Quinn, Paul C.; Heyman, Gail D.; Pascalis, Olivier; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Two studies with preschool-age children examined the effectiveness of perceptual individuation training at reducing racial bias (Study 1, N = 32; Study 2, N = 56). We found that training preschool-age children to individuate other-race faces resulted in a reduction in implicit racial bias while mere exposure to other-race faces produced no such…
Maher, Stephen; Ekstrom, Tor; Chen, Yue
Perception of subtle facial expressions is essential for social functioning; yet it is unclear if human perceptual sensitivities differ in detecting varying types of facial emotions. Evidence diverges as to whether salient negative versus positive emotions (such as sadness versus happiness) are preferentially processed. Here, we measured perceptual thresholds for the detection of four types of emotion in faces--happiness, fear, anger, and sadness--using psychophysical methods. We also evaluated the association of the perceptual performances with facial morphological changes between neutral and respective emotion types. Human observers were highly sensitive to happiness compared with the other emotional expressions. Further, this heightened perceptual sensitivity to happy expressions can be attributed largely to the emotion-induced morphological change of a particular facial feature (end-lip raise).
Bovik, A. C.
Monitoring and controlling the quality of the viewing experience of videos transmitted over increasingly congested networks (especially wireless networks) is a pressing problem owing to rapid advances in video-centric mobile communication and display devices that are straining the capacity of the network infrastructure. New developments in automatic perceptual video quality models offer tools that have the potential to be used to perceptually optimize wireless video, leading to more efficient video data delivery and better received quality. In this talk I will review key perceptual principles that are, or could be used to create effective video quality prediction models, and leading quality prediction models that utilize these principles. The goal is to be able to monitor and perceptually optimize video networks by making them "quality-aware."
Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush
This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the level of perceptual processing required to complete them. Adults and children demonstrated visual speech influence at all levels of perceptual processing. Whereas children demonstrated the same visual speech influence at each level of perceptual processing, adults demonstrated greater visual speech influence on tasks requiring higher levels of perceptual processing. These results support previous research demonstrating multiple mechanisms of AV speech processing (general perceptual and speech-specific mechanisms) with independent maturational time courses. The results suggest that adults rely on both general perceptual mechanisms that apply to all levels of perceptual processing and speech-specific mechanisms that apply when making phonetic decisions and/or accessing the lexicon. Six- to eight-year-old children seem to rely only on general perceptual mechanisms across levels. As expected, developmental differences in AV benefit on this and other recognition tasks likely reflect immature speech-specific mechanisms and phonetic processing in children.
Deveau, Jenni; Lovcik, Gary; Seitz, Aaron R
Perception is the window through which we understand all information about our environment, and therefore deficits in perception due to disease, injury, stroke or aging can have significant negative impacts on individuals' lives. Research in the field of perceptual learning has demonstrated that vision can be improved in both normally seeing and visually impaired individuals, however, a limitation of most perceptual learning approaches is their emphasis on isolating particular mechanisms. In the current study, we adopted an integrative approach where the goal is not to achieve highly specific learning but instead to achieve general improvements to vision. We combined multiple perceptual learning approaches that have individually contributed to increasing the speed, magnitude and generality of learning into a perceptual-learning based video-game. Our results demonstrate broad-based benefits of vision in a healthy adult population. Transfer from the game includes; improvements in acuity (measured with self-paced standard eye-charts), improvement along the full contrast sensitivity function, and improvements in peripheral acuity and contrast thresholds. The use of this type of this custom video game framework built up from psychophysical approaches takes advantage of the benefits found from video game training while maintaining a tight link to psychophysical designs that enable understanding of mechanisms of perceptual learning and has great potential both as a scientific tool and as therapy to help improve vision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Gulick, Ana E.; Gauthier, Isabel
In classic category learning studies, subjects typically learn to assign items to one of two categories, with no further distinction between how items on each side of the category boundary should be treated. In real life, however, we often learn categories that dictate further processing goals, for instance with objects in only one category requiring further individuation. Using methods from category learning and perceptual expertise, we studied the perceptual consequences of experience with objects in tasks that rely on attention to different dimensions in different parts of the space. In two experiments, subjects first learned to categorize complex objects from a single morphspace into two categories based on one morph dimension, and then learned to perform a different task, either naming or a local feature judgment, for each of the two categories. A same-different discrimination test before and after each training measured sensitivity to feature dimensions of the space. After initial categorization, sensitivity increased along the category-diagnostic dimension. After task association, sensitivity increased more for the category that was named, especially along the non-diagnostic dimension. The results demonstrate that local attentional weights, associated with individual exemplars as a function of task requirements, can have lasting effects on perceptual representations. PMID:24820671
Mevorach, Carmel; Tsal, Yehoshua; Humphreys, Glyn W
According to perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) distractor interference is determined by the availability of attentional resources. If target processing does not exhaust resources (with low perceptual load) distractor processing will take place resulting in interference with a primary task; however, when target processing uses-up attentional capacity (with high perceptual load) interference can be avoided. An alternative account (Tsal and Benoni, 2010a) suggests that perceptual load effects can be based on distractor dilution by the mere presence of additional neutral items in high-load displays so that the effect is not driven by the amount of attention resources required for target processing. Here we tested whether patients with unilateral neglect or extinction would show dilution effects from neutral items in their contralesional (neglected/extinguished) field, even though these items do not impose increased perceptual load on the target and at the same time attract reduced attentional resources compared to stimuli in the ipsilesional field. Thus, such items do not affect the amount of attention resources available for distractor processing. We found that contralesional neutral elements can eliminate distractor interference as strongly as centrally presented ones in neglect/extinction patients, despite contralesional items being less well attended. The data are consistent with an account in terms of perceptual dilution of distracters rather than available resources for distractor processing. We conclude that distractor dilution can underlie the elimination of distractor interference in visual displays.
Full Text Available According to perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005 distractor interference is determined by the availability of attentional resources. If target processing does not exhaust resources (with low perceptual load distractor processing will take place resulting in interference with a primary task; however when target processing uses-up attentional capacity (with high perceptual load interference can be avoided. An alternative account (Tsal & Benoni, 2010 suggests that perceptual load effects can be based on distractor dilution by the mere presence of additional neutral items in high load displays so that the effect is not driven by the amount of attention resources required for target processing. Here we tested whether patients with unilateral neglect or extinction would show dilution effects from neutral items in their contralesional (neglected/extinguished field, even though these items do not impose increased perceptual load on the target and at the same time attract reduced attentional resources compared to stimuli in the ipsilesional field. Thus, such items do not affect the amount of attention resources available for distractor processing. We found that contralesional neutral elements can eliminate distractor interference as strongly as centrally presented ones in neglect/extinction patients, despite contralesional items being less well attended. The data are consistent with an account in terms of perceptual dilution of distracters rather than available resources for distractor processing. We conclude that distractor dilution can underlie the elimination of distractor interference in visual displays.
Scalf, Paige E; Torralbo, Ana; Tapia, Evelina; Beck, Diane M
Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.
Law, Chi-Tat; Gold, Joshua I
Perceptual decisions require the brain to weigh noisy evidence from sensory neurons to form categorical judgments that guide behavior. Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological findings suggesting that at least some forms of perceptual learning do not appear to affect the response properties of neurons that represent the sensory evidence. Instead, improved perceptual performance results from changes in how the sensory evidence is selected and weighed to form the decision. We discuss the implications of this idea for possible sites and mechanisms of training-induced improvements in perceptual processing in the brain. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Forster, Sophie; Robertson, David J; Jennings, Alistair; Asherson, Philip; Lavie, Nilli
Increased vulnerability to extraneous distraction is a key symptom of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which may have particularly disruptive consequences. Here we apply Load Theory of attention to increase understanding of this symptom, and to explore a potential method for ameliorating it. Previous research in nonclinical populations has highlighted increased perceptual load as a means of improving the ability to focus attention and avoid distraction. The present study examines whether adults with ADHD can also benefit from conditions of high perceptual load to improve their focused attention abilities. We tested adults with ADHD and age- and IQ-matched controls on a novel measure of irrelevant distraction under load, designed to parallel the form of distraction that is symptomatic of ADHD. During a letter search task, in which perceptual load was varied through search set size, participants were required to ignore salient yet entirely irrelevant distractors (colorful images of cartoon characters) presented infrequently (10% of trials). The presence of these distractors produced a significantly greater interference effect on the search RTs for the adults with ADHD compared with controls, p = .005, ηp² = .231. Perceptual load, however, significantly reduced distractor interference for the ADHD group and was as effective in reducing the elevated distractor interference in ADHD as it was for controls. These findings clarify the nature of the attention deficit underlying increased distraction in ADHD, and demonstrate a tangible method for overcoming it.
Uunk, Bertram; Postma, Onno; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje
Metamorphic minerals and veins commonly trap attending hydrous fluids in fluid inclusions, which yield a wealth of information on the history of the hosting metamorphic system. When these fluids are sufficiently saline, the KCl in the inclusions can be used as a K/Ar geochronologic system, potentially dating inclusion incorporation. Whilst primary fluid inclusions (PFIs) can date fluid incorporation during mineral or vein growth, secondary fluid inclusion trails (SFIs) can provide age constraints on later fluid flow events. At VU Amsterdam, a new in-vacuo crushing apparatus has been designed to extract fluid inclusions from minerals for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. Separates are crushed inside a crusher tube connected to a purification line and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In-vacuo crushing is achieved by lifting and dropping a steel pestle using an externally controlled magnetic field. As the gas can be analyzed between different crushing steps, the setup permits stepwise crushing experiments. Additionally, crushed powder can be heated by inserting the crusher tube in an externally controlled furnace. Dating by 40Ar/39Ar stepwise crushing has the added advantage that, during neutron irradiation to produce 39Ar from 39K, 38Ar and 37Ar are also produced from 38Cl and 40Ca, respectively. Simultaneous analysis of these argon isotopes permits constraining the chemistry of the argon source sampled during the experiment. This allows a distinction between different fluid or crystal lattice sources. Garnet from three samples of the HP metamorphic Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece was stepwise crushed to obtain fluid inclusion ages. Initial steps for all three experiments yield significant components of excess argon, which are interpreted to originate from grain boundary fluids and secondary fluid inclusions trails. During subsequent steps, age results stabilize to a plateau age. One garnet from North Syros yields an unusually old 80 Ma plateau age. However, isochrons
Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun
Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944
Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.
Heindel, Patricia; Kose, Gary
Examined in three studies were the influence of perceptual organization on children's memory and the relationship between operational thought and memory performance. In the first study, 72 children at 5, 7, and 9 years of age were given a series of Piagetian tasks and a memory task. Subjects were presented with 10 color-shape pairs depicted in…
Paige E. Scalf
Full Text Available Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.
Rajaram, S; Srinivas, K; Travers, S
Reports on the effects of dividing attention at study on subsequent perceptual priming suggest that perceptual priming is generally unaffected by attentional manipulations as long as word identity is processed. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments by using the implicit word fragment completion and word stem completion tasks. Division of attention was instantiated with the Stroop task in order to ensure the processing of word identity even when the participant's attention was directed to a stimulus attribute other than the word itself. Under these conditions, we found that even though perceptual priming was significant, it was significantly reduced in magnitude. A stem cued recall test in Experiment 2 confirmed a more deleterious effect of divided attention on explicit memory. Taken together, our findings delineate the relative contributions of perceptual analysis and attentional processes in mediating perceptual priming on two ubiquitously used tasks of word fragment completion and word stem completion.
Hwang, Inwook; Seo, Jeongil; Choi, Seungmoon
The use of distinguishable complex vibrations that have multiple spectral components can improve the transfer of information by vibrotactile interfaces. We investigated the qualitative characteristics of dual-frequency vibrations as the simplest complex vibrations compared to single-frequency vibrations. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted to elucidate the perceptual characteristics of these vibrations by measuring the perceptual distances among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations. The perceptual distances of dual-frequency vibrations between their two frequency components along their relative intensity ratio were measured in Experiment I. The estimated perceptual spaces for three frequency conditions showed non-linear perceptual differences between the dual-frequency and single-frequency vibrations. A perceptual space was estimated from the measured perceptual distances among ten dual-frequency compositions and five single-frequency vibrations in Experiment II. The effect of the component frequency and the frequency ratio was revealed in the perceptual space. In a percept of dual-frequency vibration, the lower frequency component showed a dominant effect. Additionally, the perceptual difference among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations were increased with a low relative difference between two frequencies of a dual-frequency vibration. These results are expected to provide a fundamental understanding about the perception of complex vibrations to enrich the transfer of information using vibrotactile stimuli.
de Kok, I.A.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
We introduce Iterative Perceptual Learning (IPL), a novel approach to learn computational models for social behavior synthesis from corpora of human–human interactions. IPL combines perceptual evaluation with iterative model refinement. Human observers rate the appropriateness of synthesized
Klemen, J; Büchel, C; Rose, M
According to perceptual load theory, processing of task-irrelevant stimuli is limited by the perceptual load of a parallel attended task if both the task and the irrelevant stimuli are presented to the same sensory modality. However, it remains a matter of debate whether the same principles apply to cross-sensory perceptual load and, more generally, what form cross-sensory attentional modulation in early perceptual areas takes in humans. Here we addressed these questions using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants undertook an auditory one-back working memory task of low or high perceptual load, while concurrently viewing task-irrelevant images at one of three object visibility levels. The processing of the visual and auditory stimuli was measured in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) and auditory cortex (AC), respectively. Cross-sensory interference with sensory processing was observed in both the LOC and AC, in accordance with previous results of unisensory perceptual load studies. The present neuroimaging results therefore warrant the extension of perceptual load theory from a unisensory to a cross-sensory context: a validation of this cross-sensory interference effect through behavioural measures would consolidate the findings.
Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry
The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374
Jocelyn L Sy
Full Text Available The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively spills-over to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, fMRI, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated by a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean BOLD responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information.
Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.
We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability
de Kok, I.A.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
We introduce Iterative Perceptual Learning (IPL), a novel approach for learning computational models for social behavior synthesis from corpora of human-human interactions. The IPL approach combines perceptual evaluation with iterative model refinement. Human observers rate the appropriateness of
Kirsten Rebecca Panton
Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual
Full Text Available In “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility,” Walter Benjamin alluded that the human perceptual field in his time would become more distracted by the intervention of technologies, and so masses’ tactility activated by distraction would be more important in the mechanized perception. Regarding this historical situation, Benjamin anticipated that the new mode of mass perception would be organized through people's collective “innervation” to technologies. This article aims to contextualize this physiological term's cultural, technical, and political implications within various discourses about perception from the late 19th century physiologies to early 20th century film theories. Benjamin considers the tactility of people's potential to reconstruct the optical scheme of perception from the “flatness of screen” in which distances between viewers and perceived objects collapse. In a similar vein, the late 19th century's physiology reconceptualized perception in its relation not so much to the transcendental division of subject/object as to the sensual condition of a retina as “a single immanent plane.” From this perspective, perception is phenomena entailed by a body's contact to a sensual environment, so how sense inputs circulate in a neural network is a determinant for explaining perceptual processes. With regard to this paradigm change, the invention of cinema in the late 19th century was significant because it radically changed the composition of the perceptual field in two directions. Cinema introduced the virtualized perceptual fields on which sense circulations were completely controlled by the operation of camera. At the same time, the mediation of projectors in theaters reorganized viewers’ neural paths for perceptual innervation. As Hugo Münsterberg and Sergei Eisenstein's theories reflect, cinematic media's intervention in the perceptual field made it possible for masses’ collective
Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Lim, Mun Hee; Kim, Eun Joo; Hwang, Sung Il; Choi, Kyung-In; Yoo, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Kuem Ju; Jung, Hi-Eun
To find an association between cognitive-perceptual problems of older drivers and unsafe driving performance during simulated automobile driving in a virtual environment. Cross-sectional study. A driver evaluation clinic in a rehabilitation hospital. Fifty-five drivers aged 65 years or older and 48 drivers in their late twenties to early forties. All participants underwent evaluation of cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance, and the results were compared between older and younger drivers. The association between cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance was analyzed. Cognitive-perceptual function was evaluated with the Cognitive Perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD), a computer-based assessment tool consisting of depth perception, sustained attention, divided attention, the Stroop test, the digit span test, field dependency, and trail-making test A and B. Driving performance was evaluated with use of a virtual reality-based driving simulator. During simulated driving, car crashes were recorded, and an occupational therapist observed unsafe performances in controlling speed, braking, steering, vehicle positioning, making lane changes, and making turns. Thirty-five older drivers did not pass the CPAD test, whereas all of the younger drivers passed the test. When using the driving simulator, a significantly greater number of older drivers experienced car crashes and demonstrated unsafe performance in controlling speed, steering, and making lane changes. CPAD results were associated with car crashes, steering, vehicle positioning, and making lane changes. Older drivers who did not pass the CPAD test are 4 times more likely to experience a car crash, 3.5 times more likely to make errors in steering, 2.8 times more likely to make errors in vehicle positioning, and 6.5 times more likely to make errors in lane changes than are drivers who passed the CPAD test. Unsafe driving performance and car crashes during simulated driving were more
Full Text Available The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention have found a smaller distractor-related activation in the sensory cortex at high relative to low perceptual load. However, it is not clear whether the distractor-related activation in brain regions linked to later stages of central processing (e.g., in the frontostriatal circuits is also smaller at high rather than low perceptual load, as might be predicted based on the load theory.We studied 24 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a visual target identification task with two perceptual loads (low vs. high. Participants showed distractor-related increases in activation in the midbrain, striatum, occipital and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices at low load, but distractor-related decreases in activation in the midbrain ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (VTA/SN, striatum, thalamus, and extensive sensory cortices at high load.Multiple levels of central processing involving midbrain and frontostriatal circuits participate in suppressing distractor interference at either low or high perceptual load. For suppressing distractor interference, the processing of sensory inputs in both early and late stages of central processing are enhanced at low load but inhibited at high load.
Xu, Jiansong; Monterosso, John; Kober, Hedy; Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N
The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing) at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention have found a smaller distractor-related activation in the sensory cortex at high relative to low perceptual load. However, it is not clear whether the distractor-related activation in brain regions linked to later stages of central processing (e.g., in the frontostriatal circuits) is also smaller at high rather than low perceptual load, as might be predicted based on the load theory. We studied 24 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a visual target identification task with two perceptual loads (low vs. high). Participants showed distractor-related increases in activation in the midbrain, striatum, occipital and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices at low load, but distractor-related decreases in activation in the midbrain ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (VTA/SN), striatum, thalamus, and extensive sensory cortices at high load. Multiple levels of central processing involving midbrain and frontostriatal circuits participate in suppressing distractor interference at either low or high perceptual load. For suppressing distractor interference, the processing of sensory inputs in both early and late stages of central processing are enhanced at low load but inhibited at high load.
Roper, Zachary J J; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P
One account of the early versus late selection debate in attention proposes that perceptual load determines the locus of selection. Attention selects stimuli at a late processing level under low-load conditions but selects stimuli at an early level under high-load conditions. Despite the successes of perceptual load theory, a noncircular definition of perceptual load remains elusive. We investigated the factors that influence perceptual load by using manipulations that have been studied extensively in visual search, namely target-distractor similarity and distractor-distractor similarity. Consistent with previous work, search was most efficient when targets and distractors were dissimilar and the displays contained homogeneous distractors; search became less efficient when target-distractor similarity increased irrespective of display heterogeneity. Importantly, we used these same stimuli in a typical perceptual load task that measured attentional spillover to a task-irrelevant flanker. We found a strong correspondence between search efficiency and perceptual load; stimuli that generated efficient searches produced flanker interference effects, suggesting that such displays involved low perceptual load. Flanker interference effects were reduced in displays that produced less efficient searches. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that search difficulty, as measured by search intercept, has little bearing on perceptual load. We conclude that rather than be arbitrarily defined, perceptual load might be defined by well-characterized, continuous factors that influence visual search. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L
Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.
Qi, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Li, Yi
the importance of Gestalt rules by solving a learning to rank problem, and formulate a multi-label graph-cuts algo- rithm to group image primitives while taking into account the learned Gestalt confliction. Our experiment results confirm the existence of Gestalt confliction in perceptual grouping and demonstrate...... confliction, i.e., the relative importance of each rule compared with another, remains unsolved. In this paper, we investigate the problem of perceptual grouping by quantifying the confliction among three commonly used rules: similarity, continuity and proximity. More specifically, we propose to quantify...... an improved performance when such a conflic- tion is accounted for via the proposed grouping algorithm. Finally, a novel cross domain image classification method is proposed by exploiting perceptual grouping as representation....
Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly
Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meinz, E J
Pianists of a wide experience and age range were tested on measures of musical memory and musical perceptual speed to better understand the effects of experience on age-cognition relations. Experience-related attenuation might be in the form of an Age x Experience interaction or in the form of a "confounding" of age and experience such that positive age-experience relations offset negative age-cognition relations. It was predicted that the former, considered evidence for disuse interpretations of aging, would be likely to emerge in tasks with strong experience effects and strong age-related declines among inexperienced individuals. However, in no case were the interactions of age and experience on the memory or perceptual speed variables significant. There was, however, evidence that high levels of experience in the older participants partially attenuated the negative effects of age on the memory and perceptual speed tasks.
Mann, D.L.; Ryu, D.; Abernethy, B.A.; Poolton, J.M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a
Olsen, Sune L.; Agerkvist, Finn T.; MacDonald, Ewen
While non-linear distortion in loudspeakers decreases audio quality, the perceptual consequences can vary substantially. This paper investigates the metric Rnonlin  which was developed to predict subjective measurements of sound quality in nonlinear systems. The generalisability of the metric...... the perceptual consequences of non-linear distortion....
Perceptual dialectology is dedicated to the formal study of folk linguistic perceptions. Through an amalgamation of social psychology, ethnography, dialectology, sociolinguistics, cultural geography and myriad other fields, perceptual dialectology provides a methodology to gain insight to overt folk language attitudes, knowledge of regional distribution, and the importance of language variation and change (Preston 1989, 1999a). This study conducts the first investigation of folk percept...
Gijs Joost Brouwer
Full Text Available We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry. Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.
Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R
The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Louwerse, Max; Hutchinson, Sterling
There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky - ground) or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of the pair matched their expected physical relationship). A linguistic bias was found toward the semantic judgment task and a perceptual bias was found toward the iconicity judgment task. More importantly, conceptual processing involved activation in brain regions associated with both linguistic and perceptual processes. When comparing the relative activation of linguistic cortical regions with perceptual cortical regions, the effect sizes for linguistic cortical regions were larger than those for the perceptual cortical regions early in a trial with the reverse being true later in a trial. These results map upon findings from other experimental literature and provide further evidence that processing of concept words relies both on language statistics and on perceptual simulations, whereby linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation processes.
Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M
Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Fabiana Cristina Frigieri de Vitta
Full Text Available A inserção das crianças de zero a 18 meses em creches poderá estimular o seu desenvolvimento motor e perceptocognitivo, podendo essa fase ser considerada a primeira da educação inclusiva. Objetivou-se verificar as concepções das profissionais do berçário relativas à inserção da criança com necessidades especiais na rotina de atividades desenvolvidas. Foram entrevistadas sete berçaristas da Secretaria Municipal de Educação de Bauru. Os dados, organizados segundo categorias analíticas: conceitos relativos ao processo de inclusão, benefícios para a criança e diferenças entre as crianças nessa faixa etária, foram submetidos à análise qualitativa. Os resultados mostraram que a inclusão de crianças com necessidades especiais é vista com reservas, explicitando ideias preconcebidas sobre a deficiência. Eles se justificam pela falta de conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e dos fatores que o envolvem, bem como pelo fato de os profissionais vincularem suas atividades às experiências pessoais.The inclusion of children from birth to 18 months in day care centers, a phase that can be considered as the first one for inclusive education, may stimulate their motor development and perceptual-cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to identify how people working in such centers conceive the inclusion of children with special needs in their routine activities. For such, seven women involved in a municipal day care center in the city of Bauru (SP, Brazil were interviewed. The data - organized according to three analytical categories: believes related to the inclusion process; benefits that it can bring for the child; and differences between children in this age group - were subjected to a qualitative analysis. The results indicated that the inclusion of children with special needs in day-care centers is viewed with reservations. This negative bias toward disability can be explained by the lack of knowledge related to
Full Text Available Introduction. The relationship between intellectual disability (ID and hand motor coordination and speed-accuracy, as well as the effect of aging on fine motor performance in patients with ID, has been previously investigated. However, only a few data are available on the impact of the nonpharmacological interventions in adult patients with long-term hand motor deficit. Methods. Fifty adults with mild ID were enrolled. A group of thirty patients underwent a two-month intensive ergotherapic treatment that included hand motor rehabilitation and visual-perceptual treatment (group A; twenty patients performing conventional motor rehabilitation alone (group B served as a control group. Data on attention, perceptual abilities, hand dexterity, and functional independence were collected by a blind operator, both at entry and at the end of the study. Results. After the interventions, group A showed significantly better performance than group B in all measures related to hand movement from both sides and to independence in activities of daily living. Discussion. Multimodal integrated interventions targeting visual-perceptual abilities and motor skills are an effective neurorehabilitative approach in adult patients with mild ID. Motor learning and memory-mediated mechanisms of neural plasticity might underlie the observed recovery, suggesting the presence of plastic adaptive changes even in the adult brain with ID.
Ego, Anne; Lidzba, Karen; Brovedani, Paola; Belmonti, Vittorio; Gonzalez-Monge, Sibylle; Boudia, Baya; Ritz, Annie; Cans, Christine
Visual perception is one of the cognitive functions often impaired in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the frequency of visual-perceptual impairment (VPI) and its relationship with patient characteristics. Eligible studies were relevant papers assessing visual perception with five common standardized assessment instruments in children with CP published from January 1990 to August 2011. Of the 84 studies selected, 15 were retained. In children with CP, the proportion of VPI ranged from 40% to 50% and the mean visual perception quotient from 70 to 90. None of the studies reported a significant influence of CP subtype, IQ level, side of motor impairment, neuro-ophthalmological outcomes, or seizures. The severity of neuroradiological lesions seemed associated with VPI. The influence of prematurity was controversial, but a lower gestational age was more often associated with lower visual motor skills than with decreased visual-perceptual abilities. The impairment of visual perception in children with CP should be considered a core disorder within the CP syndrome. Further research, including a more systematic approach to neuropsychological testing, is needed to explore the specific impact of CP subgroups and of neuroradiological features on visual-perceptual development. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Tallandini, Maria Anna; Roia, Anna
This study investigates how categorical organization functions in pre-school children, focusing on the dichotomy between living and nonliving things. The variables of familiarity, frequency of word use and perceptual complexity were controlled. Sixty children aged between 4 years and 5 years 10 months were investigated. Three tasks were used: a…
Jafari, Narges; Salehi, Abolfazl; Izadi, Farzad; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Ebadi, Abbas; Dabirmoghadam, Payman; Faham, Maryam; Shahbazi, Mehdi
Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) is a functional dysphonia, which appears with an excessive tension in the intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal musculatures. MTD can affect voice quality and quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) on perceptual and self-assessment ratings in a group of 15 subjects with MTD. The study comprised 15 subjects with MTD (8 men and 7 women, mean age 39.8 years, standard deviation 10.6, age range 24-62 years). All participants were native Persian speakers who underwent a 6-week course of VFEs. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) (the self-assessment scale) and Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain (GRBAS) scale (perceptual rating of voice quality) were used to compare pre- and post-VFEs. GRBAS data of patients before and after VFEs were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and VHI data of patients pre- and post-VFEs were compared using Student paired t test. These perceptual parameters showed a statistically significant improvement in subjects with MTD after voice therapy (significant at P self-assessment ratings measurements (with the VHI). As a result, the data provide evidence regarding the efficacy of VFEs in the treatment of patients with MTD. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wan, Yi-Ting; Chiang, Ching-Sui; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Wuang, Yee-Pay
This study investigated the effectiveness of the Computerized Visual Perception Training (CVPT) program on individuals with Down syndrome (DS, mean age=13.17±4.35years, age range: 6.54-20.75 years). All participants have mild intellectual disability classified by the standard IQ measures (mean=61.2, ranges from 55 to 68). Both the Test of Visual Perceptual Skill- Third Edition (TVPS-3) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to evaluate the training outcomes. Results of TVPS-3 and fMRI showed that DS group had visual perceptual deficits and abnormal neural networks related to visual organization. The results showed that DS intervention group had significant improvements on TVPS-3 after intervention. The fMRI results indicated more activation in superior and inferior parietal lobes (spatial manipulation), as well as precentral gyrus and dorsal premotor cortex (motor imagery) in DS intervention group. The CVPT program was effective in improving visual perceptual functions and enhancing associated cortical activations in DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bedford, Felice L.
Addresses two questions that may be unique to perceptual learning: What are the circumstances that produce learning? and What is the content of learning? Suggests a critical principle for each question. Provides a discussion of perceptual learning theory, how learning occurs, and what gets learned. Includes a 121-item bibliography. (DR)
Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus
Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces.
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt
In this paper, we present a framework for perceptual error minimization and sinusoidal frequency estimation based on a new perceptual distortion measure, and we state its optimal solution. Using this framework, we relate a number of well-known practical methods for perceptual sinusoidal parameter...
Perceptual grouping is the process through which the perceptual system combines local stimuli into a more global perceptual unit. Previous studies have shown attention to be a modulatory factor for perceptual grouping. However, these studies mainly used explicit measurements, and, thus, whether attention can modulate perceptual grouping without awareness is still relatively unexplored. To clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping, the present study aims to explore how attention interacts with perceptual grouping without awareness. The task was to judge the relative lengths of two centrally presented horizontal bars while a railway-shaped pattern defined by color similarity was presented in the background. Although the observers were unaware of the railway-shaped pattern, their line-length judgment was biased by that pattern, which induced a Ponzo illusion, indicating grouping without awareness. More importantly, an attentional modulatory effect without awareness was manifested as evident by the observer's performance being more often biased when the railway-shaped pattern was formed by an attended color than when it was formed by an unattended one. Also, the attentional modulation effect was shown to be dynamic, being more pronounced with a short presentation time than a longer one. The results of the present study not only clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping but also further contribute to our understanding of attention and awareness by corroborating the dissociation between attention and awareness.
MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Dixon, Roger A
A previous investigation reported that cross-sectional age differences in Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test performance reflect declines in perceptual processing speed. Support for the tenability of the processing speed hypothesis requires examining whether longitudinal age-related change in DSS performance is largely mediated by changes in speed. The present study used data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of longitudinal change in DSS for 512 older adults (M(age) = 68.37 years, SD = 7.43). On the basis of multilevel modeling, baseline DSS performance was poorer for older participants and men, with longitudinal declines more pronounced with increasing age and decreasing speed. In contrast to the present cross-sectional findings, statistical control of change trajectories in perceptual speed using the same data did not substantially attenuate age changes. These discrepancies suggest different sources of variance may underlie cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal age changes for DSS.
Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim
Whether seeing a movie, listening to a song, or feeling a breeze on the skin, we coherently experience these stimuli as continuous, seamless percepts. However, there are rare perceptual phenomena that argue against continuous perception but, instead, suggest discrete processing of sensory input. Empirical evidence supporting such a discrete mechanism, however, remains scarce and comes entirely from the visual domain. Here, we demonstrate compelling evidence for discrete perceptual sampling in the somatosensory domain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a tactile temporal discrimination task in humans, we find that oscillatory alpha- and low beta-band (8-20 Hz) cycles in primary somatosensory cortex represent neurophysiological correlates of discrete perceptual cycles. Our results agree with several theoretical concepts of discrete perceptual sampling and empirical evidence of perceptual cycles in the visual domain. Critically, these results show that discrete perceptual cycles are not domain-specific, and thus restricted to the visual domain, but extend to the somatosensory domain.
Within attention studies, Lavie's load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994; Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004) presented an account that could settle the question whether attention selects stimuli to be processed at an early or late stage of cognitive processing. This theory relied on the concepts of "perceptual load" and "attentional capacity", proposing that attentional resources are automatically allocated to stimuli, but when the perceptual load of the stimuli exceeds person's capacity, tas...
Weilnhammer, Veith A; Ludwig, Karin; Hesselmann, Guido; Sterzer, Philipp
During bistable vision, perception oscillates between two mutually exclusive percepts despite constant sensory input. Greater BOLD responses in frontoparietal cortex have been shown to be associated with endogenous perceptual transitions compared with "replay" transitions designed to closely match bistability in both perceptual quality and timing. It has remained controversial, however, whether this enhanced activity reflects causal influences of these regions on processing at the sensory level or, alternatively, an effect of stimulus differences that result in, for example, longer durations of perceptual transitions in bistable perception compared with replay conditions. Using a rotating Lissajous figure in an fMRI experiment on 15 human participants, we controlled for potential confounds of differences in transition duration and confirmed previous findings of greater activity in frontoparietal areas for transitions during bistable perception. In addition, we applied dynamic causal modeling to identify the neural model that best explains the observed BOLD signals in terms of effective connectivity. We found that enhanced activity for perceptual transitions is associated with a modulation of top-down connectivity from frontal to visual cortex, thus arguing for a crucial role of frontoparietal cortex in perceptual transitions during bistable perception.
Peperkorn, Henrik M; Alpers, Georg W; Mühlberger, Andreas
Fear reactions in spider-phobic patients can be activated by specific perceptual cues or by conceptual fear-related information. Matching perceptual fear cues and fear-related information were expected to result in maximal fear responses, perceptual fear cues alone in less fear, and information alone in the weakest responses. We used virtual reality to manipulate the available cues and information. Forty-eight phobic patients and 48 healthy participants were repeatedly exposed to either a perceptual cue, information, or a combination of both. In conditions with a fear-relevant perceptual cue, phobic patients reported increased fear compared to the condition with information only. Across exposures trials, these reactions diminished. Skin conductance in phobic patients was significantly higher in the combined than in the cue or the information condition. Perceptual cues are essential for phobic fear reactions in spider phobia. In combination with fear-relevant information, perceptual cues activate an intense and persistent fear reaction. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bele, Irene Velsvik
This study focuses on speaking voice quality in male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), who represent untrained and trained voice users, because we wanted to investigate normal and supranormal voices. In this study, both substantial and methodologic aspects were considered. It includes a method for perceptual voice evaluation, and a basic issue was rater reliability. A listening group of 10 listeners, 7 experienced speech-language therapists, and 3 speech-language therapist students evaluated the voices by 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. Two sets of voice signals were investigated: text reading (2 loudness levels) and sustained vowel (3 levels). The results indicated a high interrater reliability for most perceptual characteristics. Connected speech was evaluated more reliably, especially at the normal level, but both types of voice signals were evaluated reliably, although the reliability for connected speech was somewhat higher than for vowels. Experienced listeners tended to be more consistent in their ratings than did the student raters. Some vocal characteristics achieved acceptable reliability even with a smaller panel of listeners. The perceptual characteristics grouped in 4 factors reflected perceptual dimensions.
Brown, Judy; And Others
Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children ages 4-6 were investigated. Fifteen children (the experimental group) received integrated physical education/music instruction based on Kodaly and Dalcroze (Eurhythmics) concepts. The control group received movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Significant…
Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya
Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.
Stotesbury, Hanne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Kirhan, Saim; Haenschel, Corinna
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli. If SSD is associated with perceptual resource limitations, and if it represents the extreme end of an otherwise normally distributed neuropsychological phenotype, schizotypal traits in the general population should lead to disproportionate performance costs on dual-task paradigms as a function of the perceptual task demands. To test this prediction, schizotypal traits were quantified via the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in 74 healthy volunteers, who also completed a dual-task signal detection paradigm that required participants to detect central and peripheral stimuli across conditions that varied in the overall number of stimuli presented. The results confirmed decreasing performance as the perceptual load of the task increased. More importantly, significant correlations between SPQ scores and task performance confirmed that increased schizotypal traits, particularly in the cognitive-perceptual domain, are associated with greater performance decrements under increasing perceptual load. These results confirm that attentional difficulties associated with SSD extend sub-clinically into the general population and suggest that cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits may represent a risk factor for difficulties in the regulation of attention under increasing perceptual load.
Full Text Available Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli. If SSD is associated with perceptual resource limitations, and if it represents the extreme end of an otherwise normally distributed neuropsychological phenotype, schizotypal traits in the general population should lead to disproportionate performance costs on dual-task paradigms as a function of the perceptual task demands. To test this prediction, schizotypal traits were quantified via the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ in 74 healthy volunteers, who also completed a dual-task signal detection paradigm that required participants to detect central and peripheral stimuli across conditions that varied in the overall number of stimuli presented. The results confirmed decreasing performance as the perceptual load of the task increased. More importantly, significant correlations between SPQ scores and task performance confirmed that increased schizotypal traits, particularly in the cognitive-perceptual domain, are associated with greater performance decrements under increasing perceptual load. These results confirm that attentional difficulties associated with SSD extend sub-clinically into the general population and suggest that cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits may represent a risk factor for difficulties in the regulation of attention under increasing perceptual load.
Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu; Durand, Karine; Robichon, Fabrice
This study investigated children's perceptual ability to process second-order facial relations. In total, 78 children in three age groups (7, 9, and 11 years) and 28 adults were asked to say whether the eyes were the same distance apart in two side-by-side faces. The two faces were similar on all points except the space between the eyes, which was…
Daniel Enrique Kalpokas
Full Text Available According to Rorty, Davidson and Brandom, to have an experience is to be caused by our senses to hold a perceptual belief. This article argues that the phenomenon of seeing-as cannot be explained by such a conception of perceptual experience. First, the notion of experience defended by the aforementioned authors is reconstructed. Second, the main features of what Wittgenstein called “seeing aspects” are briefly presented. Finally, several arguments are developed in order to support the main thesis of the article: seeing-as cannot be explained by the conception of experience defended by Rorty, Davidson and Brandom.
Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.
Background: We have previously shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have specific handwriting deficits consisting of poor form, and that these deficits are predicted by their motor abilities. It is not known whether the same handwriting impairments persist into adolescence and whether they remain linked to motor deficits. Methods: A case-control study of handwriting samples from adolescents with and without ASD was performed using the Minnesota Handwriting Assessment. Samples were scored on an individual letter basis in 5 categories: legibility, form, alignment, size, and spacing. Subjects were also administered an intelligence test and the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle (Motor) Signs (PANESS). Results: We found that adolescents with ASD, like children, show overall worse performance on a handwriting task than do age- and intelligence-matched controls. Also comparable to children, adolescents with ASD showed motor impairments relative to controls. However, adolescents with ASD differ from children in that Perceptual Reasoning Indices were significantly predictive of handwriting performance whereas measures of motor skills were not. Conclusions: Like children with ASD, adolescents with ASD have poor handwriting quality relative to controls. Despite still demonstrating motor impairments, in adolescents perceptual reasoning is the main predictor of handwriting performance, perhaps reflecting subjects' varied abilities to learn strategies to compensate for their motor impairments. GLOSSARY ASD = autism spectrum disorder; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; PANESS = Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle (Motor) Signs; PRI = Perceptual Reasoning Index; WASI = Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WISC = Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV. PMID:21079184
Fusco, Natália; Germano, Giseli Donadon; Capellini, Simone Aparecida
To verify the efficacy of a perceptual and visual-motor skill intervention program for students with dyslexia. The participants were 20 students from third to fifth grade of a public elementary school in Marília, São Paulo, aged from 8 years to 11 years and 11 months, distributed into the following groups: Group I (GI; 10 students with developmental dyslexia) and Group II (GII; 10 students with good academic performance). A perceptual and visual-motor intervention program was applied, which comprised exercises for visual-motor coordination, visual discrimination, visual memory, visual-spatial relationship, shape constancy, sequential memory, visual figure-ground coordination, and visual closure. In pre- and post-testing situations, both groups were submitted to the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS-3), and the quality of handwriting was analyzed using the Dysgraphia Scale. The analyzed statistical results showed that both groups of students had dysgraphia in pretesting situation. In visual perceptual skills, GI presented a lower performance compared to GII, as well as in the quality of writing. After undergoing the intervention program, GI increased the average of correct answers in TVPS-3 and improved the quality of handwriting. The developed intervention program proved appropriate for being applied to students with dyslexia, and showed positive effects because it provided improved visual perception skills and quality of writing for students with developmental dyslexia.
Saunders, Gabrielle H; Forsline, Anna; Fausti, Stephen A
Measurement of hearing aid outcomes is necessary for demonstration of treatment efficacy, third-party payment, and cost-benefit analysis. Outcomes are usually measured with hearing-related questionnaires and/or tests of speech recognition. However, results from these two types of test often conflict. In this paper, we provide data from a new test measure, known as the Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT), in which subjective and performance aspects of hearing in noise are measured using the same test materials and procedures. A Performance Speech Reception Threshold (SRTN) and a Perceptual SRTN are measured using the Hearing In Noise Test materials and adaptive procedure. A third variable, the discrepancy between these two SRTNs, is also computed. It measures the accuracy with which subjects assess their own hearing ability and is referred to as the Performance-Perceptual Discrepancy (PPDIS). One hundred seven subjects between 24 and 83 yr of age took part. Thirty-three subjects had normal hearing, while the remaining seventy-four had symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. Of the subjects with impaired hearing, 24 wore hearing aids and 50 did not. All subjects underwent routine audiological examination and completed the PPT and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults on two occasions, between 1 and 2 wk apart. The PPT was conducted for unaided listening with the masker level set to 50, 65, and 80 dB SPL. PPT data show that the subjects with normal hearing have significantly better Performance and Perceptual SRTNs at each test level than the subjects with impaired hearing but that PPDIS values do not differ between the groups. Test-retest reliability for the PPT is excellent (r-values > 0.93 for all conditions). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the Performance SRTN, the PPDIS, and age explain 40% of the variance in reported handicap (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults scores). More specifically, poorer performance
Full Text Available Simple deformation of the skin surface with textured materials can improve human perceptual-motor performance. The implications of these findings are inexpensive, adaptable and easily integrated clothing, equipment and tools for improving perceptual-motor functionality. However, some clarification is needed because mixed results have been reported in the literature, highlighting positive, absent and/or negative effects of added texture on measures of perceptual-motor performance. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of textured materials for enhancing perceptual-motor functionality. The systematic review uncovered two variables suitable for sub-group analysis within and between studies: participant age (groupings were 18-51 years and 64.7-79.4 years and experimental task (upright balance and walking. Evaluation of studies that observed texture effects during upright balance tasks, uncovered two additional candidate sub-groups for future work: vision (eyes open and eyes closed and stability (stable and unstable. Meta-analysis (random effects revealed that young participants improve performance by a small to moderate amount in upright balance tasks with added texture (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.46-0.09, Z = 2.99, P = 0.001; Tau(2 = 0.02; Chi(2 = 9.87, df = 6, P = 0.13; I(2 = 39.22. Significant heterogeneity was found in, the overall effect of texture: Tau(2 = 0.13; Chi(2 = 130.71, df = 26, P<0.0001; I(2 = 85.98%, pooled samples in upright balance tasks: Tau(2 = 0.09; Chi(2 = 101.57, df = 13, P<0.001; I(2 = 72.67%, and in elderly in upright balance tasks: Tau(2 = 0.16; Chi(2 = 39.42, df = 5, P<0.001; I(2 = 83.05%. No effect was shown for walking tasks: Tau(2 = 0.00; Chi(2 = 3.45, df = 4, P = 0.27, I(2 = 22.99%. Data provides unequivocal support for utilizing textured materials in young healthy populations for improving
Lamata, Pablo; Gomez, Enrique J; Hernández, Félix Lamata; Oltra Pastor, Alfonso; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco Miquel; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco
Human perceptual capabilities related to the laparoscopic interaction paradigm are not well known. Its study is important for the design of virtual reality simulators, and for the specification of augmented reality applications that overcome current limitations and provide a supersensing to the surgeon. As part of this work, this article addresses the study of laparoscopic pulling forces. Two definitions are proposed to focalize the problem: the perceptual fidelity boundary, limit of human perceptual capabilities, and the Utile fidelity boundary, that encapsulates the perceived aspects actually used by surgeons to guide an operation. The study is then aimed to define the perceptual fidelity boundary of laparoscopic pulling forces. This is approached with an experimental design in which surgeons assess the resistance against pulling of four different tissues, which are characterized with both in vivo interaction forces and ex vivo tissue biomechanical properties. A logarithmic law of tissue consistency perception is found comparing subjective valorizations with objective parameters. A model of this perception is developed identifying what the main parameters are: the grade of fixation of the organ, the tissue stiffness, the amount of tissue bitten, and the organ mass being pulled. These results are a clear requirement analysis for the force feedback algorithm of a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Finally, some discussion is raised about the suitability of augmented reality applications around this surgical gesture.
Carr, V J; Dewis, S A; Lewin, T J
This report describes part of a series of experiments, conducted within the framework of feature integration theory, to determine whether patients with schizophrenia show deficits in preattentive processing. Thirty subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects completed two computerized experimental tasks, a visual search task assessing the frequency of illusory conjunctions (i.e. false perceptions) under conditions of divided attention (Experiment 3) and a task which examined the effects of perceptual grouping on illusory conjunctions (Experiment 4). We also assessed current symptomatology and its relationship to task performance. Contrary to our hypotheses, schizophrenia subjects did not show higher rates of illusory conjunctions, and the influence of perceptual grouping on the frequency of illusory conjunctions was similar for schizophrenia and control subjects. Nonetheless, specific predictions from feature integration theory about the impact of different target types (Experiment 3) and perceptual groups (Experiment 4) on the likelihood of forming an illusory conjunction were strongly supported, thereby confirming the integrity of the experimental procedures. Overall, these studies revealed no firm evidence that schizophrenia is associated with a preattentive abnormality in visual search using stimuli that differ on the basis of physical characteristics.
Benoni, Hanna; Tsal, Yehoshua
The present paper provides a short critical review of the theory of perceptual load. It closely examines the basic tenets and assumptions of the theory and identifies major conceptual and methodological problems that have been largely ignored in the literature. The discussion focuses on problems in the definition of the concept of perceptual load, on the circularity in the characterization and manipulation of perceptual load and the confusion between the concept of perceptual load and its operationalization. The paper also selectively reviews evidence supporting the theory as well as inconsistent evidence which proposed alternative dominant factors influencing the efficacy of attentional selection.
Liu, Jun; Dong, Junyu; Cai, Xiaoxu; Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike
Procedural models are widely used in computer graphics for generating realistic, natural-looking textures. However, these mathematical models are not perceptually meaningful, whereas the users, such as artists and designers, would prefer to make descriptions using intuitive and perceptual characteristics like "repetitive," "directional," "structured," and so on. To make up for this gap, we investigated the perceptual dimensions of textures generated by a collection of procedural models. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted: free-grouping and rating. We applied Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to discover the perceptual features used by the observers in grouping similar textures. The results suggested that existing dimensions in literature cannot accommodate random textures. We therefore utilized isometric feature mapping (Isomap) to establish a three-dimensional perceptual texture space which better explains the features used by humans in texture similarity judgment. Finally, we proposed computational models to map perceptual features to the perceptual texture space, which can suggest a procedural model to produce textures according to user-defined perceptual scales.
Full Text Available Procedural models are widely used in computer graphics for generating realistic, natural-looking textures. However, these mathematical models are not perceptually meaningful, whereas the users, such as artists and designers, would prefer to make descriptions using intuitive and perceptual characteristics like "repetitive," "directional," "structured," and so on. To make up for this gap, we investigated the perceptual dimensions of textures generated by a collection of procedural models. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted: free-grouping and rating. We applied Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to discover the perceptual features used by the observers in grouping similar textures. The results suggested that existing dimensions in literature cannot accommodate random textures. We therefore utilized isometric feature mapping (Isomap to establish a three-dimensional perceptual texture space which better explains the features used by humans in texture similarity judgment. Finally, we proposed computational models to map perceptual features to the perceptual texture space, which can suggest a procedural model to produce textures according to user-defined perceptual scales.
Chun, Marvin M.; Johnson, Marcia K.
Attention and memory are typically studied as separate topics, but they are highly intertwined. Here we discuss the relation between memory and two fundamental types of attention: perceptual and reflective. Memory is the persisting consequence of cognitive activities initiated by and/or focused on external information from the environment (perceptual attention) and initiated by and/or focused on internal mental representations (reflective attention). We consider three key questions for advancing a cognitive neuroscience of attention and memory: To what extent do perception and reflection share representational areas? To what extent are the control processes that select, maintain, and manipulate perceptual and reflective information subserved by common areas and networks? During perception and reflection, to what extent are common areas responsible for binding features together to create complex, episodic memories and for reviving them later? Considering similarities and differences in perceptual and reflective attention helps integrate a broad range of findings and raises important unresolved issues. PMID:22099456
Chun, Marvin M; Johnson, Marcia K
Attention and memory are typically studied as separate topics, but they are highly intertwined. Here we discuss the relation between memory and two fundamental types of attention: perceptual and reflective. Memory is the persisting consequence of cognitive activities initiated by and/or focused on external information from the environment (perceptual attention) and initiated by and/or focused on internal mental representations (reflective attention). We consider three key questions for advancing a cognitive neuroscience of attention and memory: to what extent do perception and reflection share representational areas? To what extent are the control processes that select, maintain, and manipulate perceptual and reflective information subserved by common areas and networks? During perception and reflection, to what extent are common areas responsible for binding features together to create complex, episodic memories and for reviving them later? Considering similarities and differences in perceptual and reflective attention helps integrate a broad range of findings and raises important unresolved issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005 states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.
.... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...
.... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...
Bejjanki, Vikranth R.; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C. Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne
The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play. PMID:25385590
Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne
The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play.
Lavie, Nilli; Lin, Zhicheng; Zokaei, Nahid; Thoma, Volker
Predictions from perceptual load theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) regarding object recognition across the same or different viewpoints were tested. Results showed that high perceptual load reduces distracter recognition levels despite always presenting distracter objects from the same view. They also showed that the levels of distracter recognition were…
Full Text Available The present paper provides a short critical review of the theory of perceptual load. It closely examines the basic tenets and assumptions of the theory and identifies major conceptual and methodological problems that have been largely ignored in the literature. The discussion focuses on problems in the definition of the concept of perceptual load, on the circularity in the characterization and manipulation of perceptual load and the confusion between the concept of perceptual load and its operationalization. The paper also selectively reviews evidence supporting the theory as well as inconsistent evidence which proposed alternative dominant factors influencing the efficacy of attentional selection.
Cartwright-Finch, Ula; Lavie, Nilli
Perceptual load theory offers a resolution to the long-standing early vs. late selection debate over whether task-irrelevant stimuli are perceived, suggesting that irrelevant perception depends upon the perceptual load of task-relevant processing. However, previous evidence for this theory has relied on RTs and neuroimaging. Here we tested the…
Benoni, Hanna; Zivony, Alon; Tsal, Yehoshua
Perceptual load theory [Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-468.; Lavie, N., & Tsal, Y. (1994) Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 183-197.] proposes that interference from distractors can only be avoided in situations of high perceptual load. This theory has been supported by blocked design manipulations separating low load (when the target appears alone) and high load (when the target is embedded among neutral letters). Tsal and Benoni [(2010a). Diluting the burden of load: Perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1645-1656.; Benoni, H., & Tsal, Y. (2010). Where have we gone wrong? Perceptual load does not affect selective attention. Vision Research, 50, 1292-1298.] have recently shown that these manipulations confound perceptual load with "dilution" (the mere presence of additional heterogeneous items in high-load situations). Theeuwes, Kramer, and Belopolsky [(2004). Attentional set interacts with perceptual load in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 697-702.] independently questioned load theory by suggesting that attentional sets might also affect distractor interference. When high load and low load were intermixed, and participants could not prepare for the presentation that followed, both the low-load and high-load trials showed distractor interference. This result may also challenge the dilution account, which proposes a stimulus-driven mechanism. In the current study, we presented subjects with both fixed and mixed blocks, including a mix of dilution trials with low-load trials and with high-load trials. We thus separated the effect of dilution from load and tested the influence of attentional sets on each component. The results revealed that whereas
Graves, James W.; And Others
The experimental program in structured activities in perceptual training was said to have two main objectives: to train children in retention of visual and auditory images and to increase the children's motivation to learn. Eight boys and girls participated in the program for two hours daily for a 10-week period. The age range was 7.0 to 12.10…
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks selected sport trainings on perceptual- motor skills among typical obese girls and girls with Down syndrome (aged 7-13. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with control group, 22 obese children with Down syndrome and 22 typical obese children who were selected purposefully participated in 24 purposeful sport training sessions. All groups were assessed with Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency before and after training sessions. Results: The findings showed that both groups of participants significantly developed in their gross motor skills (P<0.05 but not in fine skills. Also, the results indicated that obese children with Down syndrome had significantly (P<0.05 higher progress in both gross and fine motor skills than typical children. Conclusion: Despite of the variety of influential genetic and environmental constraints on obese children with Down syndrome they can develop their perceptual-motor skills via purposeful sport trainings such as play and leisure. Necessity of early perceptual-motor training is discussed.
Lenay, Charles; Stewart, John
WORK AIMED AT STUDYING SOCIAL COGNITION IN AN INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE OFTEN ENCOUNTERS SUBSTANTIAL THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL DIFFICULTIES: identifying the significant behavioral variables; recording them without disturbing the interaction; and distinguishing between: (a) the necessary and sufficient contributions of each individual partner for a collective dynamics to emerge; (b) features which derive from this collective dynamics and escape from the control of the individual partners; and (c) the phenomena arising from this collective dynamics which are subsequently appropriated and used by the partners. We propose a minimalist experimental paradigm as a basis for this conceptual discussion: by reducing the sensory inputs to a strict minimum, we force a spatial and temporal deployment of the perceptual activities, which makes it possible to obtain a complete recording and control of the dynamics of interaction. After presenting the principles of this minimalist approach to perception, we describe a series of experiments on two major questions in social cognition: recognizing the presence of another intentional subject; and phenomena of imitation. In both cases, we propose explanatory schema which render an interactionist approach to social cognition clear and explicit. Starting from our earlier work on perceptual crossing we present a new experiment on the mechanisms of reciprocal recognition of the perceptual intentionality of the other subject: the emergent collective dynamics of the perceptual crossing can be appropriated by each subject. We then present an experimental study of opaque imitation (when the subjects cannot see what they themselves are doing). This study makes it possible to characterize what a properly interactionist approach to imitation might be. In conclusion, we draw on these results, to show how an interactionist approach can contribute to a fully social approach to social cognition.
Vogel, N.; Renne, P. R.
The processes that led to the assembly of primitive inclusions in a once molten metal matrix as represented by IAB meteorites have not yet been fully understood . Ar-Ar dating of the inclusions provides important information about the thermal history of the IAB parent body [e.g., 2, 3], but the analysis of bulk inclusions, the standard procedure in the past, is often impaired by excess 40Ar and redistribution or loss of K and/or Ar during the history of the meteoriod and in the reactor. To minimize these problems, we prepared from silicate inclusions of four IABs pure plagioclase separates of different grain sizes and quality grades. On these we performed high resolution stepwise Ar-40-Ar-39 dating. Preliminary ages for the different separates of the inclusions are, in Ma, 4540(11) to 4459(12) for Caddo County, 4500(20) to 4380(30) for Landes, 4440(50) to 4340(30) for Ocotillo, and 4480(40) to 4200(30) and 4430(30) to 4300(30) for CDC2 and CDC1, respectively. The age ranges might reflect the residence time of each inclusion in the K-Ar blocking temperature range (ca. 600 K), and is narrowest for Caddo County, being also the oldest inclusion studied by us. Assuming that IABs resulted from a collision of a molten metal body with a chondritic planetesimal , Caddo County could represent a surface sample explaining the early and fast cooling, whereas the other samples might have been buried deeper within the IAB body, subject to prolonged residence at elevated temperatures. If IABs formed in impact metal melt pools peppered with chondritic host material  the different cooling ages, and age ranges recorded in each inclusion could reflect residence times in a certain metal melt pool, which indirectly would translate into pool sizes and the energies released by the previous impacts. Also, there may have been more than one IAB parent body. Whatever process led to the formation of IAB meteorites was active already very early in the history of the solar system, in
Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Green, Hayden; Sullivan, Rachel K; Gant, Nicholas
This study investigated the influence of five days of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on the acquisition and consolidation of visual perceptual learning using a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task. The timing of exercise relative to learning was manipulated by administering exercise either before or after perceptual training. Within a matched-subjects design, twenty-seven healthy participants (n = 9 per group) completed five consecutive days of perceptual training on a MDD task under one of three interventions: no exercise, exercise before the MDD task, or exercise after the MDD task. MDD task accuracy improved in all groups over the five-day period, but there was a trend for impaired learning when exercise was performed before visual perceptual training. MDD task accuracy (mean ± SD) increased in exercise before by 4.5 ± 6.5%; exercise after by 11.8 ± 6.4%; and no exercise by 11.3 ± 7.2%. All intervention groups displayed similar MDD threshold reductions for the trained and untrained motion axes after training. These findings suggest that moderate daily exercise does not enhance the rate of visual perceptual learning for an MDD task or the transfer of learning to an untrained motion axis. Furthermore, exercise performed immediately prior to a visual perceptual learning task may impair learning. Further research with larger groups is required in order to better understand these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Elk, Michiel
Previous studies have shown that one's prior beliefs have a strong effect on perceptual decision-making and attentional processing. The present study extends these findings by investigating how individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are related to perceptual and attentional biases. Two field studies were conducted in which visitors of a paranormal conducted a perceptual decision making task (i.e. the face/house categorization task; Experiment 1) or a visual attention task (i.e. the global/local processing task; Experiment 2). In the first experiment it was found that skeptics compared to believers more often incorrectly categorized ambiguous face stimuli as representing a house, indicating that disbelief rather than belief in the paranormal is driving the bias observed for the categorization of ambiguous stimuli. In the second experiment, it was found that skeptics showed a classical 'global-to-local' interference effect, whereas believers in conspiracy theories were characterized by a stronger 'local-to-global interference effect'. The present study shows that individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are associated with perceptual and attentional biases, thereby extending the growing body of work in this field indicating effects of cultural learning on basic perceptual processes.
Michiel van Elk
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that one's prior beliefs have a strong effect on perceptual decision-making and attentional processing. The present study extends these findings by investigating how individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are related to perceptual and attentional biases. Two field studies were conducted in which visitors of a paranormal conducted a perceptual decision making task (i.e. the face/house categorization task; Experiment 1 or a visual attention task (i.e. the global/local processing task; Experiment 2. In the first experiment it was found that skeptics compared to believers more often incorrectly categorized ambiguous face stimuli as representing a house, indicating that disbelief rather than belief in the paranormal is driving the bias observed for the categorization of ambiguous stimuli. In the second experiment, it was found that skeptics showed a classical 'global-to-local' interference effect, whereas believers in conspiracy theories were characterized by a stronger 'local-to-global interference effect'. The present study shows that individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are associated with perceptual and attentional biases, thereby extending the growing body of work in this field indicating effects of cultural learning on basic perceptual processes.
Dricu, Mihai; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha
Perceptual decision-making on emotions involves gathering sensory information about the affective state of another person and forming a decision on the likelihood of a particular state. These perceptual decisions can be of varying complexity as determined by different contexts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a region of interest approach to investigate the brain activation and functional connectivity behind two forms of perceptual decision-making. More complex unbiased decisions on affective voices recruited an extended bilateral network consisting of the posterior inferior frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and voice-sensitive areas in the auditory cortex. Less complex biased decisions on affective voices distinctly recruited the right mid inferior frontal cortex, pointing to a functional distinction in this region following decisional requirements. Furthermore, task-induced neural connectivity revealed stronger connections between these frontal, auditory, and limbic regions during unbiased relative to biased decision-making on affective voices. Together, the data shows that different types of perceptual decision-making on auditory emotions have distinct patterns of activations and functional coupling that follow the decisional strategies and cognitive mechanisms involved during these perceptual decisions.
McAuliffe, Megan J; Kerr, Sarah E; Gibson, Elizabeth M R; Anderson, Tim; LaShell, Patrick J
To determine how increased vocal loudness and reduced speech rate affect listeners' cognitive-perceptual processing of hypokinetic dysarthric speech associated with Parkinson's disease. Fifty-one healthy listener participants completed a speech perception experiment. Listeners repeated phrases produced by 5 individuals with dysarthria across habitual, loud, and slow speaking modes. Listeners were allocated to habitual ( n = 17), loud ( n = 17), or slow ( n = 17) experimental conditions. Transcripts derived from the phrase repetition task were coded for overall accuracy (i.e., intelligibility), and perceptual error analyses examined how these conditions affected listeners' phonemic mapping (i.e., syllable resemblance) and lexical segmentation (i.e., lexical boundary error analysis). Both speech conditions provided obvious perceptual benefits to listeners. Overall, transcript accuracy was highest in the slow condition. In the loud condition, however, improvement was evidenced across the experiment. An error analysis suggested that listeners in the loud condition prioritized acoustic-phonetic cues in their attempts to resolve the degraded signal, whereas those in the slow condition appeared to preferentially weight lexical stress cues. Increased loudness and reduced rate exhibited differential effects on listeners' perceptual processing of dysarthric speech. The current study highlights the insights that may be gained from a cognitive-perceptual approach.
Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children with visual impairment were divided into three groups: a magnifier group (n = 12), a crowded perceptual learning group (n = 18), and an uncrowded perceptual learning group (n = 15). Children with normal vision also were divided in three groups, but were measured only at baseline. Dependent variables were single near visual acuity (NVA), crowded NVA, LH line 50% crowding NVA, number of trials, accuracy, performance time, amount of small errors, and amount of large errors. Children with visual impairment trained during six weeks, two times per week, for 30 minutes (12 training sessions). After training, children showed significant improvement of NVA in addition to specific improvements on the training task. The crowded perceptual learning group showed the largest acuity improvements (1.7 logMAR lines on the crowded chart, P children in the crowded perceptual learning group showed improvements on all NVA charts. Children with visual impairment benefit from perceptual training. While task-specific improvements were observed in all training groups, transfer to crowded NVA was largest in the crowded perceptual learning group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the improvement of NVA by perceptual learning in children with visual impairment. (http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR2537.).
Full Text Available To date there has been minimal empirical inquiry on what may constitute inclusive learning environments for older (50+ years lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT adults. This paper draws upon a recent life-histories study with older LGBT adults in Scotland to consider how such environments can be developed. To do so, intersectional analysis is applied to interrogate how participants' lived realities and sense of self are enabled and constrained by the interactions between their diverse ageing, LGBT and other identities in the particular contexts of later life, post work. The paper argues that by adopting this approach to intersectional analysis, critical educational gerontology (CEG is equipped to more effectively realise inclusive, meaningful and potentially empowering learning environments for older LGBT adults. These will be more attuned to their later life realities, enabling them to reflect on the changing significance of being LGBT as they age, while allowing potential for personal growth and renewed sense of self.
Cheng, Qiang; Huang, Thomas S.
This paper presents a visible watermarking system using perceptual models. %how and why A watermark image is overlaid translucently onto a primary image, for the purposes of immediate claim of copyright, instantaneous recognition of owner or creator, or deterrence to piracy of digital images or video. %perceptual The watermark is modulated by exploiting combined DCT-domain and DWT-domain perceptual models. % so that the watermark is visually uniform. The resulting watermarked image is visually pleasing and unobtrusive. The location, size and strength of the watermark vary randomly with the underlying image. The randomization makes the automatic removal of the watermark difficult even though the algorithm is known publicly but the key to the random sequence generator. The experiments demonstrate that the watermarked images have pleasant visual effect and strong robustness. The watermarking system can be used in copyright notification and protection.
Yinger, Olivia Swedberg
As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…
Finlayson, Nonie J; Papageorgiou, Andriani; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel
How we perceive the environment is not stable and seamless. Recent studies found that how a person qualitatively experiences even simple visual stimuli varies dramatically across different locations in the visual field. Here we use a method we developed recently that we call multiple alternatives perceptual search (MAPS) for efficiently mapping such perceptual biases across several locations. This procedure reliably quantifies the spatial pattern of perceptual biases and also of uncertainty and choice. We show that these measurements are strongly correlated with those from traditional psychophysical methods and that exogenous attention can skew biases without affecting overall task performance. Taken together, MAPS is an efficient method to measure how an individual's perceptual experience varies across space.
Cosman, Joshua D; Mordkoff, J Toby; Vecera, Shaun P
A dominant account of selective attention, perceptual load theory, proposes that when attentional resources are exhausted, task-irrelevant information receives little attention and goes unrecognized. However, the flanker effect-typically used to assay stimulus identification-requires an arbitrary mapping between a stimulus and a response. We looked for failures of flanker identification by using a more-sensitive measure that does not require arbitrary stimulus-response mappings: the correlated flankers effect. We found that flanking items that were task-irrelevant but that correlated with target identity produced a correlated flanker effect. Participants were faster on trials in which the irrelevant flanker had previously correlated with the target than when it did not. Of importance, this correlated flanker effect appeared regardless of perceptual load, occurring even in high-load displays that should have abolished flanker identification. Findings from a standard flanker task replicated the basic perceptual load effect, with flankers not affecting response times under high perceptual load. Our results indicate that task-irrelevant information can be processed to a high level (identification), even under high perceptual load. This challenges a strong account of high perceptual load effects that hypothesizes complete failures of stimulus identification under high perceptual load. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
36 children in Grade 5 and 59 university students, all native speakers of Japanese, studied three types of priming stimuli in a mixed list: words written in hiragana (Japanese syllabary used in writing), words written in kanji (Chinese characters also used in writing), and pictures. They were then given a task involving completion of hiragana-word fragments: the task involved studied and nonstudied items. For both children and university students, words in hiragana produced the largest priming effects, that is, the words that had appeared in hiragana in the preceding study phase were generated more often in the test phase of word completion than the other two types of priming stimuli. This confirms that the perceptual priming effect depends much on data-driven processing. For both age groups, words in kanji produced nearly half the priming effects seen for hiragana-words. On the other hand, pictures had no priming effect for children but they had a similar effect to kanji-words for students. The discrepancy between kanji-words and pictures for children suggests that the former force the subject to read the words, which, possibly, activates the hiragana-words, while the latter do not necessarily force labelling the pictures. Among three kinds of imagery tests, the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire predicted priming scores for children and the Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery did so for students, but the Test of Visual Imagery Control did not predict the scores for either age group. This shows that children reporting habitual use of imagery and adults reporting vivid imagery have more pronounced perceptual priming effects. We conclude that the imagery ability based on self-judgments reflects real characteristics of the perceptual representation system of Tulving and Schacter (1990).
Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M
Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.
Schurer, Margreet; Eskes, Ciska
In areas where aging and shrinking, there are problems in the labor market and (care) facilities. Which constitute a threat to regional economy and quality of life in these areas. Not problems only Netherlands has regions which suffer, similar problems occur in other regions of the North Sea. iAge
Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Full Text Available In this review, we explore how reward signals shape perceptual learning in animals and humans. Perceptual learning is the well-established phenomenon by which extensive practice elicits selective improvement in one’s perceptual discrimination of basic visual features, such as oriented lines or moving stimuli. While perceptual learning has long been thought to rely on ‘top-down’ processes, such as attention and decision-making, a wave of recent findings suggests that these higher-level processes are, in fact, not necessary. Rather, these recent findings indicate that reward signals alone, in the absence of the contribution of higher-level cognitive processes, are sufficient to drive the benefits of perceptual learning. Here, we will review the literature tying reward signals to perceptual learning. Based on these findings, we propose dual underlying mechanisms that give rise to perceptual learning: one mechanism that operates ‘automatically’ and is tied directly to reward signals, and another mechanism that involves more ‘top-down’, goal-directed computations.
Ganos, Christos; Asmuss, Luisa; Bongert, Jens; Brandt, Valerie; Münchau, Alexander; Haggard, Patrick
Voluntary actions are accompanied by a distinctive subjective experience, so that they feel quite different from physically similar involuntary movements. However, the nature and origin of this experience of volition remain unclear. Voluntary actions emerge during early childhood, in parallel with reduction of involuntary movements. However, the available markers of the experience of volition, notably Libet's mental chronometry of intention, cannot readily be used in young children. In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), however, involuntary tic movements may coexist with voluntary control into adulthood. Therefore, adolescents with GTS could potentially confuse the two classes of movement. We have measured the temporal experience of voluntary action in a well-characterised group of adolescents with GTS, and age-matched controls. We replicated previous reports of a conscious intention occurring a few hundred milliseconds prior to voluntary keypress actions. Multiple regression across 25 patients' results showed that age and trait tic severity did not influence the experience of conscious intention. However, patients with stronger premonitory urges prior to tics showed significantly later conscious intentions, suggesting that the anticipatory experience of one's own volition involves a perceptual discrimination between potentially competing pre-movement signals. Patients who were more able to voluntarily suppress their tics showed significantly earlier conscious intention, suggesting that the perceptual discrimination between different action classes may also contribute to voluntary control of tics. We suggest that the brain learns voluntary control by perceptually discriminating a special class of internal 'intentional' signals, allowing them to emerge from motor noise. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
van Elk, M.
Previous studies have shown that one’s prior beliefs have a strong effect on perceptual decision-making and attentional processing. The present study extends these findings by investigating how individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are related to perceptual and attentional
Liang, Jiali; Wilkinson, Krista; Sainburg, Robert L
Previous studies proposed that selecting which hand to use for a reaching task appears to be modulated by a factor described as "task difficulty". However, what features of a task might contribute to greater or lesser "difficulty" in the context of hand selection decisions has yet to be determined. There has been evidence that biomechanical and kinematic factors such as movement smoothness and work can predict patterns of selection across the workspace, suggesting a role of predictive cost analysis in hand-selection. We hypothesize that this type of prediction for hand-selection should recruit substantial cognitive resources and thus should be influenced by cognitive-perceptual loading. We test this hypothesis by assessing the role of cognitive-perceptual loading on hand selection decisions, using a visual search task that presents different levels of difficulty (cognitive-perceptual load), as established in previous studies on overall response time and efficiency of visual search. Although the data are necessarily preliminary due to small sample size, our data suggested an influence of cognitive-perceptual load on hand selection, such that the dominant hand was selected more frequently as cognitive load increased. Interestingly, cognitive-perceptual loading also increased cross-midline reaches with both hands. Because crossing midline is more costly in terms of kinematic and kinetic factors, our findings suggest that cognitive processes are normally engaged to avoid costly actions, and that the choice not-to-cross midline requires cognitive resources. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maniscalco, Brian; McCurdy, Li Yan; Odegaard, Brian; Lau, Hakwan
Why do experimenters give subjects short breaks in long behavioral experiments? Whereas previous studies suggest it is difficult to maintain attention and vigilance over long periods of time, it is unclear precisely what mechanisms benefit from rest after short experimental blocks. Here, we evaluate decline in both perceptual performance and metacognitive sensitivity (i.e., how well confidence ratings track perceptual decision accuracy) over time and investigate whether characteristics of prefrontal cortical areas correlate with these measures. Whereas a single-process signal detection model predicts that these two forms of fatigue should be strongly positively correlated, a dual-process model predicts that rates of decline may dissociate. Here, we show that these measures consistently exhibited negative or near-zero correlations, as if engaged in a trade-off relationship, suggesting that different mechanisms contribute to perceptual and metacognitive decisions. Despite this dissociation, the two mechanisms likely depend on common resources, which could explain their trade-off relationship. Based on structural MRI brain images of individual human subjects, we assessed gray matter volume in the frontal polar area, a region that has been linked to visual metacognition. Variability of frontal polar volume correlated with individual differences in behavior, indicating the region may play a role in supplying common resources for both perceptual and metacognitive vigilance. Additional experiments revealed that reduced metacognitive demand led to superior perceptual vigilance, providing further support for this hypothesis. Overall, results indicate that during breaks between short blocks, it is the higher-level perceptual decision mechanisms, rather than lower-level sensory machinery, that benefit most from rest. Perceptual task performance declines over time (the so-called vigilance decrement), but the relationship between vigilance in perception and metacognition has
McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)
Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.
Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen
Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047
The thesis deals with an analysis of both perceptual and motor skills of children with dyslalia before their entering of the first grade of primary school. The aim of this thesis is to determine the level of perceptual and motor skills of both preschool children with dyslalia and intact children. The preschool age of a child is described in the theoretical part of the thesis. The thesis also defines dyslalia. Further chapters deal with auditory and visual perception. The area of motor skills ...
Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra
This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Werpup-Stüwe, L; Petermann, F; Daseking, M
The use of psychometric tests in with children and adolescents is especially important in psychological diagnostics. Nonverbal intelligence tests are very often used to diagnose psychological abnormalities and generate developmental prognosis independent of the child´s verbal abilities. The correlation of the German version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Adolescents and Adults (DTVP-A) with the Wechsler Nonverbal Scala of Abilities (WNV) was calculated based on the results of 172 children, adolescents and young adults aged 9-21 years. Furthermore, it was examined if individuals with poor visual perceptual abilities scored lower on the WNV than healthy subjects. The correlations of the results scored on DTVP-A and WNV ranged from moderate to strong. The group with poor visual perceptual abilities scored significantly lower on the WNV than the control group. Nonverbal intelligence tests like the WNV are not reliable for estimating the intelligence of individuals with low visual perceptual abilities. Therefore, the intelligence of these subjects should be tested with a test that also contains verbal subtests. If poor visual perceptual abilities are suspected, then they should be tested. The DTVP-A seems to be the right instrument for achieving this goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wang, Tianyang; Qin, Zhengrui
This paper proposes a visual perceptual descriptor (VPD) and a new approach to extract perceptual depth feature for 2D image retrieval. VPD mimics human visual system, which can easily distinguish regions that have different textures, whereas for regions which have similar textures, color features are needed for further differentiation. We apply VPD on the gradient direction map of an image, capture texture-similar regions to generate a VPD map. We then impose the VPD map on a quantized color map and extract color features only from the overlapped regions. To reflect the nature of perceptual distance in single 2D image, we propose and extract the perceptual depth feature by computing the nuclear norm of the sparse depth map of an image. Extracted color features and the perceptual depth feature are both incorporated to a feature vector, we utilize this vector to represent an image and measure similarity. We observe that the proposed VPD + depth method achieves a promising result, and extensive experiments prove that it outperforms other typical methods on 2D image retrieval.
van der Helm, Peter A
What is the degree to which knowledge influences visual perceptual processes? This question, which is central to the seeing-versus-thinking debate in cognitive science, is often discussed using examples claimed to be proof of one stance or another. It has, however, also been muddled by the usage of different and unclear definitions of perception. Here, for the well-defined process of perceptual organization, I argue that including speed (or efficiency) into the equation opens a new perspective on the limits of top-down influences of thinking on seeing. While the input of the perceptual organization process may be modifiable and its output enrichable, the process itself seems so fast (or efficient) that thinking hardly has time to intrude and is effective mostly after the fact.
Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Sun, Xun; Chang, Song
The effect of color and shape load on conceptual processing was studied. Perceptual load effects have been found in visual and auditory conceptual processing, supporting the theory of embodied cognition. However, whether different types of visual concepts, such as color and shape, share the same perceptual load effects is unknown. In the current experiment, 32 participants were administered simultaneous perceptual and conceptual tasks to assess the relation between perceptual load and conceptual processing. Keeping color load in mind obstructed color conceptual processing. Hence, perceptual processing and conceptual load shared the same resources, suggesting embodied cognition. Color conceptual processing was not affected by shape pictures, indicating that different types of properties within vision were separate.
Jones, Robert S. P.; Quigney, Ciara; Huws, Jaci C.
Five first-hand Web page accounts of unusual sensory perceptual experiences written by persons with high-functioning autism were selected for qualitative analysis. Four core categories emerged: turbulent sensory perceptual experiences; coping mechanisms; enjoyable sensory perceptual experiences; and awareness of being different, suggesting they…
Baumann, Oliver; Borra, Ronald J; Bower, James M; Cullen, Kathleen E; Habas, Christophe; Ivry, Richard B; Leggio, Maria; Mattingley, Jason B; Molinari, Marco; Moulton, Eric A; Paulin, Michael G; Pavlova, Marina A; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Sokolov, Arseny A
Various lines of evidence accumulated over the past 30 years indicate that the cerebellum, long recognized as essential for motor control, also has considerable influence on perceptual processes. In this paper, we bring together experts from psychology and neuroscience, with the aim of providing a succinct but comprehensive overview of key findings related to the involvement of the cerebellum in sensory perception. The contributions cover such topics as anatomical and functional connectivity, evolutionary and comparative perspectives, visual and auditory processing, biological motion perception, nociception, self-motion, timing, predictive processing, and perceptual sequencing. While no single explanation has yet emerged concerning the role of the cerebellum in perceptual processes, this consensus paper summarizes the impressive empirical evidence on this problem and highlights diversities as well as commonalities between existing hypotheses. In addition to work with healthy individuals and patients with cerebellar disorders, it is also apparent that several neurological conditions in which perceptual disturbances occur, including autism and schizophrenia, are associated with cerebellar pathology. A better understanding of the involvement of the cerebellum in perceptual processes will thus likely be important for identifying and treating perceptual deficits that may at present go unnoticed and untreated. This paper provides a useful framework for further debate and empirical investigations into the influence of the cerebellum on sensory perception.
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
Cortese, Aurelio; Amano, Kaoru; Koizumi, Ai; Kawato, Mitsuo; Lau, Hakwan
A central controversy in metacognition studies concerns whether subjective confidence directly reflects the reliability of perceptual or cognitive processes, as suggested by normative models based on the assumption that neural computations are generally optimal. This view enjoys popularity in the computational and animal literatures, but it has also been suggested that confidence may depend on a late-stage estimation dissociable from perceptual processes. Yet, at least in humans, experimental tools have lacked the power to resolve these issues convincingly. Here, we overcome this difficulty by using the recently developed method of decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) to systematically manipulate multivoxel correlates of confidence in a frontoparietal network. Here we report that bi-directional changes in confidence do not affect perceptual accuracy. Further psychophysical analyses rule out accounts based on simple shifts in reporting strategy. Our results provide clear neuroscientific evidence for the systematic dissociation between confidence and perceptual performance, and thereby challenge current theoretical thinking. PMID:27976739
Sündermann, Oliver; Hauschildt, Marit; Ehlers, Anke
Background Intrusive reexperiencing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly triggered by stimuli with perceptual similarity to those present during the trauma. Information processing theories suggest that perceptual processing during the trauma and enhanced perceptual priming contribute to the easy triggering of intrusive memories by these cues. Methods Healthy volunteers (N = 51) watched neutral and trauma picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects that were unrelated to the content of the stories briefly appeared in the interval between the pictures. Dissociation and data-driven processing (as indicators of perceptual processing) and state anxiety during the stories were assessed with self-report questionnaires. After filler tasks, participants completed a blurred object identification task to assess priming and a recognition memory task. Intrusive memories were assessed with telephone interviews 2 weeks and 3 months later. Results Neutral objects were more strongly primed if they occurred in the context of trauma stories than if they occurred during neutral stories, although the effect size was only moderate (ηp2=.08) and only significant when trauma stories were presented first. Regardless of story order, enhanced perceptual priming predicted intrusive memories at 2-week follow-up (N = 51), but not at 3 months (n = 40). Data-driven processing, dissociation and anxiety increases during the trauma stories also predicted intrusive memories. Enhanced perceptual priming and data-driven processing were associated with lower verbal intelligence. Limitations It is unclear to what extent these findings generalize to real-life traumatic events and whether they are specific to negative emotional events. Conclusions The results provide some support for the role of perceptual processing and perceptual priming in reexperiencing symptoms. PMID:23207970
Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.
Selective attention has been hypothesized to reduce distractor interference at both perceptual and postperceptual levels (Lavie, 2005), respectively, by focusing perceptual resources on the attended location and by blocking at postperceptual levels distractors that survive perceptual selection. This study measured the impact of load on these…
Mackintosh, N J
Although most studies of perceptual learning in human participants have concentrated on the changes in perception assumed to be occurring, studies of nonhuman animals necessarily measure discrimination learning and generalization and remain agnostic on the question of whether changes in behavior reflect changes in perception. On the other hand, animal studies do make it easier to draw a distinction between supervised and unsupervised learning. Differential reinforcement will surely teach animals to attend to some features of a stimulus array rather than to others. But it is an open question as to whether such changes in attention underlie the enhanced discrimination seen after unreinforced exposure to such an array. I argue that most instances of unsupervised perceptual learning observed in animals (and at least some in human animals) are better explained by appeal to well-established principles and phenomena of associative learning theory: excitatory and inhibitory associations between stimulus elements, latent inhibition, and habituation.
Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.
The present experiments examined perceptual specificity effects using a rereading paradigm. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either presenting the target word in the same distortion typography…
J.C. Gower (John); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); M. van de Velden (Michel); K. Vines (Karen)
textabstractPerceptual maps are often used in marketing to visually study relations between two or more attributes. However, in many perceptual maps published in the recent literature it remains unclear what is being shown and how the relations between the points in the map can be interpreted or
Full Text Available The focus of the study is on the knowledge that is constructed through perceptual processes during craft making in the context of the Finnish Basic Education in the Arts (BEA system. Craft studies in the BEA are defined as craft-art. The research method used is the grounded theory. The data consists of seven interviews and participant observations. Participants in the study are adolescents who study craft-art in the BEA system in Visual Art School, Aimo in Hämeenlinna. The aim of the article is to present, define and reflect on the concepts, properties and dimensions concerning perceptual processes that are discovered in this stage of the study following grounded theory procedures. The perceptual processes are an essential means of constructing knowledge in craft-art. Consequently, one aim of the study is to discuss how these processes are connected to various types of knowledge. The perceptual processes are described by seven concepts: imitative, anticipative, evaluative, experimental, emotional, temporal and bodily perceptions. They indicate on a conceptual level the characteristic of knowledge constructed through perceptual processes in craft-art. Further, theconcepts have several properties that can vary dimensionally between two qualities. The properties are activity, function and position. The dimensions of the properties vary from active to passive, formal to informal and internal to external. In conclusion, the concepts can describe a large range of incidents in different situations. They also seem to describe well the practice of craft-art and there are several connections with pre-existing concepts of knowledge.Keywords: Craft, Knowledge, Perceptual process, Basic Education in the Arts, Grounded Theory
Charrier, Christophe; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Cherifi, Hocine
It is generally accepted that a RGB color image can be easily encoded by using a gray-scale compression technique on each of the three color planes. Such an approach, however, fails to take into account correlations existing between color planes and perceptual factors. We evaluated several linear and non-linear color spaces, some introduced by the CIE, compressed with the vector quantization technique for minimum perceptual distortion. To study these distortions, we measured contrast and luminance of the video framebuffer, to precisely control color. We then obtained psychophysical judgements to measure how well these methods work to minimize perceptual distortion in a variety of color space.
Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A
Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin
Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…
One of the most important issues concerning the foundations of conscious perception centers on the question of whether perceptual consciousness is rich or sparse. The overflow argument uses a form of 'iconic memory' to argue that perceptual consciousness is richer (i.e., has a higher capacity) than cognitive access: when observing a complex scene we are conscious of more than we can report or think about. Recently, the overflow argument has been challenged both empirically and conceptually. This paper reviews the controversy, arguing that proponents of sparse perception are committed to the postulation of (i) a peculiar kind of generic conscious representation that has no independent rationale and (ii) an unmotivated form of unconscious representation that in some cases conflicts with what we know about unconscious representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burack, J A; Enns, J T; Iarocci, G; Randolph, B
Visual search for compound patterns was examined in observers aged 6, 8, 10, and 22 years. The main question was whether age-related improvement in search rate (response time slope over number of items) was different for patterns defined by short- versus long-range spatial relations. Perceptual access to each type of relation was varied by using elements of same contrast (easy to access) or mixed contrast (hard to access). The results showed large improvements with age in search rate for long-range targets; search rate for short-range targets was fairly constant across age. This pattern held regardless of whether perceptual access to a target was easy or hard, supporting the hypothesis that different processes are involved in perceptual grouping at these two levels. The results also point to important links between ontogenic and microgenic change in perception (H. Werner, 1948, 1957).
Kim, Kyungmi; Yi, Do-Joon
In the present study, the effect of memory suppression on subsequent perceptual processing of visual objects was examined within a modified think/no-think paradigm. Suppressing memories of visual objects significantly impaired subsequent perceptual identification of those objects when they were briefly encountered (Experiment 1) and when they were presented in noise (Experiment 2), relative to performance on baseline items for which participants did not undergo suppression training. However, in Experiment 3, when perceptual identification was performed on mirror-reversed images of to-be-suppressed objects, no impairment was observed. These findings, analogous to those showing forgetting of suppressed words in long-term memory, suggest that suppressing memories of visual objects might be mediated by direct inhibition of perceptual representations, which, in turn, impairs later perception of them. This study provides strong support for the role of inhibitory mechanisms in memory control and suggests a tight link between higher-order cognitive operations and perceptual processing.
Meilleur, Andrée-Anne S; Berthiaume, Claude; Bertone, Armando; Mottron, Laurent
Autistic perception is characterized by atypical and sometimes exceptional performance in several low- (e.g., discrimination) and mid-level (e.g., pattern matching) tasks in both visual and auditory domains. A factor that specifically affects perceptive abilities in autistic individuals should manifest as an autism-specific association between perceptual tasks. The first purpose of this study was to explore how perceptual performances are associated within or across processing levels and/or modalities. The second purpose was to determine if general intelligence, the major factor that accounts for covariation in task performances in non-autistic individuals, equally controls perceptual abilities in autistic individuals. We asked 46 autistic individuals and 46 typically developing controls to perform four tasks measuring low- or mid-level visual or auditory processing. Intelligence was measured with the Wechsler's Intelligence Scale (FSIQ) and Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM). We conducted linear regression models to compare task performances between groups and patterns of covariation between tasks. The addition of either Wechsler's FSIQ or RPM in the regression models controlled for the effects of intelligence. In typically developing individuals, most perceptual tasks were associated with intelligence measured either by RPM or Wechsler FSIQ. The residual covariation between unimodal tasks, i.e. covariation not explained by intelligence, could be explained by a modality-specific factor. In the autistic group, residual covariation revealed the presence of a plurimodal factor specific to autism. Autistic individuals show exceptional performance in some perceptual tasks. Here, we demonstrate the existence of specific, plurimodal covariation that does not dependent on general intelligence (or "g" factor). Instead, this residual covariation is accounted for by a common perceptual process (or "p" factor), which may drive perceptual abilities differently in autistic and
Andrée-Anne S Meilleur
Full Text Available Autistic perception is characterized by atypical and sometimes exceptional performance in several low- (e.g., discrimination and mid-level (e.g., pattern matching tasks in both visual and auditory domains. A factor that specifically affects perceptive abilities in autistic individuals should manifest as an autism-specific association between perceptual tasks. The first purpose of this study was to explore how perceptual performances are associated within or across processing levels and/or modalities. The second purpose was to determine if general intelligence, the major factor that accounts for covariation in task performances in non-autistic individuals, equally controls perceptual abilities in autistic individuals.We asked 46 autistic individuals and 46 typically developing controls to perform four tasks measuring low- or mid-level visual or auditory processing. Intelligence was measured with the Wechsler's Intelligence Scale (FSIQ and Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM. We conducted linear regression models to compare task performances between groups and patterns of covariation between tasks. The addition of either Wechsler's FSIQ or RPM in the regression models controlled for the effects of intelligence.In typically developing individuals, most perceptual tasks were associated with intelligence measured either by RPM or Wechsler FSIQ. The residual covariation between unimodal tasks, i.e. covariation not explained by intelligence, could be explained by a modality-specific factor. In the autistic group, residual covariation revealed the presence of a plurimodal factor specific to autism.Autistic individuals show exceptional performance in some perceptual tasks. Here, we demonstrate the existence of specific, plurimodal covariation that does not dependent on general intelligence (or "g" factor. Instead, this residual covariation is accounted for by a common perceptual process (or "p" factor, which may drive perceptual abilities differently in
Full Text Available Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (i the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (ii the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (iii the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.
Linnell, Karina J.; Caparos, Serge
Caparos and Linnell (2009, 2010) used a variable-separation flanker paradigm to show that (a) when cognitive load is low, increasing perceptual load causes spatial attention to focus and (b) when perceptual load is high, decreasing cognitive load causes spatial attention to focus. Here, we tested whether the effects of perceptual and cognitive…
Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles
We compared the ability of auditory, visual, and audiovisual (bimodal) exogenous cues to capture visuo-spatial attention under conditions of no load versus high perceptual load. Participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of visual targets preceded by either unimodal or bimodal cues under conditions of high perceptual load (in…
During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…
Jennifer M D Yoon
Full Text Available Visual illusions and other perceptual phenomena can be used as tools to uncover the otherwise hidden constructive processes that give rise to perception. Although many perceptual processes are assumed to be universal, variable susceptibility to certain illusions and perceptual effects across populations suggests a role for factors that vary culturally. One striking phenomenon is seen with two-tone images-photos reduced to two tones: black and white. Deficient recognition is observed in young children under conditions that trigger automatic recognition in adults. Here we show a similar lack of cue-triggered perceptual reorganization in the Pirahã, a hunter-gatherer tribe with limited exposure to modern visual media, suggesting such recognition is experience- and culture-specific.
Badger, Julia R.; Shapiro, Laura R.
We examined whether inductive reasoning development is better characterized by accounts assuming an early category bias versus an early perceptual bias. We trained 264 children aged 3 to 9 years to categorize novel insects using a rule that directly pitted category membership against appearance. This was followed by an induction task with…
Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara
Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.
Full Text Available In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.
van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J J; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Mann, David L; Savelsbergh, Geert J P
Many studies have shown that experts possess better perceptual-cognitive skills than novices (e.g., in anticipation, decision making, pattern recall), but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between performance on those tests of perceptual-cognitive skill and actual on-field performance. In this study, we assessed the in situ performance of skilled soccer players and related the outcomes to measures of anticipation, decision making, and pattern recall. In addition, we examined gaze behaviour when performing the perceptual-cognitive tests to better understand whether the underlying processes were related when those perceptual-cognitive tasks were performed. The results revealed that on-field performance could not be predicted on the basis of performance on the perceptual-cognitive tests. Moreover, there were no strong correlations between the level of performance on the different tests. The analysis of gaze behaviour revealed differences in search rate, fixation duration, fixation order, gaze entropy, and percentage viewing time when performing the test of pattern recall, suggesting that it is driven by different processes to those used for anticipation and decision making. Altogether, the results suggest that the perceptual-cognitive tests may not be as strong determinants of actual performance as may have previously been assumed.
Zizlsperger, Leopold; Kümmel, Florian; Haarmeier, Thomas
While perceptual learning increases objective sensitivity, the effects on the constant interaction of the process of perception and its metacognitive evaluation have been rarely investigated. Visual perception has been described as a process of probabilistic inference featuring metacognitive evaluations of choice certainty. For visual motion perception in healthy, naive human subjects here we show that perceptual sensitivity and confidence in it increased with training. The metacognitive sensitivity-estimated from certainty ratings by a bias-free signal detection theoretic approach-in contrast, did not. Concomitant 3Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) was applied in compliance with previous findings on effective high-low cross-frequency coupling subserving signal detection. While perceptual accuracy and confidence in it improved with training, there were no statistically significant tACS effects. Neither metacognitive sensitivity in distinguishing between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications, nor decision confidence itself determined the subjects' visual perceptual learning. Improvements of objective performance and the metacognitive confidence in it were rather determined by the perceptual sensitivity at the outset of the experiment. Post-decision certainty in visual perceptual learning was neither independent of objective performance, nor requisite for changes in sensitivity, but rather covaried with objective performance. The exact functional role of metacognitive confidence in human visual perception has yet to be determined.
Carlesimo, Giovanni A; Bonanni, Rita; Caltagirone, Carlo
This study investigated the hypothesis that brain damaged patients with memory disorder are poorer at remembering the semantic than the perceptual attributes of information. Eight patients with memory impairment of different etiology and 24 patients with chronic consequences of severe closed-head injury were compared to similarly sized age- and literacy-matched normal control groups on recognition tests for the physical aspect and the semantic identity of words and pictures lists. In order to avoid interpretative problems deriving from different absolute levels of performance, study conditions were manipulated across subjects to obtain comparable accuracy on the perceptual recognition tests in the memory disordered and control groups. The results of the Picture Recognition test were consistent with the hypothesis. Indeed, having more time for the stimulus encoding, the two memory disordered groups performed at the same level as the normal subjects on the perceptual test but significantly lower on the semantic test. Instead, on the Word Recognition test, following study condition manipulation, patients and controls performed similarly on both the perceptual and the semantic tests. These data only partially support the hypothesis of the study; rather they suggest that in memory disordered patients there is a reduction of the advantage, exhibited by normal controls, of retrieving pictures over words (picture superiority effect).
McIntyre, Morgan E; Arnold, Derek H
When a moving surface alternates in colour and direction, perceptual couplings of colour and motion can differ from their physical correspondence. Periods of motion tend to be perceptually bound with physically delayed colours - a colour/motion perceptual asynchrony. This can be eliminated by motion transparency. Here we show that the colour/motion perceptual asynchrony is not invariably eliminated by motion transparency. Nor is it an inevitable consequence given a particular physical input. Instead, it can emerge when moving surfaces are perceived as alternating in direction, even if those surfaces seem transparent, and it is eliminated when surfaces are perceived as moving invariably. For a given observer either situation can result from exposure to a common input. Our findings suggest that neural events that promote the perception of motion reversals are causal of the colour/motion perceptual asynchrony. Moreover, they suggest that motion transparency and coherence can be signalled simultaneously by subpopulations of direction-selective neurons, with this conflict instantaneously resolved by a competitive winner-takes-all interaction, which can instantiate or eliminate colour/motion perceptual asynchrony. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hajnal, A; Grocki, M; Jacobs, DM; Zaal, FTJM; Michaels, CF
Runeson, Justin, and Olsson (2000) proposed (a) that perceptual learning entails a transition from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension, and (b) that relative confidence-the difference between estimated and actual performance-indicates whether apprehension is inferential or
Hajnal, A.; Grocki, M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Zaal, F.T.J.M.; Michaels, C.F.
Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) proposed (a) that perceptual learning entails a transition from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension, and (b) that relative confidence - the difference between estimated and actual performance - indicates whether apprehension is inferential or
Sergent, Marie T.; Sedlacek, William E.
Describes perceptual mapping, a newly developed method for assessing perceptions of campus environments. Describes evaluation of a student union by students using this method. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this perceptual mapping method for assessing college environments. (Author/ABL)
Herzog, G.F.; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ); Bence, A.E.
A laser microprobe was used to measure the Ar isotopic contents of individual mineral grains in four neutron-irradiated Allende samples: two coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions, one fine-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusion, and one sample with matrix and miscellaneous chondrules. The following K-Ar ages (G.y.) were obtained after degassing low Ar retentive sites by preheating the samples for one hour at 675 C: matrix, 3.5 + or - 0.2 three miscellaneous chondrules, 4.4 + or - 0.1, 4.0 + or - 0.1, and 4.4 + or - 0.1 and the fine-grained inclusion, 4.5 + or - 0.2. The minerals in the coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions have ubiquitous chlorine, less than 10 ppm K and apparent ages ranging upwards from 4.6 G.y. to well over 10 G.y. Possible explanations for these apparent ages are atmospheric contamination, the decay of K-40 prior to the formation of the solar system, and the trapping of radiogenic Ar-40 lost by the matrix
The concept of perceptual independence is ubiquitous in psychology. It addresses the question of whether two (or more) dimensions are perceived independently. Several authors have proposed perceptual independence (or its lack thereof) as a viable measure of holistic face perception (Loftus, Oberg, & Dillon, Psychological Review 111:835-863, 2004; Wenger & Ingvalson, Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28:872-892, 2002). According to this notion, the processing of facial features occurs in an interactive manner. Here, I examine this idea from the perspective of two theories of perceptual independence: the multivariate uncertainty analysis (MUA; Garner & Morton, Definitions, models, and experimental paradigms. Psychological Bulletin 72:233-259, 1969), and the general recognition theory (GRT; Ashby & Townsend, Psychological Review 93:154-179, 1986). The goals of the study were to (1) introduce the MUA, (2) examine various possible relations between MUA and GRT using numerical simulations, and (3) apply the MUA to two consensual markers of holistic face perception(-)recognition of facial features (Farah, Wilson, Drain, & Tanaka, Psychological Review 105:482-498, 1998) and the composite face effect (Young, Hellawell, & Hay, Perception 16:747-759, 1987). The results suggest that facial holism is generated by violations of several types of perceptual independence. They highlight the important theoretical role played by converging operations in the study of holistic face perception.
Gipson, Christina L; Gorman, Jamie C; Hessler, Eric E
Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories. In an empirical study twelve dyads performed a finger oscillation task while attending to each other's movements through either visual, auditory, or visual and auditory perceptual modalities. Half of the participants were given prior knowledge of their partner's perceptual capabilities for coordinating across these different perceptual modality combinations. We found that the effect of top-down influence depends on the perceptual modality combination between two individuals. When people used the same perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in less synchronization and when people used different perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in more synchronization. Furthermore, persistence in the change in behavior as a result of having perceptual information about each other ('social memory') was stronger when this top-down influence was present.
Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D
Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.
McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark
This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…
Full Text Available The perceptual load theory in selective attention literature proposes that the interference from task-irrelevant distractor is eliminated when perceptual capacity is fully consumed by task-relevant information. However, the biased competition model suggests that the contents of working memory (WM can guide attentional selection automatically, even when this guidance is detrimental to visual search. An intriguing but unsolved question is what will happen when selective attention is influenced by both perceptual load and WM guidance. To study this issue, behavioral performances and event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded when participants were presented with a cue to either identify or hold in memory and had to perform a visual search task subsequently, under conditions of low or high perceptual load. Behavioural data showed that high perceptual load eliminated the attentional capture by WM. The ERP results revealed an obvious WM guidance effect in P1 component with invalid trials eliciting larger P1 than neutral trials, regardless of the level of perceptual load. The interaction between perceptual load and WM guidance was significant for the posterior N1 component. The memory guidance effect on N1 was eliminated by high perceptual load. Standardized Low Resolution Electrical Tomography Analysis (sLORETA showed that the WM guidance effect and the perceptual load effect on attention can be localized into the occipital area and parietal lobe, respectively. Merely identifying the cue produced no effect on the P1 or N1 component. These results suggest that in selective attention, the information held in WM could capture attention at the early stage of visual processing in the occipital cortex. Interestingly, this initial capture of attention by WM could be modulated by the level of perceptual load and the parietal lobe mediates target selection at the discrimination stage.
Tan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yuanfang; Wang, Lijun; Tian, Xia; Cui, Yan; Yang, Qian; Pan, Weigang; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Chen, Antao
The perceptual load theory in selective attention literature proposes that the interference from task-irrelevant distractor is eliminated when perceptual capacity is fully consumed by task-relevant information. However, the biased competition model suggests that the contents of working memory (WM) can guide attentional selection automatically, even when this guidance is detrimental to visual search. An intriguing but unsolved question is what will happen when selective attention is influenced by both perceptual load and WM guidance. To study this issue, behavioral performances and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when participants were presented with a cue to either identify or hold in memory and had to perform a visual search task subsequently, under conditions of low or high perceptual load. Behavioural data showed that high perceptual load eliminated the attentional capture by WM. The ERP results revealed an obvious WM guidance effect in P1 component with invalid trials eliciting larger P1 than neutral trials, regardless of the level of perceptual load. The interaction between perceptual load and WM guidance was significant for the posterior N1 component. The memory guidance effect on N1 was eliminated by high perceptual load. Standardized Low Resolution Electrical Tomography Analysis (sLORETA) showed that the WM guidance effect and the perceptual load effect on attention can be localized into the occipital area and parietal lobe, respectively. Merely identifying the cue produced no effect on the P1 or N1 component. These results suggest that in selective attention, the information held in WM could capture attention at the early stage of visual processing in the occipital cortex. Interestingly, this initial capture of attention by WM could be modulated by the level of perceptual load and the parietal lobe mediates target selection at the discrimination stage.
Parks, Nathan A; Hilimire, Matthew R; Corballis, Paul M
The perceptual load theory of attention posits that attentional selection occurs early in processing when a task is perceptually demanding but occurs late in processing otherwise. We used a frequency-tagged steady-state evoked potential paradigm to investigate the modality specificity of perceptual load-induced distractor filtering and the nature of neural-competitive interactions between task and distractor stimuli. EEG data were recorded while participants monitored a stream of stimuli occurring in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) for the appearance of previously assigned targets. Perceptual load was manipulated by assigning targets that were identifiable by color alone (low load) or by the conjunction of color and orientation (high load). The RSVP task was performed alone and in the presence of task-irrelevant visual and auditory distractors. The RSVP stimuli, visual distractors, and auditory distractors were "tagged" by modulating each at a unique frequency (2.5, 8.5, and 40.0 Hz, respectively), which allowed each to be analyzed separately in the frequency domain. We report three important findings regarding the neural mechanisms of perceptual load. First, we replicated previous findings of within-modality distractor filtering and demonstrated a reduction in visual distractor signals with high perceptual load. Second, auditory steady-state distractor signals were unaffected by manipulations of visual perceptual load, consistent with the idea that perceptual load-induced distractor filtering is modality specific. Third, analysis of task-related signals revealed that visual distractors competed with task stimuli for representation and that increased perceptual load appeared to resolve this competition in favor of the task stimulus.
Reber, Rolf; Wurtz, Pascal; Zimmermann, Thomas D
Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an incoming stimulus is processed. Although perceptual fluency is assessed by speed of processing, it remains unclear how objective speed is related to subjective experiences of fluency. We present evidence that speed at different stages of the perceptual process contributes to perceptual fluency. In an experiment, figure-ground contrast influenced detection of briefly presented words, but not their identification at longer exposure durations. Conversely, font in which the word was written influenced identification, but not detection. Both contrast and font influenced subjective fluency. These findings suggest that speed of processing at different stages condensed into a unified subjective experience of perceptual fluency.
Behrouz Ghorban Zadeh
Full Text Available Objective: Fundamental motor skills are the foundation of special skills. The purpose of this study was to study the effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-excremental study, 30 children aged 7 to 10 years old were selected through random cluster sampling method from elementary schools in Tabriz city. They were homogenized in two experimental groups (perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement and one control group based on their age and IQ. Programs were held in 9 weeks, two sessions per week, and each session was 45 minutes. Before beginning the training and at the end of the last session, pre-test and post-test were conducted. In order to assess motor development TGMD-2 test was used, and to analyze data covariance and bonferroni postdoc test were used. Results: The results showed that both perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement groups performed better in locomotors and object control skills than the control group (P&le 0.05 and there was no significant difference between these two groups (P&ge0.05Perceptual-motor skills training group had a greater impact on the development of control object skills than rhythmic movement group. Program rhythmic movement group had a greater impact on the development of object control skills than the control group. Conclusion: According to the results, educational programs which are used can be as an appropriate experiencing motion for children. These programs can be used at schools to to provide suitable program and the opportunity for training and developing motor skills.
Yi, Do-Joon; Olson, Ingrid R; Chun, Marvin M
What does perceptual experience contribute to figure-ground segregation? To study this question, we trained observers to search for symmetric dot patterns embedded in random dot backgrounds. Training improved shape segmentation, but learning did not completely transfer either to untrained locations or to untrained shapes. Such partial specificity persisted for a month after training. Interestingly, training on shapes in empty backgrounds did not help segmentation of the trained shapes in noisy backgrounds. Our results suggest that perceptual training increases the involvement of early sensory neurons in the segmentation of trained shapes, and that successful segmentation requires perceptual skills beyond shape recognition alone.
Volk, Christer Peter; Bech, Søren; Pedersen, Torben H.
of data from the listening evaluations. This paper addresses the following subset of aspects for increasing the objectivity of data from listening tests: The choice of perceptual attributes, relevance of perceptual attributes, choice of loudness equalisation strategy, optimum listening room specifications......A literature study was conducted focusing on maximizing objectivity of results from listening evaluations aimed at establishing the relationship between physical and perceptual measurements of loudspeakers. The purpose of the study was to identify and examine factors influencing the objectivity......, as well as loudspeaker listening in-situ vs. listening to recordings of loudspeakers over headphones....
Rosana Tiepo Arévalo
Full Text Available Objective: To describe vocal characteristics in children aged fiveto twelve years with mouth breathing caused by four etiologies:chronic rhinitis, hypertrophy, hypertrophy + chronic rhinitis andfunctional condition, using perceptual evaluation and acousticanalysis. Methods: Voice recordings of 120 mouth breathers judgedby four speech pathologists using the software Multi-Speech.Results: The perceptual evaluation of the voice revealed highincidence of breathy and hoarse voices, especially in the rhinitisgroup. Most cases were moderate, with low pitch and normalloudness. Hyponasality was found in over 50% of sample, asexpected, but we also found high occurrence of laryngealresonance, especially in the rhinitis group. Mean fundamentalfrequency was 24.81Hz, SD = 15.02; jitter = 2.17; shimmer =0.44, and HNR = 2.11. Values did not show statistically significantdifference among the groups. Conclusion: Perceptual evaluation ofthe voice revealed that most mouth breathers presented hoarseand breathy voice, low pitch, normal loudness and hyponasal andlaryngeal resonance. However, the acoustic analysis did not resultin any significant condition.
Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay
This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The
Friberg, Anders; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Hedblad, Anton; Fabiani, Marco; Elowsson, Anders
The notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, aiming to approach the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance from 75% to 93% for the emotional dimensions activity and valence; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. Results clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a "brute force" model using a large number of general audio features.
Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun
Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…
Mottron, Laurent; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle; Hubert, Benedicte; Burack, Jake
We propose an "Enhanced Perceptual Functioning" model encompassing the main differences between autistic and non-autistic social and non-social perceptual processing: locally oriented visual and auditory perception, enhanced low-level discrimination, use of a more posterior network in "complex" visual tasks, enhanced perception of first order static stimuli, diminished perception of complex movement, autonomy of low-level information processing toward higher-order operations, and differential relation between perception and general intelligence. Increased perceptual expertise may be implicated in the choice of special ability in savant autistics, and in the variability of apparent presentations within PDD (autism with and without typical speech, Asperger syndrome) in non-savant autistics. The overfunctioning of brain regions typically involved in primary perceptual functions may explain the autistic perceptual endophenotype.
Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro
A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure–ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure–ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural cont...
De Niear, Matthew A; Koo, Bonhwang; Wallace, Mark T
There has been a growing interest in developing behavioral tasks to enhance temporal acuity as recent findings have demonstrated changes in temporal processing in a number of clinical conditions. Prior research has demonstrated that perceptual training can enhance temporal acuity both within and across different sensory modalities. Although certain forms of unisensory perceptual learning have been shown to be dependent upon task difficulty, this relationship has not been explored for multisensory learning. The present study sought to determine the effects of task difficulty on multisensory perceptual learning. Prior to and following a single training session, participants completed a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task, which required them to judge whether a visual stimulus (flash) and auditory stimulus (beep) presented in synchrony or at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) occurred synchronously or asynchronously. During the training session, participants completed the same SJ task but received feedback regarding the accuracy of their responses. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three levels of difficulty during training: easy, moderate, and hard, which were distinguished based on the SOAs used during training. We report that only the most difficult (i.e., hard) training protocol enhanced temporal acuity. We conclude that perceptual training protocols for enhancing multisensory temporal acuity may be optimized by employing audiovisual stimuli for which it is difficult to discriminate temporal synchrony from asynchrony.
Full Text Available Color camera characterization, mapping outputs from the camera sensors to an independent color space, such as \\(XYZ\\, is an important step in the camera processing pipeline. Until now, this procedure has been primarily solved by using a \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix obtained via a least-squares optimization. In this paper, we propose to use the spherical sampling method, recently published by Finlayson al., to perform a perceptual color characterization. In particular, we search for the \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix that minimizes three different perceptual errors, one pixel based and two spatially based. For the pixel-based case, we minimize the CIE \\(\\Delta E\\ error, while for the spatial-based case, we minimize both the S-CIELAB error and the CID error measure. Our results demonstrate an improvement of approximately 3for the \\(\\Delta E\\ error, 7& for the S-CIELAB error and 13% for the CID error measures.
Full Text Available Perceptual decisions vary in the speed at which we make them. Evidence suggests that translating sensory information into perceptual decisions relies on distributed interacting neural populations, with decision speed hinging on power modulations of the neural oscillations. Yet the dependence of perceptual decisions on the large-scale network organization of coupled neural oscillations has remained elusive. We measured magnetoencephalographic signals in human listeners who judged acoustic stimuli composed of carefully titrated clouds of tone sweeps. These stimuli were used in two task contexts, in which the participants judged the overall pitch or direction of the tone sweeps. We traced the large-scale network dynamics of the source-projected neural oscillations on a trial-by-trial basis using power-envelope correlations and graph-theoretical network discovery. In both tasks, faster decisions were predicted by higher segregation and lower integration of coupled beta-band (∼16–28 Hz oscillations. We also uncovered the brain network states that promoted faster decisions in either lower-order auditory or higher-order control brain areas. Specifically, decision speed in judging the tone sweep direction critically relied on the nodal network configurations of anterior temporal, cingulate, and middle frontal cortices. Our findings suggest that global network communication during perceptual decision-making is implemented in the human brain by large-scale couplings between beta-band neural oscillations. The speed at which we make perceptual decisions varies. This translation of sensory information into perceptual decisions hinges on dynamic changes in neural oscillatory activity. However, the large-scale neural-network embodiment supporting perceptual decision-making is unclear. We addressed this question by experimenting two auditory perceptual decision-making situations. Using graph-theoretical network discovery, we traced the large-scale network
Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang
Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning.
This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... in these processes. As a consequence, English as the only global language is spreading around the world, including Europe and the European Union. Social and linguistic inclusion was accounted for in the pre-globalization age by the nation-state ideology implementing the ‘one nation-one people-one language’ doctrine...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...
Miller, Jeremy K.; Lloyd, Marianne E.; Westerman, Deanne L.
Previous research has shown that illusions of recognition memory based on enhanced perceptual fluency are sensitive to the perceptual match between the study and test phases of an experiment. The results of the current study strengthen that conclusion, as they show that participants will not interpret enhanced perceptual fluency as a sign of…
Sarkar, Sudeep; Boyer, Kim L.
The evolution of perceptual organization in biological vision, and its necessity in advanced computer vision systems, arises from the characteristic that perception, the extraction of meaning from sensory input, is an intelligent process. This is particularly so for high order organisms and, analogically, for more sophisticated computational models. The role of perceptual organization in computer vision systems is explored. This is done from four vantage points. First, a brief history of perceptual organization research in both humans and computer vision is offered. Next, a classificatory structure in which to cast perceptual organization research to clarify both the nomenclature and the relationships among the many contributions is proposed. Thirdly, the perceptual organization work in computer vision in the context of this classificatory structure is reviewed. Finally, the array of computational techniques applied to perceptual organization problems in computer vision is surveyed.
Chang, Acer Y-C; Schwartzman, David J; VanRullen, Rufin; Kanai, Ryota; Seth, Anil K
A novel neural signature of active visual processing has recently been described in the form of the "perceptual echo", in which the cross-correlation between a sequence of randomly fluctuating luminance values and occipital electrophysiological signals exhibits a long-lasting periodic (∼100 ms cycle) reverberation of the input stimulus (VanRullen and Macdonald, 2012). As yet, however, the mechanisms underlying the perceptual echo and its function remain unknown. Reasoning that natural visual signals often contain temporally predictable, though nonperiodic features, we hypothesized that the perceptual echo may reflect a periodic process associated with regularity learning. To test this hypothesis, we presented subjects with successive repetitions of a rapid nonperiodic luminance sequence, and examined the effects on the perceptual echo, finding that echo amplitude linearly increased with the number of presentations of a given luminance sequence. These data suggest that the perceptual echo reflects a neural signature of regularity learning.Furthermore, when a set of repeated sequences was followed by a sequence with inverted luminance polarities, the echo amplitude decreased to the same level evoked by a novel stimulus sequence. Crucially, when the original stimulus sequence was re-presented, the echo amplitude returned to a level consistent with the number of presentations of this sequence, indicating that the visual system retained sequence-specific information, for many seconds, even in the presence of intervening visual input. Altogether, our results reveal a previously undiscovered regularity learning mechanism within the human visual system, reflected by the perceptual echo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the brain encodes and learns fast-changing but nonperiodic visual input remains unknown, even though such visual input characterizes natural scenes. We investigated whether the phenomenon of "perceptual echo" might index such learning. The perceptual echo is a
Solovey, Guillermo; Shalom, Diego; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Sigman, Mariano
Practice can enhance of perceptual sensitivity, a well-known phenomenon called perceptual learning. However, the effect of practice on subjective perception has received little attention. We approach this problem from a visual psychophysics and computational modeling perspective. In a sequence of visual search experiments, subjects significantly increased the ability to detect a "trained target". Before and after training, subjects performed two psychophysical protocols that parametrically vary the visibility of the "trained target": an attentional blink and a visual masking task. We found that confidence increased after learning only in the attentional blink task. Despite large differences in some observables and task settings, we identify common mechanisms for decision-making and confidence. Specifically, our behavioral results and computational model suggest that perceptual ability is independent of processing time, indicating that changes in early cortical representations are effective, and learning changes decision criteria to convey choice and confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patrick A. Zollner
Perceptual range is the maximum distance from which an animal can perceive the presence of remote landscape elements such as patches of habitat. Such perceptual abilities are of interest because they influence the probability that an animal will successfully disperse to a new patch in a landscape. Furthermore, understanding how perceptual range differs between species...
Hemgren, E; Persson, K
Children who have needed neonatal intensive care (NIC) are considered to be at risk for deficits such as developmental co-ordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. By assessing motor-perceptual development, motor co-ordination and attention already at 3 years of age, it might be possible to identify such deficits earlier than they are today. To investigate the motor-perceptual development in a group of 202 NIC children but had no major impairments, to describe associations of deficits in co-ordination and attention with motor-perceptual delays, and to estimate the prevalence of NIC children with combined deficits together with a motor-perceptual delay. Co-ordination and attention in children born very preterm (n = 57), moderately preterm (n = 75) and full-term (n = 70) were observed according to a model for Combined Assessment of Motor Performance and Behaviour while they were assessed using a developmental scale, Motor-Perceptual Development, 0-7 years, MPU. In two out of 14 MPU areas, a larger proportion of very preterm than of moderately preterm and full-term children had marked developmental delay. Overall, the proportion of NIC children having a motor-perceptual delay increased with increasing incoordination and especially increasing lack of attention. Twenty-one (11%) of the NIC children had different motor-perceptual delays combined with pronounced incoordination and pronounced lack of attention. Deficits in co-ordination and attention were associated with motor-perceptual delays in areas important for daily living and development of academic skills. Therefore, to find children at risk for developmental co-ordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, assessments of co-ordination and attention should be added to assessments of motor-perceptual development in 3-year-old NIC children.
Aslin, Richard N.
Bhatt and Quinn (2011) provide a compelling and comprehensive review of empirical evidence that supports the operation of principles of perceptual organization in young infants. They also have provided a comprehensive list of experiences that could serve to trigger the learning of at least some of these principles of perceptual organization, and…
Taha TahaBasheer; Ehkan Phaklen; Ngadiran Ruzelita
Perceptual mappingapproaches have been widely used in visual information processing in multimedia and internet of things (IOT) applications. Accumulative Lifting Difference (ALD) is proposed in this paper as texture mapping model based on low-complexity lifting wavelet transform, and combined with luminance masking for creating an efficient perceptual mapping model to estimate Just Noticeable Distortion (JND) in digital images. In addition to low complexity operations, experiments results sho...
The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to t...
Astle, Andrew T; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V
Amblyopia presents early in childhood and affects approximately 3% of western populations. The monocular visual acuity loss is conventionally treated during the 'critical periods' of visual development by occluding or penalising the fellow eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Despite the measurable success of this approach in many children, substantial numbers of people still suffer with amblyopia later in life because either they were never diagnosed in childhood, did not respond to the original treatment, the amblyopia was only partially remediated, or their acuity loss returned after cessation of treatment. In this review, we consider whether the visual deficits of this largely overlooked amblyopic group are amenable to conventional and innovative therapeutic interventions later in life, well beyond the age at which treatment is thought to be effective. There is a considerable body of evidence that residual plasticity is present in the adult visual brain and this can be harnessed to improve function in adults with amblyopia. Perceptual training protocols have been developed to optimise visual gains in this clinical population. Results thus far are extremely encouraging; marked visual improvements have been demonstrated, the perceptual benefits transfer to new visual tasks and appear to be relatively enduring. The essential ingredients of perceptual training protocols are being incorporated into video game formats, facilitating home-based interventions. Many studies support perceptual training as a tool for improving vision in amblyopes beyond the critical period. Should this novel form of treatment stand up to the scrutiny of a randomised controlled trial, clinicians may need to re-evaluate their therapeutic approach to adults with amblyopia. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.
Astle, Andrew T.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.
Background Amblyopia presents early in childhood and affects approximately 3% of western populations. The monocular visual acuity loss is conventionally treated during the “critical periods” of visual development by occluding or penalising the fellow eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Despite the measurable success of this approach in many children, substantial numbers of people still suffer with amblyopia later in life because either they were never diagnosed in childhood, did not respond to the original treatment, the amblyopia was only partially remediated, or their acuity loss returned after cessation of treatment. Purpose In this review, we consider whether the visual deficits of this largely overlooked amblyopic group are amenable to conventional and innovative therapeutic interventions later in life, well beyond the age at which treatment is thought to be effective. Recent findings There is a considerable body of evidence that residual plasticity is present in the adult visual brain and this can be harnessed to improve function in adults with amblyopia. Perceptual training protocols have been developed to optimise visual gains in this clinical population. Results thus far are extremely encouraging: marked visual improvements have been demonstrated, the perceptual benefits transfer to new visual tasks and appear to be relatively enduring. The essential ingredients of perceptual training protocols are being incorporated into video game formats, facilitating home-based interventions. Summary Many studies support perceptual training as a tool for improving vision in amblyopes beyond the critical period. Should this novel form of treatment stand up to the scrutiny of a randomised controlled trial, clinicians may need to re-evaluate their therapeutic approach to adults with amblyopia. PMID:21981034
Moradi, Hadi; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Taheri, Hamidreza; Khodashenas, Ezzat; Movahedi, Ahmadreza
The present study investigated the effects of different combinations of perceptual-motor exercises, music, and Vitamin D consumption on the nerve growth factor (NGF) in children with high-functioning autism. 48 children with autism, aged between six and nine years, were divided into four groups: Group A- perceptual-motor activities along with music (n = 12); Group B-Vitamin D supplementation (n = 12); Group C-perceptual-motor activities along with music and Vitamin D (n = 12); and Group D-control (n = 12). Participants' blood NGF level was measured before and after the intervention. The results showed a significant improvement in the NGF levels in Groups B and C due to the interventions. Also, in Group A, the NGF levels increased compared to Group D, although this increase was not significant. In addition, the intake of Vitamin D along with perceptual-motor exercises resulted in a significant increase in the levels of NGF compared to Groups A, B and D. These findings suggest that perceptual-motor exercises along with music as well as taking Vitamin D may provide two appropriate interventions for improving NGF in children with autism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bennett, Marc; Vervoort, Ellen; Boddez, Yannick; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank
Learned fear can generalize to neutral events due their perceptual and conceptual similarity with threat relevant stimuli. This study simultaneously examined these forms of generalization to model the expansion of fear in anxiety disorders. First, artificial categories involving sounds, nonsense words and animal-like objects were established. Next, the words from one category were paired with threatening information while the words from the other category were paired with safety information. Lastly, we examined if fear generalized to (i) the conceptually related animal-like objects and (ii) other animal like-objects that were perceptually similar. This was measured using behavioral avoidance, US expectancy ratings and self-reported stimulus valence. Animal-like objects conceptually connected to the aversive words evoked heightened fear. Perceptual variants of these animal-like objects also elicit fear. Future research would benefit from the use of online-US expectancy ratings and physiological measures of fear. Investigating the role of both perceptual and conceptual fear generalization is important to better understand the etiology of anxiety disorders symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simon, Laurent S R; Zacharov, Nick; Katz, Brian F G
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings. The list of attributes was designed using a Consensus Vocabulary Protocol elicitation method. Participants followed an Individual Vocabulary Protocol elicitation procedure, describing the perceived differences between binaural stimuli based on binauralized extracts of multichannel productions. This was followed by an automated lexical reduction and a series of consensus group meetings during which participants agreed on a list of relevant attributes. Finally, the proposed list of attributes was then evaluated through a listening test, leading to eight valid perceptual attributes for describing the perceptual dimensions affected by HRTF set variations.
Andrew J. Oxenham
Full Text Available Recent physiological studies in several rodent species have revealed that permanent damage can occur to the auditory system after exposure to a noise that produces only a temporary shift in absolute thresholds. The damage has been found to occur in the synapses between the cochlea’s inner hair cells and the auditory nerve, effectively severing part of the connection between the ear and the brain. This synaptopathy has been termed hidden hearing loss because its effects are not thought to be revealed in standard clinical, behavioral, or physiological measures of absolute threshold. It is currently unknown whether humans suffer from similar deficits after noise exposure. Even if synaptopathy occurs in humans, it remains unclear what the perceptual consequences might be or how they should best be measured. Here, we apply a simple theoretical model, taken from signal detection theory, to provide some predictions for what perceptual effects could be expected for a given loss of synapses. Predictions are made for a number of basic perceptual tasks, including tone detection in quiet and in noise, frequency discrimination, level discrimination, and binaural lateralization. The model’s predictions are in line with the empirical observations that a 50% loss of synapses leads to changes in threshold that are too small to be reliably measured. Overall, the model provides a simple initial quantitative framework for understanding and predicting the perceptual effects of synaptopathy in humans.
Bowd, Alan D.
Kindergarten children were administered tests of inductive reasoning and field dependence and a series of perceptual egocentrism tasks. Results confirm a positive relation between field dependence and perceptual egocentrism; they also question the validity of the field-dependence construct in early childhood. (GO)
Krueger, Paul M.; van Vugt, Marieke K.; Simen, Patrick; Nystrom, Leigh; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D.
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. NEW METHOD: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift
Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany
In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality.
Nemes, V A; Whitaker, D; Heron, J; McKeefry, D J
Current models of short-term visual perceptual memory invoke mechanisms that are closely allied to low-level perceptual discrimination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which human visual perceptual memory for spatial frequency is based upon multiple, spatially tuned channels similar to those found in the earliest stages of visual processing. To this end we measured how performance on a delayed spatial frequency discrimination paradigm was affected by the introduction of interfering or 'memory masking' stimuli of variable spatial frequency during the delay period. Masking stimuli were shown to induce shifts in the points of subjective equality (PSE) when their spatial frequencies were within a bandwidth of 1.2 octaves of the reference spatial frequency. When mask spatial frequencies differed by more than this value, there was no change in the PSE from baseline levels. This selective pattern of masking was observed for different spatial frequencies and demonstrates the existence of multiple, spatially tuned mechanisms in visual perceptual memory. Memory masking effects were also found to occur for horizontal separations of up to 6 deg between the masking and test stimuli and lacked any orientation selectivity. These findings add further support to the view that low-level sensory processing mechanisms form the basis for the retention of spatial frequency information in perceptual memory. However, the broad range of transfer of memory masking effects across spatial location and other dimensions indicates more long range, long duration interactions between spatial frequency channels that are likely to rely contributions from neural processes located in higher visual areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seeber, Isabella; Waizenegger, Lena; Demetz, Lukas
interactions on the team outcome, i.e. the ideas in a converged list. However, it is unclear if formal control can facilitate perceptual congruence and what effect it has on idea quality, e.g., an idea’s elaborateness. Perceptual congruence is operationalized by examining the agreement between leaders and team...... of perceptual congruence. Perceptual incongruence was found to be detrimental for extent of idea development....
Explains for the first time how "computing with words" can aid in making subjective judgments. Lotfi Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase "computing with words" (CWW) to describe a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language. Perceptual Computing explains how to implement CWW to aid in the important area of making subjective judgments, using a methodology that leads to an interactive device—a "Perceptual Computer"—that propagates random and linguistic uncertainties into the subjective judg
Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P
Specialized, bimodal neural systems integrate visual and tactile information in the space near the hand. Here, we show that visuo-tactile representations allow attention to influence early perceptual processing, namely, figure-ground assignment. Regions that were reached toward were more likely than other regions to be assigned as foreground figures, and hand position competed with image-based information to bias figure-ground assignment. Our findings suggest that hand position allows attention to influence visual perceptual processing and that visual processes typically viewed as unimodal can be influenced by bimodal visuo-tactile representations.
Lavie, Nilli; Beck, Diane M; Konstantinou, Nikos
What is the relationship between attention and conscious awareness? Awareness sometimes appears to be restricted to the contents of focused attention, yet at other times irrelevant distractors will dominate awareness. This contradictory relationship has also been reflected in an abundance of discrepant research findings leading to an enduring controversy in cognitive psychology. Lavie's load theory of attention suggests that the puzzle can be solved by considering the role of perceptual load. Although distractors will intrude upon awareness in conditions of low load, awareness will be restricted to the content of focused attention when the attended information involves high perceptual load. Here, we review recent evidence for this proposal with an emphasis on the various subjective blindness phenomena, and their neural correlates, induced by conditions of high perceptual load. We also present novel findings that clarify the role of attention in the response to stimulus contrast. Overall, this article demonstrates a critical role for perceptual load across the spectrum of perceptual processes leading to awareness, from the very early sensory responses related to contrast detection to explicit recognition of semantic content.
Full Text Available The A allele of the Fras1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3 rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS, and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (192 women, mean age 19.7±1.2. Perceptual processing speed was indexed by reaction times in the same task and the Trails Making Test (TMT. The effect of rs7676614 on FREM3 mRNA brain expression levels was probed in a postmortem cohort of 169 Caucasian individuals (44 women, mean age 50.8±14.9. The A allele of rs7676614 was associated with blunted amygdala reactivity to faces, slower reaction times in the face-matching condition (p<0.04, as well as marginally slower performance on TMT Part B (p=0.056. In the postmortem cohort, the T allele of rs6537170 (proxy for the rs7676614 A allele, was associated with trend-level reductions in gene expression in Brodmann areas 11 and 47 (p=0.066, reminiscent of patterns characteristic of older age. The low-expressing allele of another FREM3 SNP (rs1391187 was similarly associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and slower TMT Part B speed, in addition to reduced BA47 activity and Extraversion (p<0.05. Together, these results suggest common genetic variation associated with reduced FREM3 expression may confer risk for a subtype of depression characterized by reduced reactivity to environmental stimuli and slower perceptual processing speed, possibly suggestive of
Šmilauerová, J.; Harcuba, P.; Pospíšil, J.; Matěj, Z.; Holý, V.
We investigated the size and crystal structure of nanometer-sized ω inclusions in single crystals of β-Ti alloys by X-ray diffraction pole-figure measurements and reciprocal space mapping. We studied the topotactical relation of the β and ω crystal lattices, and from the positions and shapes of the diffraction maxima of the ω lattice determined the mean size of the ω inclusions and the misfit of the inclusion lattice with respect to the host lattice, as well as their changes during ageing. The lattice of the ω inclusions exhibits a large positive misfit already before ageing and the misfit is subsequently reduced during the ageing process. Using the theories of elasticity and X-ray scattering we simulated diffuse X-ray scattering around the β diffraction maxima and demonstrated that the diffuse scattering is caused mainly by local elastic strains in the β host phase around the ω inclusions
Toelch, Ulf; Panizza, Folco; Heekeren, Hauke R
Adaptive decisions in social contexts depend on both perceptual information and social expectations or norms. These are potentially in conflict when certain choices are beneficial for an individual, but societal rules mandate a different course of action. To resolve such a conflict, the reliability of information has to be balanced against potentially deleterious effects of non-compliance such as ostracism. In this study, we systematically investigated how interactions between perceptual and social influences affect decision-relevant cognitive processes. In a direction-of-motion discrimination task, participants received perceptual information alongside information on other players' choices. In addition, we created conflict scenarios where players' choices affected other participants' monetary rewards dependent on whether their choices were in line or against the opinion of the other players. Importantly, we altered the strength of this manipulation in two separate experiments by contrasting motivations of either preventing harm or providing a benefit to others. Behavioural analyses and computational models of perceptual decisions showed that participants successfully integrated perceptual with social information. Participants' reliance on social information was effectively modulated in conflict situations. Critically, these effects were augmented when the strength of social norms was increased, indexing conditions under which social norms effectively influence decisions. These results inform theories of social influence by providing an account of how higher order goals like social norm compliance affect perceptual decisions.
Barabash, R.I.; Krivoglaz, M.A.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)
The X-ray scattering by strongly distorted heterogeneous alloys containing inclusions of new phase particles is discussed. Two models describing the lamellar structure with various orientation of inclusion axes in different layers are studied. In the first model the dimensions of inclusions are small in comparison with the layer thickness and they are randomly distributed in it, in the second model lamellar inclusions stretch through the whole layer. It is shown that in both models the Debye broadened line intensity distribution consists of overlapping Lorentz curves. A case of inclusions oriented along directions  and layers perpendicular to axes  is analyzed in detail. The results obtained for this case are compared with experimental results for the Cu-Be alloy
Pitman, A G
The work of diagnostic radiology consists of the complete detection of all abnormalities in an imaging examination and their accurate diagnosis. Errors in diagnostic radiology comprise perceptual errors, which are a failure of detection, and interpretation errors, which are errors of diagnosis. Perceptual errors are subject to rules of human perception and can be expected in a proportion of observations by any human observer including a trained professional under ideal conditions. Current legal standards of medical negligence make no allowance for perceptual errors, comparing human performance to an ideal standard. Diagnostic radiology in Australia has a culture of open disclosure, where full unbiased evidence from an examination is provided to the patient together with the report. This practice benefits the public by allowing genuine differences of opinion and also by allowing a second chance of correct diagnosis in cases of perceptual error. The culture of open disclosure, which is unique to diagnostic radiology, places radiologists at distinct medicolegal disadvantage compared with other specialties. (i) Perceptual error should be acknowledged as an integral inevitable part of diagnostic radiology; (ii) culture of open disclosure should be encouraged by the profession; and (iii) a pragmatic definition of medical negligence should reflect the imperfect performance of human observers.
The work of diagnostic radiology consists of the complete detection of all abnormalities in an imaging examination and their accurate diagnosis. Errors in diagnostic radiology comprise perceptual errors, which are a failure of detection, and interpretation errors, which are errors of diagnosis. Perceptual errors are subject to rules of human perception and can be expected in a proportion of observations by any human observer including a trained professional under ideal conditions. Current legal standards of medical negligence make no allowance for perceptual errors, comparing human performance to an ideal standard. Diagnostic radiology in Australia has a culture of open disclosure, where full unbiased evidence from an examination is provided to the patient together with the report. This practice benefits the public by allowing genuine differences of opinion and also by allowing a second chance of correct diagnosis in cases of perceptual error. The culture of open disclosure, which is unique to diagnostic radiology, places radiologists at distinct medicolegal disadvantage compared with other specialties, (i) Perceptual error should be acknowledged as an integral inevitable part of diagnostic radiology; (ii) culture of open disclosure should be encouraged by the profession; and (iii) a pragmatic definition of medical negligence should reflect the imperfect performance of human observers Copyright (2006) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Li, Roger W; Young, Karen G; Hoenig, Pia; Levi, Dennis M
To determine whether practicing a position-discrimination task improves visual performance in children with amblyopia and to determine the mechanism(s) of improvement. Five children (age range, 7-10 years) with amblyopia practiced a positional acuity task in which they had to judge which of three pairs of lines was misaligned. Positional noise was produced by distributing the individual patches of each line segment according to a Gaussian probability function. Observers were trained at three noise levels (including 0), with each observer performing between 3000 and 4000 responses in 7 to 10 sessions. Trial-by-trial feedback was provided. Four of the five observers showed significant improvement in positional acuity. In those four observers, on average, positional acuity with no noise improved by approximately 32% and with high noise by approximately 26%. A position-averaging model was used to parse the improvement into an increase in efficiency or a decrease in equivalent input noise. Two observers showed increased efficiency (51% and 117% improvements) with no significant change in equivalent input noise across sessions. The other two observers showed both a decrease in equivalent input noise (18% and 29%) and an increase in efficiency (17% and 71%). All five observers showed substantial improvement in Snellen acuity (approximately 26%) after practice. Perceptual learning can improve visual performance in amblyopic children. The improvement can be parsed into two important factors: decreased equivalent input noise and increased efficiency. Perceptual learning techniques may add an effective new method to the armamentarium of amblyopia treatments.
Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W.
Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences…
Schwarz, Karine; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; de Sá Villas-Bôas, Anna Paula; Cielo, Carla Aparecida; Bastilha, Gabriele Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Dorfman, Maria Elza Kazumi Yamaguti; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues
Voice is an important gender marker in the transition process as a transgender individual accepts a new gender identity. The objectives of this study were to describe and relate aspects of a perceptual-auditory analysis and the fundamental frequency (F0) of male-to-female (MtF) transsexual individuals. A case-control study was carried out with individuals aged 19-52 years who attended the Gender Identity Program of the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre. Vocal recordings from the MtF transgender and cisgender individuals (vowel /a:/ and six phrases of Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation Voice [CAPE-V]) were edited and randomly coded before storage in a Dropbox folder. The voices (vowel /a:/) were analyzed by consensus on the same day by two judge speech therapists who had more than 10 years of experience in the voice area using the GRBASI perceptual-auditory vocal evaluation scale. Acoustic analysis of the voices was performed using the advanced Multi-Dimensional Voice Program software. The resonance focus and the degrees of masculinity and femininity for each voice recording were determined by listening to the CAPE-V phrases, for the same judges. There were significant differences between the groups regarding a greater frequency of subjects with F0 between 80 and 150 Hz (P = 0.003), and a greater frequency of hypernasal resonant focus (P < 0.001) in the MtF cases and greater frequency of subjects with absence of roughness (P = 0.031) in the control group. The MtF group of individuals showed altered vertical resonant focus, more masculine voices, and lower fundamental frequencies. The control group showed a significant absence of roughness. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study examined the perceptual dimensions of visual material properties. Photographs of 50 objects were presented to the participants, and they reported a suitable onomatopoeia (mimetic word) for describing the material of the object in each photograph, based on visual appearance. The participants' responses were collated into a contingency table of photographs × onomatopoeias. After removing some items from the table, correspondence analysis was applied to the contingency table, and a six-dimensional biplot was obtained. By rotating the axes to maximize sparseness of the coordinates for the items in the biplot, three meaningful perceptual dimensions were derived: wetness/stickiness, fluffiness/softness, and smoothness-roughness/gloss-dullness. Two additional possible dimensions were obtained: crumbliness and coldness. These dimensions, except gloss-dullness, were paid little attention to in vision science, though they were suggested as perceptual dimensions of tactile texture. This suggests that the perceptual dimensions that are considered to be primarily related to haptics are also important in visual material perception. © The Author(s) 2016.
McDonald, Iain; Hughes, Hannah S. R.; Butler, Ian B.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Muir, Duncan
Base metal sulphide (BMS) inclusions in diamonds provide a unique insight into the chalcophile and highly siderophile element composition of the mantle. Entombed within their diamond hosts, these provide a more robust (closed system) sample, from which to determine the trace element, Re-Os and S-isotopic compositions of the mantle than mantle xenoliths or orogenic peridotites, as they are shielded from alteration during ascent to the Earth's crust and subsequent surface weathering. However, at temperatures below 1100 °C some BMS inclusions undergo subsolidus re-equilibration from an original monosulphide solid solution (Mss) and this causes fractionation of the major and trace elements within the inclusions. Thus to study the subjects noted above, current techniques require the entire BMS inclusion to be extracted for analyses. Unfortunately, 'flaking' of inclusions during break-out is a frequent occurrence and hence the risk of accidentally under-sampling a portion of the BMS inclusion is inherent in current practices. This loss may have significant implications for Re-Os isotope analyses where incomplete sampling of a Re-rich phase, such as chalcopyrite that typically occurs at the outer margins of BMS inclusions, may induce significant bias in the Re-Os and 187Os/188Os measurements and resulting model and isochron ages. We have developed a method for the homogenisation of BMS inclusions in diamond prior to their break-out from the host stone. Diamonds are heated to 1100 °C and then quenched to chemically homogenise any sulphide inclusions for both major and trace elements. Using X-ray Computed Microtomography (μCT) we determine the shape and spatial setting of multiple inclusions within a host stone and crucially show that the volume of a BMS inclusion is the same both before and after homogenisation. We show that the homogenisation process significantly reduces the inherent variability of in situ analysis when compared with unhomogenised BMS, thereby
Full Text Available Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte’s view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks.
Ostendorf, Florian; Liebermann, Daniela; Ploner, Christoph J
Internal monitoring of oculomotor commands may help to anticipate and keep track of changes in perceptual input imposed by our eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates identified corollary discharge (CD) signals of oculomotor commands that are conveyed via thalamus to frontal cortices. We tested whether disruption of these monitoring pathways on the thalamic level impairs the perceptual matching of visual input before and after an eye movement in human subjects. Fourteen patients with focal thalamic stroke and 20 healthy control subjects performed a task requiring a perceptual judgment across eye movements. Subjects reported the apparent displacement of a target cue that jumped unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical condition of this task, six patients exhibited clearly asymmetric perceptual performance for rightward vs. leftward saccade direction. Furthermore, perceptual judgments in seven patients systematically depended on oculomotor targeting errors, with self-generated targeting errors erroneously attributed to external stimulus jumps. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified an area in right central thalamus as critical for the perceptual matching of visual space across eye movements. Our findings suggest that trans-thalamic CD transmission decisively contributes to a correct prediction of the perceptual consequences of oculomotor actions.
Full Text Available Internal monitoring of oculomotor commands may help to anticipate and keep track of changes in perceptual input imposed by our eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates identified corollary discharge signals of oculomotor commands that are conveyed via thalamus to frontal cortices. We tested whether disruption of these monitoring pathways on the thalamic level impairs the perceptual matching of visual input before and after an eye movement in human subjects. Fourteen patients with focal thalamic stroke and twenty healthy control subjects performed a task requiring a perceptual judgment across eye movements. Subjects reported the apparent displacement of a target cue that jumped unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical condition of this task, six patients exhibited clearly asymmetric perceptual performance for rightward versus leftward saccade direction. Furthermore, perceptual judgments in seven patients systematically depended on oculomotor targeting errors, with self-generated targeting errors erroneously attributed to external stimulus jumps. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified an area in right central thalamus as critical for the perceptual matching of visual space across eye movements. Our findings suggest that trans-thalamic corollary discharge transmission decisively contributes to a correct prediction of the perceptual consequences of oculomotor actions.
Gillian Murphy; Ciara Mary Greene
Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The c...
Jabar, Syaheed B; Anderson, Britt
Probability is known to affect perceptual estimations, but an understanding of mechanisms is lacking. Moving beyond binary classification tasks, we had naive participants report the orientation of briefly viewed gratings where we systematically manipulated contingent probability. Participants rapidly developed faster and more precise estimations for high-probability tilts. The shapes of their error distributions, as indexed by a kurtosis measure, also showed a distortion from Gaussian. This kurtosis metric was robust, capturing probability effects that were graded, contextual, and varying as a function of stimulus orientation. Our data can be understood as a probability-induced reduction in the variability or "shape" of estimation errors, as would be expected if probability affects the perceptual representations. As probability manipulations are an implicit component of many endogenous cuing paradigms, changes at the perceptual level could account for changes in performance that might have traditionally been ascribed to "attention." (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This is to study the methodological foundations of perceptual mapping in printing industry enterprises. This research has a practice focus which affects the choice of its methodological framework. The authors use such scientific research as analysis of cause-effect relationships, synthesis, problem analysis, expert evaluation and image visualization methods. In this paper, the authors present their assessment of the competitive environment of major printing industry companies in Kirov oblast; their assessment employs perceptual mapping enables by Minitab 14. This technique can be used by experts in the field of marketing and branding to assess the competitive environment in any market. The object of research is printing industry in Kirov oblast. The most important conclusion of this study is that in perceptual mapping, all the parameters are integrated in a single system and provide a more objective view of the company’s market situation.
Michael J Proulx
Full Text Available A sensory substitution device for blind persons aims to provide the missing visual input by converting images into a form that another modality can perceive, such as sound. Here I will discuss the perceptual learning and attentional mechanisms necessary for interpreting sounds produced by a device (The vOICe in a visuospatial manner. Although some aspects of the conversion, such as relating vertical location to pitch, rely on natural crossmodal mappings, the extensive training required suggests that synthetic mappings are required to generalize perceptual learning to new objects and environments, and ultimately to experience visual qualia. Here I will discuss the effects of the conversion and training on perception and attention that demonstrate the synthetic nature of learning the crossmodal mapping. Sensorimotor experience may be required to facilitate learning, develop expertise, and to develop a form of synthetic synaesthesia.
Hicks, J.L.; Starns, J.J.
We used implicit measures of memory to ascertain whether false memories for critical nonpresented items in the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) contain structural and perceptual detail. In Experiment 1, we manipulated presentation modality in a visual word-stem-completion task. Critical item priming was significant and…
Bonebright, T.L.; Caudell, T.P.; Goldsmith, T.E.; Miner, N.E.
This paper describes a general methodological framework for evaluating the perceptual properties of auditory stimuli. The framework provides analysis techniques that can ensure the effective use of sound for a variety of applications including virtual reality and data sonification systems. Specifically, we discuss data collection techniques for the perceptual qualities of single auditory stimuli including identification tasks, context-based ratings, and attribute ratings. In addition, we present methods for comparing auditory stimuli, such as discrimination tasks, similarity ratings, and sorting tasks. Finally, we discuss statistical techniques that focus on the perceptual relations among stimuli, such as Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder Analysis. These methods are presented as a starting point for an organized and systematic approach for non-experts in perceptual experimental methods, rather than as a complete manual for performing the statistical techniques and data collection methods. It is our hope that this paper will help foster further interdisciplinary collaboration among perceptual researchers, designers, engineers, and others in the development of effective auditory displays.
Burgess, R.; Turner, G.; Laurenzi, M.; Harris, J.W.
The ages of seven individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier diamonds of eclogitic association have been determined using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique. Syngenetic inclusions weighing between 10 and 130 μg were exposed on cleaved surfaces of the diamonds and analysed using a laser probe. The inclusion ages were found to be in the range 1111±35 to 1254±38 Ma with an average of 1185±94 Ma. The ages obtained are in good agreement with previous determinations made on aggregates of eclogitic inclusions from Premier diamonds and demonstrate the applicability of the laser probe to dating individual diamond inclusions. (orig.)
Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G
We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.
Zhang, Manli; Xie, Weiyi; Xu, Yanzhi; Meng, Xiangzhi
Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training. Recent studies found that auditory perceptual learning may improve phonological skills in individuals with developmental dyslexia in alphabetic writing system. However, whether auditory perceptual learning could also benefit the reading skills of those learning the Chinese logographic writing system is, as yet, unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the remediation effect of auditory temporal perceptual learning on Mandarin-speaking school children with developmental dyslexia. Thirty children with dyslexia were screened from a large pool of students in 3th-5th grades. They completed a series of pretests and then were assigned to either a non-training control group or a training group. The training group worked on a pure tone duration discrimination task for 7 sessions over 2 weeks with thirty minutes per session. Post-tests immediately after training and a follow-up test 2 months later were conducted. Analyses revealed a significant training effect in the training group relative to non-training group, as well as near transfer to the temporal interval discrimination task and far transfer to phonological awareness, character recognition and reading fluency. Importantly, the training effect and all the transfer effects were stable at the 2-month follow-up session. Further analyses found that a significant correlation between character recognition performance and learning rate mainly existed in the slow learning phase, the consolidation stage of perceptual learning, and this effect was modulated by an individuals' executive function. These findings indicate that adaptive auditory temporal perceptual learning can lead to learning and transfer effects on reading performance, and shed further light on the potential role of basic perceptual learning in the remediation and prevention of developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recent reviews of the relationship between aging, cognition, and performance in pilots have emphasized the importance of considering age effects in aviator skills, particularly perceptual-motor, and memory...
Meilleur, Andrée-Anne S.; Berthiaume, Claude; Bertone, Armando; Mottron, Laurent
Background Autistic perception is characterized by atypical and sometimes exceptional performance in several low- (e.g., discrimination) and mid-level (e.g., pattern matching) tasks in both visual and auditory domains. A factor that specifically affects perceptive abilities in autistic individuals should manifest as an autism-specific association between perceptual tasks. The first purpose of this study was to explore how perceptual performances are associated within or across processing levels and/or modalities. The second purpose was to determine if general intelligence, the major factor that accounts for covariation in task performances in non-autistic individuals, equally controls perceptual abilities in autistic individuals. Methods We asked 46 autistic individuals and 46 typically developing controls to perform four tasks measuring low- or mid-level visual or auditory processing. Intelligence was measured with the Wechsler's Intelligence Scale (FSIQ) and Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM). We conducted linear regression models to compare task performances between groups and patterns of covariation between tasks. The addition of either Wechsler's FSIQ or RPM in the regression models controlled for the effects of intelligence. Results In typically developing individuals, most perceptual tasks were associated with intelligence measured either by RPM or Wechsler FSIQ. The residual covariation between unimodal tasks, i.e. covariation not explained by intelligence, could be explained by a modality-specific factor. In the autistic group, residual covariation revealed the presence of a plurimodal factor specific to autism. Conclusions Autistic individuals show exceptional performance in some perceptual tasks. Here, we demonstrate the existence of specific, plurimodal covariation that does not dependent on general intelligence (or “g” factor). Instead, this residual covariation is accounted for by a common perceptual process (or “p” factor), which may drive
In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Lee, Candy Chieh; Chen, Ying-Dar; Wang, Tien-Ni
Visual perceptual motor skills have been proposed as underlying courses of handwriting difficulties. However, there is no evaluation tool currently available to assess these skills comprehensively and to serve as a sensitive measure. The purpose of this study was to validate the Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment (CPMSA), a newly developed evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. Its test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness were examined in 43 typically developing children and 26 children with handwriting difficulty. The CPMSA demonstrated excellent reliability across all subtests with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)≥0.80. Significant moderate correlations between the domains of the CPMSA and corresponding gold standards including Beery VMI, the TVPS-3, and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 demonstrated good concurrent validity. In addition, the CPMSA showed evidence of discriminant validity in samples of children with and without handwriting difficulty. This article provides evidence in support of the CPMSA. The CPMSA is a reliable, valid, and promising measure of visual perceptual motor skills for children in early elementary grades. Directions for future study and improvements to the assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Jingyuan; Ren, Qingyi; Ge, Pingjiang
The objective of this study was to examine the perceptual structure and acoustic characteristics of speech of patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) in Mandarin. Case-Control Study MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the estimation of dysphonia level, perceptual and acoustic analysis were used for patients with ADSD (N = 20) and the control group (N = 20) that are Mandarin-Chinese speakers. For both subgroups, a sustained vowel and connected speech samples were obtained. The difference of perceptual and acoustic parameters between the two subgroups was assessed and analyzed. For acoustic assessment, the percentage of phonatory breaks (PBs) of connected reading and the percentage of aperiodic segments and frequency shifts (FS) of vowel and reading in patients with ADSD were significantly worse than controls, the mean harmonics-to-noise ratio and the fundamental frequency standard deviation of vowel as well. For perceptual evaluation, the rating of speech and vowel in patients with ADSD are significantly higher than controls. The percentage of aberrant acoustic events (PB, frequency shift, and aperiodic segment) and the fundamental frequency standard deviation and mean harmonics-to-noise ratio were significantly correlated with the perceptual rating in the vowel and reading productions. The perceptual and acoustic parameters of connected vowel and reading in patients with ADSD are worse than those in normal controls, and could validly and reliably estimate dysphonia of ADSD in Mandarin-speaking Chinese. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel
Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rush, S. Craig; Kalish, Ashley; Wheeler, Joanna
Perceptual mapping is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and presenting group perceptions that is potentially useful in consultation. With input and feedback from a consultee group, perceptual mapping allows the consultant to capture the group's collective perceptions and display them as an organized image that may foster…
Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.
Fusion of perception information for perceptual robotics is described. The visual perception is mathematically modelled as a probabilistic process obtaining and interpreting visual data from an environment. The visual data is processed in a multiresolutional form via wavelet transform and optimally
Kenan-Smalls, Yottie Marie
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate diversity and inclusion from an age perspective among information technology (IT) professionals that were categorized as 4 different generations in the workforce today: Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. At the same time, this study sought to examine motivational…
Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow
Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)
Clark, Torin K.; Lu, Yue M.; Karmali, Faisal
Perceptual decision making is fundamental to a broad range of fields including neurophysiology, economics, medicine, advertising, law, etc. Although recent findings have yielded major advances in our understanding of perceptual decision making, decision making as a function of time and frequency (i.e., decision-making dynamics) is not well understood. To limit the review length, we focus most of this review on human findings. Animal findings, which are extensively reviewed elsewhere, are included when beneficial or necessary. We attempt to put these various findings and data sets, which can appear to be unrelated in the absence of a formal dynamic analysis, into context using published models. Specifically, by adding appropriate dynamic mechanisms (e.g., high-pass filters) to existing models, it appears that a number of otherwise seemingly disparate findings from the literature might be explained. One hypothesis that arises through this dynamic analysis is that decision making includes phasic (high pass) neural mechanisms, an evidence accumulator and/or some sort of midtrial decision-making mechanism (e.g., peak detector and/or decision boundary). PMID:26467513
de Fockert, Jan W.
The perceptual load and dilution models differ fundamentally in terms of the proposed mechanism underlying variation in distractibility during different perceptual conditions. However, both models predict that distracting information can be processed beyond perceptual processing under certain conditions, a prediction that is well-supported by the literature. Load theory proposes that in such cases, where perceptual task aspects do not allow for sufficient attentional selectivity, the maintena...
Heald, Shannon L. M.; Van Hedger, Stephen C.; Nusbaum, Howard C.
In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience. The recognition process relates acoustic signals to prior experience despite variability in signal-relevant and signal-irrelevant acoustic properties, some of which could be considered as “noise” in service of a recognition goal. However, some acoustic variability, if systematic, is lawful and can be exploited by listeners to aid in recognition. Perceivable changes in systematic variability can herald a need for listeners to reorganize perception and reorient their attention to more immediately signal-relevant cues. This view is not incorporated currently in many extant theories of auditory perception, which traditionally reduce psychological or neural representations of perceptual objects and the processes that act on them to static entities. While this reduction is likely done for the sake of empirical tractability, such a reduction may seriously distort the perceptual process to be modeled. We argue that perceptual representations, as well as the processes underlying perception, are dynamically determined by an interaction between the uncertainty of the auditory signal and constraints of context. This suggests that the process of auditory recognition is highly context-dependent in that the identity of a given auditory object may be intrinsically tied to its preceding context. To argue for the flexible neural and psychological updating of sound-to-meaning mappings across speech and music, we draw upon examples
Hsu, Li-Chuan; Kramer, Peter; Yeh, Su-Ling
After prolonged viewing, a static target among moving non-targets is perceived to repeatedly disappear and reappear. An uncrossed stereoscopic disparity of the target facilitates this Motion-Induced Blindness (MIB). Here we test whether monocular depth cues can affect MIB too, and whether they can also affect perceptual fading in static displays. Experiment 1 reveals an effect of interposition: more MIB when the target appears partially covered by, than when it appears to cover, its surroundings. Experiment 2 shows that the effect is indeed due to interposition and not to the target's contours. Experiment 3 induces depth with the watercolor illusion and replicates Experiment 1. Experiments 4 and 5 replicate Experiments 1 and 3 without the use of motion. Since almost any stimulus contains a monocular depth cue, we conclude that perceived depth affects perceptual fading in almost any stimulus, whether dynamic or static. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mill, Robert W.; Bőhm, Tamás M.; Bendixen, Alexandra; Winkler, István; Denham, Susan L.
Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives—a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the
Heath, Steve M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hogben, John H.; Roach, Neil W.
An influential causal theory attributes dyslexia to visual and/or auditory perceptual deficits. This theory derives from group differences between individuals with dyslexia and controls on a range of psychophysical tasks, but there is substantial variation, both between individuals within a group and from task to task. We addressed two questions. First, do psychophysical measures have sufficient reliability to assess perceptual deficits in individuals? Second, do different psychophysical task...
Gabriela Tavares; Pietro Perona; Antonio Rangel; Antonio Rangel
Perceptual decisions requiring the comparison of spatially distributed stimuli that are fixated sequentially might be influenced by fluctuations in visual attention. We used two psychophysical tasks with human subjects to investigate the extent to which visual attention influences simple perceptual choices, and to test the extent to which the attentional Drift Diffusion Model (aDDM) provides a good computational description of how attention affects the underlying decision processes. We find e...
Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush
This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the le...
Mele, Sonia; Cazzato, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo
Several studies suggest that sociocultural models conveying extreme thinness as the widespread ideal of beauty exert an important influence on the perceptual and emotional representation of body image. The psychological mechanisms underlying such environmental influences, however, are unclear. Here, we utilized a perceptual adaptation paradigm to investigate how perceptual experience modulates body esthetic appreciation. We found that the liking judgments of round bodies increased or decreased after brief exposure to round or thin bodies, respectively. No change occurred in the liking judgments of thin bodies. The results suggest that perceptual experience may shape our esthetic appreciation to favor more familiar round body figures. Importantly, individuals with more deficits in interoceptive awareness were less prone to increase their liking ratings of round bodies after exposure, suggesting a specific risk factor for the susceptibility to the influence of the extreme thin vs. round body ideals of beauty portrayed by the media. PMID:24324689
Mele, Sonia; Cazzato, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo
Several studies suggest that sociocultural models conveying extreme thinness as the widespread ideal of beauty exert an important influence on the perceptual and emotional representation of body image. The psychological mechanisms underlying such environmental influences, however, are unclear. Here, we utilized a perceptual adaptation paradigm to investigate how perceptual experience modulates body esthetic appreciation. We found that the liking judgments of round bodies increased or decreased after brief exposure to round or thin bodies, respectively. No change occurred in the liking judgments of thin bodies. The results suggest that perceptual experience may shape our esthetic appreciation to favor more familiar round body figures. Importantly, individuals with more deficits in interoceptive awareness were less prone to increase their liking ratings of round bodies after exposure, suggesting a specific risk factor for the susceptibility to the influence of the extreme thin vs. round body ideals of beauty portrayed by the media.
Full Text Available Perceptual mappingapproaches have been widely used in visual information processing in multimedia and internet of things (IOT applications. Accumulative Lifting Difference (ALD is proposed in this paper as texture mapping model based on low-complexity lifting wavelet transform, and combined with luminance masking for creating an efficient perceptual mapping model to estimate Just Noticeable Distortion (JND in digital images. In addition to low complexity operations, experiments results show that the proposed modelcan tolerate much more JND noise than models proposed before
Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka
This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…
Ogletree, Earl J.
Provided is a rationale for geometric form drawing developed by Rudolf Steiner as a tool to develop motor coordination, perceptual skills, and cognition for mentally retarded and perceptually handicapped children. (Author/CL)
Carbon, Claus-Christian; Deininger, Pia
Medieval times were neither dark nor grey; natural light illuminated colourful scenes depicted in paintings through coloured windows and via artificial beeswax candlelight. When we enter, for example, a church to inspect its historic treasures ranging from mosaics to depictions of saints, we do this under quite unfavourable conditions; particularly as we mainly depend on artificial halogen, LED or fluorescent light for illuminating the desired object. As these light spectrums are different from the natural light conditions under which the old masterpieces were previously developed and perceived, the perceptual effects may dramatically differ, leading to significantly altered affective and cognitive processing. Different qualities of processing might particularly be triggered when perceiving artworks which deal with specific material prone to strong interaction with idiosyncratic light conditions, for instance gold-leafed surfaces that literally start to glow when lit by candles. We tested the perceptual experiences of a figurative piece of art which we created in 3 (foreground) by 3 (background) versions, illuminated under three different light conditions (daylight, coloured light and beeswax candlelight). Results demonstrated very different perceptual experiences with stunning effects for the interaction of the specific painting depicted on a gold-leafed background lit by candlelight.
Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal abuse and misuse are the most frequent causes of voice disorders. Consequently some therapy is needed to stop or modify such behaviors. This research was performed to study the effectiveness of vocal hygiene program on perceptual signs of voice in people with dysphonia.Methods: A Vocal hygiene program was performed to 8 adults with dysphonia for 6 weeks. At first, Consensus Auditory- Perceptual Evaluation of Voice was used to assess perceptual signs. Then the program was delivered, Individuals were followed in second and forth weeks visits. In the last session, perceptual assessment was performed and individuals’ opinions were collected. Perceptual findings were compared before and after the therapy.Results: After the program, mean score of perceptual assessment decreased. Mean score of every perceptual sign revealed significant difference before and after the therapy (p≤0.0001. «Loudness» had maximum score and coordination between speech and respiration indicated minimum score. All participants confirmed efficiency of the therapy.Conclusion: The vocal hygiene program improves all perceptual signs of voice although not equally. This deduction is confirmed by both clinician-based and patient-based assessments. As a result, vocal hygiene program is necessary for a comprehensive voice therapy but is not solely effective to resolve all voice problems.
Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Convery, Elizabeth; Mejia, Jorge
Large variations in perceptual directional microphone benefit, which far exceed the variation expected from physical performance measures of directional microphones, have been reported in the literature. The cause for the individual variation has not been systematically investigated. To determine the factors that are responsible for the individual variation in reported perceptual directional benefit. A correlational study. Physical performance measures of the directional microphones obtained after they had been fitted to individuals, cognitive abilities of individuals, and measurement errors were related to perceptual directional benefit scores. Fifty-nine hearing-impaired adults with varied degrees of hearing loss participated in the study. All participants were bilaterally fitted with a Motion behind-the-ear device (500 M, 501 SX, or 501 P) from Siemens according to the National Acoustic Laboratories' non-linear prescription, version two (NAL-NL2). Using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB) sentences, the perceptual directional benefit was obtained as the difference in speech reception threshold measured in babble noise (SRTn) with the devices in directional (fixed hypercardioid) and in omnidirectional mode. The SRTn measurements were repeated three times with each microphone mode. Physical performance measures of the directional microphone included the angle of the microphone ports to loudspeaker axis, the frequency range dominated by amplified sound, the in situ signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the in situ three-dimensional, articulation-index weighted directivity index (3D AI-DI). The cognitive tests included auditory selective attention, speed of processing, and working memory. Intraparticipant variation on the repeated SRTn's and the interparticipant variation on the average SRTn were used to determine the effect of measurement error. A multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of other factors. Measurement errors explained 52% of the variation
Curby, Kim M; Entenman, Robert J; Fleming, Justin T
What role do general-purpose, experience-sensitive perceptual mechanisms play in producing characteristic features of face perception? We previously demonstrated that different-colored, misaligned framing backgrounds, designed to disrupt perceptual grouping of face parts appearing upon them, disrupt holistic face perception. In the current experiments, a similar part-judgment task with composite faces was performed: face parts appeared in either misaligned, different-colored rectangles or aligned, same-colored rectangles. To investigate whether experience can shape impacts of perceptual grouping on holistic face perception, a pre-task fostered the perception of either (a) the misaligned, differently colored rectangle frames as parts of a single, multicolored polygon or (b) the aligned, same-colored rectangle frames as a single square shape. Faces appearing in the misaligned, differently colored rectangles were processed more holistically by those in the polygon-, compared with the square-, pre-task group. Holistic effects for faces appearing in aligned, same-colored rectangles showed the opposite pattern. Experiment 2, which included a pre-task condition fostering the perception of the aligned, same-colored frames as pairs of independent rectangles, provided converging evidence that experience can modulate impacts of perceptual grouping on holistic face perception. These results are surprising given the proposed impenetrability of holistic face perception and provide insights into the elusive mechanisms underlying holistic perception.
Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H
This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna
Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.
Bélanger, Nathalie N; Slattery, Timothy J; Mayberry, Rachel I; Rayner, Keith
Recent evidence suggests that, compared with hearing people, deaf people have enhanced visual attention to simple stimuli viewed in the parafovea and periphery. Although a large part of reading involves processing the fixated words in foveal vision, readers also utilize information in parafoveal vision to preprocess upcoming words and decide where to look next. In the study reported here, we investigated whether auditory deprivation affects low-level visual processing during reading by comparing the perceptual span of deaf signers who were skilled and less-skilled readers with the perceptual span of skilled hearing readers. Compared with hearing readers, the two groups of deaf readers had a larger perceptual span than would be expected given their reading ability. These results provide the first evidence that deaf readers' enhanced attentional allocation to the parafovea is used during complex cognitive tasks, such as reading.
According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...
Latash, Mark L
The main goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of iso-perceptual manifold for perception of body configuration and related variables (kinesthetic perception) and to discuss its relation to the equilibrium-point hypothesis and the concepts of reference coordinate and uncontrolled manifold. Hierarchical control of action is postulated with abundant transformations between sets of spatial reference coordinates for salient effectors at different levels. Iso-perceptual manifold is defined in the combined space of afferent and efferent variables as the subspace corresponding to a stable percept. Examples of motion along an iso-perceptual manifold (perceptually equivalent motion) are considered during various natural actions. Some combinations of afferent and efferent signals, in particular those implying a violation of body's integrity, give rise to variable percepts by artificial projection onto iso-perceptual manifolds. This framework is used to interpret unusual features of vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions and to predict new illusions not yet reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka
Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance increase resulting from visual perceptual experience. Task-relevant VPL of a feature results from training of a task on the feature relevant to the task. Task-irrelevant VPL arises as a result of exposure to the feature irrelevant to the trained task. At least two serious problems exist. First, there is the controversy over which stage of information processing is changed in association with task-relevant VPL. Second, no model has ever explained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant VPL. Here we propose a dual plasticity model in which feature-based plasticity is a change in a representation of the learned feature, and task-based plasticity is a change in processing of the trained task. Although the two types of plasticity underlie task-relevant VPL, only feature-based plasticity underlies task-irrelevant VPL. This model provides a new comprehensive framework in which apparently contradictory results could be explained.
Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant
Garlepp, M J; Mastaglia, F L
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogenous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dematomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). For discussion of later three disorders, the reader is referred to the IIM review in this issue. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50. It typically presents with chronic insidious proximal leg and/or distal arm asymmetric mus...
Couperus, J W
This study explored effects of perceptual load on stimulus processing in the presence and absence of an attended stimulus. Participants were presented with a bilateral or unilateral display and asked to perform a discrimination task at either low or high perceptual load. Electrophysiological responses to stimuli were then compared at the P100 and N100. As in previous studies, perceptual load modified processing of attended and unattended stimuli seen at occipital scalp sites. Moreover, perceptual load modulated attention effects when the attended stimulus was presented at high perceptual load for unilateral displays. However, this was not true when the attended and unattended stimulus appeared simultaneously in bilateral displays. Instead, only a main effect of perceptual load was found. Reductions in processing contralateral to the unattended stimulus at the N100 provide support for Lavie's (1995) theory of selective attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baldwin, Mark W; Bagust, Jeff; Docherty, Sharon; Browman, Alexander S; Jackson, Joshua C
We theorized that interpersonal relationships can provide structures for experience. In particular, we tested whether primes of same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships could foster cognitive-perceptual processing styles known to be associated with independence versus interdependence respectively. Seventy-two participants visualized either a same-sex or other-sex relationship partner and then performed two measures of cognitive-perceptual style. On a computerized Rod and Frame Test, individuals were more field-dependent after visualizing a mixed-sex versus same-sex relationship partner. On a measure involving perceptions of group behavior, participants demonstrated more holistic/contextually based perception after being primed with a female versus male relationship partner. These findings support the hypothesis that activated cognitive structures representing interpersonal relationships can shape individuals' cognitive-perceptual performance.
Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.
On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…
Gauthey, Jérôme; Tièche, Raphaël; Streit, Sven
Measuring patient experience is key when assessing quality of care but can be biased: A perceptual bias occurs when renovations of the interior design of a general practitioner (GP) office improves how patients assessed quality of care. The aim was to assess the length of perceptual bias and if it could be reproduced after a second renovation. A GP office with 2 GPs in Switzerland was renovated twice within 3 years. We assessed patient experience at baseline, 2 months and 14 months after the first and 3 months after the second renovation. Each time, we invited a sample of 180 consecutive patients that anonymously graded patient experience in 4 domains: appearance of the office; qualities of medical assistants and GPs; and general satisfaction. We compared crude mean scores per domain from baseline until follow-up. In a multivariate model, we adjusted for patient's age, gender and for how long patients had been their GP. At baseline, patients aged 60.9 (17.7) years, 52% females. After the first renovation, we found a regression to the baseline level of patient experience after 14 months except for appearance of the office (pInterior renovation of a GP office probably causes a perceptual bias for >1 year that improves how patients rate quality of care. This bias could be reproduced after a second renovation strengthening a possible causal relationship. These findings imply to appropriately time measurement of patient experience to at least one year after interior renovation of GP practices to avoid environmental changes influences the estimates when measuring patient experience.
Urakawa, Tomokazu; Bunya, Mao; Araki, Osamu
A bistable image induces one of two perceptual alternatives. When the bistable visual image is continuously viewed, the percept of the image alternates from one possible percept to the other. Perceptual alternation was previously reported to be induced by an exogenous perturbation in the bistable image, and this perturbation was theoretically interpreted to cause neural noise, prompting a transition between two stable perceptual states. However, little is known experimentally about the visual processing of exogenously driven perceptual alternation. Based on the findings of a previous behavioral study (Urakawa et al. in Perception 45:474-482, 2016), the present study hypothesized that the automatic visual change detection process, which is relevant to the detection of a visual change in a sequence of visual events, has an enhancing effect on the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise. In order to clarify this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), an electroencephalographic brain response that reflects visual change detection, was evoked while participants continuously viewed the bistable image. In terms of inter-individual differences in neural and behavioral data, we found that enhancements in the peak amplitude of vMMN1, early vMMN at a latency of approximately 150 ms, correlated with increases in the proportion of perceptual alternation across participants. Our results indicate the involvement of automatic visual change detection in the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise, thereby providing a deeper insight into the neural mechanisms underlying exogenously driven perceptual alternation in the bistable image.
Alexander, Stewart C; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I; Bravender, Terrill; Østbye, Truls; Shields, Cleveland G
Physicians are encouraged to use inclusive language regarding sexuality in order to help all adolescent patients feel accepted. Non-inclusive language by physicians may influence relationships with adolescent patients, especially those with still-developing sexual identities. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of physicians' use of inclusive and non-inclusive language when discussing sexuality. A total of 393 conversations between 393 adolescents and 49 physicians from 11 clinics located throughout the Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, area were audio recorded. Conversations were coded for the use of inclusive talk (language use that avoids the use of specific gender, sex, or sexual orientation language), direct non-inclusive talk (language use that assumes the teenager is heterosexual or exclusively engages in heterosexual sexual activity), and indirect non-inclusive talk (language use that frames talk heterosexually but does not pre-identify the adolescent as heterosexual). Nearly two-thirds (63%, 245) of the visits contained some sexuality talk. Inclusive talk rarely occurred (3.3%) while non-inclusive language was predominant (48.1% direct and 48.6% indirect). There were no significant differences in language use by gender, age, adolescent race, or visit length. These non-significant findings suggest that all adolescents regardless of race, gender, or age are receiving non-inclusive sexuality talk from their providers. Physicians are missing opportunities to create safe environments for teenagers to discuss sexuality. The examples of inclusive talk from this study may provide potentially useful ways to teach providers how to begin sexuality discussions, focusing on sexual attraction or asking about friends' sexual behavior, and maintain these discussions.
Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro
A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure-ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure-ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure-ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure-ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure-ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases.
Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro
A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure–ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure–ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure–ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure–ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure–ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases. PMID:26579057
Full Text Available A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure-ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure-ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure-ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure-ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure-ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases.
Civile, Ciro; Obhi, Sukhvinder S; McLaren, I P L
Perceptual learning of the type we consider here is a consequence of experience with a class of stimuli. It amounts to an enhanced ability to discriminate between stimuli. We argue that it contributes to the ability to distinguish between faces and recognize individuals, and in particular contributes to the face inversion effect (better recognition performance for upright vs inverted faces). Previously, we have shown that experience with a prototype defined category of checkerboards leads to perceptual learning, that this produces an inversion effect, and that this effect can be disrupted by Anodal tDCS to Fp3 during pre-exposure. If we can demonstrate that the same tDCS manipulation also disrupts the inversion effect for faces, then this will strengthen the claim that perceptual learning contributes to that effect. The important question, then, is whether this tDCS procedure would significantly reduce the inversion effect for faces; stimuli that we have lifelong expertise with and for which perceptual learning has already occurred. Consequently, in the experiment reported here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS at Fp3 during an old/new recognition task for upright and inverted faces. Our results show that stimulation significantly reduced the face inversion effect compared to controls. The effect was one of reducing recognition performance for upright faces. This result is the first to show that tDCS affects perceptual learning that has already occurred, disrupting individuals' ability to recognize upright faces. It provides further support for our account of perceptual learning and its role as a key factor in face recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Imagery rescripting (ImRs is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content.In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples, both Conceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing meaning-relevant content-and Perceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing perceptual features-were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added-changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory's unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated.In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB.Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical samples.
Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H
Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content. In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples), both Conceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing meaning-relevant content-and Perceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing perceptual features-were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB) was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added-changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory's unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated. In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB. Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical samples.
Collins, Heather R; Zhu, Xun; Bhatt, Ramesh S; Clark, Jonathan D; Joseph, Jane E
The degree to which face-specific brain regions are specialized for different kinds of perceptual processing is debated. This study parametrically varied demands on featural, first-order configural, or second-order configural processing of faces and houses in a perceptual matching task to determine the extent to which the process of perceptual differentiation was selective for faces regardless of processing type (domain-specific account), specialized for specific types of perceptual processing regardless of category (process-specific account), engaged in category-optimized processing (i.e., configural face processing or featural house processing), or reflected generalized perceptual differentiation (i.e., differentiation that crosses category and processing type boundaries). ROIs were identified in a separate localizer run or with a similarity regressor in the face-matching runs. The predominant principle accounting for fMRI signal modulation in most regions was generalized perceptual differentiation. Nearly all regions showed perceptual differentiation for both faces and houses for more than one processing type, even if the region was identified as face-preferential in the localizer run. Consistent with process specificity, some regions showed perceptual differentiation for first-order processing of faces and houses (right fusiform face area and occipito-temporal cortex and right lateral occipital complex), but not for featural or second-order processing. Somewhat consistent with domain specificity, the right inferior frontal gyrus showed perceptual differentiation only for faces in the featural matching task. The present findings demonstrate that the majority of regions involved in perceptual differentiation of faces are also involved in differentiation of other visually homogenous categories.
Collins, Heather R.; Zhu, Xun; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Clark, Jonathan D.; Joseph, Jane E.
The degree to which face-specific brain regions are specialized for different kinds of perceptual processing is debated. The present study parametrically varied demands on featural, first-order configural or second-order configural processing of faces and houses in a perceptual matching task to determine the extent to which the process of perceptual differentiation was selective for faces regardless of processing type (domain-specific account), specialized for specific types of perceptual processing regardless of category (process-specific account), engaged in category-optimized processing (i.e., configural face processing or featural house processing) or reflected generalized perceptual differentiation (i.e. differentiation that crosses category and processing type boundaries). Regions of interest were identified in a separate localizer run or with a similarity regressor in the face-matching runs. The predominant principle accounting for fMRI signal modulation in most regions was generalized perceptual differentiation. Nearly all regions showed perceptual differentiation for both faces and houses for more than one processing type, even if the region was identified as face-preferential in the localizer run. Consistent with process-specificity, some regions showed perceptual differentiation for first-order processing of faces and houses (right fusiform face area and occipito-temporal cortex, and right lateral occipital complex), but not for featural or second-order processing. Somewhat consistent with domain-specificity, the right inferior frontal gyrus showed perceptual differentiation only for faces in the featural matching task. The present findings demonstrate that the majority of regions involved in perceptual differentiation of faces are also involved in differentiation of other visually homogenous categories. PMID:22849402
Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M
Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan.
Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.
Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The ...
Saunders, Gabrielle H; Forsline, Anna
Results of objective clinical tests (e.g., measures of speech understanding in noise) often conflict with subjective reports of hearing aid benefit and satisfaction. The Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT) is an outcome measure in which objective and subjective evaluations are made by using the same test materials, testing format, and unit of measurement (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N), permitting a direct comparison between measured and perceived ability to hear. Two variables are measured: a Performance Speech Reception Threshold in Noise (SRTN) for 50% correct performance and a Perceptual SRTN, which is the S/N at which listeners perceive that they can understand the speech material. A third variable is computed: the Performance-Perceptual Discrepancy (PPDIS); it is the difference between the Performance and Perceptual SRTNs and measures the extent to which listeners "misjudge" their hearing ability. Saunders et al. in 2004 examined the relation between PPT scores and unaided hearing handicap. In this publication, the relations between the PPT, residual aided handicap, and hearing aid satisfaction are described. Ninety-four individuals between the ages of 47 and 86 yr participated. All had symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and had worn binaural hearing aids for at least 6 wk before participating. All subjects underwent routine audiological examination and completed the PPT, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults (HHIE/A), and the Satisfaction for Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire. Sixty-five subjects attended one research visit for participation in this study, and 29 attended a second visit to complete the PPT a second time. Performance and Perceptual SRTN and PPDIS scores were normally distributed and showed excellent test-retest reliability. Aided SRTNs were significantly better than unaided SRTNs; aided and unaided PPDIS values did not differ. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the PPDIS, the Performance SRTN, and age were
Tone, Erin B; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T
Recent evidence suggests that normal-range paranoid ideation may be particularly likely to develop in individuals disposed to both social anxiety and perceptual anomalies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that among college students in an unselected sample, social anxiety and experience of perceptual anomalies would not only each independently predict the experience of self-reported paranoid ideation, but would also interact to predict paranoid patterns of thought. A diverse sample of 644 students completed a large battery of self-report measures, as well as the five-factor Paranoia/Suspiciousness Questionnaire (PSQ). We conducted hierarchical multiple regression analyses predicting scores on each PSQ factor from responses on measures of social anxiety, perceptual aberration, and the interaction between the two constructs. Current general negative affect was covaried in all analyses. We found that both social anxiety and perceptual aberrations, along with negative affect, predicted multiple dimensions of paranoia as measured by the PSQ; the two constructs did not, however, interact significantly to predict any dimensions. Our findings suggest that perceptual aberration and anxiety may contribute to normal-range paranoid ideation in an additive rather than an interactive manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maniscalco, Brian; Peters, Megan A K; Lau, Hakwan
Zylberberg et al. [Zylberberg, Barttfeld, & Sigman (Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6; 79, 2012), Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 6:79] found that confidence decisions, but not perceptual decisions, are insensitive to evidence against a selected perceptual choice. We present a signal detection theoretic model to formalize this insight, which gave rise to a counter-intuitive empirical prediction: that depending on the observer's perceptual choice, increasing task performance can be associated with decreasing metacognitive sensitivity (i.e., the trial-by-trial correspondence between confidence and accuracy). The model also provides an explanation as to why metacognitive sensitivity tends to be less than optimal in actual subjects. These predictions were confirmed robustly in a psychophysics experiment. In a second experiment we found that, in at least some subjects, the effects were replicated even under performance feedback designed to encourage optimal behavior. However, some subjects did show improvement under feedback, suggesting the tendency to ignore evidence against a selected perceptual choice may be a heuristic adopted by the perceptual decision-making system, rather than reflecting inherent biological limitations. We present a Bayesian modeling framework that explains why this heuristic strategy may be advantageous in real-world contexts.
Oh, Hyungsuk; Kim, Wonha
We have developed a video processing method that achieves human perceptual visual quality-oriented video coding. The patterns of moving objects are modeled by considering the limited human capacity for spatial-temporal resolution and the visual sensory memory together, and an online moving pattern classifier is devised by using the Hedge algorithm. The moving pattern classifier is embedded in the existing visual saliency with the purpose of providing a human perceptual video quality saliency model. In order to apply the developed saliency model to video coding, the conventional foveation filtering method is extended. The proposed foveation filter can smooth and enhance the video signals locally, in conformance with the developed saliency model, without causing any artifacts. The performance evaluation results confirm that the proposed video processing method shows reliable improvements in the perceptual quality for various sequences and at various bandwidths, compared to existing saliency-based video coding methods.
Pascucci, David; Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo
Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL) shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.
Eisner, Frank; Melinger, Alissa; Weber, Andrea
The perception of speech sounds can be re-tuned through a mechanism of lexically driven perceptual learning after exposure to instances of atypical speech production. This study asked whether this re-tuning is sensitive to the position of the atypical sound within the word. We investigated perceptual learning using English voiced stop consonants, which are commonly devoiced in word-final position by Dutch learners of English. After exposure to a Dutch learner’s productions of devoiced stops in word-final position (but not in any other positions), British English (BE) listeners showed evidence of perceptual learning in a subsequent cross-modal priming task, where auditory primes with devoiced final stops (e.g., “seed”, pronounced [si:th]), facilitated recognition of visual targets with voiced final stops (e.g., SEED). In Experiment 1, this learning effect generalized to test pairs where the critical contrast was in word-initial position, e.g., auditory primes such as “town” facilitated recognition of visual targets like DOWN. Control listeners, who had not heard any stops by the speaker during exposure, showed no learning effects. The generalization to word-initial position did not occur when participants had also heard correctly voiced, word-initial stops during exposure (Experiment 2), and when the speaker was a native BE speaker who mimicked the word-final devoicing (Experiment 3). The readiness of the perceptual system to generalize a previously learned adjustment to other positions within the word thus appears to be modulated by distributional properties of the speech input, as well as by the perceived sociophonetic characteristics of the speaker. The results suggest that the transfer of pre-lexical perceptual adjustments that occur through lexically driven learning can be affected by a combination of acoustic, phonological, and sociophonetic factors. PMID:23554598
Liu, Z; Jacobs, D W; Basri, R
Since the seminal work of the Gestalt psychologists, there has been great interest in understanding what factors determine the perceptual organization of images. While the Gestaltists demonstrated the significance of grouping cues such as similarity, proximity and good continuation, it has not been well understood whether their catalog of grouping cues is complete--in part due to the paucity of effective methodologies for examining the significance of various grouping cues. We describe a novel, objective method to study perceptual grouping of planar regions separated by an occluder. We demonstrate that the stronger the grouping between two such regions, the harder it will be to resolve their relative stereoscopic depth. We use this new method to call into question many existing theories of perceptual completion (Ullman, S. (1976). Biological Cybernetics, 25, 1-6; Shashua, A., & Ullman, S. (1988). 2nd International Conference on Computer Vision (pp. 321-327); Parent, P., & Zucker, S. (1989). IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 11, 823-839; Kellman, P. J., & Shipley, T. F. (1991). Cognitive psychology, Liveright, New York; Heitger, R., & von der Heydt, R. (1993). A computational model of neural contour processing, figure-ground segregation and illusory contours. In Internal Conference Computer Vision (pp. 32-40); Mumford, D. (1994). Algebraic geometry and its applications, Springer, New York; Williams, L. R., & Jacobs, D. W. (1997). Neural Computation, 9, 837-858) that are based on Gestalt grouping cues by demonstrating that convexity plays a strong role in perceptual completion. In some cases convexity dominates the effects of the well known Gestalt cue of good continuation. While convexity has been known to play a role in figure/ground segmentation (Rubin, 1927; Kanizsa & Gerbino, 1976), this is the first demonstration of its importance in perceptual completion.
Abiri, Ahmad; Tao, Anna; LaRocca, Meg; Guan, Xingmin; Askari, Syed J; Bisley, James W; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S
The principal objective of the experiment was to analyze the effects of the clutch operation of robotic surgical systems on the performance of the operator. The relative coordinate system introduced by the clutch operation can introduce a visual-perceptual mismatch which can potentially have negative impact on a surgeon's performance. We also assess the impact of the introduction of additional tactile sensory information on reducing the impact of visual-perceptual mismatch on the performance of the operator. We asked 45 novice subjects to complete peg transfers using the da Vinci IS 1200 system with grasper-mounted, normal force sensors. The task involves picking up a peg with one of the robotic arms, passing it to the other arm, and then placing it on the opposite side of the view. Subjects were divided into three groups: aligned group (no mismatch), the misaligned group (10 cm z axis mismatch), and the haptics-misaligned group (haptic feedback and z axis mismatch). Each subject performed the task five times, during which the grip force, time of completion, and number of faults were recorded. Compared to the subjects that performed the tasks using a properly aligned controller/arm configuration, subjects with a single-axis misalignment showed significantly more peg drops (p = 0.011) and longer time to completion (p sensors showed no difference between the different groups. The visual-perceptual mismatch created by the misalignment of the robotic controls relative to the robotic arms has a negative impact on the operator of a robotic surgical system. Introduction of other sensory information and haptic feedback systems can help in potentially reducing this effect.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.
Antonelli, Karla B; Williams, Carrick C
Although Konkle, Brady, Alvarez, and Oliva (2010, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(3), 558) claim that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is organized on underlying conceptual, not perceptual, information, visual memory results from visual search tasks are not well explained by this theory. We hypothesized that when viewing an object, any task-relevant visual information is critical to the organizational structure of VLTM. In two experiments, we examined the organization of VLTM by measuring the amount of retroactive interference created by objects possessing different combinations of task-relevant features. Based on task instructions, only the conceptual category was task relevant or both the conceptual category and a perceptual object feature were task relevant. Findings indicated that when made task relevant, perceptual object feature information, along with conceptual category information, could affect memory organization for objects in VLTM. However, when perceptual object feature information was task irrelevant, it did not contribute to memory organization; instead, memory defaulted to being organized around conceptual category information. These findings support the theory that a task-defined organizational structure is created in VLTM based on the relevance of particular object features and information.
Sosnoff, Jacob J; Newell, Karl M
Experimental tests of the neural noise hypothesis of aging, which holds that aging-related increments in motor variability are due to increases in white noise in the perceptual-motor system, were conducted. Young (20-29 years old) and old (60-69 and 70-79 years old) adults performed several perceptual-motor tasks. Older adults were progressively more variable in their performance outcome, but there was no age-related difference in white noise in the motor output. Older adults had a greater frequency-dependent structure in their motor variability that was associated with performance decrements. The findings challenge the main tenet of the neural noise hypothesis of aging in that the increased variability of older adults was due to a decreased ability to adapt to the constraints of the task rather than an increment of neural noise per se.
Bigler, Erin D.; And Others
Whether cross-sectional rates of decline for brain volume and the Performance Intellectual Quotient of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were equivalent over the years 16 to 65 was studied with 196 volunteers. Results indicate remarkably similar rates of decline in perceptual-motor functions and aging brain volume loss. (SLD)
Santamaría-García, Hernando; Pannunzi, Mario; Ayneto, Alba; Deco, Gustavo; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria
So far, it was unclear if social hierarchy could influence sensory or perceptual cognitive processes. We evaluated the effects of social hierarchy on these processes using a basic visual perceptual decision task. We constructed a social hierarchy where participants performed the perceptual task separately with two covertly simulated players (superior, inferior). Participants were faster (better) when performing the discrimination task with the superior player. We studied the time course when social hierarchy was processed using event-related potentials and observed hierarchical effects even in early stages of sensory-perceptual processing, suggesting early top-down modulation by social hierarchy. Moreover, in a parallel analysis, we fitted a drift-diffusion model (DDM) to the results to evaluate the decision making process of this perceptual task in the context of a social hierarchy. Consistently, the DDM pointed to nondecision time (probably perceptual encoding) as the principal period influenced by social hierarchy. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina
Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653
Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina
Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.
Full Text Available Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30, we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65, potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory. Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.
Marcelo El Khouri Buzato
Full Text Available O trabalho objetiva (i propor uma concepção relacional de letramento digital, alternativa às encontradas na literatura corrente, (ii fundamentar a necessidade de tal concepção em uma análise sócio-histórica da relação entre inclusão, tecnologia e letramento, e (iii ilustrar a utilidade de tal concepção para a pesquisa em inclusão digital no âmbito do campo aplicado dos estudos da linguagem. A fundamentação teórica abrange estudos sobre inclusão digital e letramento digital, teorias de letramento de cunho sócio-cultural e teorias de inclusão social com respeito às diferenças, todas, de alguma forma, postas em relação com a concepção dialógica da linguagem. Utilizam-se vinhetas de situações reais para ilustrar o poder operativo da teoria proposta. Conclui-se que a concepção de letramento digital defendida abre um campo alternativo de pesquisa em inclusão digital, mas exige um posicionamento ético condizente com uma concepção de inclusão fundada na agentividade e na autonomia dos sujeitos na transculturalidade.The aims of this paper are (i to propose a relational concept of digital literacies as an alternative to the ones found in the current literature, (ii to justify the need for such a conception on the grounds of a socio-historic analysis of the relations among literacy, technology and inclusion, and (iii to illustrate the usefulness of such a conception for research on digital inclusion within the field of applied language studies. The theoretical foundations comprise studies in digital literacies and digital inclusion, sociocultural theories of literacy, and multicultural theories of social inclusion, all of which are brought to relate to the dialogic conception of language. Vignettes taken from real situations are used to illustrate the operative potential of the theory. It is concluded that the proposed conception of digital literacies opens an alternative field of research in digital inclusion, but it
Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Goossens, Jeroen
To evaluate whether computerized training with a crowded or uncrowded letter-discrimination task reduces visual impairment (VI) in 6- to 11-year-old children with infantile nystagmus (IN) who suffer from increased foveal crowding, reduced visual acuity, and reduced stereopsis. Thirty-six children with IN were included. Eighteen had idiopathic IN and 18 had oculocutaneous albinism. These children were divided in two training groups matched on age and diagnosis: a crowded training group (n = 18) and an uncrowded training group (n = 18). Training occurred two times per week during 5 weeks (3500 trials per training). Eleven age-matched children with normal vision were included to assess baseline differences in task performance and test-retest learning. Main outcome measures were task-specific performance, distance and near visual acuity (DVA and NVA), intensity and extent of (foveal) crowding at 5 m and 40 cm, and stereopsis. Training resulted in task-specific improvements. Both training groups also showed uncrowded and crowded DVA improvements (0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.02 logMAR) and improved stereopsis (670 ± 249″). Crowded NVA improved only in the crowded training group (0.15 ± 0.02 logMAR), which was also the only group showing a reduction in near crowding intensity (0.08 ± 0.03 logMAR). Effects were not due to test-retest learning. Perceptual learning with or without distractors reduces the extent of crowding and improves visual acuity in children with IN. Training with distractors improves near vision more than training with single optotypes. Perceptual learning also transfers to DVA and NVA under uncrowded and crowded conditions and even stereopsis. Learning curves indicated that improvements may be larger after longer training.
Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel
Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning , which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure . Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) , triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices , suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Eschbach, R.; Braun, K.
Transformations of digitized color images in perceptually-uniform CIELUV color space and their perceptual relevance were investigated. Chroma veriation was chosen as the first step of a series of investigations into possible transformations (including lightness, hue-angle, chroma, ect.) To obtain
Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.
Transformations of digitized color images in perceptually-uniform CIELUV color space and their perceptual relevance were investigated. Chroma variation was chosen as the first step of a series of investigations into possible transformations (including lightness, hue-angle, chroma, etc.). To obtain
de Jong, M.C.; Knapen, T.; van Ee, R.
Observers continually make unconscious inferences about the state of the world based on ambiguous sensory information. This process of perceptual decision-making may be optimized by learning from experience. We investigated the influence of previous perceptual experience on the interpretation of
Tsirlin, Inna; Allison, Robert S; Wilcox, Laurie M
We describe a perceptual asymmetry found in stereoscopic perception of overlaid random-dot surfaces. Specifically, the minimum separation in depth needed to perceptually segregate two overlaid surfaces depended on the distribution of dots across the surfaces. With the total dot density fixed, significantly larger inter-plane disparities were required for perceptual segregation of the surfaces when the front surface had fewer dots than the back surface compared to when the back surface was the one with fewer dots. We propose that our results reflect an asymmetry in the signal strength of the front and back surfaces due to the assignment of the spaces between the dots to the back surface by disparity interpolation. This hypothesis was supported by the results of two experiments designed to reduce the imbalance in the neuronal response to the two surfaces. We modeled the psychophysical data with a network of inter-neural connections: excitatory within-disparity and inhibitory across disparity, where the spread of disparity was modulated according to figure-ground assignment. These psychophysical and computational findings suggest that stereoscopic transparency depends on both inter-neural interactions of disparity-tuned cells and higher-level processes governing figure ground segregation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Medieval times were neither dark nor grey; natural light illuminated colourful scenes depicted in paintings through coloured windows and via artificial beeswax candlelight. When we enter, for example, a church to inspect its historic treasures ranging from mosaics to depictions of saints, we do this under quite unfavourable conditions; particularly as we mainly depend on artificial halogen, LED or fluorescent light for illuminating the desired object. As these light spectrums are different from the natural light conditions under which the old masterpieces were previously developed and perceived, the perceptual effects may dramatically differ, leading to significantly altered affective and cognitive processing. Different qualities of processing might particularly be triggered when perceiving artworks which deal with specific material prone to strong interaction with idiosyncratic light conditions, for instance gold-leafed surfaces that literally start to glow when lit by candles. We tested the perceptual experiences of a figurative piece of art which we created in 3 (foreground by 3 (background versions, illuminated under three different light conditions (daylight, coloured light and beeswax candlelight. Results demonstrated very different perceptual experiences with stunning effects for the interaction of the specific painting depicted on a gold-leafed background lit by candlelight.
van Amelsvoort, Marije; Maes, Alfons
In argument diagrams, perceptual cues are important to aid understanding. However, we do not know what perceptual cues are used and produced to aid understanding. We present two studies in which we investigate (1) which spatial, graphical and textual elements people spontaneously use in creating for-against argument diagrams, and (2) how people…
Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill.
Sideras-Haddad, E.; Hart, R.J.; Connell, S.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Tredoux, M.
A Fe and Mn heterogeneity effect was observed in microscopic garnet inclusion in diamond using micro-PIXE. Results are presented and the implications of these disequilibrium element distributions during growth of garnets are discussed. The occurrence of zoning or any type of chemical inhomogeneity within inclusions encapsulated within diamond has implications on the age of formation of the inclusion and the diamond. It is believed that the age of the inclusion is that of the diamond formation itself, with subsequent isolation of the inclusion from the mantle by the diamond. The significance of the chemical heterogeneity or zoning is that it should not exist given the high temperature and long time of encapsulation
Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A
Given the extreme focus on perceived physical defects in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we expected that perceptual and cognitive biases related to physical appearance would be associated with BDD symptomology. To examine these hypotheses, participants ( N = 70) high and low in BDD symptoms completed tasks assessing visual perception and cognition. As expected, there were significant group differences in self-, but not other-, relevant cognitive biases. Perceptual bias results were mixed, with some evidence indicating that individuals high (versus low) in BDD symptoms literally see themselves in a less positive light. Further, individuals high in BDD symptoms failed to demonstrate a normative self-enhancement bias. Overall, this research points to the importance of assessing both cognitive and perceptual biases associated with BDD symptoms, and suggests that visual perception may be influenced by non-visual factors.
Schulte, Tilman; Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Chanraud, Sandra; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V
Aging has readily observable effects on the ability to resolve conflict between competing stimulus attributes that are likely related to selective structural and functional brain changes. To identify age-related differences in neural circuits subserving conflict processing, we combined structural and functional MRI and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task involving perceptual cueing and repetition to modulate resources in healthy young and older adults. In our Stroop Match-to-Sample task, older adults handled conflict by activating a frontoparietal attention system more than young adults and engaged a visuomotor network more than young adults when processing repetitive conflict and when processing conflict following valid perceptual cueing. By contrast, young adults activated frontal regions more than older adults when processing conflict with perceptual cueing. These differential activation patterns were not correlated with regional gray matter volume despite smaller volumes in older than young adults. Given comparable performance in speed and accuracy of responding between both groups, these data suggest that successful aging is associated with functional reorganization of neural systems to accommodate functionally increasing task demands on perceptual and attentional operations. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja
Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a “traumatic” context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or “traumatic” picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the “traumatic” stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a “traumatic” context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the “traumatic” stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Yang, Lee-Xieng; Newell, Ben R; Kalish, Michael L
Working memory is crucial for many higher level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization. This article reports 2 studies that related people's working memory capacity (WMC) to their learning performance on multiple rule-based and information-integration perceptual categorization tasks. In both studies, structural equation modeling revealed a strong relationship between WMC and category learning irrespective of the requirement to integrate information across multiple perceptual dimensions. WMC was also uniformly related to people's ability to focus on the most task-appropriate strategy, regardless of whether or not that strategy involved information integration. Contrary to the predictions of the multiple systems view of categorization, working memory thus appears to underpin performance in both major classes of perceptual category-learning tasks. 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre
Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.
Cardoso-Junior, M M; Scarpel, R A
The main focus of risk management is technical and rational analysis about the operational risks and by those imposed by the occupational environment. In this work one seeks to contribute to the risk perception study and to better comprehend how a group of occupational safety students assesses a set of activities and environmental agents. In this way it was used theory sustained by psychometric paradigm and multivariate analysis tools, mainly multidimensional scaling, generalized Procrustes analysis and facets theory, in order to construct the perceptual map of occupational risks. The results obtained showed that the essential characteristics of risks, which were initially splited in 4 facets were detected and maintained in the perceptual map. It was not possible to reveal the cognitive structure of the group, because the variability of the students was too high. Differences among the risks analyzed could not be detected as well in the perceptual map of the group.
Full Text Available Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.
Vanessa Coelho de Sousa
Full Text Available Algumas pesquisas sugerem a existência de momentos distintos de maturação do sistema atentivo. O presente estudo investigou os padrões de seleção da informação visual através de uma tarefa de carga perceptual executada por três grupos etários: crianças, adultos e idosos. De maneira geral os resultados obtidos indicaram uma diminuição da eficiência no processo de seleção da informação em condições de baixa carga perceptual na população de idosos e uma diminuição da eficiência da seleção em condições de alta e baixa carga perceptual na população composta por crianças. Estes resultados sugerem a existência de padrões específicos na seleção da informação visual em função da idade e da carga perceptual a ser processada pelo sistema visual.
Adler, Scott A.
Textons are elongated blobs of specific color, angular orientation, ends of lines, and crossings of line segments that are proposed to be the perceptual building blocks of the visual system. A study was conducted to explore the relative memorability of different types and arrangements of textons, exploring the time course for the discrimination…
Evidence suggests preschool age students with disabilities (SWD) benefit from inclusive settings. Inclusive education has positive impacts on students' social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills. Yet, preschool age SWD continue to have limited access to inclusive education, and research suggests numerous reasons, including teacher practice.…
Hamamé, Carlos M; Cosmelli, Diego; Henriquez, Rodrigo; Aboitiz, Francisco
Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d') and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP) components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30-60 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes.
Kostrubiec, Viviane; Huys, Raoul; Jas, Brunhilde; Kruck, Jeanne
Abnormal perceptual-motor coordination is hypothesized here to be involved in social deficits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To test this hypothesis, high functioning children with ASD and typical controls, similar in age as well as verbal and perceptive performance, performed perceptual-motor coordination tasks and several social competence…
Banks, Briony; Gowen, Emma; Munro, Kevin J; Adank, Patti
Perceptual adaptation allows humans to recognize different varieties of accented speech. We investigated whether perceptual adaptation to accented speech is facilitated if listeners can see a speaker's facial and mouth movements. In Study 1, participants listened to sentences in a novel accent and underwent a period of training with audiovisual or audio-only speech cues, presented in quiet or in background noise. A control group also underwent training with visual-only (speech-reading) cues. We observed no significant difference in perceptual adaptation between any of the groups. To address a number of remaining questions, we carried out a second study using a different accent, speaker and experimental design, in which participants listened to sentences in a non-native (Japanese) accent with audiovisual or audio-only cues, without separate training. Participants' eye gaze was recorded to verify that they looked at the speaker's face during audiovisual trials. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for audiovisual than for audio-only stimuli; however, no statistical difference in perceptual adaptation was observed between the two modalities. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. Our results suggest that although the availability of visual speech cues may be immediately beneficial for recognition of unfamiliar accented speech in noise, it does not improve perceptual adaptation.
Amir R. Motabar
Full Text Available Epidermal inclusion cysts are uncommon in the breast, but the consequences can besevere when these cysts occur in the breast parenchyma. Here,we report two suchcases. The patient in case 1 was an 37-year-old woman with a 3-cm palpable mass inthe right breast. Mammography revealed a round and smoothly outlined mass, whichindicated a benign tumor, and sonography showed an irregularly shaped and heterogeneoushypoechoic mass, fibroadenoma was suspected on the basis of clinical andimage findings, but excisional biopsy revealed an epidermal inclusion cyst. The patientin case 2 was a 50-year-old woman with a 2.5-cm lesion in the left breast. Mammographyrevealed a round, dense, smoothly outlined mass, and sonography showeda well-defined, central hyperechoic mass. . Breast cancer was suspected on the basisof the sonographic findings and the age of the patient, but the resected specimen revealedan epidermal inclusion cyst. Although epidermal inclusion cysts are benign,occasionally they may play a role in the origin of squamous carcinoma of the breast. .Mammographic and sonographic features of an epidermal cyst may mimic a malignantlesion. Malignant change appears to occur more frequently in epidermal inclusioncysts in the mammary gland, compared to common epidermal inclusion cysts,and this may be associated with origination of mammary epidermal inclusion cystsfrom squamous metaplasia of the mammary duct epithelium.Epidermmoid inclusion cyst of the breast is potentially serious, although such cystsare rare, and differentiation from a malignant or benign breast tumor is required. Excisionis probably the most appropriate treatment, and can eliminate the possible riskof malignant transformation.
Schmetz, Emilie; Magis, David; Detraux, Jean-Jacques; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Rousselle, Laurence
The present study aims to assess how the processing of basic visual perceptual (VP) components (length, surface, orientation, and position) develops in typically developing (TD) children (n = 215, 4-14 years old) and adults (n = 20, 20-25 years old), and in children with cerebral palsy (CP) (n = 86, 5-14 years old) using the first four subtests of the Battery for the Evaluation of Visual Perceptual and Spatial processing in children. Experiment 1 showed that these four basic VP processes follow distinct developmental trajectories in typical development. Experiment 2 revealed that children with CP present global and persistent deficits for the processing of basic VP components when compared with TD children matched on chronological age and nonverbal reasoning abilities.
Pannunzi, Mario; Ayneto, Alba; Deco, Gustavo; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria
So far, it was unclear if social hierarchy could influence sensory or perceptual cognitive processes. We evaluated the effects of social hierarchy on these processes using a basic visual perceptual decision task. We constructed a social hierarchy where participants performed the perceptual task separately with two covertly simulated players (superior, inferior). Participants were faster (better) when performing the discrimination task with the superior player. We studied the time course when social hierarchy was processed using event-related potentials and observed hierarchical effects even in early stages of sensory-perceptual processing, suggesting early top–down modulation by social hierarchy. Moreover, in a parallel analysis, we fitted a drift-diffusion model (DDM) to the results to evaluate the decision making process of this perceptual task in the context of a social hierarchy. Consistently, the DDM pointed to nondecision time (probably perceptual encoding) as the principal period influenced by social hierarchy. PMID:23946003
Godwin, Karrie E; Fisher, Anna V
Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition; however, the factors underpinning this ability early in development remain contested. The present study was designed to (1) test the predictions of the naïve theory and a similarity-based account and (2) examine the mechanism by which labels promote induction. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-old children made inferences about highly familiar categories. The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items. In Experiment 2 we investigated the mechanisms by which labels promote induction by examining the influence of different label types, namely category labels (e.g., the target and category-match both labeled as bird) and descriptor labels (e.g., the target and the perceptual lure both labeled as brown) on induction performance. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, descriptor labels but not category labels affected induction in 3-year-old children. Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study. The implications of these findings for the developmental account of induction are discussed.
Fetterman, Adam K; Robinson, Michael D; Gordon, Robert D; Elliot, Andrew J
A class of metaphors links the experience of anger to perceptions of redness. Whether such metaphors have significant implications for understanding perception is not known. In Experiment 1, anger (versus sadness) concepts were primed and it was found that priming anger concepts led individuals to be more likely to perceive the color red. In Experiment 2, anger states were directly manipulated, and it was found that evoking anger led individuals to be more likely to perceive red. Both experiments showed that the observed effects were independent of the actual color presented. These findings extend the New Look, perceptual, metaphoric, and social cognitive literatures. Most importantly, the results suggest that emotion representation processes of a metaphoric type can be extended to the perceptual realm.
Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.
People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…
Full Text Available Visual perceptual learning is known to be location and orientation specific, and is thus assumed to reflect the neuronal plasticity in the early visual cortex. However, in recent studies we created “Double training” and “TPE” procedures to demonstrate that these “fundamental” specificities of perceptual learning are in some sense artifacts and that learning can completely transfer to a new location or orientation. We proposed a rule-based learning theory to reinterpret perceptual learning and its specificity and transfer: A high-level decision unit learns the rules of performing a visual task through training. However, the learned rules cannot be applied to a new location or orientation automatically because the decision unit cannot functionally connect to new visual inputs with sufficient strength because these inputs are unattended or even suppressed during training. It is double training and TPE training that reactivate these new inputs, so that the functional connections can be strengthened to enable rule application and learning transfer. Currently we are investigating the properties of perceptual learning free from the bogus specificities, and the results provide some preliminary but very interesting insights into how training reshapes the functional connections between the high-level decision units and sensory inputs in the brain.
Mulder, M.J.; Keuken, M.C.; van Maanen, L.; Boekel, W.E.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.J.
Research in perceptual decision making is dominated by paradigms that tap the visual system, such as the random-dot motion (RDM) paradigm. In this study, we investigated whether the behavioral signature of perceptual decisions in the auditory domain is similar to those observed in the visual domain.
Fernández-Antelo, Inmaculada; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel
Understanding the causes of adolescents' aggressive behavior in and through technological means and resources requires a thorough analysis of the criteria that they consider to be identifying and defining cyberbullying and of the network of relationships established between the different criteria. The present study has aimed at making a foray into the attempt to understand the underlying structures and mechanisms that determine aggressors' and victims' perceptions of the cyberbullying phenomenon. The sample consisted of 2148 adolescents (49.1% girls; SD = 0.5) of ages from 12 to 16 ( M = 13.9; SD = 1.2). The data collected through a validated questionnaire for this study whose dimensions were confirmed from the data extracted from the focus groups and a CFA of the victim and aggressor subsamples. The analysis of the data is completed with CFA and the construction of structural models. The results have shown the importance and interdependence of imbalance of power and intention to harm in the aggressors' perceptual structure. The criteria of anonymity and repetition are related to the asymmetry of power, giving greater prominence to this factor. In its perceptual structure, the criterion "social relationship" also appears, which indicates that the manifestations of cyberbullying are sometimes interpreted as patterns of behavior that have become massively extended among the adolescent population, and have become accepted as a normalized and harmless way of communicating with other adolescents. In the victims' perceptual structure the key factor is the intention to harm, closely linked to the asymmetry of power and publicity. Anonymity, revenge and repetition are also present in this structure, although its relationship with cyberbullying is indirect. These results allow to design more effective measures of prevention and intervention closely tailored to addressing directly the factors that are considered to be predictors of risk.
Full Text Available Understanding the causes of adolescents' aggressive behavior in and through technological means and resources requires a thorough analysis of the criteria that they consider to be identifying and defining cyberbullying and of the network of relationships established between the different criteria. The present study has aimed at making a foray into the attempt to understand the underlying structures and mechanisms that determine aggressors' and victims' perceptions of the cyberbullying phenomenon. The sample consisted of 2148 adolescents (49.1% girls; SD = 0.5 of ages from 12 to 16 (M = 13.9; SD = 1.2. The data collected through a validated questionnaire for this study whose dimensions were confirmed from the data extracted from the focus groups and a CFA of the victim and aggressor subsamples. The analysis of the data is completed with CFA and the construction of structural models. The results have shown the importance and interdependence of imbalance of power and intention to harm in the aggressors' perceptual structure. The criteria of anonymity and repetition are related to the asymmetry of power, giving greater prominence to this factor. In its perceptual structure, the criterion “social relationship” also appears, which indicates that the manifestations of cyberbullying are sometimes interpreted as patterns of behavior that have become massively extended among the adolescent population, and have become accepted as a normalized and harmless way of communicating with other adolescents. In the victims' perceptual structure the key factor is the intention to harm, closely linked to the asymmetry of power and publicity. Anonymity, revenge and repetition are also present in this structure, although its relationship with cyberbullying is indirect. These results allow to design more effective measures of prevention and intervention closely tailored to addressing directly the factors that are considered to be predictors of risk.
Fernández-Antelo, Inmaculada; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel
Understanding the causes of adolescents' aggressive behavior in and through technological means and resources requires a thorough analysis of the criteria that they consider to be identifying and defining cyberbullying and of the network of relationships established between the different criteria. The present study has aimed at making a foray into the attempt to understand the underlying structures and mechanisms that determine aggressors' and victims' perceptions of the cyberbullying phenomenon. The sample consisted of 2148 adolescents (49.1% girls; SD = 0.5) of ages from 12 to 16 (M = 13.9; SD = 1.2). The data collected through a validated questionnaire for this study whose dimensions were confirmed from the data extracted from the focus groups and a CFA of the victim and aggressor subsamples. The analysis of the data is completed with CFA and the construction of structural models. The results have shown the importance and interdependence of imbalance of power and intention to harm in the aggressors' perceptual structure. The criteria of anonymity and repetition are related to the asymmetry of power, giving greater prominence to this factor. In its perceptual structure, the criterion “social relationship” also appears, which indicates that the manifestations of cyberbullying are sometimes interpreted as patterns of behavior that have become massively extended among the adolescent population, and have become accepted as a normalized and harmless way of communicating with other adolescents. In the victims' perceptual structure the key factor is the intention to harm, closely linked to the asymmetry of power and publicity. Anonymity, revenge and repetition are also present in this structure, although its relationship with cyberbullying is indirect. These results allow to design more effective measures of prevention and intervention closely tailored to addressing directly the factors that are considered to be predictors of risk. PMID:29632506
Pan, Yi; Luo, Qianying; Cheng, Min
Previous research has indicated that attention can be biased toward those stimuli matching the contents of working memory and thereby facilitates visual processing at the location of the memory-matching stimuli. However, whether this working memory-driven attentional modulation takes place on early perceptual processes remains unclear. Our present results showed that working memory-driven attention improved identification of a brief Landolt target presented alone in the visual field. Because the suprathreshold target appeared without any external noise added (i.e., no distractors or masks), the results suggest that working memory-driven attention enhances the target signal at early perceptual stages of visual processing. Furthermore, given that performance in the Landolt target identification task indexes spatial resolution, this attentional facilitation indicates that working memory-driven attention can boost early perceptual processing via enhancement of spatial resolution at the attended location.
Miner, Nadine Elizabeth
This dissertation presents a new wavelet-based method for synthesizing perceptually convincing, dynamic sounds using parameterized sound models. The sound synthesis method is applicable to a variety of applications including Virtual Reality (VR), multi-media, entertainment, and the World Wide Web (WWW). A unique contribution of this research is the modeling of the stochastic, or non-pitched, sound components. This stochastic-based modeling approach leads to perceptually compelling sound synthesis. Two preliminary studies conducted provide data on multi-sensory interaction and audio-visual synchronization timing. These results contributed to the design of the new sound synthesis method. The method uses a four-phase development process, including analysis, parameterization, synthesis and validation, to create the wavelet-based sound models. A patent is pending for this dynamic sound synthesis method, which provides perceptually-realistic, real-time sound generation. This dissertation also presents a battery of perceptual experiments developed to verify the sound synthesis results. These experiments are applicable for validation of any sound synthesis technique.
Full Text Available Saliency maps produced by different algorithms are often evaluated by comparing output to fixated image locations appearing in human eye tracking data. There are challenges in evaluation based on fixation data due to bias in the data. Properties of eye movement patterns that are independent of image content may limit the validity of evaluation results, including spatial bias in fixation data. To address this problem, we present modeling and evaluation results for data derived from different perceptual tasks related to the concept of saliency. We also present a novel approach to benchmarking to deal with some of the challenges posed by spatial bias. The results presented establish the value of alternatives to fixation data to drive improvement and development of models. We also demonstrate an approach to approximate the output of alternative perceptual tasks based on computational saliency and/or eye gaze data. As a whole, this work presents novel benchmarking results and methods, establishes a new performance baseline for perceptual tasks that provide an alternative window into visual saliency, and demonstrates the capacity for saliency to serve in approximating human behaviour for one visual task given data from another.
Delmonte, B.; Petit, J. R.; Michard, A.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Lipenkov, V.
We investigated properties of the basal ice from Vostok ice core as well as the sediment inclusions within the accreted ice. The Vostok ice core preserves climatic information for the last 420 kyrs down to 3310m depth, but below this depth the horizontal layers of the climatic record are disrupted by the glacier dynamics. From 3450 m to 3538 m depth thin bedrock particles, as glacial flour, are entrapped. Glacial flour is released in the northern area lake, where glacier mostly melts and contributes to sediment accumulation. In the southern area, close to Vostok station, the lake water freezes and the upstream glacial flour does not contribute to sedimentation. The accreted ice contains visible sediment inclusions down to 3608 m (accretion ice 1), while below this depth and likely down to the water interface (˜3750 m), the ice is clear (accretion ice 2). The fine inclusions (1-2mm in diameter) from Accretion Ice 1 mostly consist of fine clays and quartz aggregates and we suggest they are entrained into ice as the glacier floats over shallow depth bay then it grounds against a relief rise. Afterward the glacier freely floats over the deep lake before reaching Vostok, and accreted ice 2 is clean. Sm-Nd dating of one of two inclusions at 3570 m depth gives 1.88 (+/-0.13)Ga (DM model age), corresponding to 1.47 Ga (TCHUR), suggesting a Precambrian origin. Also the isotopic signature of such inclusion (87Sr/86Sr= 0.8232 and eNd= -16) and that of a second one (87Sr/86Sr= 0.7999 and eNd= -15) are coherent with the nature of an old continental shield. Sediments that may initially accumulate in the shallow bay prior the Antarctic glaciation, should have been eroded and exported out of the lake by the glacier movement, this assuming processes for ice accretion and for sediment entrapping operate since a long time. As the glacial flour from upstream does not contribute to sedimentation, sediments need to be renewed at the surface of the bedrock rising question about the way
Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc
There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.
Peng, Huamao; Gao, Yue; Mao, Xiaofei
To explore the roles of visual function and cognitive load in aging of inhibition, the present study adopted a 2 (visual perceptual stress: noise, nonnoise) × 2 (cognitive load: low, high) × 2 (age: young, old) mixed design. The Stroop task was adopted to measure inhibition. The task presentation was masked with Gaussian noise according to the visual function of each individual in order to match visual perceptual stress between age groups. The results indicated that age differences in the Stroop effect were influenced by visual function and cognitive load. When the cognitive load was low, older adults exhibited a larger Stroop effect than did younger adults in the nonnoise condition, and this age difference disappeared when the visual noise of the 2 age groups was matched. Conversely, in the high cognitive load condition, we observed significant age differences in the Stroop effect in both the nonnoise and noise conditions. The additional cognitive load made the age differences in the Stroop task reappear even when visual perceptual stress was equivalent. These results demonstrate that visual function plays an important role in the aging of inhibition and its role is moderated by cognitive load. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rey, Amandine E; Vallet, Guillaume T; Riou, Benoit; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Rémy
The relationship between perceptual and memory processing is at the core of cognition. Growing evidence suggests reciprocal influences between them so that memory features should lead to an actual perceptual bias. In the present study, we investigate the reciprocal influence of perceptual and memory processing by further adapting the Ebbinghaus illusion and tested it in a psychophysical design. In a 2AFC (two-alternative forced choice) paradigm, the perceptual bias in the Ebbinghaus illusion was induced by a physical size (Experiment 1) or a memory reactivated size of the inducers (Experiment 2, the size was reactivated thanks to a color-size association). One test disk was presented on the left of the screen and was surrounded by six inducers with a large or small (perceptual or reactivated) size. The test disk varied in size and participants were asked to indicate whether this test disk was smaller or larger than a reference disk presented on the right of the screen (the reference disk was invariant in size). Participants' responses were influenced by the size of the inducers for the perceptual and the reactivated size of the inducers. These results provide new evidence for the influence of memory on perception in a psychophysics paradigm. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Freeman, James; Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Truelove, Verity; Davey, Jeremy
Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Our results indicate an association between a weakened effect of sensory predictions in perceptual inference and delusions in schizophrenia. We suggest that attenuated predictive signaling during perceptual inference in schizophrenia may yield the experience of aberrant salience, thereby providing the starting point for the formation of delusions.
A practical guide including case studies to show the organizational benefits of incorporating diversity and inclusion into talent management strategy, to unlock the potential of all employees and to improve talent attraction and retention.
Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Hulme, Oliver James
Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias...... functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between...... perception and action, expressed via general effects on frontal cortex, and selective effects on extrastriate cortex. These findings indicate that asymmetric costs may affect a neural implementation of perceptual decision making in a similar manner to changes in category expectation, constituting a step...
Mao, Wei B; An, Shu; Yang, Xiao F
Showing an emotional item in a neutral background scene often leads to enhanced memory for the emotional item and impaired associative memory for background details. Meanwhile, both top-down goal relevance and bottom-up perceptual features played important roles in memory binding. We conducted two experiments and aimed to further examine the effects of goal relevance and perceptual features on emotional items and associative memory. By manipulating goal relevance (asking participants to categorize only each item image as living or non-living or to categorize each whole composite picture consisted of item image and background scene as natural scene or manufactured scene) and perceptual features (controlling visual contrast and visual familiarity) in two experiments, we found that both high goal relevance and salient perceptual features (high salience of items vs. high familiarity of items) could promote emotional item memory, but they had different effects on associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds. Specifically, high goal relevance and high perceptual-salience of items could jointly impair the associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds, while the effect of item familiarity on associative memory for emotional items would be modulated by goal relevance. High familiarity of items could increase associative memory for negative items and neutral backgrounds only in the low goal relevance condition. These findings suggest the effect of emotion on associative memory is not only related to attentional capture elicited by emotion, but also can be affected by goal relevance and perceptual features of stimulus.
Blank, H.; Guido, B.; Heekeren, H.R.; Philiastides, M.G.
Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punis...
Brewin, Chris R
A number of autobiographical memory theories and clinical theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) make claims that are different from standard views of memory and have been the subject of controversy. These claims include the existence of a long-term perceptual memory system supporting conscious experience separate to episodic memory; greater involvement of perceptual memory in the response to emotion-laden and personally meaningful events; increased perceptual memory intrusions accompanied by impaired episodic memory for the traumatic event among PTSD patients; and a lack of association, or inverse association, between indices of voluntary recall and involuntary images relating to the same traumatic materials. In this article I review current research on perceptual memory, which supports the presence of long-term representations that are selective or incomplete reflections of sensory input. The functional independence of perceptual and episodic memory is illustrated by research on verbal overshadowing but is most clearly exemplified by the strong evidence in favor of enhanced perceptual memory and impaired episodic memory in PTSD. Theoretical predictions concerning the relation between perceptual priming and the development of intrusive images, the effect of verbal versus visuospatial secondary tasks on intrusive trauma images, and the independence of voluntary and involuntary memory for the same materials have garnered widespread support. Reasons for the continuing controversy over traumatic memory are discussed, and some implications of the review for general theories of recall and recognition, clinical theories of PTSD, and "special mechanism" views of memory are set out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Mulder, M.J.; van Maanen, L.; Forstmann, B.U.
In this review we summarize findings published over the past 10 years focusing on the neural correlates of perceptual decision-making. Importantly, this review highlights only studies that employ a model-based approach, i.e., they use quantitative cognitive models in combination with neuroscientific
Burchfield, L.A.; Luk, S.H.K.; Antoniou, M.; Cutler, A.
Lexically guided perceptual learni ng refers to the use of lexical knowledge to retune sp eech categories and thereby adapt to a novel talker's pronunciation. This adaptation has been extensively documented, but primarily for segmental-based learning in English and Dutch. In languages with lexical
Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds. It reflects the perception of change in low-level sound features and reliably measures perceptual auditory memory. However, most MMN studies use simple tone patterns as stimuli, failing...
Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean
This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…
Elliott, R; Dolan, R J
Short-term visual memory has been widely studied in humans and animals using delayed matching paradigms. The present study used positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the neural substrates of delayed matching to sample for complex abstract patterns over a 5-s delay. More specifically, the study assessed any differential neural response associated with remembering individual perceptual properties (color only and shape only) compared to conjunction between these properties. Significant activations associated with short-term visual memory (all memory conditions compared to perceptuomotor control) were observed in extrastriate cortex, medial and lateral parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. Significant deactivations were observed throughout the temporal cortex. Although the requirement to remember color compared to shape was associated with subtly different patterns of blood flow, the requirement to remember perceptual conjunctions between these features was not associated with additional specific activations. These data suggest that visual memory over a delay of the order of 5 s is mainly dependent on posterior perceptual regions of the cortex, with the exact regions depending on the perceptual aspect of the stimuli to be remembered.
Kim, Youngjun; van Velsen, Martin; Hill, Jr, Randall W
An important characteristic of a virtual human is the ability to direct its perceptual attention to entities and areas in a virtual environment in a manner that appears believable and serves a functional purpose...
Levi, Dennis M.; Li, Roger W.
Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results from physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is a consequence of abnormal binocular visual experience during the “sensitive period” early in life. While amblyopia can often be reversed when treated early, conventional treatment is generally not undertaken in older children and adults. A number of studies over the last twelve years or so suggest that Perceptual Learning (PL) may provide an important new method for treating amblyopia. The aim of this mini-review is to provide a critical review and “meta-analysis” of perceptual learning in adults and children with amblyopia, with a view to extracting principles that might make PL more effective and efficient. Specifically we evaluate: What factors influence the outcome of perceptual learning?Specificity and generalization – two sides of the coin.Do the improvements last?How does PL improve visual function?Should PL be part of the treatment armamentarium? A review of the extant studies makes it clear that practicing a visual task results in a long-lasting improvement in performance in an amblyopic eye. The improvement is generally strongest for the trained eye, task, stimulus and orientation, but appears to have a broader spatial frequency bandwidth than in normal vision. Importantly, practicing on a variety of different tasks and stimuli seems to transfer to improved visual acuity. Perceptual learning operates via a reduction of internal neural noise and/or through more efficient use of the stimulus information by retuning the weighting of the information. The success of PL raises the question of whether it should become a standard part of the armamentarium for the clinical treatment of amblyopia, and suggests several important principles for effective perceptual learning in amblyopia. PMID:19250947
Liu, Ping; Forte, Jason; Sewell, David; Carter, Olivia
Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing. No effects of cognitive load were seen in Experiments 2 or 3. Together, the findings provide evidence that under some circumstances cognitive load effects can penetrate the early stages of visual processing and that higher cognitive function and early perceptual processing may not be as independent as was once thought.
Peter Sloterdijk ascribes to architecture the “the design of immersions” and hence the “production of embedding situations” or atmosphere (2011 (2006): 108-109), which as devised by Gernot Böhme becomes a fundamental concept of a new aesthetics (1993). Atmosphere implies affective immersion...... the immersive experiences relocate the vision within a “carnal density” (1992: 150), regaining all sensory modalities. Diverse perceptual apparatuses also defined a larger disciplinary expansion in the field of architecture and design. Conceived as sensorial activators, intensifiers of phenomena......, constitute a framework for a re-invention of perceptual worlds, providing a basis for tracing the conceptual contours of atmospheric perception, as well as for discerning the means of the production of space understood as an immersive field of experience. References: Böhme, G. (1993). "Atmosphere...
Full Text Available A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.
Cratty, Bryant J.
To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…
Couperus, Jane W.
Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…
Sloutsky, Vladimir M.
People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483
Schmetz, Emilie; Rousselle, Laurence; Ballaz, Cécile; Detraux, Jean-Jacques; Barisnikov, Koviljka
This study aims to examine the different levels of visual perceptual object recognition (early, intermediate, and late) defined in Humphreys and Riddoch's model as well as basic visual spatial processing in children using a new test battery (BEVPS). It focuses on the age sensitivity, internal coherence, theoretical validity, and convergent validity of this battery. French-speaking, typically developing children (n = 179; 5 to 14 years) were assessed using 15 new computerized subtests. After selecting the most age-sensitive tasks though ceiling effect and correlation analyses, an exploratory factorial analysis was run with the 12 remaining subtests to examine the BEVPS' theoretical validity. Three separate factors were identified for the assessment of the stimuli's basic features (F1, four subtests), view-dependent and -independent object representations (F2, six subtests), and basic visual spatial processing (F3, two subtests). Convergent validity analyses revealed positive correlations between F1 and F2 and the Beery-VMI visual perception subtest, while no such correlations were found for F3. Children's performances progressed until the age of 9-10 years in F1 and in view-independent representations (F2), and until 11-12 years in view-dependent representations (F2). However, no progression with age was observed in F3. Moreover, the selected subtests, present good-to-excellent internal consistency, which indicates that they provide reliable measures for the assessment of visual perceptual processing abilities in children.
Shankar, Swetha; Kayser, Andrew S
To date it has been unclear whether perceptual decision making and rule-based categorization reflect activation of similar cognitive processes and brain regions. On one hand, both map potentially ambiguous stimuli to a smaller set of motor responses. On the other hand, decisions about perceptual salience typically concern concrete sensory representations derived from a noisy stimulus, while categorization is typically conceptualized as an abstract decision about membership in a potentially arbitrary set. Previous work has primarily examined these types of decisions in isolation. Here we independently varied salience in both the perceptual and categorical domains in a random dot-motion framework by manipulating dot-motion coherence and motion direction relative to a category boundary, respectively. Behavioral and modeling results suggest that categorical (more abstract) information, which is more relevant to subjects' decisions, is weighted more strongly than perceptual (more concrete) information, although they also have significant interactive effects on choice. Within the brain, BOLD activity within frontal regions strongly differentiated categorical salience and weakly differentiated perceptual salience; however, the interaction between these two factors activated similar frontoparietal brain networks. Notably, explicitly evaluating feature interactions revealed a frontal-parietal dissociation: parietal activity varied strongly with both features, but frontal activity varied with the combined strength of the information that defined the motor response. Together, these data demonstrate that frontal regions are driven by decision-relevant features and argue that perceptual decisions and rule-based categorization reflect similar cognitive processes and activate similar brain networks to the extent that they define decision-relevant stimulus-response mappings. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here we study the behavioral and neural dynamics of perceptual categorization when
Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith
Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.
Demir, Özlem Ece; So, Wing-Chee; Özyürek, Asli; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Speakers choose a particular expression based on many factors, including availability of the referent in the perceptual context. We examined whether, when expressing referents, monolingual English- and Turkish-speaking children: (1) are sensitive to perceptual context, (2) express this sensitivity in language-specific ways, and (3) use co-speech gestures to specify referents that are underspecified. We also explored the mechanisms underlying children’s sensitivity to perceptual context. Children described short vignettes to an experimenter under two conditions: The characters in the vignettes were present in the perceptual context (perceptual context); the characters were absent (no perceptual context). Children routinely used nouns in the no perceptual context condition, but shifted to pronouns (English-speaking children) or omitted arguments (Turkish-speaking children) in the perceptual context condition. Turkish-speaking children used underspecified referents more frequently than English-speaking children in the perceptual context condition; however, they compensated for the difference by using gesture to specify the forms. Gesture thus gives children learning structurally different languages a way to achieve comparable levels of specification while at the same time adhering to the referential expressions dictated by their language. PMID:22904588
Kurylo, Daniel D; Waxman, Richard; Kidron, Rachel; Silverstein, Steven M
Training on visual tasks improves performance on basic and higher order visual capacities. Such improvement has been linked to changes in connectivity among mediating neurons. We investigated whether training effects occur for perceptual grouping. It was hypothesized that repeated engagement of integration mechanisms would enhance grouping processes. Thirty-six participants underwent 15 sessions of training on a visual discrimination task that required perceptual grouping. Participants viewed 20 × 20 arrays of dots or Gabor patches and indicated whether the array appeared grouped as vertical or horizontal lines. Across trials stimuli became progressively disorganized, contingent upon successful discrimination. Four visual dimensions were examined, in which grouping was based on similarity in luminance, color, orientation, and motion. Psychophysical thresholds of grouping were assessed before and after training. Results indicate that performance in all four dimensions improved with training. Training on a control condition, which paralleled the discrimination task but without a grouping component, produced no improvement. In addition, training on only the luminance and orientation dimensions improved performance for those conditions as well as for grouping by color, on which training had not occurred. However, improvement from partial training did not generalize to motion. Results demonstrate that a training protocol emphasizing stimulus integration enhanced perceptual grouping. Results suggest that neural mechanisms mediating grouping by common luminance and/or orientation contribute to those mediating grouping by color but do not share resources for grouping by common motion. Results are consistent with theories of perceptual learning emphasizing plasticity in early visual processing regions.
Mitchell, Chris; Hall, Geoffrey
We present a review of recent studies of perceptual learning conducted with nonhuman animals. The focus of this research has been to elucidate the mechanisms by which mere exposure to a pair of similar stimuli can increase the ease with which those stimuli are discriminated. These studies establish an important role for 2 mechanisms, one involving inhibitory associations between the unique features of the stimuli, the other involving a long-term habituation process that enhances the relative salience of these features. We then examine recent work investigating equivalent perceptual learning procedures with human participants. Our aim is to determine the extent to which the phenomena exhibited by people are susceptible to explanation in terms of the mechanisms revealed by the animal studies. Although we find no evidence that associative inhibition contributes to the perceptual learning effect in humans, initial detection of unique features (those that allow discrimination between 2 similar stimuli) appears to depend on an habituation process. Once the unique features have been detected, a tendency to attend to those features and to learn about their properties enhances subsequent discrimination. We conclude that the effects obtained with humans engage mechanisms additional to those seen in animals but argue that, for the most part, these have their basis in learning processes that are common to animals and people. In a final section, we discuss some implications of this analysis of perceptual learning for other aspects of experimental psychology and consider some potential applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Wei B. Mao
Full Text Available Showing an emotional item in a neutral background scene often leads to enhanced memory for the emotional item and impaired associative memory for background details. Meanwhile, both top–down goal relevance and bottom–up perceptual features played important roles in memory binding. We conducted two experiments and aimed to further examine the effects of goal relevance and perceptual features on emotional items and associative memory. By manipulating goal relevance (asking participants to categorize only each item image as living or non-living or to categorize each whole composite picture consisted of item image and background scene as natural scene or manufactured scene and perceptual features (controlling visual contrast and visual familiarity in two experiments, we found that both high goal relevance and salient perceptual features (high salience of items vs. high familiarity of items could promote emotional item memory, but they had different effects on associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds. Specifically, high goal relevance and high perceptual-salience of items could jointly impair the associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds, while the effect of item familiarity on associative memory for emotional items would be modulated by goal relevance. High familiarity of items could increase associative memory for negative items and neutral backgrounds only in the low goal relevance condition. These findings suggest the effect of emotion on associative memory is not only related to attentional capture elicited by emotion, but also can be affected by goal relevance and perceptual features of stimulus.
Marciano, Hadas; Yeshurun, Yaffa
The aim of this study was to better understand the role played by perceptual load, at both central and peripheral regions of the visual scene, in driving safety. Attention is a crucial factor in driving safety, and previous laboratory studies suggest that perceptual load is an important factor determining the efficiency of attentional selectivity. Yet, the effects of perceptual load on driving were never studied systematically. Using a driving simulator, we orthogonally manipulated the load levels at the road (central load) and its sides (peripheral load), while occasionally introducing critical events at one of these regions. Perceptual load affected driving performance at both regions of the visual scene. Critically, the effect was different for central versus peripheral load: Whereas load levels on the road mainly affected driving speed, load levels on its sides mainly affected the ability to detect critical events initiating from the roadsides. Moreover, higher levels of peripheral load impaired performance but mainly with low levels of central load, replicating findings with simple letter stimuli. Perceptual load has a considerable effect on driving, but the nature of this effect depends on the region of the visual scene at which the load is introduced. Given the observed importance of perceptual load, authors of future studies of driving safety should take it into account. Specifically, these findings suggest that our understanding of factors that may be relevant for driving safety would benefit from studying these factors under different levels of load at different regions of the visual scene. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Sand, Anders; Wiens, Stefan
As researchers debate whether emotional pictures can be processed irrespective of spatial attention and perceptual load, negative and neutral pictures of simple figure-ground composition were shown at fixation and were surrounded by one, two, or three letters. When participants performed a picture discrimination task, there was evidence for motivated attention; that is, an early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) to negative versus neutral pictures. When participants performed a letter discrimination task, the EPN was unaffected whereas the LPP was reduced. Although performance decreased substantially with the number of letters (one to three), the LPP did not decrease further. Therefore, attention to simple, negative pictures at fixation seems to resist manipulations of perceptual load.
Fetterman, Adam K; Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P
Metaphor representation theory contends that people conceptualise their non-perceptual states (e.g., emotion concepts) in perceptual terms. The present research extends this theory to colour manipulations and discrete emotional representations. Two experiments (N = 265) examined whether a red font colour would facilitate anger conceptions, consistent with metaphors referring to anger to "seeing red". Evidence for an implicit anger-red association was robust and emotionally discrete in nature. Further, Experiment 2 examined the directionality of such associations and found that they were asymmetrical: Anger categorisations were faster when a red font colour was involved, but redness categorisations were not faster when an anger-related word was involved. Implications for multiple literatures are discussed.
Block, Martin E.; Malloy, Mike
A study examined the attitudes of 88 girls (ages 10-12) without disabilities, parents, and coaches toward the inclusion of a child with a disability in a regular fast-pitch softball league. Players and parents had a favorable attitude toward inclusion and modifying game rules. Coaches were undecided about inclusion and rule modifications.…
Shi, R; Werker, J F; Morgan, J L
In our study newborn infants were presented with lists of lexical and grammatical words prepared from natural maternal speech. The results show that newborns are able to categorically discriminate these sets of words based on a constellation of perceptual cues that distinguish them. This general ability to detect and categorically discriminate sets of words on the basis of multiple acoustic and phonological cues may provide a perceptual base that can help older infants bootstrap into the acquisition of grammatical categories and syntactic structure.
Sainato, Diane M.; Morrison, Rebecca S.; Jung, Sunhwa; Axe, Judah; Nixon, Patricia A.
To date, reports of empirically validated comprehensive intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been limited to preschool-age children. We examined the effects of a model inclusive kindergarten program for children with ASD. Forty-one children received instruction in an inclusive kindergarten program with their…
Toet, A.; IJspeert, J.K.
Human perceptual performance was tested with images of nighttime outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3-5 μm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was
Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H
The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.
Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc
There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514
Graham Frederick Welch
Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.
Full Text Available The stakeholders’ perceptual evaluations of the supply structure of destination tourism play an important role in promoting the sustainable development of regional tourism. However, the research on the structural perceptions of destination tourism supply is relatively insufficient in current research on the perceptions of tourism stakeholders. This paper analyzes the perceptual differences among inbound tourists, community residents and tourism practitioners from the core and auxiliary tourism supply dimensions. After having applied the structural equation model in this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the tourism supply of Xi’an, a famous tourist city in China, were identified. In addition, the findings of this paper are: the inbound tourists have high perceptual sensitivity over the factors of the urban core tourism supply; the community residents have high perceptual sensitivity over the auxiliary tourist supply factors; the tourism practitioners have similar perceptual sensitivity over the factors of urban core and auxiliary tourism supply. The advantageous factors involve tourist attractions, tourist shopping, tourist entertainment, hospitality environment and tourist information. Furthermore, the moderately stable supply factors of Xi’an include tourist transportation, tourist catering, tourist accommodation, marketing as well as safety and security, while the natural environment is the limiting factor. The results support sustainable development and the coordination of different stakeholders in the destinations.
Tolli, Michela; Recanatesi, Fabio; Piccinno, Matteo; Leone, Antonio
The main aim of this paper is to explore how perceptual and aesthetic impact analyses are considered in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with specific reference to Italian renewable energy projects. To investigate this topic, the paper starts by establishing which factors are linked with perceptual and aesthetic impacts and why it is important to analyze these aspects, which are also related to legislative provisions and procedures in Europe and in Italy. In particular the paper refers to renewable energy projects because environmental policies are encouraging more and more investment in this kind of primary resource. The growing interest in this type of energy is leading to the realization of projects which change the governance of territories, with inevitable effects on the landscape from the aesthetic and perceptual points of view. Legislative references to EIA, including the latest directive regarding this topic show the importance of integrating the assessment of environmental and perceptual impacts, thus there is a need to improve EIA methodological approaches to this purpose. This paper proposes a profile of aesthetic and perceptual impact analysis in EIA for renewable energy projects in Italy, and concludes with recommendations as to how this kind of analysis could be improved. - Highlights: • We analyze 29 EIA Reports of Italian renewable energy projects. • We examine esthetic and perceptual aspects present in Italian EIA reports. • We identified inconsistency in use of methods for esthetic and perceptual aspects. • Local populations are rarely included as stakeholders in EIAs. • A shared understanding of perceptual and esthetic issues in EIA proceedings is required.
Tolli, Michela, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Architecture and Design (DiAP), Sapienza University of Rome, Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Agriculture, Forests, Nature and Energy (D.A.F.N.E.), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Piccinno, Matteo; Leone, Antonio [Department of Agriculture, Forests, Nature and Energy (D.A.F.N.E.), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)
The main aim of this paper is to explore how perceptual and aesthetic impact analyses are considered in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with specific reference to Italian renewable energy projects. To investigate this topic, the paper starts by establishing which factors are linked with perceptual and aesthetic impacts and why it is important to analyze these aspects, which are also related to legislative provisions and procedures in Europe and in Italy. In particular the paper refers to renewable energy projects because environmental policies are encouraging more and more investment in this kind of primary resource. The growing interest in this type of energy is leading to the realization of projects which change the governance of territories, with inevitable effects on the landscape from the aesthetic and perceptual points of view. Legislative references to EIA, including the latest directive regarding this topic show the importance of integrating the assessment of environmental and perceptual impacts, thus there is a need to improve EIA methodological approaches to this purpose. This paper proposes a profile of aesthetic and perceptual impact analysis in EIA for renewable energy projects in Italy, and concludes with recommendations as to how this kind of analysis could be improved. - Highlights: • We analyze 29 EIA Reports of Italian renewable energy projects. • We examine esthetic and perceptual aspects present in Italian EIA reports. • We identified inconsistency in use of methods for esthetic and perceptual aspects. • Local populations are rarely included as stakeholders in EIAs. • A shared understanding of perceptual and esthetic issues in EIA proceedings is required.
Howard, James D; Kahnt, Thorsten; Gottfried, Jay A
Perceptually similar stimuli often predict vastly different outcomes, requiring the brain to maintain specific associations in the face of potential ambiguity. This could be achieved either through local changes in stimulus representations, or through modulation of functional connections between stimulus-coding and outcome-coding regions. Here we test these competing hypotheses using classical conditioning of perceptually similar odours in the context of human fMRI. Pattern-based analyses of odour-evoked fMRI activity reveal that odour category, identity and value are coded in piriform (PC), orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortices, respectively. However, we observe no learning-related reorganization of category or identity representations. Instead, changes in connectivity between vmPFC and OFC are correlated with learning-related changes in value, whereas connectivity changes between vmPFC and PC predict changes in perceived odour similarity. These results demonstrate that dissociable neural pathways support associative and perceptual representations of sensory stimuli.
Schokker, D.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Vastenhouw, S.A.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 days of age on immune competence related parameters and performance of broiler. A total number of 960 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and
Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan
Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
STEENKAMP, JBEM; VANTRIJP, HCM; TENBERGE, JMF
The authors describe a compositional perceptual mapping procedure, unrestricted attribute-elicitation mapping (UAM), which allows consumers to describe and rate the brands in their own terminology and thus relaxes the restrictive assumptions of traditional compositional mapping techniques regarding
Chen, Zhe; Cave, Kyle R
Perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) claims that attentional capacity that is not used for the current task is allocated to irrelevant distractors. It predicts that if the attentional demands of the current task are high, distractor interference will be low. One particularly powerful demonstration of perceptual load effects on distractor processing relies on a go/no-go cue that is interpreted by either simple feature detection or feature conjunction (Lavie, 1995). However, a possible alternative interpretation of these effects is that the differential degree of distractor processing is caused by how broadly attention is allocated (attentional zoom) rather than to perceptual load. In 4 experiments, we show that when stimuli are arranged to equalize the extent of spatial attention across conditions, distractor interference varies little whether cues are defined by a simple feature or a conjunction, and that the typical perceptual load effect emerges only when attentional zoom can covary with perceptual load. These results suggest that attentional zoom can account for the differential degree of distractor processing traditionally attributed to perceptual load in the go/no-go paradigm. They also provide new insight into how different factors interact to control distractor interference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
De Weerd, P; Smith, E; Greenberg, P
After few seconds, a figure steadily presented in peripheral vision becomes perceptually filled-in by its background, as if it "disappeared". We report that directing attention to the color, shape, or location of a figure increased the probability of perceiving filling-in compared to unattended figures, without modifying the time required for filling-in. This effect could be augmented by boosting attention. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of filling-in response times for attended figures could be predicted by multiplying the frequencies of response times for unattended figures with a constant. We propose that, after failure of figure-ground segregation, the neural interpolation processes that produce perceptual filling-in are enhanced in attended figure regions. As filling-in processes are involved in surface perception, the present study demonstrates that even very early visual processes are subject to modulation by cognitive factors.
Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline
Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…
Noting that one would expect that members of cultural groups whose modes of child rearing foster individual autonomy would achieve more articulated perceptual functioning rather than persons reared in societies where conformity and emotional dependence are stressed, this article discusses a study which compared two Israeli sub-groups and two…
Full Text Available Elvan Yalcin, Ozlem BalciWorld Eye Hospital, Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Istanbul, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of neural vision therapy, also termed perceptual vision therapy, in enhancing best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and contrast sensitivity function in amblyopic patients.Methods: This prospective study enrolled 99 subjects previously diagnosed with unilateral hypermetropic amblyopia aged 9–50 years. The subjects were divided into two groups, with 53 subjects (53 eyes in the perceptual vision therapy group and 46 subjects (46 eyes in the control group. Because the nature of the treatment demands hard work and strict compliance, we enrolled the minimal number of subjects required to achieve statistically significant results. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Study phases included a baseline screening, a series of 45 training sessions with perceptual vision therapy, and an end-of-treatment examination. BCVA and contrast sensitivity function at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies were obtained for statistical analysis in both groups. All subjects had follow-up examinations within 4–8 months. With the exception of one subject from the study group and two subjects from the control group, all subjects had occlusion during childhood. The study was not masked.Results: The results for the study group demonstrated a mean improvement of 2.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR lines in visual acuity (from 0.42 to 0.16 logMAR. Contrast sensitivity function improved at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. The control group did not show any significant change in visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function. None of the treated eyes showed a drop in visual acuity. Manifest refractions remained unchanged during the study.Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in
Nikolova, Atanaska; Macken, Bill
We used a colour change-detection paradigm where participants were required to remember colours of six equally spaced circles. Items were superimposed on a background so as to perceptually group them within (a) an intact ring-shaped object, (b) a physically segmented but perceptually completed ring-shaped object, or (c) a corresponding background segmented into three arc-shaped objects. A nonpredictive cue at the location of one of the circles was followed by the memory items, which in turn were followed by a test display containing a probe indicating the circle to be judged same/different. Reaction times for correct responses revealed a same-object advantage; correct responses were faster to probes on the same object as the cue than to equidistant probes on a segmented object. This same-object advantage was identical for physically and perceptually completed objects, but was only evident in reaction times, and not in accuracy measures. Not only, therefore, is it important to consider object-level perceptual organization of stimulus elements when assessing the influence of a range of factors (e.g., number and complexity of elements) in visuospatial short-term memory, but a more detailed picture of the structure of information in memory may be revealed by measuring speed as well as accuracy.
Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...
Newman, Anne B; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A
pressure and triglycerides were lower, high density lipids were higher, and a perceptual speed task and gait speed were better in LLFS. Age-specific comparisons showed differences that would be consistent with a higher peak, later onset of decline or slower rate of change across age in LLFS participants....... These findings suggest several priority phenotypes for inclusion in future genetic analysis to identify loci contributing to exceptional survival....
Susanta Kumar SETHY
Financial inclusion is one of the systems through which Inclusive Growth can be achieved in developing countries like India where large sections are unable or hopeless to contribute in the financial system. An inclusive financial system mobilizes more resources for productive purposes leading to higher economic growth, better opportunities and reduction of poverty. This study, proposed an Index of financial inclusion – a multidimensional measure. The Financial Inclusion Index c...
Full Text Available Perception is an inferential process, which becomes immediately evident when sensory information is conflicting or ambiguous and thus allows for more than one perceptual interpretation. Thinking the idea of perception as inference through to the end results in a blurring of boundaries between perception and action selection, as perceptual inference implies the construction of a percept as an active process. Here we therefore wondered whether perception shares a key characteristic of action selection, namely that it is shaped by reinforcement learning. In two behavioral experiments, we used binocular rivalry to examine whether perceptual inference can be influenced by the association of perceptual outcomes with reward or punishment, respectively, in analogy to instrumental conditioning. Binocular rivalry was evoked by two orthogonal grating stimuli presented to the two eyes, resulting in perceptual alternations between the two gratings. Perception was tracked indirectly and objectively through a target detection task, which allowed us to preclude potential reporting biases. Monetary rewards or punishments were given repeatedly during perception of only one of the two rivalling stimuli. We found an increase in dominance durations for the percept associated with reward, relative to the non-rewarded percept. In contrast, punishment led to an increase of the non-punished compared to a relative decrease of the punished percept. Our results show that perception shares key characteristics with action selection, in that it is influenced by reward and punishment in opposite directions, thus narrowing the gap between the conceptually separated domains of perception and action selection. We conclude that perceptual inference is an adaptive process that is shaped by its consequences.
Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.
Developmental dyslexia is a condition in which children encounter difficulty learning to read in spite of adequate instruction. Although considerable effort has been expended trying to identify the source of the problem, no single solution has been agreed upon. The current study explored a new hypothesis, that developmental dyslexia may be due to faulty perceptual organization of linguistically relevant sensory input. To test that idea, sentence-length speech signals were processed to create either sine-wave or noise-vocoded analogs. Seventy children between 8 and 11 years of age, with and without dyslexia participated. Children with dyslexia were selected to have phonological awareness deficits, although those without such deficits were retained in the study. The processed sentences were presented for recognition, and measures of reading, phonological awareness, and expressive vocabulary were collected. Results showed that children with dyslexia, regardless of phonological subtype, had poorer recognition scores than children without dyslexia for both kinds of degraded sentences. Older children with dyslexia recognized the sine-wave sentences better than younger children with dyslexia, but no such effect of age was found for the vocoded materials. Recognition scores were used as predictor variables in regression analyses with reading, phonological awareness, and vocabulary measures used as dependent variables. Scores for both sorts of sentence materials were strong predictors of performance on all three dependent measures when all children were included, but only performance for the sine-wave materials explained significant proportions of variance when only children with dyslexia were included. Finally, matching young, typical readers with older children with dyslexia on reading abilities did not mitigate the group difference in recognition of vocoded sentences. Conclusions were that children with dyslexia have difficulty organizing linguistically relevant sensory
Riaan M. Olivier
Full Text Available Background: Thought disorder and visual-perceptual deficits have been well documented, but their relationships with clinical symptoms and cognitive function remain unclear. Cognitive-perceptual deficits may underscore clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Aim: This study aimed to explore how thought disorder and form perception are related with clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia. Setting: Forty-two patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from community clinics and state hospitals in the Cape Town area. Methods: Patients were assessed at baseline with the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB. Spearman correlational analyses were conducted to investigate relationships between PTI scores, PANSS factor analysis-derived domain scores and MCCB composite and subscale scores. Multiple regression models explored these relationships further. Results: Unexpectedly, poor form perception (X- % was inversely correlated with the severity of PANSS positive symptoms (r = -0.42, p = 0.02. Good form perception (XA% correlated significantly with speed of processing (r = 0.59, p < 0.01, working memory (r = 0.48, p < 0.01 and visual learning (r = 0.55, p < 0.01. PTI measures of thought disorder did not correlate significantly with PANSS symptom scores or cognitive performance. Conclusions: Form perception is associated with positive symptoms and impairment in executive function during acute psychosis. These findings suggest that there may be clinical value in including sensory-perceptual processing tasks in cognitive remediation and social cognitive training programmes for schizophrenia patients.
Europe is facing unprecedented demographic change including a previously unknown ageing of the population. In view of these demographic and societal changes, social inclusion of the elderly is of growing importance. In searching for measures to promote the social inclusion of the older population......, EU policies give special attention to encouraging volunteering. This working paper looks at experiences in 5 EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland) and draws some interim conclusions....
Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt
Probable stimuli are more often and more quickly detected. While stimulus probability is known to affect decision-making, it can also be explained as a perceptual phenomenon. Using spatial gratings, we have previously shown that probable orientations are also more precisely estimated, even while participants remained naive to the manipulation. We conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the effect that probability has on perception and visual-evoked potentials. In line with previous studies on oddballs and stimulus prevalence, low-probability orientations were associated with a greater late positive 'P300' component which might be related to either surprise or decision-making. However, the early 'C1' component, thought to reflect V1 processing, was dampened for high-probability orientations while later P1 and N1 components were unaffected. Exploratory analyses revealed a participant-level correlation between C1 and P300 amplitudes, suggesting a link between perceptual processing and decision-making. We discuss how these probability effects could be indicative of sharpening of neurons preferring the probable orientations, due either to perceptual learning, or to feature-based attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kellman, Philip J
Recent advances in the learning sciences offer remarkable potential to improve medical education and maximize the benefits of emerging medical technologies. This article describes 2 major innovation areas in the learning sciences that apply to simulation and other aspects of medical learning: Perceptual learning (PL) and adaptive learning technologies. PL technology offers, for the first time, systematic, computer-based methods for teaching pattern recognition, structural intuition, transfer, and fluency. Synergistic with PL are new adaptive learning technologies that optimize learning for each individual, embed objective assessment, and implement mastery criteria. The author describes the Adaptive Response-Time-based Sequencing (ARTS) system, which uses each learner's accuracy and speed in interactive learning to guide spacing, sequencing, and mastery. In recent efforts, these new technologies have been applied in medical learning contexts, including adaptive learning modules for initial medical diagnosis and perceptual/adaptive learning modules (PALMs) in dermatology, histology, and radiology. Results of all these efforts indicate the remarkable potential of perceptual and adaptive learning technologies, individually and in combination, to improve learning in a variety of medical domains. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.