Quasiparticle semiconductor band structures including spin-orbit interactions.
Malone, Brad D; Cohen, Marvin L
2013-03-13
We present first-principles calculations of the quasiparticle band structure of the group IV materials Si and Ge and the group III-V compound semiconductors AlP, AlAs, AlSb, InP, InAs, InSb, GaP, GaAs and GaSb. Calculations are performed using the plane wave pseudopotential method and the 'one-shot' GW method, i.e. G(0)W(0). Quasiparticle band structures, augmented with the effects of spin-orbit, are obtained via a Wannier interpolation of the obtained quasiparticle energies and calculated spin-orbit matrix. Our calculations explicitly treat the shallow semicore states of In and Ga, which are known to be important in the description of the electronic properties, as valence states in the quasiparticle calculation. Our calculated quasiparticle energies, combining both the ab initio evaluation of the electron self-energy and the vector part of the pseudopotential representing the spin-orbit effects, are in generally very good agreement with experimental values. These calculations illustrate the predictive power of the methodology as applied to group IV and III-V semiconductors.
Spin-orbit torques from interfacial spin-orbit coupling for various interfaces
Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Sinova, Jairo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.
2017-09-01
We use a perturbative approach to study the effects of interfacial spin-orbit coupling in magnetic multilayers by treating the two-dimensional Rashba model in a fully three-dimensional description of electron transport near an interface. This formalism provides a compact analytic expression for current-induced spin-orbit torques in terms of unperturbed scattering coefficients, allowing computation of spin-orbit torques for various contexts, by simply substituting scattering coefficients into the formulas. It applies to calculations of spin-orbit torques for magnetic bilayers with bulk magnetism, those with interface magnetism, a normal-metal/ferromagnetic insulator junction, and a topological insulator/ferromagnet junction. It predicts a dampinglike component of spin-orbit torque that is distinct from any intrinsic contribution or those that arise from particular spin relaxation mechanisms. We discuss the effects of proximity-induced magnetism and insertion of an additional layer and provide formulas for in-plane current, which is induced by a perpendicular bias, anisotropic magnetoresistance, and spin memory loss in the same formalism.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung
2015-04-06
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung; Go, Dongwook; Manchon, Aurelien; Haney, Paul M.; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-01-01
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Nonequilibrium Spin Dynamics in a Trapped Fermi Gas with Effective Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanescu, Tudor D.; Zhang Chuanwei; Galitski, Victor
2007-01-01
We consider a trapped atomic system in the presence of spatially varying laser fields. The laser-atom interaction generates a pseudospin degree of freedom (referred to simply as spin) and leads to an effective spin-orbit coupling for the fermions in the trap. Reflections of the fermions from the trap boundaries provide a physical mechanism for effective momentum relaxation and nontrivial spin dynamics due to the emergent spin-orbit coupling. We explicitly consider evolution of an initially spin-polarized Fermi gas in a two-dimensional harmonic trap and derive nonequilibrium behavior of the spin polarization. It shows periodic echoes with a frequency equal to the harmonic trapping frequency. Perturbations, such as an asymmetry of the trap, lead to the suppression of the spin echo amplitudes. We discuss a possible experimental setup to observe spin dynamics and provide numerical estimates of relevant parameters
Spin-orbit and spin-lattice coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Ziman, Timothy; Mori, Michiyasu
2014-01-01
We pursued theoretical research on the coupling of electron spins in the condensed matter to the lattice as mediated by the spin-orbit interaction with special focus on the spin and anomalous Hall effects. (author)
Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers
Haney, Paul
2015-03-01
Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.
Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grell, Gilbert; Bokarev, Sergey I., E-mail: sergey.bokarev@uni-rostock.de; Kühn, Oliver [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Winter, Bernd; Seidel, Robert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, D-14159 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Saadullah G. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)
2015-08-21
X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the restricted active space self-consistent field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence- and core-level photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approximation demonstrates distinct deviations from experiments.
Spin-orbit coupling effects in indium antimonide quantum well structures
Dedigama, Aruna Ruwan
Indium antimonide (InSb) is a narrow band gap material which has the smallest electron effective mass (0.014m0) and the largest electron Lande g-facture (-51) of all the III-V semiconductors. Spin-orbit effects of III-V semiconductor heterostructures arise from two different inversion asymmetries namely bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA) and structural inversion asymmetry (SIA). BIA is due to the zinc-blende nature of this material which leads to the Dresselhaus spin splitting consisting of both linear and cubic in-plane wave vector terms. As its name implies SIA arises due to the asymmetry of the quantum well structure, this leads to the Rashba spin splitting term which is linear in wave vector. Although InSb has theoretically predicted large Dresselhaus (760 eVA3) and Rashba (523 eA 2) coefficients there has been relatively little experimental investigation of spin-orbit coefficients. Spin-orbit coefficients can be extracted from the beating patterns of Shubnikov--de Haas oscillations (SdH), for material like InSb it is hard to use this method due to the existence of large electron Lande g-facture. Therefore it is essential to use a low field magnetotransport technique such as weak antilocalization to extract spin-orbit parameters for InSb. The main focus of this thesis is to experimentally determine the spin-orbit parameters for both symmetrically and asymmetrically doped InSb/InxAl 1-xSb heterostructures. During this study attempts have been made to tune the Rashba spin-orbit coupling coefficient by using a back gate to change the carrier density of the samples. Dominant phase breaking mechanisms for InSb/InxAl1-xSb heterostructures have been identified by analyzing the temperature dependence of the phase breaking field from weak antilocalization measurements. Finally the strong spin-orbit effects on InSb/InxAl1-xSb heterostructures have been demonstrated with ballistic spin focusing devices.
Vortices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radic, J.; Sedrakyan, T. A.; Galitski, V.; Spielman, I. B.
2011-01-01
Realistic methods to create vortices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates are discussed. It is shown that, contrary to common intuition, rotation of the trap containing a spin-orbit condensate does not lead to an equilibrium state with static vortex structures but gives rise instead to nonequilibrium behavior described by an intrinsically time-dependent Hamiltonian. We propose here the following alternative methods to induce thermodynamically stable static vortex configurations: (i) to rotate both the lasers and the anisotropic trap and (ii) to impose a synthetic Abelian field on top of synthetic spin-orbit interactions. Effective Hamiltonians for spin-orbit condensates under such perturbations are derived for most currently known realistic laser schemes that induce synthetic spin-orbit couplings. The Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved for several experimentally relevant regimes. The new interesting effects include spatial separation of left- and right-moving spin-orbit condensates, the appearance of unusual vortex arrangements, and parity effects in vortex nucleation where the topological excitations are predicted to appear in pairs. All these phenomena are shown to be highly nonuniversal and depend strongly on a specific laser scheme and system parameters.
Microscopic Stern-Gerlach effect and spin-orbit pendulum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.
1996-01-01
The motion of a particle with spin in spherical harmonic oscillator potential with spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The attention is focused on the spatial motion of wave packets. The particular case of wave packets moving along the circular orbits for which the most transparent and pedagogical description is possible is considered. The splitting of the wave packets into two components moving differently along classical orbits reflects a strong analogy with the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The periodic transfer of average angular momentum between spin and orbital subspaces accompanying this time evolution is called the spin-orbit pendulum. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs
Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit
Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai
2016-01-01
A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.
Spin-inversion in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somaieh Ahmadi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Spin-inversion properties of an electron in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier is studied using transfer matrix method. It is found that for proper values of Rashba spin-orbit strength, perfect spin-inversion can occur in a wide range of electron incident angle near the normal incident. In this case, the graphene sheet with Rashba spin-orbit barrier can be considered as an electron spin-inverter. The efficiency of spin-inverter can increase up to a very high value by increasing the length of Rashba spin-orbit barrier. The effect of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction on electron spin inversion is then studied. It is shown that the efficiency of spin-inverter decreases slightly in the presence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The present study can be used to design graphene-based spintronic devices.
Spin-orbit effects in carbon-nanotube double quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weiss, S; Rashba, E I; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand
2010-01-01
We study the energy spectrum of symmetric double quantum dots in narrow-gap carbon nanotubes with one and two electrostatically confined electrons in the presence of spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions. Compared to GaAs quantum dots, the spectrum exhibits a much richer structure because of the spin...... between the dots. For the two-electron regime, the detailed structure of the spin-orbit split energy spectrum is investigated as a function of detuning between the quantum dots in a 22-dimensional Hilbert space within the framework of a single-longitudinal-mode model. We find a competing effect......-orbit interaction that couples the electron's isospin to its real spin through two independent coupling constants. In a single dot, both constants combine to split the spectrum into two Kramers doublets while the antisymmetric constant solely controls the difference in the tunneling rates of the Kramers doublets...
SU (N ) spin-wave theory: Application to spin-orbital Mott insulators
Dong, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian-Xin
2018-05-01
We present the application of the SU (N ) spin-wave theory to spin-orbital Mott insulators whose ground states exhibit magnetic orders. When taking both spin and orbital degrees of freedom into account rather than projecting Hilbert space onto the Kramers doublet, which is the lowest spin-orbital locked energy levels, the SU (N ) spin-wave theory should take the place of the SU (2 ) one due to the inevitable spin-orbital multipole exchange interactions. To implement the application, we introduce an efficient general local mean-field method, which involves all local fluctuations, and develop the SU (N ) linear spin-wave theory. Our approach is tested firstly by calculating the multipolar spin-wave spectra of the SU (4 ) antiferromagnetic model. Then, we apply it to spin-orbital Mott insulators. It is revealed that the Hund's coupling would influence the effectiveness of the isospin-1 /2 picture when the spin-orbital coupling is not large enough. We further carry out the SU (N ) spin-wave calculations of two materials, α -RuCl3 and Sr2IrO4 , and find that the magnonic and spin-orbital excitations are consistent with experiments.
The effect of spin-orbit coupling on magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic organic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jun-Qing; Ding Meng; Zhang Tian-You; Zhang Ning-Yu; Pang Yan-Tao; Ji Yan-Ju; Chen Ying; Wang Feng-Xiang; Fu Gang
2012-01-01
We investigated the effect of spin-orbit coupling on magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic organic semiconductors. A Lorentz-type magnetoresistance is obtained from spin-orbit coupling-dependent spin precession under the condition of a space-charge-limited current. The magnetoresistance depends on the initial spin orientation of the electron with respect to the hole in electron—hole pairs, and the increasing spin-orbit coupling slows down the change in magnetoresistance with magnetic field. The field dependence, the sign and the saturation value of the magnetoresistance are composite effects of recombination and dissociation rate constants of singlet and triplet electron—hole pairs. The simulated magnetoresistance shows good consistency with the experimental results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in gallium arsenide quantum dots
Shang, Ru-Nan; Zhang, Ting; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2018-02-01
Besides the spin Kondo effect, other degrees of freedom can give rise to the pseudospin Kondo effect. We report a direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in a series-coupled gallium arsenide (GaAs) double quantum dot device where orbital degrees act as pseudospin. Electron occupation in both dots induces a pseudospin Kondo effect. In a region of one net spin impurity, complete spectra with three resonance peaks are observed. Furthermore, we observe a pseudo-Zeeman effect and demonstrate its electrical controllability for the artificial pseudospin in this orbital spin Kondo process via gate voltage control. The fourfold degeneracy point is realized at a specific value supplemented by spin degeneracy, indicating a transition from the SU(2) to the SU(4) Kondo effect.
Next-order spin-orbit contributions to chaos in compact binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yuzhao; Wu Xin
2011-01-01
This paper is mainly devoted to numerically investigating the effects of the next-order spin-orbit interactions including the 2.5 post-Newtonian order term of the equations of motion and the second post-Newtonian order terms of the spin precession equations on chaos in the conservative Lagrangian dynamics of a spinning compact binary system. It is shown sufficiently through individual orbit simulations, the dependence of the invariant fast Lyapunov indicators on the variations of initial spin angles and the phase space scans for chaos, that the next-order spin-orbit contributions do play an important role in the amplification of chaos.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui; Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Manchon, Aurelien
2014-01-01
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui
2014-02-07
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Relativistic spin-orbit interactions of photons and electrons
Smirnova, D. A.; Travin, V. M.; Bliokh, K. Y.; Nori, F.
2018-04-01
Laboratory optics, typically dealing with monochromatic light beams in a single reference frame, exhibits numerous spin-orbit interaction phenomena due to the coupling between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of light. Similar phenomena appear for electrons and other spinning particles. Here we examine transformations of paraxial photon and relativistic-electron states carrying the spin and orbital angular momenta (AM) under the Lorentz boosts between different reference frames. We show that transverse boosts inevitably produce a rather nontrivial conversion from spin to orbital AM. The converted part is then separated between the intrinsic (vortex) and extrinsic (transverse shift or Hall effect) contributions. Although the spin, intrinsic-orbital, and extrinsic-orbital parts all point in different directions, such complex behavior is necessary for the proper Lorentz transformation of the total AM of the particle. Relativistic spin-orbit interactions can be important in scattering processes involving photons, electrons, and other relativistic spinning particles, as well as when studying light emitted by fast-moving bodies.
Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten
2006-01-01
We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is bas...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....
Effect of deformation and orientation on spin orbit density dependent nuclear potential
Mittal, Rajni; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K.
2017-11-01
Role of deformation and orientation is investigated on spin-orbit density dependent part VJ of nuclear potential (VN=VP+VJ) obtained within semi-classical Thomas Fermi approach of Skyrme energy density formalism. Calculations are performed for 24-54Si+30Si reactions, with spherical target 30Si and projectiles 24-54Si having prolate and oblate shapes. The quadrupole deformation β2 is varying within range of 0.023 ≤ β2 ≤0.531 for prolate and -0.242 ≤ β2 ≤ -0.592 for oblate projectiles. The spin-orbit dependent potential gets influenced significantly with inclusion of deformation and orientation effect. The spin-orbit barrier and position gets significantly influenced by both the sign and magnitude of β2-deformation. Si-nuclei with β220. The possible role of spin-orbit potential on barrier characteristics such as barrier height, barrier curvature and on the fusion pocket is also probed. In reference to prolate and oblate systems, the angular dependence of spin-orbit potential is further studied on fusion cross-sections.
The Fermi surface of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}: spin-orbit and anisotropic Coulomb interaction effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Pavarini, Eva [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
The topology of the Fermi surface of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is well described by local density approximation calculations with spin-orbit interaction, but the relative size of its different sheets is not. By accounting for many-body effects via dynamical mean-field theory, we show that the standard isotropic Coulomb interaction worsen or does not correct this discrepancy. In order to reproduce experiments, it is essential to include the Coulomb anisotropy. The latter is small but has strong effects; it competes with the Coulomb-enhanced spin-orbit coupling and with the isotropic Coulomb term. This mechanism is likely to be at work in other multi-orbital systems. Finally, we find a strong spin-orbital entanglement. This supports the view that the conventional description of Cooper pairs via factorized spin and orbital part might not apply to Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.
Spin torque on the surface of graphene in the presence of spin orbit splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Chen
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We study theoretically the spin transfer torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to (deposited onto a graphene surface in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC. We show that the RSOC induces an effective magnetic field, which will result in the spin precession of conduction electrons. We derive correspondingly the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation, which describes the precessional motion of local magnetization under the influence of the spin orbit effect. Our theoretical estimate indicates that the spin orbit spin torque may have significant effect on the magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic layer coupled to the graphene surface.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Stiles, M. D.
2013-01-01
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-12-19
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Effects of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings on itinerant ferromagnetism
Liu, Mengnan; Xu, Liping; Wan, Yong; Yan, Xu
2018-02-01
Based on Stoner model for itinerant ferromagnet, effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on ferromagnetism were investigated at zero temperature. It was found that SOC will enhance the critical ferromagnetic exchange interaction for spontaneous magnetization, and then suppress ferromagnetism. In case of the coexistence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOCs, the mixture of the two spin-orbit couplings showed stronger suppressed effect on ferromagnetism than only one kind of SOC alone. When the two SOCs mixed with equal magnitude, ferromagnetism in itinerant ferromagnet was suppressed to minimum.
Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect
Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo
2018-05-01
We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.
Magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems: Spin and orbital contributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I. [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I. [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2015-09-15
We present a technique to map an electronic model with local interactions (a generalized multi-orbital Hubbard model) onto an effective model of interacting classical spins, by requiring that the thermodynamic potentials associated to spin rotations in the two systems are equivalent up to second order in the rotation angles, when the electronic system is in a symmetry-broken phase. This allows to determine the parameters of relativistic and non-relativistic magnetic interactions in the effective spin model in terms of equilibrium Green’s functions of the electronic model. The Hamiltonian of the electronic system includes, in addition to the non-relativistic part, relativistic single-particle terms such as the Zeeman coupling to an external magnetic field, spin–orbit coupling, and arbitrary magnetic anisotropies; the orbital degrees of freedom of the electrons are explicitly taken into account. We determine the complete relativistic exchange tensors, accounting for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions, as well as additional non-diagonal symmetric terms (which may include dipole–dipole interaction). The expressions of all these magnetic interactions are determined in a unified framework, including previously disregarded features such as the vertices of two-particle Green’s functions and non-local self-energies. We do not assume any smallness in spin–orbit coupling, so our treatment is in this sense exact. Finally, we show how to distinguish and address separately the spin, orbital and spin–orbital contributions to magnetism, providing expressions that can be computed within a tight-binding Dynamical Mean Field Theory.
Hydrodynamics of Normal Atomic Gases with Spin-orbit Coupling.
Hou, Yan-Hua; Yu, Zhenhua
2015-10-20
Successful realization of spin-orbit coupling in atomic gases by the NIST scheme opens the prospect of studying the effects of spin-orbit coupling on many-body physics in an unprecedentedly controllable way. Here we derive the linearized hydrodynamic equations for the normal atomic gases of the spin-orbit coupling by the NIST scheme with zero detuning. We show that the hydrodynamics of the system crucially depends on the momentum susceptibilities which can be modified by the spin-orbit coupling. We reveal the effects of the spin-orbit coupling on the sound velocities and the dipole mode frequency of the gases by applying our formalism to the ideal Fermi gas. We also discuss the generalization of our results to other situations.
Spin-orbit interaction effects in zincblende semiconductors: Ab initio pseudopotential calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Ming-Fu; Surh, M.P.; Louie, S.G.
1988-06-01
Ab initio band structure calculations have been performed for the spin-orbit interaction effects at the top of the valence bands for GaAs and InSb. Relativistic, norm-conserving pseudopotentials are used with no correction made for the gaps from the local density approximation. The spin-orbit splitting at Γ and linear terms in the /rvec char/k dependence of the splitting are found to be in excellent agreement with existing experiments and previous theoretical results. The effective mass and the cubic splitting terms are also examined. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishtopenko, S. S.
2015-01-01
The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krishtopenko, S. S., E-mail: sergey.krishtopenko@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)
2015-02-15
The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.
Current-induced Rashba spin orbit torque in silicene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Ji, E-mail: muze7777@hdu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Peng, Yingzi [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Center for Integrated Spintronic Devices, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhou, Jie [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The spin dynamics of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene is investigated. • The Rashba spin orbit torque is obtained and the well-known LLG equation is modified. • The explicit forms of spin orbit torques in Domain Wall and vortex is also obtained. - Abstract: We study theoretically the spin torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene in the presence of the intrinsic Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) effect. By using gauge field method, we find that under the applied current, the RSOC can induce an effective field which will result in the spin precession of conduction electron without applying any magnetic field. We also derive the spin torques due to the RSOC, which generalize the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The spin torques are related to the applied current, the carrier density and Rashba strength of the system.
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-06-21
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kocharian, Armen N. [Department of Physics, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Palandage, Kalum [Department of Physics, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States); Balatsky, Alexander V. [AlbaNova University Center Nordita, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-05-15
Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armen N. Kocharian
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Tuning the effective spin-orbit coupling in molecular semiconductors
Schott, Sam
2017-05-11
The control of spins and spin to charge conversion in organics requires understanding the molecular spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and a means to tune its strength. However, quantifying SOC strengths indirectly through spin relaxation effects has proven difficult due to competing relaxation mechanisms. Here we present a systematic study of the g-tensor shift in molecular semiconductors and link it directly to the SOC strength in a series of high-mobility molecular semiconductors with strong potential for future devices. The results demonstrate a rich variability of the molecular g-shifts with the effective SOC, depending on subtle aspects of molecular composition and structure. We correlate the above g-shifts to spin-lattice relaxation times over four orders of magnitude, from 200 to 0.15 μs, for isolated molecules in solution and relate our findings for isolated molecules in solution to the spin relaxation mechanisms that are likely to be relevant in solid state systems.
Tuning the effective spin-orbit coupling in molecular semiconductors
Schott, Sam; McNellis, Erik R.; Nielsen, Christian B.; Chen, Hung-Yang; Watanabe, Shun; Tanaka, Hisaaki; McCulloch, Iain; Takimiya, Kazuo; Sinova, Jairo; Sirringhaus, Henning
2017-01-01
The control of spins and spin to charge conversion in organics requires understanding the molecular spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and a means to tune its strength. However, quantifying SOC strengths indirectly through spin relaxation effects has proven difficult due to competing relaxation mechanisms. Here we present a systematic study of the g-tensor shift in molecular semiconductors and link it directly to the SOC strength in a series of high-mobility molecular semiconductors with strong potential for future devices. The results demonstrate a rich variability of the molecular g-shifts with the effective SOC, depending on subtle aspects of molecular composition and structure. We correlate the above g-shifts to spin-lattice relaxation times over four orders of magnitude, from 200 to 0.15 μs, for isolated molecules in solution and relate our findings for isolated molecules in solution to the spin relaxation mechanisms that are likely to be relevant in solid state systems.
Flying spin-qubit gates implemented through Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, S.J.; Yang, Z.Q.
2007-01-01
A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement flying spin-qubit gates based on two semiconductor wires with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), respectively. It is found that under the manipulation of the Dresselhaus/Rashba SOC, spin rotates around x/y axis in the three-dimensional spin space. By combining the two kinds of manipulations, i.e. connecting the two kinds of semiconductor wires in series, we obtain a universal set of losses flying single-qubit gates including Hadamard, phase, and π/8 gates. A ballistic switching effect of electronic flow is also found in the investigation. Our results may be useful in future spin or nanoscale electronics
Spin-orbit scattering in superconducting nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520 (United States); Nesterov, K.N. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 (United States)
2017-06-15
We review interaction effects in chaotic metallic nanoparticles. Their single-particle Hamiltonian is described by the proper random-matrix ensemble while the dominant interaction terms are invariants under a change of the single-particle basis. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering, the nontrivial invariants consist of a pairing interaction, which leads to superconductivity in the bulk, and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. Spin-orbit scattering breaks spin-rotation invariance and when it is sufficiently strong, the only dominant nontrivial interaction is the pairing interaction. We discuss how the magnetic response of discrete energy levels of the nanoparticle (which can be measured in single-electron tunneling spectroscopy experiments) is affected by such pairing correlations and how it can provide a signature of pairing correlations. We also consider the spin susceptibility of the nanoparticle and discuss how spin-orbit scattering changes the signatures of pairing correlations in this observable. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X.J.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We derive a modified LLG equation in magnetic systems with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). → Our results are applied to magnetic multilayers, and DMS and magnetic Rashba systems. → SOC mediated magnetization switching is predicted in rare earth metals (large SOC). → The magnetization trajectory and frequency can be modulated by applied voltage. → This facilitates potential application as tunable microwave oscillators. - Abstract: We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) x U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.
Nonlinear spin current generation in noncentrosymmetric spin-orbit coupled systems
Hamamoto, Keita; Ezawa, Motohiko; Kim, Kun Woo; Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto
2017-06-01
Spin current plays a central role in spintronics. In particular, finding more efficient ways to generate spin current has been an important issue and has been studied actively. For example, representative methods of spin-current generation include spin-polarized current injections from ferromagnetic metals, the spin Hall effect, and the spin battery. Here, we theoretically propose a mechanism of spin-current generation based on nonlinear phenomena. By using Boltzmann transport theory, we show that a simple application of the electric field E induces spin current proportional to E2 in noncentrosymmetric spin-orbit coupled systems. We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin current of the proposed mechanism is supported in the surface state of three-dimensional topological insulators and two-dimensional semiconductors with the Rashba and/or Dresselhaus interaction. In the latter case, the angular dependence of the nonlinear spin current can be manipulated by the direction of the electric field and by the ratio of the Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions. We find that the magnitude of the spin current largely exceeds those in the previous methods for a reasonable magnitude of the electric field. Furthermore, we show that application of ac electric fields (e.g., terahertz light) leads to the rectifying effect of the spin current, where dc spin current is generated. These findings will pave a route to manipulate the spin current in noncentrosymmetric crystals.
Phase-space curvature in spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic systems
Armaitis, J.; Ruseckas, J.; Anisimovas, E.
2017-04-01
We consider a system with spin-orbit coupling and derive equations of motion which include the effects of Berry curvatures. We apply these equations to investigate the dynamics of particles with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. In our derivation, the adiabatic transformation is performed first and leads to quantum Heisenberg equations of motion for momentum and position operators. These equations explicitly contain position-space, momentum-space, and phase-space Berry curvature terms. Subsequently, we perform the semiclassical approximation and obtain the semiclassical equations of motion. Taking the low-Berry-curvature limit results in equations that can be directly compared to previous results for the motion of wave packets. Finally, we show that in the semiclassical regime, the effective mass of the equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled system can be viewed as a direct effect of the phase-space Berry curvature.
Zihlmann, Simon; Cummings, Aron W.; Garcia, Jose H.; Kedves, Máté; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Schönenberger, Christian; Makk, Péter
2018-02-01
Large spin-orbital proximity effects have been predicted in graphene interfaced with a transition-metal dichalcogenide layer. Whereas clear evidence for an enhanced spin-orbit coupling has been found at large carrier densities, the type of spin-orbit coupling and its relaxation mechanism remained unknown. We show an increased spin-orbit coupling close to the charge neutrality point in graphene, where topological states are expected to appear. Single-layer graphene encapsulated between the transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2 and h -BN is found to exhibit exceptional quality with mobilities as high as 1 ×105 cm2 V-1 s-1. At the same time clear weak antilocalization indicates strong spin-orbit coupling, and a large spin relaxation anisotropy due to the presence of a dominating symmetric spin-orbit coupling is found. Doping-dependent measurements show that the spin relaxation of the in-plane spins is largely dominated by a valley-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling and that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling plays a minor role in spin relaxation. The strong spin-valley coupling opens new possibilities in exploring spin and valley degree of freedom in graphene with the realization of new concepts in spin manipulation.
Spin-flip and spin orbit interactions in heavy ion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bybell, D.P.
1983-01-01
The role of spin orbit forces in heavy ion reactions is not completely understood. Experimental data is scarce for these systems but the data that does exist indicates a stronger spin orbit force than predicted by the folding models. The spin-flip probability of non-spin zero projectiles is one technique used for these measurements and is often taken as a direct indicator of a spin orbit interaction. This work measures the projectile spin-flip probability for three inelastic reactions; 13 C + 24 Mg, E/sub cm/ = 22.7 MeV; 13 C + 12 C, E/sub cm/ = 17.3 MeV; and 6 Li + 12 C, E/sub cm/ = 15.2 MeV, all leading to the first J/sup π/ = 2 + state of the target. The technique of particle-γ angular correlations was used for measuring the final state density matrix elements, of which the absolute value M = 1 magnetic substate population is equivalent to the spin-flip probability. The method was explored in detail and found to be sensitive to spin-flip probabilities smaller than 1%. The technique was also found to be a good indicator of the reaction mechanism involved. Nonzero and occasionally large spin-flip probabilities were observed in all systems, much larger than the folding model predictions. Information was obtained on the non-spin-flip density matrix elements. In the 13 C + 24 Mg reaction, these were found to agree with calculations when the finite size of the particle detector is included
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-06-19
In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the ﬁeld of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin ﬁltering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai
2010-01-01
In the case of exact spin symmetry, we approximately solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials by using a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term, and obtain the corresponding energy equation and spinor wave functions for the bound states. We find that there exist only positive-energy bound states in the case of spin symmetry. Also, the energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. The special case for equally scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials is studied briefly.
Spin-orbit qubit in a semiconductor nanowire.
Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P
2010-12-23
Motion of electrons can influence their spins through a fundamental effect called spin-orbit interaction. This interaction provides a way to control spins electrically and thus lies at the foundation of spintronics. Even at the level of single electrons, the spin-orbit interaction has proven promising for coherent spin rotations. Here we implement a spin-orbit quantum bit (qubit) in an indium arsenide nanowire, where the spin-orbit interaction is so strong that spin and motion can no longer be separated. In this regime, we realize fast qubit rotations and universal single-qubit control using only electric fields; the qubits are hosted in single-electron quantum dots that are individually addressable. We enhance coherence by dynamically decoupling the qubits from the environment. Nanowires offer various advantages for quantum computing: they can serve as one-dimensional templates for scalable qubit registers, and it is possible to vary the material even during wire growth. Such flexibility can be used to design wires with suppressed decoherence and to push semiconductor qubit fidelities towards error correction levels. Furthermore, electrical dots can be integrated with optical dots in p-n junction nanowires. The coherence times achieved here are sufficient for the conversion of an electronic qubit into a photon, which can serve as a flying qubit for long-distance quantum communication.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sen Zhou
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Analogs of the high-T_{c} cuprates have been long sought after in transition metal oxides. Because of the strong spin-orbit coupling, the 5d perovskite iridates Sr_{2}IrO_{4} exhibit a low-energy electronic structure remarkably similar to the cuprates. Whether a superconducting state exists as in the cuprates requires understanding the correlated spin-orbit entangled electronic states. Recent experiments discovered hidden order in the parent and electron-doped iridates, some with striking analogies to the cuprates, including Fermi surface pockets, Fermi arcs, and pseudogap. Here, we study the correlation and disorder effects in a five-orbital model derived from the band theory. We find that the experimental observations are consistent with a d-wave spin-orbit density wave order that breaks the symmetry of a joint twofold spin-orbital rotation followed by a lattice translation. There is a Berry phase and a plaquette spin flux due to spin procession as electrons hop between Ir atoms, akin to the intersite spin-orbit coupling in quantum spin Hall insulators. The associated staggered circulating J_{eff}=1/2 spin current can be probed by advanced techniques of spin-current detection in spintronics. This electronic order can emerge spontaneously from the intersite Coulomb interactions between the spatially extended iridium 5d orbitals, turning the metallic state into an electron-doped quasi-2D Dirac semimetal with important implications on the possible superconducting state suggested by recent experiments.
Yang, Shi-Peng; Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Tang, Qiang; Zhou, Yong-Long
2017-04-01
A theoretical study has been carried out on the spin-dependent electron transport in a hybrid magnetic-electric barrier nanostructure with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic strip and a Schottky metal strip on top of a semiconductor heterostructure. The spin-orbit coupling-dependent transmission coefficient, conductance, and spin polarization are calculated by solving the Schrödinger equation exactly with the help of the transfer-matrix method. We find that both the magnitude and sign of the electron spin polarization vary strongly with the spin-orbit coupling strength. Thus, the degree of electron spin polarization can be manipulated by properly adjusting the spin-orbit coupling strength, and such a nanosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics applications.
Effect of spin-orbit scattering on transport properties of low-dimensional dilute alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heers, Swantje
2011-09-21
bulk in the first part of the thesis. In the third part, we investigate spin-orbit induced effects on thin (001) and (111) copper and gold films with focus on spin-relaxation mechanisms. We consider both symmetric and asymmetric systems, where the asymmetry of the latter ones is created by covering one side of the film with one layer of Zn. For the symmetric films, spin-mixing parameters and momentum- and spin-relaxation times due to scattering at self-adatoms are calculated. Whereas the largest spin-mixing in (111) films has been obtained for the surface states, on the Fermi surfaces of the (001) films spin hot spots occur, which are caused by anticrossings of bands and lead to locally very high spin mixing. In the asymmetric films, the situation is qualitatively different, as the spin-orbit coupling results in a splitting of all bands and the formation of local effective magnetic fields, the so-called spin-orbit fields. The precession of the electron spin around these axes together with momentum scattering, resulting in a change of the precession axis after each scattering event, is known to lead to spin dephasing. Spin-orbit fields for (001) and (111) copper and gold films are presented. Large fields have been obtained for both surface orientations especially for bulk-like states at the outer boundaries of the Brillouin zone. Furthermore, for the (111) surface states, we find a Rashba-splitting which agrees with experiment and previous calculations. (orig.)
Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory
Wang, Kang L.
Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.
Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling
Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.
We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.
Semiclassical treatment of transport and spin relaxation in spin-orbit coupled systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lueffe, Matthias Clemens
2012-02-10
The coupling of orbital motion and spin, as derived from the relativistic Dirac equation, plays an important role not only in the atomic spectra but as well in solid state physics. Spin-orbit interactions are fundamental for the young research field of semiconductor spintronics, which is inspired by the idea to use the electron's spin instead of its charge for fast and power saving information processing in the future. However, on the route towards a functional spin transistor there is still some groundwork to be done, e.g., concerning the detailed understanding of spin relaxation in semiconductors. The first part of the present thesis can be placed in this context. We have investigated the processes contributing to the relaxation of a particularly long-lived spin-density wave, which can exist in semiconductor heterostructures with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling of precisely the same magnitude. We have used a semiclassical spindiffusion equation to study the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the lifetime of this persistent spin helix. We have thus established that, in the presence of perturbations that violate the special symmetry of the problem, electron-electron scattering can have an impact on the relaxation of the spin helix. The resulting temperature-dependent lifetime reproduces the experimentally observed one in a satisfactory manner. It turns out that cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is the most important symmetry-breaking element. The Coulomb interaction affects the dynamics of the persistent spin helix also via an Hartree-Fock exchange field. As a consequence, the individual spins precess about the vector of the surrounding local spin density, thus causing a nonlinear dynamics. We have shown that, for an experimentally accessible degree of initial spin polarization, characteristic non-linear effects such as a dramatic increase of lifetime and the appearance of higher harmonics can be expected. Another fascinating solid
Fermi Surface of Sr_{2}RuO_{4}: Spin-Orbit and Anisotropic Coulomb Interaction Effects.
Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Pavarini, Eva
2016-03-11
The topology of the Fermi surface of Sr_{2}RuO_{4} is well described by local-density approximation calculations with spin-orbit interaction, but the relative size of its different sheets is not. By accounting for many-body effects via dynamical mean-field theory, we show that the standard isotropic Coulomb interaction alone worsens or does not correct this discrepancy. In order to reproduce experiments, it is essential to account for the Coulomb anisotropy. The latter is small but has strong effects; it competes with the Coulomb-enhanced spin-orbit coupling and the isotropic Coulomb term in determining the Fermi surface shape. Its effects are likely sizable in other correlated multiorbital systems. In addition, we find that the low-energy self-energy matrix-responsible for the reshaping of the Fermi surface-sizably differs from the static Hartree-Fock limit. Finally, we find a strong spin-orbital entanglement; this supports the view that the conventional description of Cooper pairs via factorized spin and orbital part might not apply to Sr_{2}RuO_{4}.
Spin-orbit beams for optical chirality measurement
Samlan, C. T.; Suna, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2018-01-01
Accurate measurement of chirality is essential for the advancement of natural and pharmaceutical sciences. We report here a method to measure chirality using non-separable states of light with geometric phase-gradient in the circular polarization basis, which we refer to as spin-orbit beams. A modified polarization Sagnac interferometer is used to generate spin-orbit beams wherein the spin and orbital angular momentum of the input Gaussian beam are coupled. The out-of-phase interference between counter-propagating Gaussian beams with orthogonal spin states and lateral-shear or/and linear-phase difference between them results in spin-orbit beams with linear and azimuthal phase gradient. The spin-orbit beams interact efficiently with the chiral medium, inducing a measurable change in the center-of-mass of the beam, using the polarization rotation angle and hence the chirality of the medium are accurately calculated. Tunable dynamic range of measurement and flexibility to introduce large values of orbital angular momentum for the spin-orbit beam, to improve the measurement sensitivity, highlight the techniques' versatility.
Spin tune dependence on closed orbit in RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ptitsyn, V.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.
2010-01-01
Polarized proton beams are accelerated in RHIC to 250 GeV energy with the help of Siberian Snakes. The pair of Siberian Snakes in each RHIC ring holds the design spin tune at 1/2 to avoid polarization loss during acceleration. However, in the presence of closed orbit errors, the actual spin tune can be shifted away from the exact 1/2 value. It leads to a corresponding shift of locations of higher-order ('snake') resonances and limits the available betatron tune space. The largest closed orbit effect on the spin tune comes from the horizontal orbit angle between the two snakes. During RHIC Run in 2009 dedicated measurements with polarized proton beams were taken to verify the dependence of the spin tune on the local orbits at the Snakes. The experimental results are presented along with the comparison with analytical predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levi, Michele [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan, E-mail: michele.levi@upmc.fr, E-mail: jan.steinhoff@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2016-01-01
We implement the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme at the next-to-next-to-leading order level to derive the gravitational spin-orbit interaction potential at the third and a half post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. From the next-to-next-to-leading order interaction potential, which we obtain here in a Lagrangian form for the first time, we derive straightforwardly the corresponding Hamiltonian. The spin-orbit sector constitutes the most elaborate spin dependent sector at each order, and accordingly we encounter a proliferation of the relevant Feynman diagrams, and a significant increase of the computational complexity. We present in detail the evaluation of the interaction potential, going over all contributing Feynman diagrams. The computation is carried out in terms of the ''nonrelativistic gravitational'' fields, which are advantageous also in spin dependent sectors, together with the various gauge choices included in the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects, which also optimize the calculation. In addition, we automatize the effective field theory computations, and carry out the automated computations in parallel. Such automated effective field theory computations would be most useful to obtain higher order post-Newtonian corrections. We compare our Hamiltonian to the ADM Hamiltonian, and arrive at a complete agreement between the ADM and effective field theory results. Finally, we provide Hamiltonians in the center of mass frame, and complete gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to third and a half post-Newtonian order. The derivation presented here is essential to obtain further higher order post-Newtonian corrections, and to reach the accuracy level required for the successful detection of gravitational radiation.
Spin Relaxation and Manipulation in Spin-orbit Qubits
Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong
2012-02-01
We derive a generalized form of the Electric Dipole Spin Resonance (EDSR) Hamiltonian in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction for single spins in an elliptic quantum dot (QD) subject to an arbitrary (in both direction and magnitude) applied magnetic field. We predict a nonlinear behavior of the Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, and present a microscopic expression for the anisotropic electron g-tensor. Similarly, an EDSR Hamiltonian is devised for two spins confined in a double quantum dot (DQD). Finally, we calculate two-electron-spin relaxation rates due to phonon emission, for both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic fields. Our results have immediate applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined carriers, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits.
Wu, Yang; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-10-01
The efficient generation of pure spin currents and manipulation of the magnetization dynamics of magnetic structures is of central importance in the field of spintronics. The spin-orbit effect is one of the promising ways to generate spin currents, in which a charge current can be converted to a transverse spin current due to the spin-orbit interaction. We investigate the spin dynamics in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling materials such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide heterostructures. Angle dependent magnetoresistance measurements are employed to detect and understand the current-induced spin-orbit torques, and an effective field of 2.35 T is observed for a dc-current of 200 uA. In order to understand the interaction between light and spin currents, we use a femtosecond laser to excite an ultrafast transient spin current and subsequent terahertz (THz) emission in nonmagnet (NM)/ferromagnet (FM)/oxide heterostructures. The THz emission strongly relies on spin-orbit interaction, and is tailored by the magnitude and sign of the effective spin Hall angle of the NM. Our results can be utilized for ultrafast spintronic devices and tunable THz sources.
Strong electron correlation in photoionization of spin-orbit doublets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Manson, S.T.; Msezane, A.M.; Radojevic, V.
2002-01-01
A new and explicitly many-body aspect of the 'leveraging' of the spin-orbit interaction is demonstrated, spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, which can significantly alter the photoionization cross section of a spin-orbit doublet. As an example, it is demonstrated via a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange, that a recently observed unexplained structure in the Xe 3d 5/2 photoionization cross section [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2000)] is entirely due to this effect. Similar features are predicted for Cs 3d 5/2 and Ba 3d 5/2
The Zeeman-split superconductivity with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Zhao, Jingxiang; Yan, Xu; Gu, Qiang
2017-10-01
The superconductivity with Rashba and Dressehlaus spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman effect is investigated. The energy gaps of quasi-particles are carefully calculated. It is shown that the coexistence of two spin-orbit coupling might suppress superconductivity. Moreover, the Zeeman effect favors spin-triplet Cooper pairs.
Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao, Ya-Fei
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices
Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hao, Ya-Fei, E-mail: haoyafei@zjnu.cn [Physics Department, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 321004 (China)
2015-01-07
In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices.
Implanting Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling at Magnetoelectric Interfaces
2017-12-19
drawback is that including both spin and orbital is computationally more expensive than the conventional method and consume significantly longer time...superlattices in Fig. 6. Right: The remnant magnetization anisotropy between the in- plane and out-of- plane directions for the 1/1-SL, which is...canted antiferromagnet. The out-of- plane canting of the spin-orbit moments is significantly enhanced (Fig. 10) compared with the nonpolar structure
Spin manipulation and relaxation in spin-orbit qubits
Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong
2012-03-01
We derive a generalized form of the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) Hamiltonian in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction for single spins in an elliptic quantum dot (QD) subject to an arbitrary (in both direction and magnitude) applied magnetic field. We predict a nonlinear behavior of the Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, and present a microscopic expression for the anisotropic electron g tensor. Similarly, an EDSR Hamiltonian is devised for two spins confined in a double quantum dot (DQD), where coherent Rabi oscillations between the singlet and triplet states are induced by jittering the inter-dot distance at the resonance frequency. Finally, we calculate two-electron-spin relaxation rates due to phonon emission, for both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic fields. Our results have immediate applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined carriers, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits.
Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z
2016-08-01
Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule's surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.
Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi
2018-05-01
We investigate a two-orbital Hubbard model on a honeycomb structure, with a special focus on the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC) induced by symmetry breaking in the electronic degrees of freedom. By investigating the ground-state phase diagram by the mean-field approximation in addition to the analysis in the strong correlation limit, we obtain a variety of symmetry-broken phases that induce different types of effective ASOCs by breaking of spatial inversion symmetry. We find several unusual properties emergent from the ASOCs, such as a linear magnetoelectric effect in a spin-orbital ordered phase at 1/4 filling and a spin splitting in the band structure in charge ordered phases at 1/4 and 1/2 fillings. We also show that a staggered potential on the honeycomb structure leads to another type of ASOC, which gives rise to a valley splitting in the band structure at 1/2 filling. We discuss the experimental relevance of our results to candidate materials including transition metal dichalcogenides and trichalcogenides.
Orbital selective spin-texture in a topological insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Bahadur, E-mail: bahadursingh24@gmail.com; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)
2015-05-15
Three-dimensional topological insulators support a metallic non-trivial surface state with unique spin texture, where spin and momentum are locked perpendicular to each other. In this work, we investigate the orbital selective spin-texture associated with the topological surface states in Sb2Te{sub 3}, using the first principles calculations. Sb2Te{sub 3} is a strong topological insulator with a p-p type bulk band inversion at the Γ-point and supports a single topological metallic surface state with upper (lower) Dirac-cone has left (right) handed spin-texture. Here, we show that the topological surface state has an additional locking between the spin and orbitals, leading to an orbital selective spin-texture. The out-of-plane orbitals (p{sub z} orbitals) have an isotropic orbital texture for both the Dirac cones with an associated left and right handed spin-texture for the upper and lower Dirac cones, respectively. In contrast, the in-planar orbital texture (p{sub x} and p{sub y} projections) is tangential for the upper Dirac-cone and is radial for the lower Dirac-cone surface state. The dominant in-planar orbital texture in both the Dirac cones lead to a right handed orbital-selective spin-texture.
Double perovskites with strong spin-orbit coupling
Cook, Ashley M.
account for the neutron data as well as the measured frustration parameters of these materials, while the uniaxial Ising anisotropy does not. Our findings highlight how even seemingly conventional magnetic orders in oxide materials containing heavy transition metal ions may be driven by highly-directional exchange interactions rooted in strong spin-orbit coupling. Motivated by experiments on the double perovskites La2ZnIrO 6 and La2MgIrO6, we lastly study the magnetism of spin-orbit coupled jeff =1/2 iridium moments on the three-dimensional, geometrically frustrated, facecentered cubic lattice. The symmetry-allowed nearest-neighbor interaction includes Heisenberg, Kitaev, and symmetric off-diagonal exchange. A Luttinger-Tisza analysis shows a rich variety of orders, including collinear AII type antiferromagnetism, stripe order with moments along the {111}-direction, and incommensurate non-coplanar spirals, and we use Monte Carlo simulations to determine their magnetic ordering temperatures.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-29
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, I. M.; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Zelezný , J.; Thiaville, A.; Garello, K.; Gambardella, P.
2018-01-01
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Chen, Peng; Wang, Ning; Li, Song; Chen, Shan-Jun
2017-11-01
Highly correlated ab initio calculations have been performed for an accurate determination of electronic structures and spectroscopic features for the low-lying electronic states of the MgS+ cation. The potential energy curves for the four Λ-S states correlating to the lowest dissociation asymptote are studied for the first time. Four Λ-S states split into nine Ω states through the spin-orbit coupling effect. Accurate spectroscopic constants are deduced for all bound states. The spin-orbit couplings and the transition dipole moments, as well as the PECs, are utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels. To verify our computational accuracy, analogous calculations for the ground state of MgS are also carried out, and our derived results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. In addition, photoelectron spectrum of MgS has been simulated. The predictive results are anticipated to serve as guidelines for further researches such as assisting laboratorial detections and analyzing observed spectrum.
Mokhtari, P.; Rezaei, G.; Zamani, A.
2017-06-01
In this paper, electronic structure of a two dimensional elliptic quantum dot under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields are studied in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. This investigation is done computationally and to do this, at first, the effective Hamiltonian of the system by considering the spin-orbit coupling is demonstrated in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields and afterwards the Schrödinger equation is solved using the finite difference approach. Utilizing finite element method, eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system are calculated and the effect of the external fields, the size of the dot as well as the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction are studied. Our results indicate that, Spin-orbit interactions, external fields and the dot size have a great influence on the electronic structure of the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, L.; Faizabadi, E.
2014-01-01
The effect of magnetic contacts on spin-dependent electron transport and spin-accumulation in a quantum ring, which is threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. The quantum ring is made up of four quantum dots, where two of them possess magnetic structure and other ones are subjected to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic quantum dots, referred to as magnetic quantum contacts, are connected to two external leads. Two different configurations of magnetic moments of the quantum contacts are considered; the parallel and the anti-parallel ones. When the magnetic moments are parallel, the degeneracy between the transmission coefficients of spin-up and spin-down electrons is lifted and the system can be adjusted to operate as a spin-filter. In addition, the accumulation of spin-up and spin-down electrons in non-magnetic quantum dots are different in the case of parallel magnetic moments. When the intra-dot Coulomb interaction is taken into account, we find that the electron interactions participate in separation between the accumulations of electrons with different spin directions in non-magnetic quantum dots. Furthermore, the spin-accumulation in non-magnetic quantum dots can be tuned in the both parallel and anti-parallel magnetic moments by adjusting the Rashba spin-orbit strength and the magnetic flux. Thus, the quantum ring with magnetic quantum contacts could be utilized to create tunable local magnetic moments which can be used in designing optimized nanodevices.
Gate-dependent spin-orbit coupling in multielectron carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Thomas Sand; Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Paaske, Jens
2011-01-01
Understanding how the orbital motion of electrons is coupled to the spin degree of freedom in nanoscale systems is central for applications in spin-based electronics and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate such spin–orbit coupling in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot in the general multielectron...... graphene lattice. Our findings suggest that the spin–orbit coupling is a general property of carbon-nanotube quantum dots, which should provide a unique platform for the study of spin–orbit effects and their applications....
The impacts of the quantum-dot confining potential on the spin-orbit effect.
Li, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Hai; Wu, Yidong; Liu, C S
2018-05-09
For a nanowire quantum dot with the confining potential modeled by both the infinite and the finite square wells, we obtain exactly the energy spectrum and the wave functions in the strong spin-orbit coupling regime. We find that regardless of how small the well height is, there are at least two bound states in the finite square well: one has the σ x [Formula: see text] = -1 symmetry and the other has the σ x [Formula: see text] = 1 symmetry. When the well height is slowly tuned from large to small, the position of the maximal probability density of the first excited state moves from the center to x ≠ 0, while the position of the maximal probability density of the ground state is always at the center. A strong enhancement of the spin-orbit effect is demonstrated by tuning the well height. In particular, there exists a critical height [Formula: see text], at which the spin-orbit effect is enhanced to maximal.
Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2008-07-01
Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.
Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions
Scazza, F.; Hofrichter, C.; Höfer, M.; de Groot, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Fölling, S.
2014-10-01
Spin-exchanging interactions govern the properties of strongly correlated electron systems such as many magnetic materials. When orbital degrees of freedom are present, spin exchange between different orbitals often dominates, leading to the Kondo effect, heavy fermion behaviour or magnetic ordering. Ultracold ytterbium or alkaline-earth ensembles have attracted much recent interest as model systems for these effects, with two (meta-) stable electronic configurations representing independent orbitals. We report the observation of spin-exchanging contact interactions in a two-orbital SU(N)-symmetric quantum gas realized with fermionic 173Yb. We find strong inter-orbital spin exchange by spectroscopic characterization of all interaction channels and demonstrate SU(N = 6) symmetry within our measurement precision. The spin-exchange process is also directly observed through the dynamic equilibration of spin imbalances between ensembles in separate orbitals. The realization of an SU(N)-symmetric two-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian opens the route to quantum simulations with extended symmetries and with orbital magnetic interactions, such as the Kondo lattice model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.
2010-01-01
The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Berman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.
Lateral spin-orbit coupling and the Kondo effect in quantum dots
Vernek, Edson; Ngo, Anh; Ulloa, Sergio
2010-03-01
We present studies of the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes of transport of a quantum dot connected to current leads through spin-polarizing quantum point contacts (QPCs) [1]. This configuration, arising from the effect of lateral spin-orbit fields, results in spin-polarized currents even in the absence of external magnetic fields and greatly affects the correlations in the dot. Using an equation-of-motion technique and numerical renormalization group calculations we obtain the conductance and spin polarization for this system under different parameter regimes. Our results show that both the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes exhibit non-zero spin-polarized conductance. We analyze the role that the spin-dependent tunneling amplitudes of the QPC play in determining the charge and net magnetic moment in the dot. We find that the Kondo regime exhibits a strongly dependent Kondo temperature on the QPC polarizability. These effects, controllable by lateral gate voltages, may provide a new approach for exploring Kondo correlations, as well as possible spin devices. Supported by NSF DMR-MWN and PIRE. [1] P. Debray et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 759 (2009).
Srisongmuang, B.; Pasanai, K.
2018-04-01
We theoretically studied the effect of interfacial scattering on the transport of charge and spin across the junction of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling and ferromagnetic material junction, via the conductance (G) and the spin-polarization of the conductance spectra (P) using the scattering method. At the interface, not only were the effects of spin-conserving (Z0) and spin-flip scattering (Zf) considered, but also the interfacial Rashba spin-orbit coupling scattering (ZRSOC) , which was caused by the asymmetry of the interface, was taken into account, and all of them were modeled by the delta potential. It was found that G was suppressed with increasing Z0 , as expected. Interestingly, a particular value of Zf can cause G and P to reach a maximum value. In particular, ZRSOC plays a crucial role to reduce G and P in the metallic limit, but its influence on the tunneling limit was quite weak. On the other hand, the effect of ZRSOC was diminished in the tunneling limit of the magnetic junction.
Pumped double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sherman Eugene
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We study driven by an external electric field quantum orbital and spin dynamics of electron in a one-dimensional double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling. Two types of external perturbation are considered: a periodic field at the Zeeman frequency and a single half-period pulse. Spin-orbit coupling leads to a nontrivial evolution in the spin and orbital channels and to a strongly spin- dependent probability density distribution. Both the interdot tunneling and the driven motion contribute into the spin evolution. These results can be important for the design of the spin manipulation schemes in semiconductor nanostructures. PACS numbers: 73.63.Kv,72.25.Dc,72.25.Pn
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Doǧan, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien
2013-01-01
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang
2013-05-16
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Gali, Adam; Thiering, Gergő
Dopants in solids are promising candidates for implementations of quantum bits for quantum computing. In particular, the high-spin negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect (NV) in diamond has become a leading contender in solid-state quantum information processing. The initialization and readout of the spin is based on the spin-selective decay of the photo-excited electron to the ground state which is mediated by spin-orbit coupling between excited states states and phonons. Generally, the spin-orbit coupling plays a crucial role in the optical spinpolarization and readout of NV quantum bit (qubit) and alike. Strong electron-phonon coupling in dynamic Jahn-Teller (DJT) systems can substantially influence the effective strength of spin-orbit coupling. Here we show by ab initio supercell density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is strongly damped by DJT effect in the triplet excited state that has a consequence on the rate of non-radiative decay. This theory is applied to the ground state of silicon-vacancy (SiV) and germanium-vacancy (GeV) centers in their negatively charged state that can also act like qubits. We show that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in SiV and GeV centers is in the 100 GHz region, in contrast to the NV center of 10 GHz region. Our results provide deep insight in the nature of SiV and GeV qubits in diamond. EU FP7 DIADEMS project (Contract No. 611143).
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-01-01
ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, Leila; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi
2014-01-01
Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted
Energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaseghi, B.; Rezaei, G.; Malian, M.
2011-01-01
We have studied simultaneous effects of Rashba spin-orbit interaction and external electric and magnetic fields on the subbands energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots. It is shown that energy eigenvalues strongly depend on the combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields and spin-orbit interaction strength. The more the spin-orbit interaction strength increase, the more the energy eigenvalues increase. Also, we found that the electron g-factor sensitively differers from the bulk value due to the confinement effects. Furthermore, external fields and spin-orbit interaction have a great influence on this important quantity. -- Highlights: → Energy of spherical quantum dots depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields. → Spin-orbit interaction shifts the energy levels. → Electron g-factor differs from the bulk value in spherical quantum dots due to the confinement effects. → Electron g-factor strongly depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-01-01
We present a spin transistor design based on spin-orbital interactions in a two-dimensional electron gas, with magnetic barriers induced by a patterned ferromagnetic gate. The proposed device overcomes certain shortcomings of previous spin transistor designs such as long device length and degradation of conductance modulation for multi-channel transport. The robustness of our device for multi-channel transport is unique in spin transistor designs based on spin-orbit coupling. The device is more practical in fabrication and experimental respects compared to previously conceived single-mode spin transistors
Spin relaxation in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin-orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.
2010-01-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.
Spin-Orbit Coupling for Photons and Polaritons in Microstructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Sala
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.
Orbital and spin dynamics of intraband electrons in quantum rings driven by twisted light.
Quinteiro, G F; Tamborenea, P I; Berakdar, J
2011-12-19
We theoretically investigate the effect that twisted light has on the orbital and spin dynamics of electrons in quantum rings possessing sizable Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The system Hamiltonian for such a strongly inhomogeneous light field exhibits terms which induce both spin-conserving and spin-flip processes. We analyze the dynamics in terms of the perturbation introduced by a weak light field on the Rasha electronic states, and describe the effects that the orbital angular momentum as well as the inhomogeneous character of the beam have on the orbital and the spin dynamics.
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-10-31
In the search for low power operation of microelectronic devices, spin-based solutions have attracted undeniable increasing interest due to their intrinsic magnetic nonvolatility. The ability to electrically manipulate the magnetic order using spin-orbit interaction, associated with the recent emergence of topological spintronics with its promise of highly efficient charge-to-spin conversion in solid state, offer alluring opportunities in terms of system design. Although the related technology is still at its infancy, this thesis intends to contribute to this engaging field by investigating the nature of the charge and spin transport in spin-orbit coupled and topological systems using quantum transport methods. We identified three promising building blocks for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic state). Chapter 2 reviews the basics and essential concepts used throughout the thesis: the spin-orbit coupling, the mathematical notion of topology and its importance in condensed matter physics, then topological magnetism and a zest of magnonics. In Chapter 3, we study the spin-orbit torques at the magnetized interfaces of 3D topological insulators. We demonstrated that their peculiar form, compared to other spin-orbit torques, have important repercussions in terms of magnetization reversal, charge pumping and anisotropic damping. In Chapter 4, we showed that the interplay between magnon current jm and magnetization m in homogeneous ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, produces a field-like torque as well as a damping-like torque. These DM torques mediated by spin wave can tilt the imeaveraged magnetization direction and are similar to Rashba torques for electronic systems. Moreover, the DM torque is more efficient when magnons are
Nuclear spin-orbit splitting from an intermediate Δ excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, K.; Terasawa, T.; Tohyama, M.
1980-01-01
The strength of the single particle spin-orbit potential is calculated from the two pion exchange box diagrams involving an intermediate Δ(1232) resonance excitation by taking account of the exclusion principle for the intermediate nucleon states. The effect of the rho meson is also considered. The predicted strength is found to account for a substantial part of the empirical spin-orbit splittings
Field-free deterministic ultrafast creation of magnetic skyrmions by spin-orbit torques
Büttner, Felix; Lemesh, Ivan; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Geilhufe, Jan; Caretta, Lucas; Engel, Dieter; Krüger, Benjamin; Viefhaus, Jens; Eisebitt, Stefan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2017-11-01
Magnetic skyrmions are stabilized by a combination of external magnetic fields, stray field energies, higher-order exchange interactions and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The last favours homochiral skyrmions, whose motion is driven by spin-orbit torques and is deterministic, which makes systems with a large DMI relevant for applications. Asymmetric multilayers of non-magnetic heavy metals with strong spin-orbit interactions and transition-metal ferromagnetic layers provide a large and tunable DMI. Also, the non-magnetic heavy metal layer can inject a vertical spin current with transverse spin polarization into the ferromagnetic layer via the spin Hall effect. This leads to torques that can be used to switch the magnetization completely in out-of-plane magnetized ferromagnetic elements, but the switching is deterministic only in the presence of a symmetry-breaking in-plane field. Although spin-orbit torques led to domain nucleation in continuous films and to stochastic nucleation of skyrmions in magnetic tracks, no practical means to create individual skyrmions controllably in an integrated device design at a selected position has been reported yet. Here we demonstrate that sub-nanosecond spin-orbit torque pulses can generate single skyrmions at custom-defined positions in a magnetic racetrack deterministically using the same current path as used for the shifting operation. The effect of the DMI implies that no external in-plane magnetic fields are needed for this aim. This implementation exploits a defect, such as a constriction in the magnetic track, that can serve as a skyrmion generator. The concept is applicable to any track geometry, including three-dimensional designs.
Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoting; Liang, Guiying; Li, Rui; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-01-01
The potential energy curves (PECs) of the 22 Λ-S states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) molecule have been calculated at the level of MRCI+Q method with correlation-consistent quadruple-ζ quality basis set. The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined, which well reproduce the available measurements. The metastable a1Δ state has been reported for the first time, which lies between the X3Σ- and b1Σ+ states and have much deeper well than the ground state. The R-dependent spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements are calculated with the full-electron Breit-Pauli operator. Based on the SO matrix elements, the perturbations that the 23Π state may suffer from are analyzed in detail. The SOC effect makes the original Λ-S states split into 51 Ω states. In the zero-field splitting of the ground state X3Σ-, the spin-spin coupling contribution (2.23 cm-1) is found to be much smaller compared to the spin-orbit coupling contribution (50 cm-1). The avoided crossings between the Ω states lead to much shallower potential wells and the change of dissociation relationships of the states. The Ω-state wavefunctions are analyzed depending on their Λ-S compositions, showing the strong interactions among several quasidegenerate Λ-S states of the same total SO symmetry. The transition properties including electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), and electric quadrupole (E2) transition moments (TMs), the Franck-Condon factors, the transition probabilities and the radiative lifetimes are computed for the transitions between Ω components of a1Δ and b1Σ+ states and ground state. The transition probabilities induced by the E1, E2, and M1 transitions are evaluated. The E2 makes little effect on transition probabilities. In contrast, the E1 transition makes the main contribution to the transition probability and the M1 transition also brings the influence that cannot be neglected. Finally, the radiative lifetimes are determined with the transition moments including E
Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers
Cheng, Yingchun
2013-06-01
The Rashba effect in quasi two-dimensional materials, such as noble metal surfaces and semiconductor heterostructures, has been investigated extensively, while interest in real two-dimensional systems has just emerged with the discovery of graphene. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te). In contrast to the non-polar systems with X = Y, in the polar systems with X ≠ Y the Rashba splitting at the Γ-point for the uppermost valence band is caused by the broken mirror symmetry. An enhancement of the splitting can be achieved by increasing the spin-orbit coupling and/or the potential gradient. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.
Spin-orbit induced electronic spin separation in semiconductor nanostructures.
Kohda, Makoto; Nakamura, Shuji; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Taiki; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-01-01
The demonstration of quantized spin splitting by Stern and Gerlach is one of the most important experiments in modern physics. Their discovery was the precursor of recent developments in spin-based technologies. Although electrical spin separation of charged particles is fundamental in spintronics, in non-uniform magnetic fields it has been difficult to separate the spin states of charged particles due to the Lorentz force, as well as to the insufficient and uncontrollable field gradients. Here we demonstrate electronic spin separation in a semiconductor nanostructure. To avoid the Lorentz force, which is inevitably induced when an external magnetic field is applied, we utilized the effective non-uniform magnetic field which originates from the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in an InGaAs-based heterostructure. Using a Stern-Gerlach-inspired mechanism, together with a quantum point contact, we obtained field gradients of 10(8) T m(-1) resulting in a highly polarized spin current.
Spin conversion induced by spin-orbit interaction in positronium collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, H; Nakayama, T; Hyodo, T
2009-01-01
The positronium spin conversion reaction induced by spin-orbit interaction is investigated. We obtain the reaction rates during positronium-Xe and positronium-Kr collisions by using the Zeeman mixing of positronium states. At thermal energies corresponding to room temperature, the reaction rate for spin conversion due to spin-orbit interaction is found to be almost twice that for the positronium pick-off reaction. We also study the energy dependence of the reaction rate. The mean energy of positronium is controlled by changing the gas temperature and using positronium in thermal equilibrium. We found that the reaction rate increases with the collision energy.
Cruz, Elmer; López-Bastidas, Catalina; Maytorena, Jesús A.
2018-03-01
We investigate the effect of the oft-neglected cubic terms of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling on the longitudinal current response of a two-dimensional electron gas with both Rashba and linear Dresselhaus interactions. For a quantum well grown in the [001] direction, the changes caused by these nonlinear-in-momentum terms on the absorption spectrum become more notable under SU(2) symmetry conditions, when the Rashba and linear Dresselhaus coupling strengths are tuned to be equal. The longitudinal optical response no longer vanishes then and shows a strong dependence on the direction of the externally applied electric field, giving a signature of the relative size of several spin-orbit contributions. This anisotropic response arises from the nonisotropic splitting of the spin states induced by the interplay of Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. However, the presence of cubic terms introduces characteristic spectral features and can modify the overall shape of the spectra for some values of the relative sizes of the spin-orbit parameters. We compare this behavior to the case of a sample with [110] crystal orientation which, under conditions of spin-preserving symmetry, has a collinear spin-orbit vector field that leads to vanishing conductivity, even in the presence of cubic terms. In addition to the control through the driven frequency or electrical gating, such a directional aspect of the current response suggests new ways of manipulation and supports the use of interband optics as a sensitive probe of spin-orbit mechanisms in semiconductor spintronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soderlind, P
2008-01-01
The electronic structure of plutonium is studied within the density-functional theory (DFT) model. Key features of the electronic structure are correctly modeled and bonding, total energy, and electron density of states are all consistent with measure data, although the prediction of magnetism is not consistent with many observations. Here we analyze the contributions to the electronic structure arising from spin polarization, orbital polarization, and spin-orbit interaction. These effects give rise to spin and orbital moments that are of nearly equal magnitude, but anti-parallel, suggesting a magnetic-moment cancellation with a zero total moment. Quantifying the spin versus orbital effects on the bonding, total energy, and electron spectra it becomes clear that the spin polarization is much less important than the orbital correlations. Consequently, a restricted DFT approach with a non-spin polarized electronic structure can produce reasonable equation-of-state and electron spectra for (delta)-Pu when the orbital effects are accounted for. Hence, we present two non-magnetic models. One in which the spin moment is canceled by the orbital moment and another in which the spin moment (and therefore the orbital moment) is restricted to zero
Quantum ring with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the regime of strong light-matter coupling
Kozin, V. K.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.
2018-04-01
We developed the theory of electronic properties of semiconductor quantum rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction irradiated by an off-resonant high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field). Within the Floquet theory of periodically driven quantum systems, it is demonstrated that the dressing field drastically modifies all electronic characteristics of the rings, including spin-orbit coupling, effective electron mass, and optical response. In particular, the present effect paves the way to controlling the spin polarization of electrons with light in prospective ring-shaped spintronic devices.
Magneto-Spin-Orbit Graphene: Interplay between Exchange and Spin-Orbit Couplings.
Rybkin, Artem G; Rybkina, Anna A; Otrokov, Mikhail M; Vilkov, Oleg Yu; Klimovskikh, Ilya I; Petukhov, Anatoly E; Filianina, Maria V; Voroshnin, Vladimir Yu; Rusinov, Igor P; Ernst, Arthur; Arnau, Andrés; Chulkov, Evgueni V; Shikin, Alexander M
2018-03-14
A rich class of spintronics-relevant phenomena require implementation of robust magnetism and/or strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to graphene, but both properties are completely alien to it. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate that a quasi-freestanding character, strong exchange splitting and giant SOC are perfectly achievable in graphene at once. Using angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the Dirac state in the Au-intercalated graphene on Co(0001) experiences giant splitting (up to 0.2 eV) while being by no means distorted due to interaction with the substrate. Our calculations, based on the density functional theory, reveal the splitting to stem from the combined action of the Co thin film in-plane exchange field and Au-induced Rashba SOC. Scanning tunneling microscopy data suggest that the peculiar reconstruction of the Au/Co(0001) interface is responsible for the exchange field transfer to graphene. The realization of this "magneto-spin-orbit" version of graphene opens new frontiers for both applied and fundamental studies using its unusual electronic bandstructure.
Magnetoconductance correction in zinc-blende semiconductor nanowires with spin-orbit coupling
Kammermeier, Michael; Wenk, Paul; Schliemann, John; Heedt, Sebastian; Gerster, Thomas; Schäpers, Thomas
2017-12-01
We study the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the magnetoconductivity in diffusive cylindrical semiconductor nanowires. Following up on our former study on tubular semiconductor nanowires, we focus in this paper on nanowire systems where no surface accumulation layer is formed but instead the electron wave function extends over the entire cross section. We take into account the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling resulting from a zinc-blende lattice and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is controlled by a lateral gate electrode. The spin relaxation rate due to Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is found to depend neither on the spin density component nor on the wire growth direction and is unaffected by the radial boundary. In contrast, the Rashba spin relaxation rate is strongly reduced for a wire radius that is smaller than the spin precession length. The derived model is fitted to the data of magnetoconductance measurements of a heavily doped back-gated InAs nanowire and transport parameters are extracted. At last, we compare our results to previous theoretical and experimental studies and discuss the occurring discrepancies.
Anisotropic optical absorption induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling in monolayer phosphorene
Li, Yuan; Li, Xin; Wan, Qi; Bai, R.; Wen, Z. C.
2018-04-01
We obtain the effective Hamiltonian of the phosphorene including the effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the frame work of the low-energy theory. The spin-splitting energy bands show an anisotropy feature for the wave vectors along kx and ky directions, where kx orients to ΓX direction in the k space. We numerically study the optical absorption of the electrons for different wave vectors with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-flip transition from the valence band to the conduction band induced by the circular polarized light closes to zero with increasing the x-component wave vector when ky equals to zero, while it can be significantly increased to a large value when ky gets a small value. When the wave vector varies along the ky direction, the spin-flip transition can also increase to a large value, however, which shows an anisotropy feature for the optical absorption. Especially, the spin-conserved transitions keep unchanged and have similar varying trends for different wave vectors. This phenomenon provides a novel route for the manipulation of the spin-dependent property of the fermions in the monolayer phosphorene.
Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diniz, Ginetom S.; Ulloa, Sergio E.
2014-01-01
We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.
Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Ulloa, Sergio E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States)
2014-07-14
We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.
Effective stability around the Cassini state in the spin-orbit problem
Sansottera, Marco; Lhotka, Christoph; Lemaître, Anne
2014-05-01
We investigate the long-time stability in the neighborhood of the Cassini state in the conservative spin-orbit problem. Starting with an expansion of the Hamiltonian in the canonical Andoyer-Delaunay variables, we construct a high-order Birkhoff normal form and give an estimate of the effective stability time in the Nekhoroshev sense. By extensively using algebraic manipulations on a computer, we explicitly apply our method to the rotation of Titan. We obtain physical bounds of Titan's latitudinal and longitudinal librations, finding a stability time greatly exceeding the estimated age of the Universe. In addition, we study the dependence of the effective stability time on three relevant physical parameters: the orbital inclination, , the mean precession of the ascending node of Titan orbit, , and the polar moment of inertia,.
Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun; Mann, Maxwell; Beach, Geoffrey S. D., E-mail: gbeach@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-06-06
We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead to spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.
Mesoscopic rings with spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berche, Bertrand; Chatelain, Christophe; Medina, Ernesto, E-mail: berche@lpm.u-nancy.f [Statistical Physics Group, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS No 7198, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)
2010-09-15
A didactic description of charge and spin equilibrium currents on mesoscopic rings in the presence of spin-orbit interaction is presented. Emphasis is made on the non-trivial construction of the correct Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the symmetries of the ground-state properties. Spin currents are derived following an intuitive definition, and then a more thorough derivation is built upon the canonical Lagrangian formulation that emphasizes the SU(2) gauge structure of the transport problem of spin-1/2 fermions in spin-orbit active media. The quantization conditions that follow from the constraint of single-valued Pauli spinors are also discussed. The targeted students are those of a graduate condensed matter physics course.
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-01-01
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling.
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-03-19
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons.
Topological phases in superconductor-noncollinear magnet interfaces with strong spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menke, H.; Schnyder, A.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Toews, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2016-07-01
Majorana fermions are predicted to emerge at interfaces between conventional s-wave superconductors and non-collinear magnets. In these heterostructures, the spin moments of the non-collinear magnet induce a low-energy band of Shiba bound states in the superconductor. Depending on the type of order of the magnet, the band structure of these bound states can be topologically nontrivial. Thus far, research has focused on systems where the influence of spin-orbit coupling can be neglected. Here, we explore the interplay between non-collinear (or non-coplanar) spin textures and Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. This situation is realized, for example, in heterostructures between helical magnets and heavy elemental superconductors, such as Pb. Using a unitary transformation in spin space, we show that the effects of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling are equivalent to the effects of the non-collinear spin texture of the helical magnet. We explore the topological phase diagram as a function of spin-orbit coupling, spin texture, and chemical potential, and find many interesting topological phases, such as p{sub x}-, (p{sub x} + p{sub y})-, and (p{sub x} + i p{sub y})-wave states. Conditions for the formation and the nature of Majorana edge channels are examined. Furthermore, we study the topological edge currents of these phases.
Spin-orbit interaction driven dimerization in one dimensional frustrated magnets
Zhang, Shang-Shun; Batista, Cristian D.
Spin nematic ordering has been proposed to emerge near the saturation of field of a class of frustrated magnets. The experimental observation of this novel phase is challenging for the traditional experimental probes. Nematic spin ordering is expected to induce a local quadrupolar electric moment via the spin-orbit coupling. However, a finite spin-orbit interaction explicitly breaks the U(1) symmetry of global spin rotations down to Z2, which renders the traditional nematic order no longer well-defined. In this work we investigate the relevant effect of spin-orbit interaction on the 1D frustrated J1 -J2 model. The real and the imaginary parts of the nematic order parameter belong to different representations of the discrete symmetry group of the new Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling stabilizes the real component and simultaneously induces bond dimerization in most of the phase diagram. Such a bond dimerization can be observed with X-rays or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition, an incommensurate bond-density wave (ICBDW) appears for smaller values of J2 / |J1 | . The experimental fingerprint of the ICBDW is a double-horn shape of the the NMR line. These conclusions can shed light on the experimental search of this novel phase.
The nucleon-nucleon spin-orbit interaction in the Skyrme model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riska, D.O.; Dannbom, K.
1987-01-01
The spin-orbit and quadratic spin-orbit components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are derived in the Skyrme model at the classical level. These interaction components arise from the orbital and rotational motion of the soliton fields that form the nucleons. The isospin dependent part of the spin-orbit interaction is similar to the corresponding component obtained from boson exchange mechanisms at long distances although at short distances it is weaker. The isospin independent spin-orbit component is however different from the prediction of boson exchange mechanisms and has the opposite sign. The quadratic spin-orbit interaction is weak and has only an isospin dependent component
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molavi, Mohamad, E-mail: Mo_molavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizabadi, Edris, E-mail: Edris@iust.ac.ir [School of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-15
By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter. - Highlights: • The effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots. • In the situation that the QDs have non-zero on-site energies, the system can demonstrate the full spin-polarization. • By tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength and magnetic flux encountered by the ring the system operates as a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.
Proximity effect in semiconductor films with spin-splitting and spin-orbit interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michelsen, Jens; Grein, Roland [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2012-07-01
Superconducting heterostructures with spin-active materials have emerged as promising platforms for engineering topological superconductors featuring Majorana bound states at surfaces, edges and vortices. Here we present a method for evaluating, from a microscopic model, the band structure of a semiconductor film of finite thickness deposited on top of a conventional superconductor. Analytical expressions for the proximity induced gap openings are presented in terms of microscopic parameters and the proximity effect in presence of spin-orbit and exchange splitting is visualized in terms of Andreev reflection processes. An expression for the topological invariant, associated with the existence of Majorana bound states, is shown to depend only on parameters of the semiconductor film. The finite thickness of the film leads to resonant states in the film giving rise to a complex band structure with the topological phase alternating between trivial and non-trivial as the parameters are tuned of the film are tuned.
Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C
2008-01-01
Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure in their...... systems, entailing new design principles for the realization of quantum bits (qubits) in nanotubes and providing a mechanism for all-electrical control of spins in nanotubes....
Innermost stable circular orbit of spinning particle in charged spinning black hole background
Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Guo, Wen-Di; Sui, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2018-04-01
In this paper we investigate the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) (spin-aligned or anti-aligned orbit) for a classical spinning test particle with the pole-dipole approximation in the background of Kerr-Newman black hole in the equatorial plane. It is shown that the orbit of the spinning particle is related to the spin of the test particle. The motion of the spinning test particle will be superluminal if its spin is too large. We give an additional condition by considering the superluminal constraint for the ISCO in the black hole backgrounds. We obtain numerically the relations between the ISCO and the properties of the black holes and the test particle. It is found that the radius of the ISCO for a spinning test particle is smaller than that of a nonspinning test particle in the black hole backgrounds.
Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2016-02-15
We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Rashba, E I
2009-01-01
Spin- and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a basic experimental tool for unveiling spin polarization of electron eigenstates in crystals. We prove, by using spin-orbit coupled graphene as a model, that photoconversion of a quasiparticle inside a crystal into a photoelectron can...... be accompanied with a dramatic change in its spin polarization, up to a total spin flip. This phenomenon is typical of quasiparticles residing away from the Brillouin-zone center and described by higher rank spinors and results in exotic patterns in the angular distribution of photoelectrons....
Spin-orbit coupling effects, interactions and superconducting transport in nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Andreas
2010-05-15
In the present thesis we study the electronic properties of several low dimensional nanoscale systems. In the first part, we focus on the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOI) and Coulomb interaction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as quantum wires. We derive low energy theories for both systems, using the bosonization technique and obtain analytic expressions for the correlation functions that allow us to compute basically all observables of interest. We first focus on CNTs and show that a four channel Luttinger liquid theory can still be applied when SOI effects are taken into account. Compared to previous formulations, the low-energy Hamiltonian is characterized by different Luttinger parameters and plasmon velocities. Notably, the charge and spin modes are coupled. Our theory allows us to compute an asymptotically exact expression for the spectral function of a metallic carbon nanotube. We find modifications to the previously predicted structure of the spectral function that can in principle be tested by photoemission spectroscopy experiments. We develop a very similar low energy description for an interacting quantum wire subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We derive a two component Luttinger liquid Hamiltonian in the presence of RSOC, taking into account all e-e interaction processes allowed by the conservation of total momentum. The effective low energy Hamiltonian includes an additional perturbation due to intraband backscattering processes with band flip. Within a one-loop RG scheme, this perturbation is marginally irrelevant. The fixed point model is then still a two channel Luttinger liquid, albeit with a non standard form due to SOI. Again, the charge and spin mode are coupled. Using our low energy theory, we address the problem of the RKKY interaction in an interacting Rashba wire. The coupling of spin and charge modes due to SO effects implies several modifications, e.g. the explicit dependence of the power-law decay exponent of
Spin-orbit coupling effects, interactions and superconducting transport in nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, Andreas
2010-05-01
In the present thesis we study the electronic properties of several low dimensional nanoscale systems. In the first part, we focus on the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOI) and Coulomb interaction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as quantum wires. We derive low energy theories for both systems, using the bosonization technique and obtain analytic expressions for the correlation functions that allow us to compute basically all observables of interest. We first focus on CNTs and show that a four channel Luttinger liquid theory can still be applied when SOI effects are taken into account. Compared to previous formulations, the low-energy Hamiltonian is characterized by different Luttinger parameters and plasmon velocities. Notably, the charge and spin modes are coupled. Our theory allows us to compute an asymptotically exact expression for the spectral function of a metallic carbon nanotube. We find modifications to the previously predicted structure of the spectral function that can in principle be tested by photoemission spectroscopy experiments. We develop a very similar low energy description for an interacting quantum wire subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We derive a two component Luttinger liquid Hamiltonian in the presence of RSOC, taking into account all e-e interaction processes allowed by the conservation of total momentum. The effective low energy Hamiltonian includes an additional perturbation due to intraband backscattering processes with band flip. Within a one-loop RG scheme, this perturbation is marginally irrelevant. The fixed point model is then still a two channel Luttinger liquid, albeit with a non standard form due to SOI. Again, the charge and spin mode are coupled. Using our low energy theory, we address the problem of the RKKY interaction in an interacting Rashba wire. The coupling of spin and charge modes due to SO effects implies several modifications, e.g. the explicit dependence of the power-law decay exponent of
Proton spin tracking with symplectic integration of orbit motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
Symplectic integration had been adopted for orbital motion tracking in code SimTrack. SimTrack has been extensively used for dynamic aperture calculation with beam-beam interaction for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Recently proton spin tracking has been implemented on top of symplectic orbital motion in this code. In this article, we will explain the implementation of spin motion based on Thomas-BMT equation, and the benchmarking with other spin tracking codes currently used for RHIC. Examples to calculate spin closed orbit and spin tunes are presented too.
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
2016-11-03
21. "Many-body physics of spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases ," Invited talk at the March Meeting 2014 in Denver, Colorado (March, 2014) 22... properties of the fundamentally new class of coherent states of quantum matter that had been predicted by the PI and subsequently experimentally...Report Title This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored properties of the fundamentally new
Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Hung, Yu-Ming
This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (magnetized CoFeB layers on beta-Ta. While complete magnetization reversal occurs at a threshold current density in the quasistatic case, pulses with short duration (≤10 ns) and larger amplitude (≃10 times the quasistatic threshold current) lead to only partial magnetization reversal and domain formation. The partial reversal is associated with the limited time for reversed domain expansion during the pulse. The second part of my thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then
Strain and spin-orbit effects in self-assembled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zielinski, M.; Jaskolski, W.; Aizpurua, J.; Bryant, G.W.
2005-01-01
The Effects of strain and spin-orbit interaction in self-assembled lien-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dots are investigated. Calculations are performed with empirical tight-binding theory supplemented by the valence force field method to account for effects of strain caused by lattice mismatch at the InAs-GaAs interface. It is shown that both effects influence strongly the electron and hole energy structure: splitting of the energy levels, the number of bound states, density distributions, and transition rates. We show that piezoelectric effects are almost negligible in quantum dots of the size investigated. (author)
Extensive theoretical study on the excited states of the PCl+ molecule including spin-orbit coupling
Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Siyuan; Liu, Yufang
2017-07-01
The entire 23 Λ-S states of the PCl+ molecule have been studied by using the high-level relativistic MRCI+Q method with full-electron aug-cc-pCVQZ-DK basis set. The potential energy curves(PECs) and wavefunctions of the states have been calculated. From the PECs, the spectroscopic constants of the bound states are also determined, and the good agreements could be found with the experiments. The high density region of states exhibits many PECs' crossings, which lead to complicated interaction of the states. Here, the interactions arising from the dipolar interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect have been discussed in detail. Under the influence of the SOC effect, the A2Π state is perturbed by the 14Σ- state. Considering the SOC effect, total 45 Ω states are generated from the original 23 Λ-S states. The transition properties are also predicted, including the transition dipole moments, Franck-Condon factors, and radiative lifetimes. The lifetimes of the transitions A2Π1/2-X2Π1/2 and A2Π3/2-X2Π3/2 are determined to be 478.9 ns and 487.0 ns(v'=0), respectively.
Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.
2018-05-01
We study a local antisymmetric spin-orbit (ASO) coupling effect on a triangular-triple-quantum-dot (TTQD) system as a theoretical proposal for a new application of the Kondo physics to nanoscale devices. The electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect is strongly correlated with the spin configurations and molecular orbital degrees of freedom in the TTQD. In particular, an abrupt sign reversal of the emergent electric polarization is associated with a quantum critical point in a magnetic field, which can also be controlled by the ASO coupling that changes the mixing weight of different orbital components in the TTQD ground state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Jianduo; Li Jianwen
2010-01-01
We theoretically investigate the electron transport properties in a non-magnetic heterostructure with both Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions. The detailed-numerical results show that (1) the large spin polarization can be achieved due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings induced splitting of the resonant level, although the magnetic field is zero in such a structure, (2) the Rashba spin-orbit coupling plays a greater role on the spin polarization than the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction does, and (3) the transmission probability and the spin polarization both periodically change with the increase of the well width.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Wen; Guo Yong
2005-01-01
We investigate the influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interactions on tunnelling through two-dimensional magnetic quantum systems. It is showed that not only Rashba spin-orbit coupling but also Dresselhaus one can affect spin tunnelling properties greatly in such a quantum system. The transmission possibility, the spin polarization and the conductance are obviously oscillated with both coupling strengths. High spin polarization, conductance and magnetic conductance of the structure can be obtained by modulating either Rashba or Dresselhaus coupling strength
Non-Abelian hydrodynamics and the flow of spin in spin-orbit coupled substances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leurs, B.W.A.; Nazario, Z.; Santiago, D.I.; Zaanen, J.
2008-01-01
-conservation of the incoherent spin currents of the high temperature limit. We analyze the quantum-mechanical single particle currents of relevance to mesoscopic transport with as highlight the Ahronov-Casher effect, where we demonstrate that the intricacies of the non-Abelian transport render this effect to be much more fragile than its abelian analog, the Ahronov-Bohm effect. We subsequently focus on spin flows protected by order parameters. At present there is much interest in multiferroics where non-collinear magnetic order triggers macroscopic electric polarization via the spin-orbit coupling. We identify this to be a peculiarity of coherent non-Abelian hydrodynamics: although there is no net particle transport, the spin entanglement is transported in these magnets and the coherent spin 'super' current in turn translates into electric fields with the bonus that due to the requirement of single valuedness of the magnetic order parameter a true hydrodynamics is restored. Finally, 'fixed-frame' coherent non-Abelian transport comes to its full glory in spin-orbit coupled 'spin superfluids', and we demonstrate a new effect: the trapping of electrical line charge being a fixed frame, non-Abelian analog of the familiar magnetic flux trapping by normal superconductors. The only known physical examples of such spin superfluids are the 3 He A- and B-phase where unfortunately the spin-orbit coupling is so weak that it appears impossible to observe these effects
Spin-Orbital Quantum Liquid on the Honeycomb Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Corboz
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The main characteristic of Mott insulators, as compared to band insulators, is to host low-energy spin fluctuations. In addition, Mott insulators often possess orbital degrees of freedom when crystal-field levels are partially filled. While in the majority of Mott insulators, spins and orbitals develop long-range order, the possibility for the ground state to be a quantum liquid opens new perspectives. In this paper, we provide clear evidence that the spin-orbital SU(4 symmetric Kugel-Khomskii model of Mott insulators on the honeycomb lattice is a quantum spin-orbital liquid. The absence of any form of symmetry breaking—lattice or SU(N—is supported by a combination of semiclassical and numerical approaches: flavor-wave theory, tensor network algorithm, and exact diagonalizations. In addition, all properties revealed by these methods are very accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave function based on the π-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the symmetric Kugel-Khomskii model on the honeycomb lattice is an algebraic quantum spin-orbital liquid. This model provides an interesting starting point to understanding the recently discovered spin-orbital-liquid behavior of Ba_{3}CuSb_{2}O_{9}. The present results also suggest the choice of optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultracold four-color fermionic atoms.
Spin-orbital superexchange physics emerging from interacting oxygen molecules in KO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solovyev, I V
2008-01-01
We propose that the spin-orbital-lattice coupled phenomena, widely known for the transition-metal oxides, can be realized in molecular solids, comprising of orbitally degenerate magnetic O 2 - ions. KO 2 is one such system. Using the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we set-up an effective spin-orbital superexchange model for the low-energy molecular bands and argue that many anomalous properties of KO 2 indeed replicate the status of its orbital system in different temperature regimes
Ground State of Bosons in Bose-Fermi Mixture with Spin-Orbit Coupling
Sakamoto, Ryohei; Ono, Yosuke; Hatsuda, Rei; Shiina, Kenta; Arahata, Emiko; Mori, Hiroyuki
2017-07-01
We study an effect of spin-1/2 fermions on the ground state of a Bose system with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. By using mean-field and tight-binding approximations, we show the ground state phase diagram of the Bose system in the spin-orbit coupled Bose-Fermi mixture and find that the characteristic phase domain, where a spin current of fermions may be induced, can exist even in the presence of a significantly large number of fermions.
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien
2016-01-01
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang
2016-01-11
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
Two-dimensional spin-orbit Dirac point in monolayer HfGeTe
Guan, Shan; Liu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shan-Shan; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.
2017-10-01
Dirac points in two-dimensional (2D) materials have been a fascinating subject of research, with graphene as the most prominent example. However, the Dirac points in existing 2D materials, including graphene, are vulnerable against spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, based on first-principles calculations and theoretical analysis, we propose a new family of stable 2D materials, the HfGeTe-family monolayers, which host so-called spin-orbit Dirac points (SDPs) close to the Fermi level. These Dirac points are special in that they are formed only under significant SOC, hence they are intrinsically robust against SOC. We show that the existence of a pair of SDPs are dictated by the nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the system, which are very robust under various types of lattice strains. The energy, the dispersion, and the valley occupation around the Dirac points can be effectively tuned by strain. We construct a low-energy effective model to characterize the Dirac fermions around the SDPs. Furthermore, we find that the material is simultaneously a 2D Z2 topological metal, which possesses nontrivial Z2 invariant in the bulk and spin-helical edge states on the boundary. From the calculated exfoliation energies and mechanical properties, we show that these materials can be readily obtained in experiment from the existing bulk materials. Our result reveals HfGeTe-family monolayers as a promising platform for exploring spin-orbit Dirac fermions and topological phases in two-dimensions.
Experimental observation of the spin-Hall effect in a spin–orbit coupled two-dimensional hole gas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kaestner, B.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.; Nomura, K.; MacDonald, A. H.
2006-01-01
Roč. 34, - (2006), s. 47-52 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin-orbit interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.084, year: 2006
Spin injection into Pt-polymers with large spin-orbit coupling
Sun, Dali; McLaughlin, Ryan; Siegel, Gene; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Vardeny, Z. Valy
2014-03-01
Organic spintronics has entered a new era of devices that integrate organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) in organic spin valve (OSV) geometry (dubbed bipolar organic spin valve, or spin-OLED), for actively manipulating the device electroluminescence via the spin alignment of two ferromagnetic electrodes (Science 337, 204-209, 2012; Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 042411, 2013). Organic semiconductors that contain heavy metal elements have been widely used as phosphorescent dopants in white-OLEDs. However such active materials are detrimental for OSV operation due to their large spin-orbit coupling (SOC) that may limit the spin diffusion length and thus spin-OLED based on organics with large SOC is a challenge. We report the successful fabrication of OSVs based on pi-conjugated polymers which contain intrachain Platinum atoms (dubbed Pt-polymers). Spin injection into the Pt-polymers is investigated by the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect as a function of bias voltage, temperature and polymer layer thickness. From the GMR bias voltage dependence we infer that the ``impendence mismatch'' between ferromagnetic electrodes and Pt-polymer may be suppressed due to the large SOC. Research sponsored by the NSF (Grant No. DMR-1104495) and NSF-MRSEC (DMR 1121252) at the University of Utah.
The role of spin-orbit potential in nuclear prolate-shape dominance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahara, Satoshi, E-mail: staka@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp [Kyorin University, School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Onishi, Naoki [University of Tokyo (Japan); University of Yamanashi (Japan); Shimizu, Yoshifumi R. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tajima, Naoki [Department of Applied Physics, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)
2011-08-26
It is confirmed, in terms of the Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky method, that the spin-orbit potential plays a decisive role in the predominance of prolate deformation, which has been a long standing problem in nuclear physics. It is originated from the combined effects of the spin-orbit coupling and the diffused surface of the potential, in agreement with the previous work based on a more schematic Nilsson-Strutinsky method. The degree of prolate-shape dominance exhibits an oscillatory behavior with respect to the strength of spin-orbit potential and, the prolate-shape dominance is realized at the proper strength of the spin-orbit potential together with the standard surface diffuseness; this oscillatory behavior disappears in case of small diffuseness corresponding to ellipsoidal cavity. The calculated energy differences between oblate and prolate minima in this Letter are consistent with those of our extensive self-consistent calculations of the Hartree-Fock + BCS method with the Skyrme interaction.
The role of spin-orbit potential in nuclear prolate-shape dominance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Naoki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Tajima, Naoki
2011-01-01
It is confirmed, in terms of the Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky method, that the spin-orbit potential plays a decisive role in the predominance of prolate deformation, which has been a long standing problem in nuclear physics. It is originated from the combined effects of the spin-orbit coupling and the diffused surface of the potential, in agreement with the previous work based on a more schematic Nilsson-Strutinsky method. The degree of prolate-shape dominance exhibits an oscillatory behavior with respect to the strength of spin-orbit potential and, the prolate-shape dominance is realized at the proper strength of the spin-orbit potential together with the standard surface diffuseness; this oscillatory behavior disappears in case of small diffuseness corresponding to ellipsoidal cavity. The calculated energy differences between oblate and prolate minima in this Letter are consistent with those of our extensive self-consistent calculations of the Hartree-Fock + BCS method with the Skyrme interaction.
Condensation of bosons with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baym, Gordon; Ozawa, Tomoki
2014-01-01
Cold atomic Bose-Einstein systems in the presence of simulated Rashba- Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling exhibit novel physical features. With pure in-plane Rashba coupling the system is predicted in Bogoliubov-Hartree-Fock to have a stable Bose condensate below a critical temperature, even though the effective density of states is two-dimensional. In addition the system has a normal state at all temperatures. We review here the new physics when the system has such spin-orbit coupling, and discuss the nature of the finite temperature condensation phase transition from the normal to condensed phases.
Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene
Rappoport, Tatiana
The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.
Spin Chern number and topological phase transition on the Lieb lattice with spin–orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Rui; Zhou, Bin
2017-01-01
We propose that quantum anomalous Hall effect may occur in the Lieb lattice, when Rashba spin–orbit coupling, spin-independent and spin-dependent staggered potentials are introduced into the lattice. It is found that spin Chern numbers of two degenerate flat bands change from 0 to ±2 due to Rashba spin–orbit coupling effect. The inclusion of Rashba spin–orbit coupling and two kinds of staggered potentials opens a gap between the two flat bands. The topological property of the gap is determined by the amplitudes of Rashba spin–orbit coupling and staggered potentials, and thus the topological phase transition from quantum anomalous Hall effect to normal insulator can occur. Finally, the topological phase transition from quantum spin Hall state to normal insulator is discussed when Rashba spin–orbit coupling and intrinsic spin–orbit coupling coexist in the Lieb lattice. - Highlights: • Spin Chern numbers of the bulk states on the Lieb lattice are calculated. • RSOC plays an important role on the topological phase transition on the Lieb lattice. • Quantum anomalous Hall effect can occur due to RSOC and staggered potentials. • Topological phase transition can occur when ISOC and RSOC coexist.
Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2
Tahir, M.
2014-09-22
We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.
Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2
Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad Reza; Faizabadi, Edris
2008-01-01
The influence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling on spin polarization by tunneling through a disordered semiconductor superlattice was investigated. The Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling causes the spin polarization of the electron due to transmission possibilities difference between spin up and spin down electrons. The electron tunneling through a zinc-blende semiconductor superlattice with InAs and GaAs layers and two variable distance In x Ga (1-x) As impurity layers was studied. One hundred percent spin polarization was obtained by optimizing the distance between two impurity layers and impurity percent in disordered layers in the presence of Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. In addition, the electron transmission probability through the mentioned superlattice is too much near to one and an efficient spin filtering was recommended
Cho, Soonha; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Jo, Younghun; Park, Byong-Guk
2015-01-01
The phenomena based on spin-orbit interaction in heavy metal/ferromagnet/oxide structures have been investigated extensively due to their applicability to the manipulation of the magnetization direction via the in-plane current. This implies the existence of an inverse effect, in which the conductivity in such structures should depend on the magnetization orientation. In this work, we report a systematic study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of W/CoFeB/MgO structures and its correlation with the current-induced torque to the magnetization. We observe that the MR is independent of the angle between the magnetization and current direction but is determined by the relative magnetization orientation with respect to the spin direction accumulated by the spin Hall effect, for which the symmetry is identical to that of so-called the spin Hall magnetoresistance. The MR of ~1% in W/CoFeB/MgO samples is considerably larger than those in other structures of Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt/Co/AlOx, which indicates a larger spin Hall angle of W. Moreover, the similar W thickness dependence of the MR and the current-induced magnetization switching efficiency demonstrates that MR in a non-magnet/ferromagnet structure can be utilized to understand other closely correlated spin-orbit coupling effects such as the inverse spin Hall effect or the spin-orbit spin transfer torques. PMID:26423608
Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Zhao, Jianlin
2018-05-01
We report on the catalystlike effect of orbital angular momentum (OAM) on local spin-state conversion within the tightly focused radially polarized beams associated with optical spin-orbit interaction. It is theoretically demonstrated that the incident OAM can lead to a conversion of purely transverse spin state to a three-dimensional spin state on the focal plane. This conversion can be conveniently manipulated by altering the sign and value of the OAM. By comparing the total OAM and spin angular momentum (SAM) on the incident plane to those on the focal plane, it is indicated that the incident OAM have no participation in the angular momentum intertransfer, and just play a role as a catalyst of local SAM conversion. Such an effect of OAM sheds new light on the optical spin-orbit interaction in tight-focusing processes. The resultant three-dimensional spin states may provide more degrees of freedom in optical manipulation and spin-dependent directive coupling.
Superconducting fluctuations in systems with Rashba-spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beyl, Stefan [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Orth, Peter P.; Scheurer, Mathias; Schmalian, Joerg [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)
2015-07-01
We investigate the BEC-BCS crossover in a two-dimensional system with Rashba-spin-orbit coupling. To include the effects of phase and amplitude fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter we perform a loop expansion of the effective field theory. We analyze in particular the probability of a low density superconducting quantum phase transition. The theory is relevant to LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces and two-dimensional cold atom systems with synthetic gauge fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatara, Gen, E-mail: gen.tatara@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Nakabayashi, Noriyuki [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 Japan (Japan)
2014-05-07
Emergent electromagnetic field which couples to electron's spin in ferromagnetic metals is theoretically studied. Rashba spin-orbit interaction induces spin electromagnetic field which is in the linear order in gradient of magnetization texture. The Rashba-induced effective electric and magnetic fields satisfy in the absence of spin relaxation the Maxwell's equations as in the charge-based electromagnetism. When spin relaxation is taken into account besides spin dynamics, a monopole current emerges generating spin motive force via the Faraday's induction law. The monopole is expected to play an important role in spin-charge conversion and in the integration of spintronics into electronics.
Role of spin-orbit coupling in the Kugel-Khomskii model on the honeycomb lattice
Koga, Akihisa; Nakauchi, Shiryu; Nasu, Joji
2018-03-01
We study the effective spin-orbital model for honeycomb-layered transition metal compounds, applying the second-order perturbation theory to the three-orbital Hubbard model with the anisotropic hoppings. This model is reduced to the Kitaev model in the strong spin-orbit coupling limit. Combining the cluster mean-field approximations with the exact diagonalization, we treat the Kugel-Khomskii type superexchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling on an equal footing to discuss ground-state properties. We find that a zigzag ordered state is realized in the model within nearest-neighbor interactions. We clarify how the ordered state competes with the nonmagnetic state, which is adiabatically connected to the quantum spin liquid state realized in a strong spin-orbit coupling limit. Thermodynamic properties are also addressed. The present paper should provide another route to account for the Kitaev-based magnetic properties in candidate materials.
Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yokoyama Tomohiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d
Depolarization of the electron spin in storage rings by nonlinear spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kewisch, J.
1985-10-01
Electrons and positrons which circulate in the storage ring are polarized at the emission of synchrotron radiation by the so called Sokolov-Ternov effect. This polarization is on the one hand of large interest for the study of the weak interaction, on the other hand it can be used for the accurate measurement of the beam energy and by this of the mass of elementary particles. The transverse and longitudinal particle vibrations simultaneously excited by the synchrotron radiation however can effect that this polarization is destroyed. This effect is called spin-orbit coupling. For the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling the computer program SITROS was written. This program is a tracking program: The motion of some sample particles and their spin vectors are calculated for some thousand circulations. From this the mean depolarization and by extrapolation the degree of polarization of the equilibrium state is determined. Contrarily to the known program SLIM which is based on perturbational calculations in SITROS the nonlinear forces in the storage ring can be regarded. By this the calculation of depolarizing higher order resonances is made possible. In this thesis the equations of motion for the orbital and spin motion of the electrons are derived which form the base for the program SITROS. The functions of the program and the approximations necessary for the saving of calculational time are explained. The comparison of the SITROS results with the measurement results obtained at the PETRA storage ring shows that the SITROS program is a useful means for the planning and calculation of storage rings with polarized electron beams. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Baltenkov, A S [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Tashkent 70125 (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L V [A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Felfli, Z [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physics Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Manson, S T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Msezane, A Z [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physics Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)
2004-02-28
The effects of spin-orbit induced interchannel coupling on the dipole photoelectron angular asymmetry parameter {beta}{sub 3d} for Xe, Cs and Ba are explored using a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange (SPRPAE) methodology. For Xe, {beta}{sub 3d{sub 5/2}} is modified somewhat by the interchannel coupling in the vicinity of the 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} {epsilon}f shape resonance, and this effect is significantly more pronounced in Cs where the resonance is larger. In Ba, however, where f-wave orbital collapse has occurred, the shape resonance has moved below threshold and the effect of interchannel coupling on {beta}{sub 3d{sub 5/2}} above the 3d{sub 3/2} threshold is negligible. But below the 3d{sub 3/2} threshold, {beta}{sub 3d{sub 5/2}} is dominated by the huge broad 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 4f resonance.
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can O.; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) represent one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices. The orthogonal torque-magnetization geometry, the strong damping, and the large domain wall velocities inherent to materials with strong spin-orbit coupling make SOTs especially appealing for fast switching applications in nonvolatile memory and logic units. So far, however, the timescale and evolution of the magnetization during the switching process have ...
The nuclear spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, J.S.; Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
Analysis of the nucleon-nucleon scattering around 100 MeV has determined the spin-orbit coupling part of the two-body scattering matrix at that energy, and a reasonable extrapolation to lower energies is possible. This scattering amplitude has been used, in the spirit of Brueckner's nuclear model, to estimate the resultant single-body spin-orbit coupling for a single nucleon interacting with a large nucleus. This resultant potential has a radial dependence approximately proportional to r -1 d ρ /dr, and with a magnitude in good agreement with that required to explain the doublet splittings in nuclei and the polarization of nucleons scattered elastically off nuclei. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-01-01
for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nitta, Junsaku; Moulis, Sylvain; Kohda, Makoto
2011-01-01
Spin transport affected by competition between Zeeman effect and spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated in order to check a proposed method to deduce the Rashba SOI α and Dresselhaus SOI β ratio. The experimentally obtained ratio α/β of the present sample is about 4 from angle dependence of magnetoconductance under in-plane magnetic field. The proposed method to detect the ratio by transport measurement is promising although further improvement of sample fabrication and measurement is required.
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stano, P.
2007-01-01
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Macroscopic spin-orbit coupling in non-uniform magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tabat, N.; Edelman, H. S.; Song, D. [Semaphore Scientific, Inc., St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301 (United States); Vogt, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301 (United States)
2015-03-02
Translational dynamics of aggregated magnetic nano-particles placed in a rotating external magnetic field is described. It is observed and explained that aggregates that spin within a radially decreasing field strength must execute an orbital motion of their center of mass in a sense that counters their spin rotation. This orbital motion is tightly coupled to the spin dynamics of the aggregates. An analytical model for the canonical variables describing the orbital motion is derived and shown to be in good agreement with the measured values.
Macroscopic spin-orbit coupling in non-uniform magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabat, N.; Edelman, H. S.; Song, D.; Vogt, T.
2015-01-01
Translational dynamics of aggregated magnetic nano-particles placed in a rotating external magnetic field is described. It is observed and explained that aggregates that spin within a radially decreasing field strength must execute an orbital motion of their center of mass in a sense that counters their spin rotation. This orbital motion is tightly coupled to the spin dynamics of the aggregates. An analytical model for the canonical variables describing the orbital motion is derived and shown to be in good agreement with the measured values
Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers
Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Tahir, Muhammad; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te
Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurian, P., E-mail: pkurian@gmx.com [National Human Genome Center, Howard University, College of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Verzegnassi, C. [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Physics, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Association for Medicine and Complexity (AMeC), Trieste (Italy)
2016-01-28
We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurian, P.; Verzegnassi, C.
2016-01-01
We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.
Anisotropy and Suppression of Spin-Orbit Interaction in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot
Hofmann, A.; Maisi, V. F.; Krähenmann, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
2017-10-01
The spin-flip tunneling rates are measured in GaAs-based double quantum dots by time-resolved charge detection. Such processes occur in the Pauli spin blockade regime with two electrons occupying the double quantum dot. Ways are presented for tuning the spin-flip tunneling rate, which on the one hand gives access to measuring the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients. On the other hand, they make it possible to turn on and off the effect of spin-orbit interaction with a high on/off ratio. The tuning is accomplished by choosing the alignment of the tunneling direction with respect to the crystallographic axes, as well as by choosing the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the spin-orbit magnetic field. Spin lifetimes of 10 s are achieved at a tunneling rate close to 1 kHz.
Anisotropy and Suppression of Spin-Orbit Interaction in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot.
Hofmann, A; Maisi, V F; Krähenmann, T; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Ensslin, K; Ihn, T
2017-10-27
The spin-flip tunneling rates are measured in GaAs-based double quantum dots by time-resolved charge detection. Such processes occur in the Pauli spin blockade regime with two electrons occupying the double quantum dot. Ways are presented for tuning the spin-flip tunneling rate, which on the one hand gives access to measuring the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients. On the other hand, they make it possible to turn on and off the effect of spin-orbit interaction with a high on/off ratio. The tuning is accomplished by choosing the alignment of the tunneling direction with respect to the crystallographic axes, as well as by choosing the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the spin-orbit magnetic field. Spin lifetimes of 10 s are achieved at a tunneling rate close to 1 kHz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Chengzhi; Xue Rui; Nie, Y.-H.; Liang, J.-Q.
2009-01-01
Using the transfer matrix method, we investigate the electron transmission over multiple-well semiconductor superlattices with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in the potential-well regions. The superlattice structure enhances the effect of spin polarization in the transmission spectrum. The minibands of multiple-well superlattices for electrons with different spin can be completely separated at the low incident energy, leading to the 100% spin polarization in a broad energy windows, which may be an effective scheme for realizing spin filtering. Moreover, for the transmission over n-quantum-well, it is observed that the resonance peaks in the minibands split into n-folds or (n-1)-folds depending on the well-width and barrier-thickness, which is different from the case of tunneling through n-barrier structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goepfert, A.
1994-01-01
This thesis develops a new model, and related numerical methods, to describe classical time-dependent many-body systems interacting through central forces, spin-orbit forces and spin-spin forces. The model is based on two-particle interactions. The two-body forces consist of attractive and repulsive parts. In this model the investigated multi-particle systems are self-bound. Also the total potential of the whole ensemble is derived from the two-particle potential and is not imposed 'from outside'. Each particle has the three degrees of freedom of its centre-of-mass motion and the spin degree of freedom. The model allows for the particles to be either charged or uncharged. Furthermore, each particle has an angular momentum, an intrinsic spin, and a magnetic dipole moment. Through the electromagnetic forces between these charges and moments there arise dynamical couplings between them. The internal interactions between the charges and moments are well described by electromagnetic coupling mechanisms. In fact, compared to conventional classical molecular dynamics calculations in van der Waals clusters, which have no spin degrees of freedom, or for Heisenberg spin Systems, which have no orbital degrees of freedom, the model presented here contains both types of degrees of freedom with a highly non-trivial coupling. The model allows to study the fundamental effects resulting from the dynamical coupling of the spin and the orbital-motion sub-systems. In particular, the dynamics of the particle mass points show a behaviour basically different from the one of particles in a potential with only central forces. Furthermore, a special type of quenching procedure was invented, which tends to drive the multi-particle Systems into states with highly periodic, non-ergodic behaviour. Application of the model to cluster simulations has provided evidence that the model can also be used to investigate items like solid-to-liquid phase transitions (melting), isomerism and specific heat
Ab initio phonon dispersions of face centered cubic Pb: effects of spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dal Corso, Andrea
2008-01-01
I present the ab initio phonon dispersions of face centered cubic Pb calculated within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, with plane waves and a fully relativistic ultrasoft pseudopotential which includes spin-orbit coupling effects. I find that, within the local density approximation, the theory gives phonon frequencies close to the experimental inelastic neutron scattering data. Many of the anomalies present in these dispersions are well reproduced by the fully relativistic pseudopotential theory and can be shown to appear only for small values of the smearing parameter that controls the sharpness of the Fermi surface.
Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. I. Spin-orbit effects
Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.
2017-10-01
We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at linear order in the spin to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, which enter at fourth PN order. The calculation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning compact objects, in both the Newton-Wigner and covariant spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed on our results by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the total emitted power in the far zone, up to so-called "Schott terms." We also find that, at this order, the radiation reaction has no net effect on the evolution of the spins. The spin-spin contributions to radiation reaction are reported in a companion paper.
Spin-orbit excitations and electronic structure of the putative Kitaev magnet α -RuCl3
Sandilands, Luke J.; Tian, Yao; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Kim, Heung-Sik; Plumb, K. W.; Kim, Young-June; Kee, Hae-Young; Burch, Kenneth S.
2016-02-01
Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling have been proposed to host unconventional magnetic states, including the Kitaev quantum spin liquid. The 4 d system α -RuCl3 has recently come into view as a candidate Kitaev system, with evidence for unusual spin excitations in magnetic scattering experiments. We apply a combination of optical spectroscopy and Raman scattering to study the electronic structure of this material. Our measurements reveal a series of orbital excitations involving localized total angular momentum states of the Ru ion, implying that strong spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions coexist in this material. Analysis of these features allows us to estimate the spin-orbit coupling strength, as well as other parameters describing the local electronic structure, revealing a well-defined hierarchy of energy scales within the Ru d states. By comparing our experimental results with density functional theory calculations, we also clarify the overall features of the optical response. Our results demonstrate that α -RuCl3 is an ideal material system to study spin-orbit coupled magnetism on the honeycomb lattice.
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2017-11-29
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Paredes-Gutiérrez, H.; Pérez-Merchancano, S. T.; Beltran-Rios, C. L.
2017-12-01
In this work, we study the quantum electron transport through a Quantum Dots Structure (QDs), with different geometries, embedded in a Quantum Well (QW). The behaviour of the current through the nanostructure (dot and well) is studied considering the orbital spin coupling of the electrons and the Rashba effect, by means of the second quantization theory and the standard model of Green’s functions. Our results show the behaviour of the current in the quantum system as a function of the electric field, presenting resonant states for specific values of both the external field and the spin polarization. Similarly, the behaviour of the current on the nanostructure changes when the geometry of the QD and the size of the same are modified as a function of the polarization of the electron spin and the potential of quantum confinement.
Hasanirokh, K.; Phirouznia, A.; Majidi, R.
2016-02-01
The influence of the electron coupling with non-polarized optical phonons on magnetoelectric effects of a two-dimensional electron gas system has been investigated in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. Numerical calculations have been performed in the non-equilibrium regime. In the previous studies in this field, it has been shown that the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings cannot generate non-equilibrium spin current and the spin current vanishes identically in the absence of other relaxation mechanisms such as lattice vibrations. However, in the current study, based on a semiclassical approach, it was demonstrated that in the presence of electron-phonon coupling, the spin current and other magnetoelectric quantities have been modulated by the strength of the spin-orbit interactions.
Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-05-07
In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.
Spin-orbital quantum liquid on the honeycomb lattice
Corboz, Philippe
2013-03-01
The symmetric Kugel-Khomskii can be seen as a minimal model describing the interactions between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxides with orbital degeneracy, and it is equivalent to the SU(4) Heisenberg model of four-color fermionic atoms. We present simulation results for this model on various two-dimensional lattices obtained with infinite projected-entangled pair states (iPEPS), an efficient variational tensor-network ansatz for two dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit. This approach can be seen as a two-dimensional generalization of matrix product states - the underlying ansatz of the density matrix renormalization group method. We find a rich variety of exotic phases: while on the square and checkerboard lattices the ground state exhibits dimer-Néel order and plaquette order, respectively, quantum fluctuations on the honeycomb lattice destroy any order, giving rise to a spin-orbital liquid. Our results are supported from flavor-wave theory and exact diagonalization. Furthermore, the properties of the spin-orbital liquid state on the honeycomb lattice are accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave-function based on the pi-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4-filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the ground state is an algebraic spin-orbital liquid. This model provides a good starting point to understand the recently discovered spin-orbital liquid behavior of Ba3CuSb2O9. The present results also suggest to choose optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultra-cold four-color fermionic atoms. We acknowledge the financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation.
Laghaei, M.; Heidari Semiromi, E.
2018-03-01
Quantum transport properties and spin polarization in hexagonal graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges and different sizes were investigated in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). The nanostructure was considered as a channel to which two semi-infinite armchair graphene nanoribbons were coupled as input and output leads. Spin transmission and spin polarization in x, y, and z directions were calculated through applying Landauer-Buttiker formalism with tight binding model and the Green's function to the system. In these quantum structures it is shown that changing the size of system, induce and control the spin polarized currents. In short, these graphene systems are typical candidates for electrical spintronic devices as spin filtering.
Universal relations for spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas near an s -wave resonance
Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Ning
2018-04-01
Synthetic spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases have been widely studied both experimentally and theoretically in the past decade. As shown in previous studies, this modification of single-body dispersion will in general couple different partial waves of the two-body scattering and thus distort the wave function of few-body bound states which determines the short-distance behavior of many-body wave function. In this work, we focus on the two-component Fermi gas with one-dimensional or three-dimensional spin-orbit coupling (SOC) near an s -wave resonance. Using the method of effective field theory and the operator product expansion, we derive universal relations for both systems, including the adiabatic theorem, viral theorem, and pressure relation, and obtain the momentum distribution matrix 〈ψa†(q ) ψb(q ) 〉 at large q (a ,b are spin indices). The momentum distribution matrix shows both spin-dependent and spatial anisotropic features. And the large momentum tail is modified at the subleading order thanks to the SOC. We also discuss the experimental implication of these results depending on the realization of the SOC.
High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration
Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M.
2016-07-01
In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations.
Spin-Orbit Coupled Quantum Magnetism in the 3D-Honeycomb Iridates
Kimchi, Itamar
In this doctoral dissertation, we consider the significance of spin-orbit coupling for the phases of matter which arise for strongly correlated electrons. We explore emergent behavior in quantum many-body systems, including symmetry-breaking orders, quantum spin liquids, and unconventional superconductivity. Our study is cemented by a particular class of Mott-insulating materials, centered around a family of two- and three-dimensional iridium oxides, whose honeycomb-like lattice structure admits peculiar magnetic interactions, the so-called Kitaev exchange. By analyzing recent experiments on these compounds, we show that this unconventional exchange is the key ingredient in describing their magnetism, and then use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to investigate the implications for the phase diagram as well as the physics of the proximate three-dimensional quantum spin liquid phases. These long-ranged-entangled fractionalized phases should exhibit special features, including finite-temperature stability as well as unconventional high-Tc superconductivity upon charge-doping, which should aid future experimental searches for spin liquid physics. Our study explores the nature of frustration and fractionalization which can arise in quantum systems in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling.
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun
2015-01-08
The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption
Qiu, Xuepeng
2016-11-18
The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM/FM/Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.
Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Culcer, Dimitrie
2017-01-01
Topological materials have attracted considerable experimental and theoretical attention. They exhibit strong spin-orbit coupling both in the band structure (intrinsic) and in the impurity potentials (extrinsic), although the latter is often neglected. In this work, we discuss weak localization and antilocalization of massless Dirac fermions in topological insulators and massive Dirac fermions in Weyl semimetal thin films, taking into account both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit interactions. The physics is governed by the complex interplay of the chiral spin texture, quasiparticle mass, and scalar and spin-orbit scattering. We demonstrate that terms linear in the extrinsic spin-orbit scattering are generally present in the Bloch and momentum relaxation times in all topological materials, and the correction to the diffusion constant is linear in the strength of the extrinsic spin-orbit. In topological insulators, which have zero quasiparticle mass, the terms linear in the impurity spin-orbit coupling lead to an observable density dependence in the weak antilocalization correction. They produce substantial qualitative modifications to the magnetoconductivity, differing greatly from the conventional Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka formula traditionally used in experimental fits, which predicts a crossover from weak localization to antilocalization as a function of the extrinsic spin-orbit strength. In contrast, our analysis reveals that topological insulators always exhibit weak antilocalization. In Weyl semimetal thin films having intermediate to large values of the quasiparticle mass, we show that extrinsic spin-orbit scattering strongly affects the boundary of the weak localization to antilocalization transition. We produce a complete phase diagram for this transition as a function of the mass and spin-orbit scattering strength. Throughout the paper, we discuss implications for experimental work, and, at the end, we provide a brief comparison with transition metal
Theoretical treatment of the spin-orbit coupling in the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO
Langhoff, S. R.
1980-01-01
Off-diagonal spin-orbit matrix elements are calculated as a function of internuclear distance for the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO using the full microscopic spin-orbit Hamiltonian, including all one- and two-electron integrals, and POL-CI wave functions comparable to those of Dunning and Hay (1977). A good agreement was found when comparing these results in detail with the calculations of Cohen, Wadt and Hay (1979) that utilize an effective one-electron one-center spin-orbit operator. For the rare gas oxide molecules, it is suggested that the numerical results are a more sensitive test of the wave functions (particularly to the extent of charge transfer) than the exact evaluation of all terms in the full spin-orbit operator.
Spin interferometry in anisotropic spin-orbit fields
Saarikoski, Henri; Reynoso, Andres A.; Baltanás, José Pablo; Frustaglia, Diego; Nitta, Junsaku
2018-03-01
Electron spins in a two-dimensional electron gas can be manipulated by spin-orbit (SO) fields originating from either Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions with independent isotropic characteristics. Together, though, they produce anisotropic SO fields with consequences on quantum transport through spin interference. Here we study the transport properties of modeled mesoscopic rings subject to Rashba and Dresselhaus [001] SO couplings in the presence of an additional in-plane Zeeman field acting as a probe. By means of one- and two-dimensional quantum transport simulations we show that this setting presents anisotropies in the quantum resistance as a function of the Zeeman field direction. Moreover, the anisotropic resistance can be tuned by the Rashba strength up to the point to invert its response to the Zeeman field. We also find that a topological transition in the field texture that is associated with a geometric phase switching is imprinted in the anisotropy pattern. We conclude that resistance anisotropy measurements can reveal signatures of SO textures and geometric phases in spin carriers.
Steady state obliquity of a rigid body in the spin-orbit resonant problem: application to Mercury
Lhotka, Christoph
2017-12-01
We investigate the stable Cassini state 1 in the p : q spin-orbit resonant problem. Our study includes the effect of the gravitational potential up to degree and order 4 and p : q spin-orbit resonances with p,q≤ 8 and p≥ q. We derive new formulae that link the gravitational field coefficients with its secular orbital elements and its rotational parameters. The formulae can be used to predict the orientation of the spin axis and necessary angular momentum at exact resonance. We also develop a simple pendulum model to approximate the dynamics close to resonance and make use of it to predict the libration periods and widths of the oscillatory regime of motions in phase space. Our analytical results are based on averaging theory that we also confirm by means of numerical simulations of the exact dynamical equations. Our results are applied to a possible rotational history of Mercury.
Chen, Xi; Jiang, Ruan-Lei; Li, Jing; Ban, Yue; Sherman, E. Ya.
2018-01-01
We investigate fast transport and spin manipulation of tunable spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a moving harmonic trap. Motivated by the concept of shortcuts to adiabaticity, we design inversely the time-dependent trap position and spin-orbit-coupling strength. By choosing appropriate boundary conditions we obtain fast transport and spin flip simultaneously. The nonadiabatic transport and relevant spin dynamics are illustrated with numerical examples and compared with the adiabatic transport with constant spin-orbit-coupling strength and velocity. Moreover, the influence of nonlinearity induced by interatomic interaction is discussed in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii approach, showing the robustness of the proposed protocols. With the state-of-the-art experiments, such an inverse engineering technique paves the way for coherent control of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps.
Isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, V.I.
2007-01-01
The analysis has been made of experimental data on level spectra, single-nucleon transfer reactions near closed shells, and data on polarization effects in charge-exchange (p, n) reactions between isoanalogous states of nuclei with even A. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbitals. This conclusion is confirmed in the frame work of different theoretical approaches [ru
Železný , J.; Gao, H.; Manchon, Aurelien; Freimuth, Frank; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Zemen, J.; Mašek, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.
2017-01-01
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Železný, J.
2017-01-10
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Role of antisymmetric spin-orbit component in effective interactions in the sd-shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshinada, K.
1981-10-01
The antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction (ALS) proposed for sd-shell nuclei is investigated. It is shown that the centroid energy of the d sub(5/2) - d sub(3/2) interactions plays a crucial role in reproducing the excited band spectra of A = 18 - 24 nuclei. An empirical effective interaction without ALS component is proposed to reproduce the observed spectra of light sd-shell nuclei. (author)
Yang, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Yue
2018-03-01
We investigate the topological phase transitions in an anisotropic square-octagon lattice in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and exchange field. On the basis of the Chern number and spin Chern number, we find a number of topologically distinct phases with tuning the exchange field, including time-reversal-symmetry-broken quantum spin Hall phases, quantum anomalous Hall phases and a topologically trivial phase. Particularly, we observe a coexistent state of both the quantum spin Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect. Besides, by adjusting the exchange filed, we find the phase transition from time-reversal-symmetry-broken quantum spin Hall phase to spin-imbalanced and spin-polarized quantum anomalous Hall phases, providing an opportunity for quantum spin manipulation. The bulk band gap closes when topological phase transitions occur between different topological phases. Furthermore, the energy and spin spectra of the edge states corresponding to different topological phases are consistent with the topological characterization based on the Chern and spin Chern numbers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai
2008-01-01
In this Letter the approximately analytical bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the Manning-Rosen potential for arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number k are carried out by taking a properly approximate expansion for the spin-orbit coupling term. In the case of exact spin symmetry, the associated two-component spinor wave functions of the Dirac equation for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k are presented and the corresponding bound state energy equation is derived. We study briefly two special cases; the general s-wave problem and the equal scalar and vector Manning-Rosen potential
Lee, Timothy J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
A new spin orbital basis is employed in the development of efficient open-shell coupled-cluster and perturbation theories that are based on a restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) reference function. The spin orbital basis differs from the standard one in the spin functions that are associated with the singly occupied spatial orbital. The occupied orbital (in the spin orbital basis) is assigned the delta(+) = 1/square root of 2(alpha+Beta) spin function while the unoccupied orbital is assigned the delta(-) = 1/square root of 2(alpha-Beta) spin function. The doubly occupied and unoccupied orbitals (in the reference function) are assigned the standard alpha and Beta spin functions. The coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions based on this set of "symmetric spin orbitals" exhibit much more symmetry than those based on the standard spin orbital basis. This, together with interacting space arguments, leads to a dramatic reduction in the computational cost for both coupled-cluster and perturbation theory. Additionally, perturbation theory based on "symmetric spin orbitals" obeys Brillouin's theorem provided that spin and spatial excitations are both considered. Other properties of the coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions and models will be discussed.
Spin-orbit excitations and electronic structure of the putative Kitaev magnet $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$
Sandilands, Luke J.; Tian, Yao; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Kim, Heung-Sik; Plumb, Kemp W.; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Young-June; Burch, Kenneth S.
2015-01-01
Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling have been proposed to host unconventional magnetic states, including the Kitaev quantum spin liquid. The 4$d$ system $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ has recently come into view as a candidate Kitaev system, with evidence for unusual spin excitations in magnetic scattering experiments. We apply a combination of optical spectroscopy and Raman scattering to study the electronic structure of this material. Our measurements reveal a series of orbital excitations i...
Spin conversion induced by the spin-orbit interaction in positronium collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Haruo; Nakayama, Takashi; Hyodo, Toshio
2009-01-01
We show the existence of a new reaction mechanism of positronium - ortho-Ps - para-Ps conversion reaction induced by the spin-orbit interaction. This interaction was previously believed to be negligibly small. Recently, however, Mitroy has suggested that this interaction could be observed in Ps-Xe collision. In the present work, we have succeeded in observing this effect and obtaining the reaction rate by using the Zeeman mixing of positronium.
Spin flip in single quantum ring with Rashba spin–orbit interation
Liu, Duan-Yang; Xia, Jian-Bai
2018-03-01
We theoretically investigate spin transport in the elliptical ring and the circular ring with Rashba spin–orbit interaction. It is shown that when Rashba spin–orbit interaction is relatively weak, a single circular ring can not realize spin flip, however an elliptical ring may work as a spin-inverter at this time, and the influence of the defect of the geometry is not obvious. Howerver if a giant Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength has been obtained, a circular ring can work as a spin-inverter with a high stability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504016).
Luengo-Kovac, M.; Moraes, F. C. D.; Ferreira, G. J.; Ribeiro, A. S. L.; Gusev, G. M.; Bakarov, A. K.; Sih, V.; Hernandez, F. G. G.
2017-06-01
Spin drag measurements were performed in a two-dimensional electron system set close to the crossed spin helix regime and coupled by strong intersubband scattering. In a sample with an uncommon combination of long spin lifetime and high charge mobility, the drift transport allows us to determine the spin-orbit field and the spin mobility anisotropies. We used a random walk model to describe the system dynamics and found excellent agreement for the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The proposed two-subband system displays a large tuning lever arm for the Rashba constant with gate voltage, which provides a new path towards a spin transistor. Furthermore, the data show large spin mobility controlled by the spin-orbit constants setting the field along the direction perpendicular to the drift velocity. This work directly reveals the resistance experienced in the transport of a spin-polarized packet as a function of the strength of anisotropic spin-orbit fields.
Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.
1991-01-01
The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.; Heinemann, K.; Ripken, G.
1991-05-01
In the following report we begin to reformulate work by Derbenev on the behaviour of coupled quantized spin-orbit motion. To this end we present a classical symplectic treatment of linear and non-linear spin-orbit motion for storage rings using a fully coupled eight-dimensional formalism which generalizes earlier investigations of coupled synchro-betatron oscillations by introducing two additional canonical spin variables which behave, in a small-angle limit, like those already used in linearised spin theory. Thus in addition to the usual x-z-s couplings, both the spin to orbit and orbit to spin coupling are described canonically. Since the spin Hamiltonian can be expanded in a Taylor series in canonical variables, the formalism is convenient for use in 8-dimensional symplectic tracking calculations with the help, for example, of Lie algebra or differential algebra for the study of chaotic spin motion, for construction of spin normal forms and for the study of the effect of Stern-Gerlach forces. (orig.)
Hanle Magnetoresistance in Thin Metal Films with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling.
Vélez, Saül; Golovach, Vitaly N; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Isasa, Miren; Sagasta, Edurne; Abadia, Mikel; Rogero, Celia; Hueso, Luis E; Bergeret, F Sebastian; Casanova, Fèlix
2016-01-08
We report measurements of a new type of magnetoresistance in Pt and Ta thin films. The spin accumulation created at the surfaces of the film by the spin Hall effect decreases in a magnetic field because of the Hanle effect, resulting in an increase of the electrical resistance as predicted by Dyakonov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126601 (2007)]. The angular dependence of this magnetoresistance resembles the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) bilayers, although the presence of a ferromagnetic insulator is not required. We show that this Hanle magnetoresistance is an alternative simple way to quantitatively study the coupling between charge and spin currents in metals with strong spin-orbit coupling.
Liu, Yahong; Guo, Qinghua; Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Yang, Biao; Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuang; Navarro-Cía, Miguel
2018-05-01
Spin-orbit coupling of light, describing the interaction between the polarization (spin) and spatial degrees of freedom (orbit) of light, plays an important role in subwavelength scale systems and leads to many interesting phenomena, such as the spin Hall effect of light. Here, based on the spin-orbit coupling, we design and fabricate a helical tape waveguide (HTW), which can realize a circular-polarization-selective process. When the incident circularly polarized wave is of the same handedness as the helix of the HTW, a nearly complete transmission is observed; in contrast, a counterrotating circular polarization of incident wave results in a much lower transmission or is even totally blocked by the HTW. Indeed, both simulations and experiments reveal that the blocked component of power leaks through the helical aperture of the HTW and forms a conical beam analogous to helical Cherenkov radiation due to the conversion from the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum. Our HTW structure demonstrates its potential as a polarization selector in a broadband frequency range.
Review of an emerging research field 'spin-orbit torques'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurebayashi, Hidekazu
2015-01-01
This Review will provide a landscape of the recent development of one of spintronics sub-fields, so-called 'spin orbit torques'. This new class of spin torques, arising from the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solid states, has gained a great deal of academic interest from relevant scientists and technologists. (author)
Impact of spin-orbit density dependent potential in heavy ion reactions forming Se nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajni; Sharma, Ishita; Sharma, Manoj K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India); Jain, Deepika [Mata Gujri College, Department of Physics, Fatehgarh Sahib (India)
2017-10-15
The Skyrme energy density formalism is employed to explore the effect of spin-orbit interaction potential by considering a two nucleon transfer process via various entrance channels such as {sup 23}Na + {sup 49}V, {sup 25}Mg + {sup 47}Ti, {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc, {sup 29}Si + {sup 43}Ca and {sup 31}P + {sup 41}K, all forming the same compound system {sup 72}Se*, using both spherical as well as quadrupole deformed (β{sub 2}) nuclei. For spherical nuclei, the spin-orbit density part V{sub J} of nuclear potential remains unaffected with the transfer of two nucleons from the target to the projectile, however, show notable variation in magnitude after inclusion of deformation effects. Likewise, deformations play an important role in the spin-orbit density independent part V{sub P}, as the fusion pocket start appears, which otherwise diminish for the spherical nuclei. Further, the effect of an increase in the N/Z ratio of Se is explored on V{sub J} as well as V{sub P} and results are compared with transfer channels. In addition to this, the role of double spin-orbit parameters (W{sub 0} and W{sub 0}{sup '}) with relative contribution of the isoscalar and isovector parts of spin-orbit strength is explored in view of SkI2, SkI3 and SkI4 Skyrme forces. Beside this, the decay path of {sup 72}Se* nucleus formed in {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction is investigated within the framework of dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), where the nuclear proximity potential is obtained by both Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF) and proximity pocket formula. The fusion hindrance in the {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction is also addressed via the barrier lowering parameter ΔV{sub B}. Finally, the contribution of spin-orbit density dependent interaction potential is estimated for the {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction using single (W{sub 0} or W{sub 0}{sup '}) and double spin-orbit parameters (W{sub 0} and W{sub 0}{sup '}). (orig.)
Efficient micromagnetic modelling of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque
Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Suess, Dieter
2018-05-01
While the spin-diffusion model is considered one of the most complete and accurate tools for the description of spin transport and spin torque, its solution in the context of dynamical micromagnetic simulations is numerically expensive. We propose a procedure to retrieve the free parameters of a simple macro-spin like spin-torque model through the spin-diffusion model. In case of spin-transfer torque the simplified model complies with the model of Slonczewski. A similar model can be established for the description of spin-orbit torque. In both cases the spin-diffusion model enables the retrieval of free model parameters from the geometry and the material parameters of the system. Since these parameters usually have to be determined phenomenologically through experiments, the proposed method combines the strength of the diffusion model to resolve material parameters and geometry with the high performance of simple torque models.
Dirac-fermions in graphene d-wave superconducting heterojunction with the spin orbit interaction
Wang, Juntao; Wang, Andong; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Deng; Yang, Yanling
2017-09-01
In this study, based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we theoretically investigate the interaction effect between the anisotropic d-wave pairing symmetry and the spin orbit interaction (the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction (DSOI)) in a graphene superconducting heterojunction. We find that the spin orbit interaction (SOI) plays a critical role on the tunneling conductance in the pristine case, but minimally affecting the tunneling conductance in the heavily doped case. As for the zero bias state, in contrast to the keep intact feature in the heavily doped case, it exhibits a distinct dependence on the RSOI and the DSOI in the pristine case. In particular, the damage of the zero bias state with a slight DSOI results in the disappearance of the zero bias conductance peak. Moreover, the tunneling conductances also show a qualitative difference with respect to the RSOI when both the RSOI and the DSOI are finite. These remarkable results suggest that the SOI and the anisotropic superconducting gap can be regarded as a key tool for diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection.
Spin dependent disorder in a junction device with spin orbit couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh
2016-01-01
Using the multi-probe Landauer-BUttiker formula and Green's function approach, we calculate the longitudinal conductance (LC) and spin Hall conductance (SHC) numerically in a two-dimensional junction system with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling (SOC) and spin dependent disorder (SDD) in presence of both random onsite and hopping disorder strengths. It has been found that when the strengths of the RSOC and DSOC are same, the SHC vanishes. Further in presence of random onsite or hopping disorder, the SHC is still zero when the strengths of the two types of SOC, that is Rashba and Dressselhaus are the same. This indicates that the cancellation of SHC is robust even in the presence of random disorder. Only with the inclusion of SDD (onsite or hopping), a non-zero SHC is found and it increases as the strength of SDD increases. The physical implication of the existence of a non-zero SHC has been explored in this work. Finally, we have compared the effect of onsite SDD and hopping SDD on both longitudinal and spin Hall conductances. (paper)
Room-Temperature Spin-Orbit Torque Switching Induced by a Topological Insulator
Han, Jiahao; Richardella, A.; Siddiqui, Saima A.; Finley, Joseph; Samarth, N.; Liu, Luqiao
2017-08-01
The strongly spin-momentum coupled electronic states in topological insulators (TI) have been extensively pursued to realize efficient magnetic switching. However, previous studies show a large discrepancy of the charge-spin conversion efficiency. Moreover, current-induced magnetic switching with TI can only be observed at cryogenic temperatures. We report spin-orbit torque switching in a TI-ferrimagnet heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at room temperature. The obtained effective spin Hall angle of TI is substantially larger than the previously studied heavy metals. Our results demonstrate robust charge-spin conversion in TI and provide a direct avenue towards applicable TI-based spintronic devices.
Spin-orbit coupling and electric-dipole spin resonance in a nanowire double quantum dot.
Liu, Zhi-Hai; Li, Rui; Hu, Xuedong; You, J Q
2018-02-02
We study the electric-dipole transitions for a single electron in a double quantum dot located in a semiconductor nanowire. Enabled by spin-orbit coupling (SOC), electric-dipole spin resonance (EDSR) for such an electron can be generated via two mechanisms: the SOC-induced intradot pseudospin states mixing and the interdot spin-flipped tunneling. The EDSR frequency and strength are determined by these mechanisms together. For both mechanisms the electric-dipole transition rates are strongly dependent on the external magnetic field. Their competition can be revealed by increasing the magnetic field and/or the interdot distance for the double dot. To clarify whether the strong SOC significantly impact the electron state coherence, we also calculate relaxations from excited levels via phonon emission. We show that spin-flip relaxations can be effectively suppressed by the phonon bottleneck effect even at relatively low magnetic fields because of the very large g-factor of strong SOC materials such as InSb.
DISCERNING EXOPLANET MIGRATION MODELS USING SPIN-ORBIT MEASUREMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morton, Timothy D.; Johnson, John Asher
2011-01-01
We investigate the current sample of exoplanet spin-orbit measurements to determine whether a dominant planet migration channel can be identified, and at what confidence. We use the predictions of Kozai migration plus tidal friction and planet-planet scattering as our misalignment models, and we allow for a fraction of intrinsically aligned systems, explainable by disk migration. Bayesian model comparison demonstrates that the current sample of 32 spin-orbit measurements strongly favors a two-mode migration scenario combining planet-planet scattering and disk migration over a single-mode Kozai migration scenario. Our analysis indicates that between 34% and 76% of close-in planets (95% confidence) migrated via planet-planet scattering. Separately analyzing the subsample of 12 stars with T eff >6250 K-which Winn et al. predict to be the only type of stars to maintain their primordial misalignments-we find that the data favor a single-mode scattering model over Kozai with 85% confidence. We also assess the number of additional hot star spin-orbit measurements that will likely be necessary to provide a more confident model selection, finding that an additional 20-30 measurement has a >50% chance of resulting in a 95% confident model selection, if the current model selection is correct. While we test only the predictions of particular Kozai and scattering migration models in this work, our methods may be used to test the predictions of any other spin-orbit misaligning mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)
2013-05-28
A novel restricted-open-shell configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) approach for the calculation of transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra is introduced. In this method, one first calculates the ground state and a number of excited states of the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. By construction, the total spin is a good quantum number in each of these states. For a ground state with total spin S excited states with spin S Prime = S, S - 1, and S + 1 are constructed. Using Wigner-Eckart algebra, all magnetic sublevels with M{sub S}= S, Horizontal-Ellipsis , -S for each multiplet of spin S are obtained. The spin-orbit operator is represented by a mean-field approximation to the full Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator and is diagonalized over this N-particle basis. This is equivalent to a quasi-degenerate treatment of the spin-orbit interaction to all orders. Importantly, the excitation space spans all of the molecular multiplets that arise from the atomic Russell-Saunders terms. Hence, the method represents a rigorous first-principles approach to the complicated low-symmetry molecular multiplet problem met in L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to gain computational efficiency, as well as additional accuracy, the excitation space is restricted to single excitations and the configuration interaction matrix is slightly parameterized in order to account for dynamic correlation effects in an average way. To this end, it is advantageous to employ Kohn-Sham rather than Hartree-Fock orbitals thus defining the density functional theory/ROCIS method. However, the method can also be used in an entirely non-empirical fashion. Only three global empirical parameters are introduced and have been determined here for future application of the method to any system containing any transition metal. The three parameters were carefully calibrated using the L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra of a test set of coordination complexes containing first row
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can Onur; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-10-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques are one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices, and hold promise for fast switching applications in non-volatile memory and logic units. Here, we report the direct observation of spin-orbit-torque-driven magnetization dynamics in Pt/Co/AlOx dots during current pulse injection. Time-resolved X-ray images with 25 nm spatial and 100 ps temporal resolution reveal that switching is achieved within the duration of a subnanosecond current pulse by the fast nucleation of an inverted domain at the edge of the dot and propagation of a tilted domain wall across the dot. The nucleation point is deterministic and alternates between the four dot quadrants depending on the sign of the magnetization, current and external field. Our measurements reveal how the magnetic symmetry is broken by the concerted action of the damping-like and field-like spin-orbit torques and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and show that reproducible switching events can be obtained for over 1012 reversal cycles.
Scattering resonances in a low-dimensional Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupled quantum gas
Wang, Su-Ju; Blume, D.
2017-04-01
Confinement-induced resonances allow for the tuning of the effective one-dimensional coupling constant. When the scattering state associated with the ground transverse mode is brought into resonance with the bound state attached to the energetically excited transverse modes, the atoms interact through an infinitely strong repulsion. This provides a route to realize the Tonks-Girardeau gas. On the other hand, the realization of synthetic gauge fields in cold atomic systems has attracted a lot of attention. For instance, bound-state formation is found to be significantly modified in the presence of spin-orbit coupling in three dimensions. This motivates us to study ultracold collisions between two Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupled atoms in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry. We develop a multi-channel scattering formalism that accounts for the external transverse confinement and the spin-orbit coupling terms. The interplay between these two single-particle terms is shown to give rise to new scattering resonances. In particular, it is analyzed what happens when the scattering energy crosses the various scattering thresholds that arise from the single-particle confinement and the spin-orbit coupling. Support by the NSF is gratefully acknowledged.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chai Zheng; Hu Mao-Jin; Wang Rui-Qiang; Hu Liang-Bin
2014-01-01
We study the theoretical effect of k-cubic (i.e. cubic-in-momentum) Dresselhaus spin—orbit coupling on the decay time of persistent spin helix states in semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases. We show that the decay time of persistent spin helix states may be suppressed substantially by k-cubic Dresselhaus spin—orbit coupling, and after taking the effect of k-cubic Dresselhaus spin—orbit interaction into account, the theoretical results obtained accord both qualitatively and quantitatively with other recent experimental results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Spin–orbit induced electronic spin separation in semiconductor nanostructures
Kohda, Makoto; Nakamura, Shuji; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Taiki; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-01-01
The demonstration of quantized spin splitting by Stern and Gerlach is one of the most important experiments in modern physics. Their discovery was the precursor of recent developments in spin-based technologies. Although electrical spin separation of charged particles is fundamental in spintronics, in non-uniform magnetic fields it has been difficult to separate the spin states of charged particles due to the Lorentz force, as well as to the insufficient and uncontrollable field gradients. Here we demonstrate electronic spin separation in a semiconductor nanostructure. To avoid the Lorentz force, which is inevitably induced when an external magnetic field is applied, we utilized the effective non-uniform magnetic field which originates from the Rashba spin–orbit interaction in an InGaAs-based heterostructure. Using a Stern–Gerlach-inspired mechanism, together with a quantum point contact, we obtained field gradients of 108 T m−1 resulting in a highly polarized spin current. PMID:23011136
Extraction of Spin-Orbit Interactions from Phase Shifts via Inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lun, D.R.; Buckman, S.J.
1997-01-01
An exact inversion procedure for obtaining the central and spin-orbit potential from phase shifts at fixed energy is described. The method, based on Sabatier interpolation formulas, reduces the nonlinear problem to linear-algebraic equations. We have tested the method with a Woods-Saxon potential with a strong spin-orbit component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K
2011-01-01
We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)
Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces.
Yin, Xiaobo; Ye, Ziliang; Rho, Junsuk; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2013-03-22
The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light is very weak because of the extremely small photon momentum and spin-orbit interaction. Here, we report a strong photonic SHE resulting in a measured large splitting of polarized light at metasurfaces. The rapidly varying phase discontinuities along a metasurface, breaking the axial symmetry of the system, enable the direct observation of large transverse motion of circularly polarized light, even at normal incidence. The strong spin-orbit interaction deviates the polarized light from the trajectory prescribed by the ordinary Fermat principle. Such a strong and broadband photonic SHE may provide a route for exploiting the spin and orbit angular momentum of light for information processing and communication.
Kunihashi, Yoji; Sanada, Haruki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Gotoh, Hideki; Onomitsu, Koji; Nakagawara, Keita; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku; Sogawa, Tetsuomi
2017-11-01
We investigated the effect of an in-plane electric field on drifting spins in a GaAs quantum well. Kerr rotation images of the drifting spins revealed that the spin precession wavelength increases with increasing drift velocity regardless of the transport direction. A model developed for drifting spins with a heated electron distribution suggests that the in-plane electric field enhances the effective magnetic field component originating from the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2015-10-26
A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.
Spin-splitting calculation for zincblende semiconductors using an atomic bond-orbital model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, Hsiu-Fen; Lo, Ikai; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Wu, Chieh-Lung; Gau, Ming-Hong; Chen, Chun-Nan; Ren, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Meng-En
2012-01-01
We develop a 16-band atomic bond-orbital model (16ABOM) to compute the spin splitting induced by bulk inversion asymmetry in zincblende materials. This model is derived from the linear combination of atomic-orbital (LCAO) scheme such that the characteristics of the real atomic orbitals can be preserved to calculate the spin splitting. The Hamiltonian of 16ABOM is based on a similarity transformation performed on the nearest-neighbor LCAO Hamiltonian with a second-order Taylor expansion over k-vector at the Γ point. The spin-splitting energies in bulk zincblende semiconductors, GaAs and InSb, are calculated, and the results agree with the LCAO and first-principles calculations. However, we find that the spin-orbit coupling between bonding and antibonding p-like states, evaluated by the 16ABOM, dominates the spin splitting of the lowest conduction bands in the zincblende materials.
The BANANA Survey: Spin-Orbit Alignment in Binary Stars
Albrecht, Simon; Winn, J. N.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Torres, G.; Setiawan, J.
2012-04-01
Binaries are not always neatly aligned. Previous observations of the DI Herculis system showed that the spin axes of both stars are highly inclined with respect to one another and the orbital axis. Here, we report on our ongoing survey to measure relative orientations of spin-axes in a number of eclipsing binary systems. These observations will hopefully lead to new insights into star and planet formation, as different formation scenarios predict different degrees of alignment and different dependencies on the system parameters. Measurements of spin-orbit angles in close binary systems will also create a basis for comparison for similar measurements involving close-in planets.
A spin-orbital-entangled quantum liquid on a honeycomb lattice
Kitagawa, K.; Takayama, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kato, A.; Takano, R.; Kishimoto, Y.; Bette, S.; Dinnebier, R.; Jackeli, G.; Takagi, H.
2018-02-01
The honeycomb lattice is one of the simplest lattice structures. Electrons and spins on this simple lattice, however, often form exotic phases with non-trivial excitations. Massless Dirac fermions can emerge out of itinerant electrons, as demonstrated experimentally in graphene, and a topological quantum spin liquid with exotic quasiparticles can be realized in spin-1/2 magnets, as proposed theoretically in the Kitaev model. The quantum spin liquid is a long-sought exotic state of matter, in which interacting spins remain quantum-disordered without spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Kitaev model describes one example of a quantum spin liquid, and can be solved exactly by introducing two types of Majorana fermion. Realizing a Kitaev model in the laboratory, however, remains a challenge in materials science. Mott insulators with a honeycomb lattice of spin-orbital-entangled pseudospin-1/2 moments have been proposed, including the 5d-electron systems α-Na2IrO3 (ref. 5) and α-Li2IrO3 (ref. 6) and the 4d-electron system α-RuCl3 (ref. 7). However, these candidates were found to magnetically order rather than form a liquid at sufficiently low temperatures, owing to non-Kitaev interactions. Here we report a quantum-liquid state of pseudospin-1/2 moments in the 5d-electron honeycomb compound H3LiIr2O6. This iridate does not display magnetic ordering down to 0.05 kelvin, despite an interaction energy of about 100 kelvin. We observe signatures of low-energy fermionic excitations that originate from a small number of spin defects in the nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation and the specific heat. We therefore conclude that H3LiIr2O6 is a quantum spin liquid. This result opens the door to finding exotic quasiparticles in a strongly spin-orbit-coupled 5d-electron transition-metal oxide.
Spin Interference in Rectangle Loop Based on Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia-Ting, Ni; Bin, Chen; Xiao-Wan, Liang; Koga, T.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the amplitude and spin polarization of AAS oscillation changing with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Dresselhaus SOI. The amplitude and spin polarization of AB oscillation changing with Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI are demonstrated as well. The ideal quasi-one-dimensional square loop does not exist in reality, therefore to match the experiment better we should consider the shape of the rectangle loop in theory
Zhu, Zhiyong
2011-10-14
Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.
Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2011-01-01
Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.
Influence of the spin-orbit coupling on nuclear superfluidity along the N=Z line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juillet, O.; Josse, S.
2000-01-01
We show that the spin-orbit potential of the nuclear mean field destroys isoscalar superfluid correlations in self-conjugate nuclei. Using group theory and boson mapping techniques on a Hamiltonian including single particle splittings and a SO ST (8) pairing interaction, we give analytical expression for the spin-orbit dependence of some N =Z properties such as the relative position of T = 0 and T = 1 states in odd-odd systems or double binding-energy differences of even-even nuclei. (authors)
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-01
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2018-04-02
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)
2016-04-25
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; Loubens, G. de; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.
2016-01-01
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien
2014-01-01
We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern
Zero field spin splitting in asymmetric quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
Spin splitting of asymmetric quantum wells is theoretically investigated in the absence of any electric field, including the contribution of interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction as well as linear and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The effect of interface asymmetry on three types of spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The results show that interface-related Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be increased and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be decreased by well structure design. For wide quantum wells, the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction dominates under certain conditions, resulting in decreased spin relaxation time.
Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skinner, T. D., E-mail: tds32@cam.ac.uk; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Rushforth, A. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2014-02-10
Current-induced torques in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers were investigated using an electrically driven ferromagnetic resonance technique. The angle dependence of the resonances, detected by a rectification effect as a voltage, was analysed to determine the symmetries and relative magnitudes of the spin-orbit torques. Both anti-damping (Slonczewski) and field-like torques were observed. As the ferromagnet thickness was reduced from 3 to 1 nm, the sign of the sum of the field-like torque and Oersted torque reversed. This observation is consistent with the emergence of a Rashba spin orbit torque in ultra-thin bilayers.
Single-Particle Spin-Orbit Splittings in Nuclei
Kazuhiko, ANDO; Hiroharu, BANDO; Department of Physics, Kyoto University; Division of Mathematical Physics, Fukui University
1981-01-01
Single-particle spin-orbit splittings (Δ^) in ^O and ^Ca nuclei are evaluated within the framework of the effective interaction theory by employing the Reid soft-core potential and meson-exchange three-body forces (TBF). Among the two-body force contributions, the Pauli-rearrangement effect on Δ^ is studied with special care. The TBF contribution to Δ^ is found to be significant. The G-matrix, the second-order pauli-rearrangement and the TBF contribute to Δ^ by the amount of ～1/2, ～1/5 and ～1...
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
Spin Hall conductance in a Y-shaped junction device in presence of tunable spin-orbit coupling
Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh
2017-06-01
We study spin Hall effect in a three terminal Y-shaped device in presence of tunable spin-orbit (SO) interactions via Landauer-Büttiker formalism. We have evolved a fabrication technique for creating different angular separation between the two arms of the Y-shaped device so as to investigate the effect of angular width on the spin Hall conductance (SHC). A smaller angular separation yields a larger conductance. Also arbitrary orientation of the spin quantization axes yields interesting three dimensional contour maps for the SHC corresponding to different angular separation of the Y-shaped device. In addition to the GSH demonstrating bounded behaviour for different angular separations, there are distinct symmetry axes about which SHC demonstrates reflection symmetry. The results explicitly show breaking of the spin rotational symmetry. Further a systematic study is carried out to compare and contrast between the different SO terms, such as Rashba and Dresselhaus SO interactions and the interplay of the angular separation therein.
Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong
2008-09-15
We demonstrate that single photons from a rotating q-plate exhibit an entanglement in three degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum, and the rotational Doppler shift (RDS) due to the nonconservation of total spin and orbital angular momenta. We find that the rotational Doppler shift deltaomega = Omega((delta)s + deltal) , where s, l and Omega are quantum numbers of spin, orbital angular momentum, and rotating velocity of the q-plate, respectively. Of interest is that the rotational Doppler shift directly reflects the rotational symmetry of q-plates and can be also expressed as deltaomega = (Omega)n , where n = 2(q-1) denotes the fold number of rotational symmetry. Besides, based on this single-photon spin-orbit-RDS entanglement, we propose an experimental scheme to sort photons of different frequency shifts according to individual orbital angular momentum.
On the difference between proton and neutron spin-orbit splittings in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, V.I.; Erokhina, K.I.; Mach, H.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Fogelberg, B.
2002-01-01
The latest experimental data on nuclei at 132 Sn permit us for the first time to determine the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbits in this neutron-rich doubly magic region and compare the case to that of 208 Pb. Using the new results, which are now consistent for the two neutron-rich doubly magic regions, a theoretical analysis defines the isotopic dependence of the mean-field spin-orbit potential and leads to a simple explicit expression for the difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons. The isotopic dependence is explained in the framework of different theoretical approaches. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.
2006-12-01
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niţa, Marian; Ostahie, Bogdan; Marinescu, D C; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2012-01-01
When subjected to a linearly polarized terahertz pulse, a mesoscopic ring endowed with spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of the Rashba-Dresselhaus type exhibits non-uniform azimuthal charge and spin distributions. Both types of SOI couplings are considered linear in the electron momentum. Our results are obtained within a formalism based on the equation of motion satisfied by the density operator which is solved numerically for different values of the angle φ, the angle determining the polarization direction of the laser pulse. Solutions thus obtained are later employed in determining the time-dependent charge and spin currents, whose values are calculated in the stationary limit. Both these currents exhibit an oscillatory behavior complicated in the case of the spin current by a beating pattern. We explain this occurrence on account of the two spin-orbit interactions which force the electron spin to oscillate between the two spin quantization axes corresponding to Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions. The oscillation frequencies are explained using the single particle spectrum.
Role of Orbital Dynamics in Spin Relaxation and Weak Antilocalization in Quantum Dots
Zaitsev, Oleg; Frustaglia, Diego; Richter, Klaus
2005-01-01
We develop a semiclassical theory for spin-dependent quantum transport to describe weak (anti)localization in quantum dots with spin-orbit coupling. This allows us to distinguish different types of spin relaxation in systems with chaotic, regular, and diffusive orbital classical dynamics. We find, in particular, that for typical Rashba spin-orbit coupling strengths, integrable ballistic systems can exhibit weak localization, while corresponding chaotic systems show weak antilocalization. We further calculate the magnetoconductance and analyze how the weak antilocalization is suppressed with decreasing quantum dot size and increasing additional in-plane magnetic field.
Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2015-07-16
We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.
Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Otani, Y.; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-01-01
We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giner, Emmanuel, E-mail: gnrmnl@unife.it; Angeli, Celestino, E-mail: anc@unife.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Famaceutiche, Universita di Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)
2016-03-14
The present work describes a new method to compute accurate spin densities for open shell systems. The proposed approach follows two steps: first, it provides molecular orbitals which correctly take into account the spin delocalization; second, a proper CI treatment allows to account for the spin polarization effect while keeping a restricted formalism and avoiding spin contamination. The main idea of the optimization procedure is based on the orbital relaxation of the various charge transfer determinants responsible for the spin delocalization. The algorithm is tested and compared to other existing methods on a series of organic and inorganic open shell systems. The results reported here show that the new approach (almost black-box) provides accurate spin densities at a reasonable computational cost making it suitable for a systematic study of open shell systems.
Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2017-09-01
In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.
Intronati, Guido A; Tamborenea, Pablo I; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A
2012-01-06
We identify the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling as the source of the dominant spin-relaxation mechanism in the impurity band of a wide class of n-doped zinc blende semiconductors. The Dresselhaus hopping terms are derived and incorporated into a tight-binding model of impurity sites, and they are shown to unexpectedly dominate the spin relaxation, leading to spin-relaxation times in good agreement with experimental values. This conclusion is drawn from two complementary approaches: an analytical diffusive-evolution calculation and a numerical finite-size scaling study of the spin-relaxation time.
Spin-to-orbital momentum conversion via electro-optic Pockels effect in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yurij; Smaga, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav
2011-01-01
In the present work we have demonstrated a possibility for operation by orbital angular momentum (OAM) of optical beams via the Pockels effect in solid-crystalline materials. Based on the analysis of an optical Fresnel ellipsoid perturbed by a conically shaped electric field, we have shown that the point groups of crystals convenient for the conversion of spin angular momentum (SAM) to OAM should contain a threefold symmetry axis or a sixfold inversion axis. The results of our experimental studies and theoretical simulations of the SAM-to-OAM conversion efficiency carried out for LiNbO 3 crystals agree well with each other.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entin-Wohlman, O.
2005-01-01
Full Text:The spin-Hall effect is described. The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are both shown to yield the low temperature spin-Hall effect for strongly localized electrons coupled to phonons. A frequency-dependent electric field E(ω) generates a spin-polarization current, normal to E, due to interference of hopping paths. At zero temperature the corresponding spin-Hall conductivity is real and is proportional to ω 2 . At non-zero temperatures the coupling to the phonons yields an imaginary term proportional to ω. The interference also yields persistent spin currents at thermal equilibrium, at E = 0. The contributions from the Dresselhaus and Rashba interactions to the interference oppose each other
Oh, J H; Lee, K-J; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Shin, M
2014-05-14
Starting with the indirect exchange model influenced by the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we derive the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction of localized spins. The strength of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is compared with that of the Heisenberg exchange term as a function of atomic distance. Using the calculated interaction strengths, we discuss the formation of various atomic ground states as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. By plotting the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram, we present approximate phase boundaries between the spiral, Skyrmion and ferromagnetic states of the two-dimensional weak ferromagnetic system.
Fermionic Hubbard model with Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming
2017-06-01
In this work, we investigate the possible dramatic effects of Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the fermionic Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice. In the strong coupling limit, it leads to the rotated antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model which is a new class of quantum spin model. For a special equivalent class, we identify a new spin-orbital entangled commensurate ground (Y-y) state subject to strong quantum fluctuations at T = 0. We evaluate the quantum fluctuations by the spin wave expansion up to order 1/{S}2. In some SOC parameter regimes, the Y-y state supports a massive relativistic incommensurate magnon (C-IC) with its two gap minima positions continuously tuned by the SOC parameters. The C-IC magnons dominate all the low temperature thermodynamic quantities and also lead to the separation of the peak positions between the longitudinal and the transverse spin structure factors. In the weak coupling limit, any weak repulsive interaction also leads to a weak Y-y state. There is only a crossover from the weak to the strong coupling. High temperature expansions of the specific heats in both weak and strong coupling are presented. The dramatic roles to be played by these C-IC magnons at generic SOC parameters or under various external probes are hinted at. Experimental applications to both layered noncentrosymmetric materials and cold atoms are discussed.
Gate tunable spin transport in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
Tan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Litao
2016-10-01
Recently, it attracts much attention to study spin-resolved transport properties in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). One remarkable finding is that Klein tunneling in single layer graphene (SLG) with RSOC (SLG + R for short below) behaves as in bi-layer graphene (BLG). Based on the effective Dirac theory, we reconsider this tunneling problem and derive the analytical solution for the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that Klein tunneling in SLG + R and BLG exhibits completely different behaviors. More importantly, we find two new transmission selection rules in SLG + R, i.e., the single band to single band (S → S) and the single band to multiple bands (S → M) transmission regimes, which strongly depend on the relative height among Fermi level, RSOC, and potential barrier. Interestingly, in the S → S transmission regime, only normally incident electrons have capacity to pass through the barrier, while in the S → M transmission regime the angle-dependent tunneling becomes very prominent. Using the transmission coefficients, we also derive spin-resolved conductance analytically, and conductance oscillation with the increasing barrier height and zero conductance gap are found in SLG + R. The present study offers new insights and opportunities for developing graphene-based spin devices.
Calculation of spin and orbital magnetizations in Fe slab systems at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garibay-Alonso, R [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Conjunto Universitario Camporredondo, Edificio ' D' , 25000 Saltillo (Mexico); Reyes-Reyes, M [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis PotosI, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Urrutia-Banuelos, EfraIn [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis PotosI (Mexico)
2010-02-10
The temperature dependence of spin and orbital local magnetizations is theoretically determined for the non-bulk atomic region of (001) and (110) Fe slab systems. A d band Hamiltonian, including spin-orbit coupling terms, was used to model the slabs, which were emulated by using Fe films of sufficient thickness to reach a bulk behavior at their most inner atomic layers. The temperature effects were considered within the static approximation and a simple mean field theory was used to integrate the local magnetic moment and charge thermal fluctuations. The results reflect a clear interplay between electronic itinerancy and the local atomic environment and they can be physically interpreted from the local small charge transfers occurring in the superficial region of the slabs. For recovering the experimental behavior on the results for the (001) slab system, the geometrical relaxations at its non-bulk atomic layers and a d band filling variation are required. A study on the magnetic anisotropy aspects in the superficial region of the slabs is additionally performed by analyzing the results for the orbital local magnetization calculated along two different magnetization directions in both slab systems.
Classical emergence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction of light at the nanoscale
Vázquez-Lozano, J. Enrique; Martínez, Alejandro
2018-03-01
Traditionally, in macroscopic geometrical optics intrinsic polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light can be treated independently. However, at the subwavelength scale these properties appear to be coupled together, giving rise to the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of light. In this work we address theoretically the classical emergence of the optical SOI at the nanoscale. By means of a full-vector analysis involving spherical vector waves we show that the spin-orbit factorizability condition, accounting for the mutual influence between the amplitude (spin) and phase (orbit), is fulfilled only in the far-field limit. On the other side, in the near-field region, an additional relative phase introduces an extra term that hinders the factorization and reveals an intricate dynamical behavior according to the SOI regime. As a result, we find a suitable theoretical framework able to capture analytically the main features of intrinsic SOI of light. Besides allowing for a better understanding into the mechanism leading to its classical emergence at the nanoscale, our approach may be useful to design experimental setups that enhance the response of SOI-based effects.
Superconductivity and spin excitations in orbitally ordered FeSe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreisel, Andreas; Andersen, Brian M. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Mukherjee, Shantanu [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY (United States); Hirschfeld, Peter J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2016-07-01
We provide a band-structure with low-energy properties consistent with recent photoemission and quantum oscillations measurements on the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, including a mean-field like orbital ordering in the d{sub xz}/d{sub yz} channel, and show that this model also accounts for the temperature dependence of the measured Knight shift and the spin-relaxation rate. An RPA calculation of the dynamical spin susceptibility yields spin excitations which are peaked at wave vector (π,0) in the 1-Fe Brillouin zone, with a broad maximum at energies of order a few meV. Furthermore, the superconducting gap structure obtained from spin fluctuation theory exhibits nodes on the electron pockets, consistent with the 'V'-shaped density of states measured by tunneling spectroscopy on this material. The redistribution of spectral weight in the superconducting state creates a (π,0) ''neutron resonance'' as seen in recent experiments. Comparing to various experimental results, we give predictions for further studies.
Generalized Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling for cold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Ruseckas, Julius; Dalibard, Jean
2010-01-01
We study the possibility for generating a new type of spin-orbit coupling for the center-of-mass motion of cold atoms, using laser beams that resonantly couple N atomic internal ground states to an extra state. After a general analysis of the scheme, we concentrate on the tetrapod setup (N=4) where the atomic state can be described by a three-component spinor, evolving under the action of a Rashba-Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling for a spin 1 particle. We illustrate a consequence of this coupling by studying the negative refraction of atoms at a potential step and show that the amplitude of the refracted beam is significantly increased in comparison to the known case of spin 1/2 Rashba-Dresselhaus coupling. Finally, we explore a possible implementation of this tetrapod setup, using stimulated Raman couplings between Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of alkali-metal atoms.
Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.
Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J
2015-07-31
We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.
Energy-level repulsion by spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional Rydberg excitons
Stephanovich, V. A.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Zinner, N. T.; Marchukov, O. V.
2018-05-01
We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on two-dimensional Rydberg exciton systems. Using analytical and numerical arguments we demonstrate that this coupling considerably modifies the wave functions and leads to a level repulsion that results in a deviation from the Poissonian statistics of the adjacent level distance distribution. This signifies the crossover to nonintegrability of the system and hints at the possibility of quantum chaos emerging. Such behavior strongly differs from the classical realization, where spin-orbit coupling produces highly entangled, chaotic electron trajectories in an exciton. We also calculate the oscillator strengths and show that randomization appears in the transitions between states with different total momenta.
Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-05-17
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.
Gou, Xing-wang; Li, Ai-jun; Tian, Hao-chang; Wang, Chang-qing; Lu, Hong-shi
2018-06-01
As the major part of space life supporting systems, artificial gravity requires further study before it becomes mature. Spinning tether system is a good alternative solution to provide artificial gravity for the whole spacecraft other than additional devices, and its longer tether length could significantly reduce spinning velocity and thus enhance comfortability. An approximated overload-based feedback method is proposed to provide estimated spinning velocity signals for controller, so that gravity level could be accurately controlled without complicated GPS modules. System behavior in high eccentricity transfer orbits is also studied to give a complete knowledge of the spinning stabilities. The application range of the proposed method is studied in various orbit cases and spinning velocities, indicating that it is accurate and reliable for most of the mission phases especially for the final constant gravity level phase. In order to provide stable gravity level for transfer orbit missions, a sliding mode controller based on estimated angular signals is designed for closed-loop control. Numerical results indicate that the combination of overload-based feedback and sliding mode controller could satisfy most of the long-term artificial gravity missions. It is capable of forming flexible gravity environment in relatively good accuracy even in the lowest possible orbital radiuses and high eccentricity orbits of crewed space missions. The proposed scheme provides an effective tether solution for the artificial gravity construction in interstellar travel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gisi, B; Sakiroglu, S; Sokmen, İ
2016-01-01
In this work, we investigate the effects of interplay of spin–orbit interaction and in-plane magnetic fields on the electronic structure and spin texturing of parabolically confined quantum wire. Numerical results reveal that the competing effects between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and the external magnetic field lead to a complicated energy spectrum. We find that the spin texturing owing to the coupling between subbands can be modified by the strength of spin–orbit couplings as well as the magnitude and the orientation angle of the external magnetic field. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Yin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Jun, E-mail: xujun@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Bao-An [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Shen, Wen-Qing [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2016-11-15
The spin up-down splitting of collective flows in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions as a result of the nuclear spin–orbit interaction is investigated within a spin- and isospin-dependent Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck transport model SIBUU12. Using a Skyrme-type spin–orbit coupling quadratic in momentum, we found that the spin splittings of the directed flow and elliptic flow are largest in peripheral Au+Au collisions at beam energies of about 100–200 MeV/nucleon, and the effect is considerable even in smaller systems especially for nucleons with high transverse momenta. The collective flows of light clusters of different spin states are also investigated using an improved dynamical coalescence model with spin. Our study can be important in understanding the properties of in-medium nuclear spin–orbit interactions once the spin-dependent observables proposed in this work can be measured.
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Missevitch, O. V.; Yarman, T.
2017-09-01
We carry out the classical analysis of spin-orbit coupling in hydrogen-like atoms, using the modern expressions for the force and energy of an electric/magnetic dipole in an electromagnetic field. We disclose a novel physical meaning of this effect and show that for a laboratory observer the energy of spin-orbit interaction is represented solely by the mechanical energy of the spinning electron (considered as a gyroscope) due to the Thomas precession of its spin. Concurrently we disclose some errors in the old and new publications on this subject.
Von Neumann entropy in a Rashba-Dresselhaus nanodot; dynamical electronic spin-orbit entanglement
Safaiee, Rosa; Golshan, Mohammad Mehdi
2017-06-01
The main purpose of the present article is to report the characteristics of von Neumann entropy, thereby, the electronic hybrid entanglement, in the heterojunction of two semiconductors, with due attention to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. To this end, we cast the von Neumann entropy in terms of spin polarization and compute its time evolution; with a vast span of applications. It is assumed that gate potentials are applied to the heterojunction, providing a two dimensional parabolic confining potential (forming an isotropic nanodot at the junction), as well as means of controlling the spin-orbit couplings. The spin degeneracy is also removed, even at electronic zero momentum, by the presence of an external magnetic field which, in turn, leads to the appearance of Landau states. We then proceed by computing the time evolution of the corresponding von Neumann entropy from a separable (spin-polarized) initial state. The von Neumann entropy, as we show, indicates that electronic hybrid entanglement does occur between spin and two-dimensional Landau levels. Our results also show that von Neumann entropy, as well as the degree of spin-orbit entanglement, periodically collapses and revives. The characteristics of such behavior; period, amplitude, etc., are shown to be determined from the controllable external agents. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the phenomenon of collapse-revivals' in the behavior of von Neumann entropy, equivalently, electronic hybrid entanglement, is accompanied by plateaus (of great importance in quantum computation schemes) whose durations are, again, controlled by the external elements. Along these lines, we also make a comparison between effects of the two spin-orbit couplings on the entanglement (von Neumann entropy) characteristics. The finer details of the electronic hybrid entanglement, which may be easily verified through spin polarization measurements, are also accreted and discussed. The novel results of the present
Electromagnetic spin–orbit interaction and giant spin-Hall effect in dielectric particle clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yineng [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing (China)
2013-12-09
We report a phenomenon that electromagnetic spin–orbit interactions can be tailored by dielectric nanoparticles, and self-similar giant spin-Hall effect has been observed in the dielectric particle cluster. The near-field phase singularities and phase vorticity in the longitudinal component of scattered field can also be controlled by such a dielectric structure. The origin of phenomena is believed to be due to the collective resonance excitation in the dielectric particle cluster. It is expected to find applications in optics information processing and designing new nanophotonic devices.
Bell-like inequality for the spin-orbit separability of a laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, C. V. S.; Hor-Meyll, M.; Khoury, A. Z.; Huguenin, J. A. O.
2010-01-01
In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the nonseparability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and nonseparable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160401 (2007). As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for nonseparable modes. The inequality is discussed in both the classical and quantum domains.
Exact results relating spin-orbit interactions in two-dimensional strongly correlated systems
Kucska, Nóra; Gulácsi, Zsolt
2018-06-01
A 2D square, two-bands, strongly correlated and non-integrable system is analysed exactly in the presence of many-body spin-orbit interactions via the method of Positive Semidefinite Operators. The deduced exact ground states in the high concentration limit are strongly entangled, and given by the spin-orbit coupling are ferromagnetic and present an enhanced carrier mobility, which substantially differs for different spin projections. The described state emerges in a restricted parameter space region, which however is clearly accessible experimentally. The exact solutions are provided via the solution of a matching system of equations containing 74 coupled, non-linear and complex algebraic equations. In our knowledge, other exact results for 2D interacting systems with spin-orbit interactions are not present in the literature.
The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot system
Akbari, M.; Rezaei, G.; Khordad, R.
2017-01-01
We study the impact of the spin-orbit coupling due to both structure and crystal inversion asymmetry and external magnetic field on the level structure in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot. It is demonstrated that, both the spin-orbit interactions and magnetic field strength have a great influence on energy eigenvalues of the system. Also, we found that an increase in magnetic field enhances the spin-orbit coupling strength. This phenomena leads to increase the energy eigenvalues and energy splitting due to the spin-orbit coupling.
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.
2017-12-08
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Nikolaev, S. A.
2017-01-01
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Control of spin-orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers
MacNeill, D.; Stiehl, G. M.; Guimaraes, M. H. D.; Buhrman, R. A.; Park, J.; Ralph, D. C.
2017-03-01
Recent discoveries regarding current-induced spin-orbit torques produced by heavy-metal/ferromagnet and topological-insulator/ferromagnet bilayers provide the potential for dramatically improved efficiency in the manipulation of magnetic devices. However, in experiments performed to date, spin-orbit torques have an important limitation--the component of torque that can compensate magnetic damping is required by symmetry to lie within the device plane. This means that spin-orbit torques can drive the most current-efficient type of magnetic reversal (antidamping switching) only for magnetic devices with in-plane anisotropy, not the devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that are needed for high-density applications. Here we show experimentally that this state of affairs is not fundamental, but rather one can change the allowed symmetries of spin-orbit torques in spin-source/ferromagnet bilayer devices by using a spin-source material with low crystalline symmetry. We use WTe2, a transition-metal dichalcogenide whose surface crystal structure has only one mirror plane and no two-fold rotational invariance. Consistent with these symmetries, we generate an out-of-plane antidamping torque when current is applied along a low-symmetry axis of WTe2/Permalloy bilayers, but not when current is applied along a high-symmetry axis. Controlling spin-orbit torques by crystal symmetries in multilayer samples provides a new strategy for optimizing future magnetic technologies.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan; Wu, Jun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuelei; Manchon, Aurelien; Xiao, John Q.; Zhang, Xixiang
2017-01-01
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan
2017-03-07
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Huang, Biao; Kim, Yong Baek; Lu, Yuan-Ming
2017-02-01
Na4Ir3O8 provides a material platform to study three-dimensional quantum spin liquids in the geometrically frustrated hyperkagome lattice of Ir4 + ions. In this work, we consider quantum spin liquids on a hyperkagome lattice for generic spin models, focusing on the effects of anisotropic spin interactions. In particular, we classify possible Z2 and U (1 ) spin liquid states, following the projective symmetry group analysis in the slave-fermion representation. There are only three distinct Z2 spin liquids, together with 2 different U (1 ) spin liquids. The nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the hyperkagome lattice plays a vital role in simplifying the classification, forbidding "π -flux" or "staggered-flux" phases in contrast to symmorphic space groups. We further prove that both U (1 ) states and one Z2 state among all 3 are symmetry-protected gapless spin liquids, robust against any symmetry-preserving perturbations. Motivated by the "spin-freezing" behavior recently observed in Na4Ir3O8 at low temperatures, we further investigate the nearest-neighbor spin model with the dominant Heisenberg interaction subject to all possible anisotropic perturbations from spin-orbit couplings. We find that a U (1 ) spin liquid ground state with spinon Fermi surfaces is energetically favored over Z2 states. Among all spin-orbit coupling terms, we show that only the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can induce spin anisotropy in the ground state when perturbing from the isotropic Heisenberg limit. Our work paves the way for a systematic study of quantum spin liquids in various materials with a hyperkagome crystal structure.
Zamani, A.; Setareh, F.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.; Mohammadhosseini, E.
2017-06-01
In this article the spin of electron as well as simultaneous effects of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are considered for a lens-shaped GaAs quantum dot and the influences of applied electric field and Zeeman effect on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of this system are investigated. To do so, the absorption, refractive index as well as the group velocity of the probe light pulse are presented and discussed. Study of the absorption and refractive index reveals that, at a particular frequency of probe field, absorption diminishes, refractive index becomes unity and so the EIT occurs. Furthermore, the investigation of group velocity show that, around such frequency the probe propagation is sub-luminal, which shifts to super-luminal for higher and lower frequencies. Our results illustrate that the EIT frequency, transparency window and sub(super)-luminal frequency intervals are strongly sensitive to applied fields in the presence of spin-orbit couplings. It is found that, in comparison with the investigations with negligence of spin, the EIT behavior under the effects of applied fields are quite different.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukhanov, Aleksei A; Sablikov, Vladimir A; Tkach, Yurii Ya
2009-01-01
Spin effects in a normal two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in lateral contact with a 2D region with spin-orbit interaction are studied. The peculiarity of this system is the presence of spin-dependent scattering of electrons from the interface. This results in an equilibrium edge spin current and nontrivial spin responses to a particle current. We investigate the spatial distribution of the spin currents and spin density under non-equilibrium conditions caused by a ballistic electron current flowing normal or parallel to the interface. The parallel electron current is found to generate a spin density near the interface and to change the edge spin current. The perpendicular electron current changes the edge spin current proportionally to the electron current and produces a bulk spin current penetrating deep into the normal region. This spin current has two components, one of which is directed normal to the interface and polarized parallel to it, and the second is parallel to the interface and is polarized in the plane perpendicular to the contact line. Both spin currents have a high degree of polarization (∼40-60%).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkholz, Jens Eiko
2008-01-01
We study the influence of the spin-orbit interaction on the electronic transport through quantum dots and quantum wires of correlated electrons. Starting with a one-dimensional infinite continuum model without Coulomb interaction, we analyze the interplay of the spin-orbit interaction, an external magnetic field, and an external potential leading to currents with significant spin-polarization in appropriate parameter regimes. Since lattice models are known to often be superior to continuum models in describing the experimental situation of low-dimensional mesoscopic systems, we construct a lattice model which exhibits the same low-energy physics in terms of energy dispersion and spin expectation values. Confining the lattice to finite length and connecting it to two semi-infinite noninteracting Fermi liquid leads, we calculate the zero temperature linear conductance using the Landauer-Bttiker formalism and show that spin-polarization effects also evolve for the lattice model by adding an adequate potential structure and can be controlled by tuning the overall chemical potential of the system (quantum wire and leads). Next, we allow for a finite Coulomb interaction and use the functional renormalization group (fRG) method to capture correlation effects induced by the Coulomb interaction. The interacting system is thereby transformed into a noninteracting system with renormalized system parameters. For short wires (∝100 lattice sites), we show that the energy regime in which spin polarization is found is strongly affected by the Coulomb interaction. For long wires (>1000 lattice sites), we find the power-law suppression of the total linear conductance on low energy scales typical for inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids while the degree of spin polarization stays constant. Considering quantum dots which consist of two lattice sites, we observe the well-known Kondo effect and analyze, how the Kondo temperature is affected by the spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show
Spin-to-orbital momentum conversion via electro-optic Pockels effect in crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yurij; Smaga, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav [Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)
2011-10-15
In the present work we have demonstrated a possibility for operation by orbital angular momentum (OAM) of optical beams via the Pockels effect in solid-crystalline materials. Based on the analysis of an optical Fresnel ellipsoid perturbed by a conically shaped electric field, we have shown that the point groups of crystals convenient for the conversion of spin angular momentum (SAM) to OAM should contain a threefold symmetry axis or a sixfold inversion axis. The results of our experimental studies and theoretical simulations of the SAM-to-OAM conversion efficiency carried out for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals agree well with each other.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radojevic, V.; Davidovic, D.M.; Amusia, M.Ya.
2003-01-01
Results of calculations of the near-threshold photoionization of the xenon 3d spin-orbit doublet are reported. Our theoretical analysis is undertaken in order to interpret and enlighten the very detailed measurements of this process [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2001)], which revealed a previously unobserved interesting feature--an additional broad maximum--in the partial xenon 3d 5/2 cross section. This double maximum was not produced by earlier calculations, except in the recent study by Amusia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093002 (2002)], which, in contrast to the present one, is not ab initio and relativistic in character. The partial photoionization cross sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 subshells, photoelectron anisotropy parameters, and spin-polarization parameters that were so far not studied either experimentally or theoretically are calculated. Many-electron correlations, relativistic effects, and relaxation effects of the ionic core in the ionization process are taken into account by using the relativistic random-phase approximation, modified to include the relaxation of the considered subshell
Lingos, P. C.; Wang, J.; Perakis, I. E.
2015-05-01
Femtosecond (fs) coherent control of collective order parameters is important for nonequilibrium phase dynamics in correlated materials. Here, we propose such control of ferromagnetic order based on using nonadiabatic optical manipulation of electron-hole (e -h ) photoexcitations to create fs carrier-spin pulses with controllable direction and time profile. These spin pulses are generated due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking arising from nonperturbative spin-orbit and magnetic exchange couplings of coherent photocarriers. By tuning the nonthermal populations of exchange-split, spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor band states, we can excite fs spin-orbit torques that control complex magnetization pathways between multiple magnetic memory states. We calculate the laser-induced fs magnetic anisotropy in the time domain by using density matrix equations of motion rather than the quasiequilibrium free energy. By comparing to pump-probe experiments, we identify a "sudden" out-of-plane magnetization canting displaying fs magnetic hysteresis, which agrees with switchings measured by the static Hall magnetoresistivity. This fs transverse spin-canting switches direction with magnetic state and laser frequency, which distinguishes it from the longitudinal nonlinear optical and demagnetization effects. We propose that sequences of clockwise or counterclockwise fs spin-orbit torques, photoexcited by shaping two-color laser-pulse sequences analogous to multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can be used to timely suppress or enhance magnetic ringing and switching rotation in magnetic memories.
Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jung-Chuan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Huang, Leng-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China); Hung, Dung-Shing, E-mail: dshung@mail.mcu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tung-Han [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. C. A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liang, Jun-Zhi [Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China)
2014-02-03
The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered.
Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jung-Chuan; Huang, Leng-Wei; Hung, Dung-Shing; Chiang, Tung-Han; Huang, J. C. A.; Liang, Jun-Zhi; Lee, Shang-Fan
2014-01-01
The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered
Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas
Shen, Shun-Qing
2005-03-01
Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169
Engineering a spin-fet: spin-orbit phenomena and spin transport induced by a gate electric field
Cardoso, J. L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.
2012-01-01
In this work, we show that a gate electric field, applied in the base of the field-effect devices, leads to inducing spin-orbit interactions (Rashba and linear Dresselhauss) and confines the transport electrons in a two-dimensional electron gas. On the basis of these phenomena we solve analytically the Pauli equation when the Rashba strength and the linear Dresselhaus one are equal, for a tuning value of the gate electric field $\\mathcal{E}_g^*$. Using the transfer matrix approach, we provide...
Harrison, Neil; Shekhter, Arkady
2015-03-01
We investigate the origin of the small residual nodal bilayer-splitting in the underdoped high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x using the results of recently published angle-resolved quantum oscillation data [Sebastian et al., Nature 511, 61 (2014)]. A crucial clue to the origin of the residual bilayer-splitting is found to be provided by the anomalously small Zeeman-splitting of some of the observed cyclotron orbits. We show that such an anomalously Zeeman-splitting (or small effective g-factor) for a subset of orbits can be explained by spin-orbit interactions, which become significant in the nodal regions as a result of the vanishing bilayer coupling. The primary effect of spin-orbit interactions is to cause quasiparticles traversing the nodal region of the Brillouin zone to undergo a spin flip. We suggest that the Rashba-like spin-orbit interactions, naturally present in bilayer systems, have the right symmetry and magnitude to give rise to a network of coupled orbits consistent with experimental observations in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x. This work is supported by the DOEm BES proposal LANLF100, while the magnet lab is supported by the NSF and Florida State.
Spin-Orbit Misalignments of Three Jovian Planets via Doppler Tomography
Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William D.; Addison, Brett C.; Tinney, Chris G.; Wright, Duncan J.
2017-10-01
We present measurements of the spin-orbit misalignments of the hot Jupiters HAT-P-41 b and WASP-79 b, and the aligned warm Jupiter Kepler-448 b. We obtain these measurements with Doppler tomography, where we spectroscopically resolve the line profile perturbation during the transit due to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We analyze time series spectra obtained during portions of five transits of HAT-P-41 b, and find a value of the spin-orbit misalignment of λ =-{22.1}-6.0{+0.8^\\circ }. We reanalyze the radial velocity Rossiter-McLaughlin data on WASP-79 b obtained by Addison et al. using Doppler tomographic methodology. We measure λ =-{99.1}-3.9{+4.1^\\circ }, consistent with but more precise than the value found by Addison et al. For Kepler-448 b we perform a joint fit to the Kepler light curve, Doppler tomographic data, and a radial velocity data set from Lillo-Box et al. We find an approximately aligned orbit (λ =-{7.1}-2.8{+4.2^\\circ }), in agreement with the value found by Bourrier et al. Through analysis of the Kepler light curve we measure a stellar rotation period of {P}{rot}=1.27+/- 0.11 days, and use this to argue that the full three-dimensional spin-orbit misalignment is small, \\psi ˜ 0^\\circ . Based in part on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.
Statistical properties of spectra in harmonically trapped spin-orbit coupled systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
V. Marchukov, O.; G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.
2014-01-01
We compute single-particle energy spectra for a one-body Hamiltonian consisting of a two-dimensional deformed harmonic oscillator potential, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman term. To investigate the statistical properties of the obtained spectra as functions of deformation, spin......-orbit and Zeeman strengths we examine the distributions of the nearest neighbor spacings. We find that the shapes of these distributions depend strongly on the three potential parameters. We show that the obtained shapes in some cases can be well approximated with the standard Poisson, Brody and Wigner...... distributions. The Brody and Wigner distributions characterize irregular motion and help identify quantum chaotic systems. We present a special choices of deformation and spin-orbit strengths without the Zeeman term which provide a fair reproduction of the fourth-power repelling Wigner distribution. By adding...
Measure synchronization in a spin-orbit-coupled bosonic Josephson junction
Wang, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin
2015-11-01
We present measure synchronization (MS) in a bosonic Josephson junction with spin-orbit coupling. The two atomic hyperfine states are coupled by a Raman dressing scheme, and they are regarded as two orientations of a pseudo-spin-1 /2 system. A feature specific to a spin-orbit-coupled (SOC) bosonic Josephson junction is that the transition from non-MS to MS dynamics can be modulated by Raman laser intensity, even in the absence of interspin atomic interaction. A phase diagram of non-MS and MS dynamics as functions of Raman laser intensity and Josephson tunneling amplitude is presented. Taking into account interspin atomic interactions, the system exhibits MS breaking dynamics resulting from the competition between intraspin and interspin atomic interactions. When interspin atomic interactions dominate in the competition, the system always exhibits MS dynamics. For interspin interaction weaker than intraspin interaction, a window for non-MS dynamics is present. Since SOC Bose-Einstein condensates provide a powerful platform for studies on physical problems in various fields, the study of MS dynamics is valuable in researching the collective coherent dynamical behavior in a spin-orbit-coupled bosonic Josephson junction.
Bhandari, Nikhil; Dutta, Maitreya; Charles, James; Newrock, Richard S.; Cahay, Marc; Herbert, Stephen T.
2013-03-01
Spin-based electronics or ‘spintronics’ has been a topic of interest for over two decades. Electronic devices based on the manipulation of the electron spin are believed to offer the possibility of very small, non-volatile and ultrafast devices with very low power consumption. Since the proposal of a spin-field-effect transistor (SpinFET) by Datta and Das in 1990, many attempts have been made to achieve spin injection, detection and manipulation in semiconductor materials either by incorporating ferromagnetic materials into device architectures or by using external magnetic fields. This approach has significant design complexities, partly due to the influence of stray magnetic fields on device operation. In addition, magnetic electrodes can have magneto-resistance and spurious Hall voltages that can complicate device performance. To date, there has been no successful report of a working Datta-Das SpinFET. Over the last few years we have investigated an all-electric means of manipulating spins, one that only relies on electric fields and voltages and not on ferromagnetic materials or external magnetic fields. We believe we have found a pathway toward this goal, using in-plane side-gated quantum point contacts (QPCs) that rely on lateral spin-orbit coupling to create spin polarization. In this paper we discuss several aspects of our work, beginning with our finding what we believe is nearly complete spin-polarization in InAs QPCs by purely electrical means, our theoretical work to understand the basic mechanisms leading to that situation (asymmetric lateral confinement, lateral spin-orbit coupling and a strong e-e interaction), and our recent work extending the effort to GaAs and to dual QPC systems where one QPC acts as a polarizer and the other as an analyzer. Keynote talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.
The role of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in valley-dependent transport of Dirac fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasanirok, Kobra; Mohammadpour, Hakimeh
2017-01-01
At this work, spin- and valley-dependent electron transport through graphene and silicene layers are studied in the presence of Rashba spin- orbit coupling. We find that the transport properties of the related ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic structure depend on the relevant parameters. A fully valley- and spin- polarized current is obtained. As another result, Rashba spin-orbit interaction plays important role in controlling the transmission characteristics.
Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Yoshimi, R.; Kondou, K.; Takahashi, K. S.; Otani, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.
2017-09-01
The current-nonlinear Hall effect or second harmonic Hall voltage is widely used as one of the methods for estimating charge-spin conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the magnetization oscillation by spin-orbit torque (SOT). Here, we argue the second harmonic Hall voltage under a large in-plane magnetic field with an in-plane magnetization configuration in magnetic-nonmagnetic topological insulator (TI) heterostructures, Crx (Bi1 -ySby )2 -xTe3 /(Bi1 -ySby )2Te3 , where it is clearly shown that the large second harmonic voltage is governed not by SOT but mainly by asymmetric magnon scattering without macroscopic magnetization oscillation. Thus, this method does not allow an accurate estimation of charge-spin conversion efficiency in TI. Instead, the SOT contribution is exemplified by current pulse induced nonvolatile magnetization switching, which is realized with a current density of 2.5 ×1010 A m-2 , showing its potential as a spintronic material.
Probing low noise at the MOS interface with a spin-orbit qubit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jock, Ryan Michael; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Mounce, Andrew; Srinivasa, Vanita; Ward, Daniel Robert; Anderson, John Moses; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Rudolph, Martin; Pluym, Tammy; Gamble, John King,; Baczewski, Andrew David; Witzel, Wayne; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2017-07-01
The silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) material system is technologically important for the implementation of electron spin-based quantum information technologies. Researchers predict the need for an integrated platform in order to implement useful computation, and decades of advancements in silicon microelectronics fabrication lends itself to this challenge. However, fundamental concerns have been raised about the MOS interface (e.g. trap noise, variations in electron g-factor and practical implementation of multi-QDs). Furthermore, two-axis control of silicon qubits has, to date, required the integration of non-ideal components (e.g. microwave strip-lines, micro-magnets, triple quantum dots, or introduction of donor atoms). In this paper, we introduce a spin-orbit (SO) driven singlet- triplet (ST) qubit in silicon, demonstrating all-electrical two-axis control that requires no additional integrated elements and exhibits charge noise properties equivalent to other more model, but less commercially mature, semiconductor systems. We demonstrate the ability to tune an intrinsic spin-orbit interface effect, which is consistent with Rashba and Dresselhaus contributions that are remarkably strong for a low spin-orbit material such as silicon. The qubit maintains the advantages of using isotopically enriched silicon for producing a quiet magnetic environment, measuring spin dephasing times of 1.6 μs using 99.95% ^{28}Si epitaxy for the qubit, comparable to results from other isotopically enhanced silicon ST qubit systems. This work, therefore, demonstrates that the interface inherently provides properties for two-axis control, and the technologically important MOS interface does not add additional detrimental qubit noise. isotopically enhanced silicon ST qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Chunxu; Yang, Yanling
2016-01-01
Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Chunxu, E-mail: chunxu_bai@semi.ac.cn [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Yanling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China)
2016-08-26
Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.
The functional renormalization group for interacting quantum systems with spin-orbit interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grap, Stephan Michael
2013-01-01
We studied the influence of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in interacting low dimensional quantum systems at zero temperature within the framework of the functional renormalization group (fRG). Among the several types of spin-orbit interaction the so-called Rashba spin-orbit interaction is especially intriguing for future spintronic applications as it may be tuned via external electric fields. We investigated its effect on the low energy physics of an interacting quantum wire in an applied Zeeman field which is modeled as a generalization of the extended Hubbard model. To this end we performed a renormalization group study of the two particle interaction, including the SOI and the Zeeman field exactly on the single particle level. Considering the resulting two band model, we formulated the RG equations for the two particle vertex keeping the full band structure as well as the non trivial momentum dependence of the low energy two particle scattering processes. In order to solve these equations numerically we defined criteria that allowed us to classify whether a given set of initial conditions flows towards the strongly coupled regime. We found regions in the models parameter space where a weak coupling method as the fRG is applicable and it is possible to calculate additional quantities of interest. Furthermore we analyzed the effect of the Rashba SOI on the properties of an interacting multi level quantum dot coupled to two semi in nite leads. Of special interest was the interplay with a Zeeman field and its orientation with respect to the SOI term. We found a renormalization of the spin-orbit energy which is an experimental quantity used to asses SOI effects in transport measurements, as well as renormalized effective g factors used to describe the Zeeman field dependence. In particular in asymmetrically coupled systems the large parameter space allows for rich physics which we studied by means of the linear conductance obtained via the generalized Landauer
Conductance of two-dimensional waveguide in presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction
Liu, Duan-Yang; Xia, Jian-Bai
2018-04-01
By using the transfer matrix method, we investigated spin transport in some straight structures in presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. It is proved that the interference of two spin states is the same as that in one-dimensional Datta-Das spin field-effect transistor. The conductance of these structures has been calculated. Conductance quantization is common in these waveguides when we change the Fermi energy and the width of the waveguide. Using a periodic system of quadrate stubs and changing the Fermi energy, a nearly square-wave conductance can be obtained in some regions of the Fermi energy.
Magnonic charge pumping via spin-orbit coupling
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciccarelli, C.; Hals, K.M.D.; Irvine, A.; Novák, Vít; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Kurebayashi, H.; Brataas, A.; Ferguson, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), 50-54 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin-orbit torque * GaMnAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 35.267, year: 2015
Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires
Jamali, Mahdi; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Qiu, Xuepeng; Loong, Li Ming; Manchon, Aurelien; Yang, Hyunsoo
2013-01-01
Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108 A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1 nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.
Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires
Jamali, Mahdi
2013-12-09
Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108 A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1 nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Tongyi; Zhao Wei; Liu Xueming
2009-01-01
We have made a thorough theoretical investigation of the interplay of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) resulting from Rashba, Dresselhaus and the lateral parabolic confining potential on the energy dispersion relation of the spin subbands in a parabolic quantum wire. The influence of an applied external magnetic field is also discussed. We show the interplay of different types of SOI, as well as the Zeeman effect, leads to rather complex and intriguing electrosubbands for different spin branches. The effect of different coupling strengths and different magnetic field strengths is also investigated.
Quark potential model of baryon spin-orbit mass splittings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa
1987-01-01
We show that it is possible to make the P-wave spin-orbit mass splittings in Λ baryons consistent with those of nonstrange baryons in a naive quark model, but only by introducing additional terms in the quark-quark effective interaction. These terms might be related to contributions due to pomeron exchange and sea excitations. The implications of our model in meson spectroscopy and nuclear forces are discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho Park, Youn; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Hee Han, Suk; Eom, Jonghwa; Choi, Heon-Jin; Cheol Koo, Hyun
2013-01-01
The Rashba spin-orbit interaction effective field is always in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas and perpendicular to the carrier wavevector but the direction of the Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. These two spin-orbit interaction parameters can be determined separately by measuring and analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for various crystal directions. In the InAs quantum well system investigated, the Dresselhaus term is just 5% of the Rashba term. The gate dependence of the oscillation patterns clearly shows that only the Rashba term is modulated by an external electric field
Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.
2015-10-01
Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical
Murani, A.; Chepelianskii, A.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.
2017-10-01
In order to point out experimentally accessible signatures of spin-orbit interaction, we investigate numerically the Andreev spectrum of a multichannel mesoscopic quantum wire (N) with high spin-orbit interaction coupled to superconducting electrodes (S), contrasting topological and nontopological behaviors. In the nontopological case (square lattice with Rashba interactions), we find that the Kramers degeneracy of Andreev levels is lifted by a phase difference between the S reservoirs except at multiples of π , when the normal quantum wires can host several conduction channels. The level crossings at these points invariant by time-reversal symmetry are not lifted by disorder. Whereas the dc Josephson current is insensitive to these level crossings, the high-frequency admittance (susceptibility) at finite temperature reveals these level crossings and the lifting of their degeneracy at π by a small Zeeman field. We have also investigated the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic spin-orbit interaction in the range of parameters where it is a two-dimensional topological insulator with one-dimensional helical edges protected against disorder. Nontopological superconducting contacts can induce topological superconductivity in this system characterized by zero-energy level crossing of Andreev levels. Both Josephson current and finite-frequency admittance carry then very specific signatures at low temperature of this disorder-protected Andreev level crossing at π and zero energy.
The spin-orbit interaction in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
The analysis previously made of the average nuclear potential has been extended to consideration of the spin-orbit interactions. It has not been possible to find a satisfactory two-body interaction consistent with all the data; that suggested by the phase-shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is just within the region of possible forms. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig
Yuan, Z.; Kelly, Paul J.
2016-01-01
To study the effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on spin-transfer torque in magnetic materials, we have implemented two theoretical formalisms that can accommodate SOC. Using the “charge-pumping” formalism, we find two contributions to the out-of-plane spin-transfer torque parameter β in ballistic
Zobel, J Patrick; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Pernpointner, Markus
2014-04-28
In this work we study the influence of relativistic effects, in particular spin-orbit coupling, on electronic decay processes in KrXe2 clusters of various geometries. For the first time it is shown that inclusion of spin-orbit coupling has decisive influence on the accessibility of a specific decay pathway in these clusters. The radiationless relaxation process is initiated by a Kr 4s ionization followed by an electron transfer from xenon to krypton and a final second ionization of the system. We demonstrate the existence of competing electronic decay pathways depending in a subtle way on the geometry and level of theory. For our calculations a fully relativistic framework was employed where omission of spin-orbit coupling leads to closing of two decay pathways. These findings stress the relevance of an adequate relativistic description for clusters with heavy elements and their fragmentation dynamics.
Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-10-01
In a recent experiment (Z. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Sun, X.-T. Xu, B.-Z. Wang, S.-C. Ji, Y. Deng, S. Chen, X.-J. Liu, and J.-W. Pan, arXiv:1511.08170 [cond-mat.quant-gas]), a Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we study in detail key properties of the system. As the Raman lasers inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, the behaviors of the system in both the single- and many-particle sectors are significantly affected. In particular, the high-band effects enhance the plane-wave phase and lead to the emergence of "roton" gaps at low Zeeman fields. Furthermore, we identify high-band-induced topological phase boundaries in both the single-particle and the quasiparticle spectra. We then derive an effective two-band model, which captures the high-band physics in the experimentally relevant regime. Our results not only offer valuable insights into the two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling, but also provide a systematic formalism to model high-band effects in lattice systems with Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings.
Proposed new test of spin effects in general relativity.
O'Connell, R F
2004-08-20
The recent discovery of a double-pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B provides an opportunity of unequivocally observing, for the first time, spin effects in general relativity. Existing efforts involve detection of the precession of the spinning body itself. However, for a close binary system, spin effects on the orbit may also be discernible. Not only do they add to the advance of the periastron (by an amount which is small compared to the conventional contribution) but they also give rise to a precession of the orbit about the spin direction. The measurement of such an effect would also give information on the moment of inertia of pulsars.
Li, Rui
2018-02-01
The Kronig-Penney model, an exactly solvable one-dimensional model of crystal in solid physics, shows how the allowed and forbidden bands are formed in solids. In this paper, we study this model in the presence of both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman field. We analytically obtain four transcendental equations that represent an implicit relation between the energy and the Bloch wave vector. Solving these four transcendental equations, we obtain the spin-orbital bands exactly. In addition to the usual band gap opened at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, a much larger spin-orbital band gap is also opened at some special sites inside the Brillouin zone. The x component of the spin-polarization vector is an even function of the Bloch wave vector, while the z component of the spin-polarization vector is an odd function of the Bloch wave vector. At the band edges, the optical transition rates between adjacent bands are nonzero.
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates of rotating polar molecules
Deng, Y.; You, L.; Yi, S.
2018-05-01
An experimental proposal for realizing spin-orbit (SO) coupling of pseudospin 1 in the ground manifold 1Σ (υ =0 ) of (bosonic) bialkali polar molecules is presented. The three spin components are composed of the ground rotational state and two substates from the first excited rotational level. Using hyperfine resolved Raman processes through two select excited states resonantly coupled by a microwave, an effective coupling between the spin tensor and linear momentum is realized. The properties of Bose-Einstein condensates for such SO-coupled molecules exhibiting dipolar interactions are further explored. In addition to the SO-coupling-induced stripe structures, the singly and doubly quantized vortex phases are found to appear, implicating exciting opportunities for exploring novel quantum physics using SO-coupled rotating polar molecules with dipolar interactions.
Secular Orbit and Spin Variations of Asteroid (16) Psyche
Bills, B. G.; Park, R. S.; Scott, B.
2016-12-01
The obliquity, or angular separation between spin and orbit poles, of asteroid (16) Psyche is currently 95 degrees. We are interested in knowing how much that angular separation varies, on time scales of 104 to 106 years. To answer that question, we have done several related analyses. On short time scales, the orbital element variations of Psyche are dominated by perturbations from Jupiter. Jupiter's dominance has two basic causes: first is the large mass and relatively close position of Jupiter, and second is a 19:8 mean motion resonance. Jupiter completes 8 orbits in 94.9009 years, while Psyche takes 94.9107 years to complete 19 orbits. As a result of this, all of the orbital elements of Psyche exhibit significant periodic variations, with a 94.9 year period dominating. There are also significant variations at the synodic period, which is 8.628 years, or 1/11 of the resonant period. Over a 1000 year time span, centered on the present, the eccentricity varies from 0.133 to 0.140, and the inclination varies from 2.961 to 3.229 degrees. On longer time scales, the orbital elements of Psyche vary considerably more than that, due to secular perturbations from the planets. The secular variations are modeled as the response of interacting mass rings, rather than point masses. Again, Jupiter is the main perturbing influence on Psyche. The eccentricity and inclination both oscillate, with dominant periods of 18.667 kyr. The range of values seen over a million year time span, is 0.057 to 0.147 for eccentricity, and 0.384 to 4.777 degrees for inclination. Using a recent shape model, and assumption of uniform density, to constrain relevant moments of inertia, we estimate the spin pole precession rate parameter to be 8.53 arcsec/year. The current spin pole is at ecliptic {lon, lat} = { 32, -7} deg, whereas the orbit pole is at {lon, lat} = {60.47, 86.91} deg. The current obliquity is thus 94.3 degree. Using nominal values of the input parameters, the recovered spin pole
[OsF6]x−: Molecular Models for Spin-Orbit Entangled Phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Woodruff, Daniel N.; Singh, Saurabh Kumar
2017-01-01
Heavy 5d elements, like osmium, feature strong spin-orbit interactions which are at the origin of exotic physical behaviors. Revealing the full potential of, for example, novel osmium oxide materials (“osmates”) is however contingent upon a detailed understanding of the local single-ion propertie...... state was elucidated; mirroring the osmium electronic structure in osmates. The realization of such molecular model systems provides a unique chemical playground to engineer materials exhibiting spin-orbit entangled phenomena....
Früh, Carolin; Jah, Moriba K.
2014-02-01
This paper shows the effect of self-shadowing on the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics of objects with high area-to-mass ratios (HAMR) in simulating standard multi layer insulation materials (MLI) as tilted single rigid sheets. Efficient and computationally fast self-shadowing methods have been developed. This includes an approximate self-shadowing method and a rapid exact self-shadowing method. Accuracy considerations are made and the effect of a chosen tessellation is shown. The coupled orbit-attitude perturbations of solar radiation pressure and Earth gravity field are taken into account. The results are compared to the attitude-orbit dynamics, when neglecting self-shadowing effects. An averaged physical shadow-map model is developed and compared to the full self-shadowing simulation. The combined effect of solar radiation pressure and self-shadowing leads to a rapid spin-up of the objects, even though they have uniform reflection properties. As a result, the observed brightness of these objects is subject to rapid changes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Xi; Chen Zeshun; Zhong Feng; Zhou Guanghui
2010-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin transport of a quantum wire (QW) with weak Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) nonadiabatically connected to two normal leads. Using scattering matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula within effective free-electron approximation, we have calculated spin-dependent conductances G ↑ and G ↓ , total conductance G and spin polarization P z for a hard-wall potential confined QW. It is demonstrated that, the SOCs induce the splitting of G ↑ and G ↓ and form spin polarization P z . Moreover, the conductances present quantized plateaus, the plateaus and P z show oscillation structures near the subband edges. Furthermore, with the increase of QW width a strong spin polarization (P z ∼1) gradually becomes weak, which can be used to realize a spin filter. When the two SOCs coexist, the total conductance presents an isotropy transport due to the Rashba and Dresselhaus Hamiltonians being fixed, and the alteration of two SOCs strength ratio changes the sign of spin polarization. This may provide a way of realizing the expression of unit information by tuning gate voltage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, M; Zhao, Z B; Fan, L B
2015-01-01
The effect of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit coupling (SOC) on the transmission of electrons through the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is studied. It is found that the Dresselhaus SOC causes the evident dependence of the transmission probability on the spin polarization and the in-plane wave vector of electrons, and also induces evident spin splitting of the resonant peaks in the (E z -k) plane. Because the magnitude of the Rashba SOC is relatively small, its effect on the transmission of electrons is much less. As k increases, the peaks of transmission probability for spin-up electrons (T + ) shift to a higher energy region and increase in magnitude, while the peaks of transmission probability for spin-down electrons (T − ) shift to a lower energy region and decrease in magnitude. The polarization efficiency (P) is found to peak at the resonant energies and increases with the in-plane wave vector. Moreover, the built-in electric field caused by the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization can increase the amplitude of P. Results obtained here are helpful for the efficient spin injection into the III-nitride heterostructures by nonmagnetic means from the device point of view. (paper)
Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong
2016-02-01
The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.
Universal intrinsic spin Hall effect
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sinova, J.; Culcer, D.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Niu, Q.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.
2004-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 12 (2004), 126603/1-126603/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductor quantum wells * spin-orbit interaction * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004
Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y.; Chou, Yi; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Yen, David Chien-Chang
2017-01-01
We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657−415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ∼1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.
Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650
Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Ng, C.-Y.; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Yen, David Chien-Chang
2017-07-01
We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657-415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ˜1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.
Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chou, Yi [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lupin Chun-Che [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Yen, David Chien-Chang, E-mail: cphu@hku.hk [Department of Mathematics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)
2017-07-20
We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657−415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ∼1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.
Superconductivity and spin excitations in orbitally ordered FeSe
Kreisel, Andreas; Mukherjee, Shantanu; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Andersen, B. M.
We provide a band-structure with low-energy properties consistent with recent photoemission and quantum oscillations measurements on the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, including a mean-field like orbital ordering in the dxz /dyz channel, and show that this model also accounts for the temperature dependence of the measured Knight shift and the spin-relaxation rate. An RPA calculation of the dynamical spin susceptibility yields spin excitations which are peaked at wave vector (π , 0) in the 1-Fe Brillouin zone, with a broad maximum at energies of order a few meV. Furthermore, the superconducting gap structure obtained from spin fluctuation theory exhibits nodes on the electron pockets, consistent with the 'V'-shaped density of states measured by tunneling spectroscopy on this material. The redistribution of spectral weight in the superconducting state creates a (π , 0) ''neutron resonance'' as seen in recent experiments. Comparing to various experimental results, we give predictions for further studies A.K. and B.M.A. acknowledge financial support from a Lundbeckfond fellowship (Grant No. A9318). P.J.H. was partially supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46236.
Da Pieve, F.
2016-01-01
A method for mapping the local spin and orbital nature of the ground state of a system via corresponding flip excitations is proposed based on angle-resolved resonant photoemission and related diffraction patterns, obtained here via an ab initio modified one-step theory of photoemission. The analysis is done on the paradigmatic weak itinerant ferromagnet bcc Fe, whose magnetism, a correlation phenomenon given by the coexistence of localized moments and itinerant electrons, and the observed non-Fermi-Liquid behavior at extreme conditions both remain unclear. The combined analysis of energy spectra and diffraction patterns offers a mapping of local pure spin-flip, entangled spin-flip-orbital-flip excitations and chiral transitions with vortexlike wave fronts of photoelectrons, depending on the valence orbital symmetry and the direction of the local magnetic moment. Such effects, mediated by the hole polarization, make resonant photoemission a promising tool to perform a full tomography of the local magnetic properties even in itinerant ferromagnets or macroscopically nonmagnetic systems.
Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism
Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.
2012-01-01
We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling
Tunneling conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srisongmuang, B.; Ka-oey, A.
2012-01-01
We theoretically studied the spin-dependent charge transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (DSOC) and metal junctions. It is shown that the DSOC energy can be directly measured from the tunneling conductance spectrum. We found that spin polarization of the conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from the DSOC system. We also considered the effect of the interfacial scattering barrier (both spin-flip and non-spin-flip scattering) on the overall conductance and the spin polarization of the conductance. It is found that the increase of spin-flip scattering can enhance the conductance under certain conditions. Moreover, both types of scattering can increase the spin polarization below the branches crossing of the energy band. - Highlights: → DSOC energy can be directly measured from tunneling conductance spectrum. → Spin polarization of conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from DSOC system. → Both types of scattering can increase spin polarization.
A critical comparison of electrical methods for measuring spin-orbit torques
Zhang, Xuanzi; Hung, Yu-Ming; Rehm, Laura; Kent, Andrew D.
Direct (DC) and alternating current (AC) transport measurements of spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed and demonstrated. A DC method measures the change of perpendicular magnetization component while an AC method probes the first and second harmonic magnetization oscillation in responses to an AC current (~1 kHz). Here we conduct both types of measurements on β-Ta/CoFeB/MgO in the form of patterned Hall bars (20 μm linewidth) and compare the results. Experiments results are qualitatively in agreement with a macro spin model including Slonzewski-like and a field-like SOTs. However, the effective field from the ac method is larger than that obtained from the DC method. We discuss the possible origins of the discrepancy and its implications for quantitatively determining SOTs. Research supported by the SRC-INDEX program, NSF-DMR-1309202 and NYU-DURF award.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mawrie, Alestin; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)
2016-01-28
We present a detailed theoretical study on zero-frequency Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas (2DHG) with k-cubic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. The presence of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings strongly modifies the Drude weight in comparison to the electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings. For large hole density and strong k-cubic spin-orbit couplings, the density dependence of Drude weight deviates from the linear behavior. We establish a relation between optical conductivity and the Berry connection. Unlike two-dimensional electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings, we explicitly show that the optical conductivity does not vanish even for equal strength of the two spin-orbit couplings. We attribute this fact to the non-zero Berry phase for equal strength of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings. The least photon energy needed to set in the optical transition in hole gas is one order of magnitude smaller than that of electron gas. Types of two van Hove singularities appear in the optical spectrum are also discussed.
SU(2) x U(1) unified theory for charge, orbit and spin currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Peiqing; Li Youquan; Zhang Fuchun
2006-01-01
Spin and charge currents in systems with Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are formulated in a unified version of four-dimensional SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory, with U(1) being the Maxwell field and SU(2) being the Yang-Mills field. While the bare spin current is non-conserved, it is compensated by a contribution from the SU(2) gauge field, which gives rise to a spin torque in the spin transport, consistent with the semi-classical theory of Culcer et al. Orbit current is shown to be non-conserved in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Similar to the Maxwell field inducing forces on charge and charge current, we derive forces acting on spin and spin current induced by the Yang-Mills fields such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields and the sheer strain field. The spin density and spin current may be considered as a source generating Yang-Mills field in certain condensed matter systems
Spin and orbital magnetisation densities determined by Compton scattering of photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Cooper, M.J.; Lovesey, S.W.; Uppsala Univ.
1990-03-01
Compton scattering of a circularly polarized photon beam is shown to provide direct information on orbital and spin magnetisation densities. Experiments are reported which demonstrate the feasibility of the method by correctly predicting the ratio of spin and orbital magnetisation components in iron and cobalt. A partially polarised beam of 45 keV photons from the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source produces charge-magnetic interference scattering which is measured by a field-difference method. Theory shows that the interference cross section contains the Compton profile of polarised electrons modulated by a structure factor which is a weighted sum of spin and orbital magnetisations. In particular, the scattering geometry for which the structure factor vanishes yields a unique value for the ratio of the magnetisation densities. Compton scattering, being an incoherent process, provides data on total unit cell magnetisations which can be directly compared with bulk data. In this respect, Compton scattering complements magnetic neutron and photon Bragg diffraction. (author)
The spin-orbit interaction and SU(3) generators in superdeformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugawara-Tanabe, K [School of Social Information, Otsuma Women` s University, Tokyo (Japan); Arima, A [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1992-08-01
The authors found that the effect of spin-orbit coupling becomes smaller for the parity doublet level and for some other levels around superdeformation. This is because of the strongly deformed quadrupole field, which indicates the L-S coupling scheme is recovered for these levels. These levels can be described by an SU-3 group with eight generators and a Casimir operator. 6 refs., 3 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Der-you Kao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Without self-interaction corrections or the use of hybrid functionals, approximations to the density-functional theory (DFT often favor intermediate spin systems over high-spin systems. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed Fermi–Löwdin-orbital self-interaction corrected density functional formalism to a simple tetra-coordinated Fe(II-porphyrin molecule and show that the energetic orderings of the S = 1 and S = 2 spin states are changed qualitatively relative to the results of Generalized Gradient Approximation (developed by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof, PBE-GGA and Local Density Approximation (developed by Perdew and Wang, PW92-LDA. Because the energetics, associated with changes in total spin, are small, we have also calculated the second-order spin–orbit energies and the zero-point vibrational energies to determine whether such corrections could be important in metal-substituted porphins. Our results find that the size of the spin–orbit and vibrational corrections to the energy orderings are small compared to the changes due to the self-interaction correction. Spin dependencies in the Infrared (IR/Raman spectra and the zero-field splittings are provided as a possible means for identifying the spin in porphyrins containing Fe(II.
Spin relaxation rates in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Marques, G. E.
2008-11-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in InAs and GaAs parabolic quantum dots due to the interaction of spin carriers with acoustical phonons. We consider a spin relaxation mechanism completely intrinsic to the system, since it is based on the modulation of the spin-orbit interaction by the acoustic phonon potential, which is independent of any structural properties of the confinement potential. The electron-phonon deformation potential and the piezoelectric interaction are described by the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that, for narrow-gap semiconductors, the deformation potential interaction becomes dominant. This behavior is not observed for wide or intermediate gap semiconductors, where the piezoelectric coupling, in general, governs the relaxation processes. We also demonstrate that the spin relaxation rates are particularly sensitive to values of the Landé g-factor, which depend strongly on the spatial shape of the confinement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
2016-01-01
In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin–orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin–orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin–orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known. - Highlights: • Determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit fields is discussed. • Characteristics of all three components of spin current are explored. • Possibility of estimating on-site energy is given. • Results can be generalized to any lattice models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in
2016-12-15
In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin–orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin–orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin–orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known. - Highlights: • Determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit fields is discussed. • Characteristics of all three components of spin current are explored. • Possibility of estimating on-site energy is given. • Results can be generalized to any lattice models.
Prediction of giant intrinsic spin-Hall effect in strained p-GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, Christoph; Kubis, Tillmann; Vogl, Peter [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2009-07-01
We present a systematic study of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various two dimensional nanostructures using the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. We include elastic impurity scattering as well as inelastic acoustical phonon scattering. The parameters for the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling are obtained from an atomistic tight binding calculation. We predict exceptionally large spin polarization effects in specially band engineered and geometrically designed nanostructures. In strained p-GasAs, we find a k-linear spin splitting that is enhanced by a factor of 50 compared to the unstrained case. We propose a T shaped three-terminal device that acts as a spin polarizer without external magnetic field. Optimizing the geometry with respect to the spin-precession length results in a spin accumulation at the drain contacts of up to 25%. We also study the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect. In a four-terminal ''H'' shaped structure it can be used to measure the direct spin-Hall effect by simply applying a gate voltage. For such a measurement, we predict a threshold value for the spin-orbit coupling strength that cannot be met by simple n-GaAs systems.
Coulomb Correlations Intertwined with Spin and Orbital Excitations in LaCoO_{3}.
Tomiyasu, K; Okamoto, J; Huang, H Y; Chen, Z Y; Sinaga, E P; Wu, W B; Chu, Y Y; Singh, A; Wang, R-P; de Groot, F M F; Chainani, A; Ishihara, S; Chen, C T; Huang, D J
2017-11-10
We carried out temperature-dependent (20-550 K) measurements of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on LaCoO_{3} to investigate the evolution of its electronic structure across the spin-state crossover. In combination with charge-transfer multiplet calculations, we accurately quantified the renomalized crystal-field excitation energies and spin-state populations. We show that the screening of the effective on-site Coulomb interaction of 3d electrons is orbital selective and coupled to the spin-state crossover in LaCoO_{3}. The results establish that the gradual spin-state crossover is associated with a relative change of Coulomb energy versus bandwidth, leading to a Mott-type insulator-to-metal transition.
A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution
Basu, B.; Roy, B.
2009-01-01
The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.
Wen, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Hu, Ai-Yuan; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Peng; Xia, Lei; Sun, Qing; Ji, An-Chun
2018-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of bright-bright solitons in one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling, via the variational approximation and the numerical simulation of Gross-Pitaevskii equations. For the uniform system without trapping potential, we obtain two population balanced stationary solitons. By performing the linear stability analysis, we find a Goldstone eigenmode and an oscillation eigenmode around these stationary solitons. Moreover, we derive a general dynamical solution to describe the center-of-mass motion and spin evolution of the solitons under the action of spin-orbit coupling. The effects of a harmonic trap have also been discussed.
Stability of orbits around a spinning body in a pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steklain, A.F.; Letelier, P.S.
2009-01-01
A pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem based on a potential proposed by Artemova et al. [I.A. Artemova, G. Bjoernsson, I.D. Novikov, Astrophys. J. 461 (1996) 565] is presented. This potential reproduces some of the general relativistic effects due to the spin angular momentum of the bodies, like the dragging of inertial frames. Poincare maps, Lyapunov exponents and fractal escape techniques are employed to study the stability of bounded and unbounded orbits for different spins of the central body
An electrically reconfigurable logic gate intrinsically enabled by spin-orbit materials.
Kazemi, Mohammad
2017-11-10
The spin degree of freedom in magnetic devices has been discussed widely for computing, since it could significantly reduce energy dissipation, might enable beyond Von Neumann computing, and could have applications in quantum computing. For spin-based computing to become widespread, however, energy efficient logic gates comprising as few devices as possible are required. Considerable recent progress has been reported in this area. However, proposals for spin-based logic either require ancillary charge-based devices and circuits in each individual gate or adopt principals underlying charge-based computing by employing ancillary spin-based devices, which largely negates possible advantages. Here, we show that spin-orbit materials possess an intrinsic basis for the execution of logic operations. We present a spin-orbit logic gate that performs a universal logic operation utilizing the minimum possible number of devices, that is, the essential devices required for representing the logic operands. Also, whereas the previous proposals for spin-based logic require extra devices in each individual gate to provide reconfigurability, the proposed gate is 'electrically' reconfigurable at run-time simply by setting the amplitude of the clock pulse applied to the gate. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically with experimentally benchmarked models, that the gate performs logic operations and simultaneously stores the result, realizing the 'stateful' spin-based logic scalable to ultralow energy dissipation.
Nontrivial ac spin response in the effective Luttinger model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Liangbin; Zhong Jiansong; Hu Kaige
2006-01-01
Based on the three-dimensional effective Luttinger Hamiltonian and the exact Heisenberg equations of motion and within a self-consistent semiclassical approximation, we present a theoretical investigation on the nontrivial ac spin responses due to the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of holes in p-doped bulk semiconductors. We show that the nontrivial ac spin responses induced by the combined action of an ac external electric field and the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of holes may lead to the generation of a nonvanishing ac spin Hall current in a p-doped bulk semiconductor, which shares some similarities with the dissipationless dc spin Hall current conceived previously and also exhibits some interesting new features that was not found before
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Arrayás
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We calculate analytically the spin-orbital decomposition of the angular momentum using completely nonparaxial fields that have a certain degree of linkage of electric and magnetic lines. The split of the angular momentum into spin-orbital components is worked out for non-null knotted electromagnetic fields. The relation between magnetic and electric helicities and spin-orbital decomposition of the angular momentum is considered. We demonstrate that even if the total angular momentum and the values of the spin and orbital momentum are the same, the behavior of the local angular momentum density is rather different. By taking cases with constant and non-constant electric and magnetic helicities, we show that the total angular momentum density presents different characteristics during time evolution.
Moon, Jiwon; Kim, Joonghan
2016-09-29
Density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio calculations, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), were performed to investigate the spin-orbit (SO) effect on the molecular properties of tellurium halides, TeXn (X = F, Cl, Br, and I; n = 1, 2, and 4). SOC elongates the Te-X bond and slightly reduces the vibrational frequencies. Consideration of SOC leads to better agreement with experimental values. Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2) seriously underestimates the Te-X bond lengths. In contrast, B3LYP significantly overestimates them. SO-PBE0 and multireference configuration interactions with the Davidson correction (MRCI+Q), which include SOC via a state-interaction approach, give the Te-I bond length of TeI2 that matches the experimental value. On the basis of the calculated thermochemical energy and optimized molecular structure, TeI4 is unlikely to be stable. The use of PBE0 including SOC is strongly recommended for predicting the molecular properties of Te-containing compounds.
Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malyshev, A. I., E-mail: malyshev@phys.unn.ru; Kozulin, A. S. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.
Spin-orbit interaction and asymmetry effects on Kondo ridges at finite magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grap, Stephan; Andergassen, Sabine; Paaske, Jens
2011-01-01
ridges, which are robust against SOI as time-reversal symmetry is preserved. As a result of the crossing of a spin-up and a spin-down level at vanishing SOI, two additional Kondo plateaus appear at finite B. They are not protected by symmetry and rapidly vanish if the SOI is turned on. Left......-right asymmetric level-lead couplings and detuned on-site energies lead to a simultaneous breaking of left-right and bonding-antibonding state symmetry. In this case, the finite-B Kondo ridges in the Vg-B plane are bent with respect to the Vg axis. For the Kondo ridge to develop, different level renormalizations......We study electron transport through a serial double quantum dot with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Zeeman field of amplitude B in the presence of local Coulomb repulsion. The linear conductance as a function of a gate voltage Vg equally shifting the levels on both dots shows two B=0 Kondo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Huatong
2007-01-01
Some exact identities connecting one- and two-particle Green's functions in the presence of spin-orbit coupling have been derived. These identities are similar to the Ward identity in usual quantum transport theory of electrons. A satisfying approximate calculation of the spin transport in spin-orbit coupling system should also preserve these identities, just as the Ward identities should be remained in the usual electronic transport theory
Communication: State mixing by spin-orbit coupling in the anionic chloroiodine dissociations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, L.; Wang, X.-D.; Xuan, C.-J.; Zeng, X.-J.; Li, H.-K.; Tian, S. X., E-mail: sxtian@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaichung@cityu.edu.hk [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan, Y.; Lau, K.-C., E-mail: sxtian@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaichung@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2014-01-28
Three spin-orbit states, 1{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}, 2{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2}, and 2{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}, of chloroiodine anion (ICl{sup −}) formed by low-energy electron attachment in the Franck-Condon region are associated with the dissociative limits of I{sup −} ({sup 1}S{sub 0}) and Cl ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) or Cl{sup *} ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) fragments. Within the adiabatic scheme, the presumptive Π-symmetry of the fragment angular distributions is dramatically changed to be the Π-Σ mixing symmetry, due to the significant spin-orbit interaction effect on the electronic state couplings of ICl{sup −}. The present experimental approach also enables us to separate the contributions of different electronic states from the mixed states, providing a crucial method for quantitatively evaluating the configuration-interaction wavefunctions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roemelt, Michael, E-mail: michael.roemelt@theochem.rub.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Max-Planck Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)
2015-07-28
Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.
Correlation effects and spin-orbit interaction in Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}: LDA+DMFT study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorelov, Evgeny; Zhang, Guoren; Pavarini, Eva [IAS-3, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)
2013-07-01
The layered ruthenates of the Ruddlesden-Popper family Sr{sub n+1}Ru{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} are interesting examples of strongly correlated transition metal compounds. Due to competing kinetic and Coulomb energies, that are of the same order for Ru 4d electrons, these compounds have very rich phase diagram, including Mott-insulator, ferro- and meta-magnetic phases. Among layered ruthenates the bilayered compound Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} is particularly interesting. It is known to be a paramagnetic metal close to ferro-magnetism and exhibits a metamagnetic behavior in external magnetic field. By using the LDA+DMFT (local-density approximation + dynamical mean-field theory) approach, we study magnetic properties and electron mass renormalization due to correlation effects. In our LDA+DMFT scheme we use maximally-localized Wannier orbitals obtained from Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) calculations to build a low-energy Hubbard model for the Ru d bands; we use the weak-coupling CT-quantum Monte Carlo method to solve the quantum impurity problem. We take into account the full rotationally-invariant Coulomb interaction, as well as full on-site self-energy matrix in orbital space with spin-orbit coupling.
Assessment of bilayer silicene to probe as quantum spin and valley Hall effect
Rehman, Majeed Ur; Qiao, Zhenhua
2018-02-01
Silicene takes precedence over graphene due to its buckling type structure and strong spin orbit coupling. Motivated by these properties, we study the silicene bilayer in the presence of applied perpendicular electric field and intrinsic spin orbit coupling to probe as quantum spin/valley Hall effect. Using analytical approach, we calculate the spin Chern-number of bilayer silicene and then compare it with monolayer silicene. We reveal that bilayer silicene hosts double spin Chern-number as compared to single layer silicene and therefore accordingly has twice as many edge states in contrast to single layer silicene. In addition, we investigate the combined effect of intrinsic spin orbit coupling and the external electric field, we find that bilayer silicene, likewise single layer silicene, goes through a phase transitions from a quantum spin Hall state to a quantum valley Hall state when the strength of the applied electric field exceeds the intrinsic spin orbit coupling strength. We believe that the results and outcomes obtained for bilayer silicene are experimentally more accessible as compared to bilayer graphene, because of strong SO coupling in bilayer silicene.
Universal Borromean Binding in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Ultracold Fermi Gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoling Cui
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Borromean rings and Borromean binding, a class of intriguing phenomena as three objects are linked (bound together while any two of them are unlinked (unbound, widely exist in nature and have been found in systems of biology, chemistry, and physics. Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of such a binding in physical systems typically relies on the microscopic details of pairwise interaction potentials at short range and is, therefore, nonuniversal. Here, we report a new type of Borromean binding in ultracold Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is universal against short-range interaction details, with its binding energy only dependent on the s-wave scattering length and the spin-orbit-coupling strength. We show that the occurrence of this universal Borromean binding is facilitated by the symmetry of the single-particle dispersion under spin-orbit coupling and is, therefore, symmetry selective rather than interaction selective. The state is robust over a wide range of mass ratios between composing fermions, which are accessible by Li-Li, K-K, and K-Li mixtures in cold-atom experiments. Our results reveal the importance of single- particle spectral symmetry in few-body physics and shed light on the emergence of new quantum phases in a many-body system with exotic few-body correlations.
N=28 shell closure : shape coexistence and spin-orbit contribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Frederic
1999-01-01
One of the fundamental questions, which emerge from the study of nuclei far from stability, concerns the persistence of the magic character of certain configurations of protons and neutrons. From previous measurements around the N=28 magic number, it appears that this shell closure is especially weakening. In this context, a mass measurement experiment by a time of flight method around N=28 (Z 43 S in the same experiment and its interpretation by a shell model calculation confirm the analysis of the masses and constitutes the first evidence of shape coexistence around N=28. At the same time, an estimation of the evolution of the contribution of the spin-orbit coupling far from stability, partially responsible of the magic numbers sequence, showed that, although non-negligible, it is not sufficient to explain the vanishing of the shell closure. Through this study, it appeared extremely difficult to separate the contribution of the deformation from the one of the spin-orbit coupling in spectroscopic experiments. A feasibility study has thus been undertaken concerning a polarised proton and deuteron target to measure directly the evolution of the spin-orbit potential as a function of the isospin through elastic scattering experiments. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Mikoczi, Balazs
2009-01-01
We give here a new third post-Newtonian (3PN) spin-spin contribution (in the PN parameter ε) to the accumulated orbital phase of a compact binary, arising from the spin-orbit precessional motion of the spins. In the equal mass case, this contribution vanishes, but Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sources of merging supermassive binary black holes have typically a mass ratio of 1:10. For such nonequal masses, this 3PN correction is periodic in time, with a period approximately ε -1 times larger than the period of gravitational waves. We derive a renormalized and simpler expression of the spin-spin coefficient at 2PN, as an average over the time scale of this period of the combined 2PN and 3PN contribution. We also find that for LISA sources the quadrupole-monopole contribution to the phase dominates over the spin-spin contribution, while the self-spin contribution is negligible even for the dominant spin. Finally, we define a renormalized total spin coefficient σ to be employed in the search for gravitational waves emitted by LISA sources.
Split Fermi Surfaces of the Spin-Orbit-Coupled Metal Cd2Re2O7 Probed by de Haas-van Alphen Effect
Matsubayashi, Yasuhito; Sugii, Kaori; Hirose, Hishiro T.; Hirai, Daigorou; Sugiura, Shiori; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Hiroi, Zenji
2018-05-01
The superconducting pyrochlore oxide Cd2Re2O7 shows a structural transition with inversion symmetry breaking (ISB) at Ts1 = 200 K. A recent theory [https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.026401" xlink:type="simple">L. Fu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 026401 (2015)] suggests that the origin is an electronic instability that leads to a multipolar order in the spin-orbit-coupled metal. To observe the Fermi surface of the low-temperature phase of Cd2Re2O7, we perform de Haas-van Alphen effect measurements by means of magnetic torque. In reference to a calculated band structure, the spin-split Fermi surfaces with large cyclotron masses of 5-9m0 are revealed. The splitting is suggested to be due to an antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling induced by ISB, the strength of which is estimated to be approximately 67 K, which is rather smaller than those of typical non-centrosymmetric metals.
Theory of the Spin Galvanic Effect at Oxide Interfaces
Seibold, Götz; Caprara, Sergio; Grilli, Marco; Raimondi, Roberto
2017-12-01
The spin galvanic effect (SGE) describes the conversion of a nonequilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Recent experiments have demonstrated a large conversion efficiency for the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 . Here, we analyze the SGE for oxide interfaces within a three-band model for the Ti t2 g orbitals which displays an interesting variety of effective spin-orbit couplings in the individual bands that contribute differently to the spin-charge conversion. Our analytical approach is supplemented by a numerical treatment where we also investigate the influence of disorder and temperature, which turns out to be crucial to providing an appropriate description of the experimental data.
Spin-Orbital Excitations in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Das
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The strongly correlated insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4} is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state of Ca_{2}RuO_{4}. A set of low-energy (about 80 and 400 meV and high-energy (about 1.3 and 2.2 eV excitations are reported, which show strong incident light polarization dependence. Our results strongly support a spin-orbit coupled band-Mott scenario and explore in detail the nature of its exotic excitations. Guided by theoretical modeling, we interpret the low-energy excitations as a result of composite spin-orbital excitations. Their nature unveils the intricate interplay of crystal-field splitting and spin-orbit coupling in the band-Mott scenario. The high-energy excitations correspond to intra-atomic singlet-triplet transitions at an energy scale set by Hund’s coupling. Our findings give a unifying picture of the spin and orbital excitations in the band-Mott insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4}.
Spin-orbit interaction in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well
Beukman, Arjan J. A.; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; Skolasinski, Rafal; Wimmer, Michael; Qu, Fanming; de Vries, David T.; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Yi, Wei; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Sokolich, Marko; Manfra, Michael J.; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
2017-12-01
The spin-orbit interaction is investigated in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well. Using an electric field, the quantum well can be tuned between a single-carrier regime with exclusively electrons as carriers and a two-carrier regime where electrons and holes coexist. The spin-orbit interaction in both regimes manifests itself as a beating in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In the single-carrier regime the linear Dresselhaus strength is characterized by β =28.5 meV Å and the Rashba coefficient α is tuned from 75 to 53 meV Å by changing the electric field. In the two-carrier regime a quenching of the spin splitting is observed and attributed to a crossing of spin bands.
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Valizadeh, Mohammad M.; Satpathy, S.
2018-03-01
Chiral order in magnetic structures is currently an area of considerable interest and leads to skyrmion structures and domain walls with certain chirality. The chiral structure originates from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction caused by broken inversion symmetry and the spin-orbit interaction. In addition to the Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions, there may also exist substantial spin polarization in magnetic thin films. Here, we study the exchange interaction between two localized magnetic moments in the spin-polarized electron gas with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction present. Analytical expressions are found in certain limits in addition to what is known in the literature. The stability of the Bloch and Néel domain walls in magnetic thin films is discussed in light of our results.
Degenerate quantum gases with spin-orbit coupling: a review.
Zhai, Hui
2015-02-01
This review focuses on recent developments in synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling in ultracold atomic gases. Two types of SO coupling are discussed. One is Raman process induced coupling between spin and motion along one of the spatial directions and the other is Rashba SO coupling. We emphasize their common features in both single-particle and two-body physics and the consequences of both in many-body physics. For instance, single particle ground state degeneracy leads to novel features of superfluidity and a richer phase diagram; increased low-energy density-of-state enhances interaction effects; the absence of Galilean invariance and spin-momentum locking gives rise to intriguing behaviours of superfluid critical velocity and novel quantum dynamics; and the mixing of two-body singlet and triplet states yields a novel fermion pairing structure and topological superfluids. With these examples, we show that investigating SO coupling in cold atom systems can, enrich our understanding of basic phenomena such as superfluidity, provide a good platform for simulating condensed matter states such as topological superfluids and more importantly, result in novel quantum systems such as SO coupled unitary Fermi gas and high spin quantum gases. Finally we also point out major challenges and some possible future directions.
Shi, Shengjie; Ou, Yongxi; Aradhya, S. V.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.
2018-01-01
Future applications of spin-orbit torque will require new mechanisms to improve the efficiency of switching nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), while also controlling the magnetic dynamics to achieve fast nanosecond-scale performance with low-write-error rates. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to simultaneously enhance the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy and suppress interfacial spin-memory loss by introducing subatomic and monatomic layers of Hf at the top and bottom interfaces of the ferromagnetic free layer of an in-plane magnetized three-terminal MTJ device. When combined with a β -W spin Hall channel that generates spin-orbit torque, the cumulative effect is a switching current density of 5.4 ×106 A /cm2 .
Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark
2012-01-01
as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup......We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve...
Dehghan, E.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Naeimi, A. S.
2018-01-01
The spin-resolved electron transport through a triangular network of quantum nanorings is studied in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and a magnetic flux using quantum waveguide theory. This study illustrates that, by tuning Rashba constant, magnetic flux and incoming electron energy, the triangular network of quantum rings can act as a perfect logical spin-filtering with high efficiency. By changing in the energy of incoming electron, at a proper value of the Rashba constant and magnetic flux, a reverse in the direction of spin can take place in the triangular network of quantum nanorings. Furthermore, the triangular network of quantum nanorings can be designed as a device and shows several simultaneous spintronic properties such as spin-splitter and spin-inverter. This spin-splitting is dependent on the energy of the incoming electron. Additionally, different polarizations can be achieved in the two outgoing leads from an originally incoming spin state that simulates a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.
CONDITIONS OF PASSAGE AND ENTRAPMENT OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN SPIN-ORBIT RESONANCES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarov, Valeri V.
2012-01-01
The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using comprehensive harmonic expansions of the tidal torque taking into account the frequency-dependent quality factors and Love numbers. The torque equations are integrated numerically with a small step in time, including the oscillating triaxial torque components but neglecting the layered structure of the planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury-like planet with a current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in 3:2 resonance. The probability of capture in the higher 2:1 resonance is approximately 0.23. These results are confirmed by a semi-analytical estimation of capture probabilities as functions of eccentricity for both prograde and retrograde evolutions of spin rate. As follows from analysis of equilibrium torques, entrapment in 3:2 resonance is inevitable at eccentricities between 0.2 and 0.41. Considering the phase space parameters at the times of periastron, the range of spin rates and phase angles for which an immediate resonance passage is triggered is very narrow, and yet a planet like Mercury rarely fails to align itself into this state of unstable equilibrium before it traverses 2:1 resonance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xi; ZHOU Guang-Hui
2009-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors.Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential.Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density jTs,xi and jTs,yi(I = x, y, z).We lind that the elements jTs,xx and jTs,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element jTs,yz has the same amount level jTs,xx and jTs,yy.We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire.The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.
Flexible spin-orbit torque devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Salahuddin, Sayeef [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2015-12-21
We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10{sup 6} successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging.
Flexible spin-orbit torque devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek; Salahuddin, Sayeef
2015-01-01
We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10 6 successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging
Competition of multiplet and spin-orbit splitting in open-shells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Qian; Koch, Erik [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
To study the trends in the spectra of open-shells across the periodic table, we perform density functional calculations for atoms and ions. We collect the Slater-Condon and spin-orbit parameters from the resulting self-consistent radial wave functions and potentials. To make these easily accessible, we provide a simple least squares fitting formula in the spirit of Slater's rules. Given these parameters we calculate the many-body spectra in LS-, intermediate-, and jj-coupling. To assess the relative importance of Coulomb and spin-orbit interactions, we estimate the width of the spectra by calculating the eigen-energy variance of the corresponding Hamiltonian using a simple formula that does not require diagonalizing a complicated many-body Hamiltonian.
Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, Christoph
2012-05-15
In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.
Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, Christoph
2012-01-01
In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.
Spin-Orbit Torque and Spin Pumping in YIG/Pt with Interfacial Insertion Layers (Postprint)
2018-05-03
modified by spin-orbit torque6,7 in thin- film YIG due to absorption of pure spin current,8–12 which is gen- erated from an electric current in the adjacent... films were grown on Gd3Ga5O12(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition as reported in Ref. 3. The YIG films were transferred through an ambient... introduction into the deposition chamber, maintained at 250 C at 50 mTorr O2 for 30 min to remove water and organics on the surface. The metal overlayers
Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong
2018-04-01
Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.
Spin--orbit configuration-interaction study of valence and Rydberg states of LiBe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marino, M.M.; Ermler, W.C.; Kern, C.W.; Bondybey, V.E.
1992-01-01
Ab initio spin--orbit full configuration-interaction calculations in the context of relativistic effective core potentials are reported for the weakly bound metal dimer LiBe, a three-valence-electron system. The effects of basis set on the energies of valence and Rydberg states of the cluster are discussed, as are the effects of configuration space selection on the energy of the latter states. Results at the dissociative limit are compared to the experimental atomic spectra. Potential-energy curves and spectroscopic constants are presented for the ground state and fourteen excited states, which includes the Li and Be 2p valence states, the Li 3s, 3p, 3d, and 4s Rydberg states, as well as three low-lying states of the molecular cation
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang; Gao, H.; Zâ rbo, Liviu P.; Vý borný , K.; Wang, Xuhui; Garate, Ion; Dogan, Fatih; Čejchan, A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-01-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang
2015-04-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Jianfei, E-mail: zoujianfei@hhu.edu.cn; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei
2017-04-04
We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency. - Highlights: • The optical spin current could be enhanced by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. • The optical spin current could be modulated by the degree of polarization of light. • The maximum of the spin current injection rate is obtained.
Spin-Orbital Excitations in Ca2RuO4 Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Das, L.; Forte, F.; Fittipaldi, R.
2018-01-01
The strongly correlated insulator Ca2RuO4 is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scatt......-Mott scenario. The high-energy excitations correspond to intra-atomic singlet-triplet transitions at an energy scale set by Hund's coupling. Our findings give a unifying picture of the spin and orbital excitations in the band-Mott insulator Ca2RuO4.......The strongly correlated insulator Ca2RuO4 is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x......-ray scattering study of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state of Ca2RuO4. A set of low-energy (about 80 and 400 meV) and high-energy (about 1.3 and 2.2 eV) excitations are reported, which show strong incident light polarization dependence. Our results strongly support a spin-orbit coupled band...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Xi; Zhou Guanghui
2009-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors. Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential. Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density j s,xi T and j s,yi T (i = x, y, z). We find that the elements j T s,xx and j T s,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element j T s,yz has the same amount level as j s,xx T and j s,yy T . We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire. The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.
Spectral Gaps of Spin-orbit Coupled Particles in Deformed Traps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
V. Marchukov, O.; G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.
2013-01-01
the spectrum. The effect of a Zeeman term is also considered. Our results demonstrate that variable spectral gaps occur as a function of strength of the Rashba interaction and deformation of the harmonic trapping potential. The single-particle density of states and the critical strength for superfluidity vary...... tremendously with the interaction parameter. The strong variations with Rashba coupling and deformation implies that the few- and many-body physics of spin-orbit coupled systems can be manipulated by variation of these parameters....
Peters, John Archibald
While charge transport in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is fairly well understood, many open experimental and theoretical questions related to the spin of electrons remain. The standard 2DES embedded in Alx Ga1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures is most likely not the optimal candidate for such investigations, since spin effects as well as spin-orbit interactions are small perturbations compared to other effects. This has brought InSb- and InAs-based material systems into focus due to the possibility of large spin-orbit interactions. By utilizing elastic scattering off a lithographic barrier, we investigate the consequence of spin on different electron trajectories observed in InSb and InAs quantum wells. We focus on the physical properties of spin-dependent reflection in a 2DES and we present experimental results demonstrating a method to create spin-polarized beams of ballistic electrons in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. Spatial separation of electron spins using cyclotron motion in a weak magnetic is also achieved via transverse magnetic focusing. We also explore electrostatic gating effects in InSb/InAlSb heterostructures and demonstrate the effective use of polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) as a gate dielectric for InSb. The dependence on temperature and on front gate voltage of mobility and density are also examined, revealing a strong dependence of mobility on density. As regards front gate action, there is saturation in the density once it reaches a limiting value. Further, we investigate antidot lattices patterned on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. At higher magnetic fields, ballistic commensurability features are displayed while at smaller magnetic fields localization and quantized oscillatory phenomena appear, with marked differences between InSb and InAs. Interesting localization behavior is exhibited in InSb, with the strength of the localization peak decreasing exponentially with temperature between 0.4 K and 50 K. InAs on the
Topological quantum phase transitions and edge states in spin-orbital coupled Fermi gases.
Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yi; Wang, Z D
2014-06-11
We study superconducting states in the presence of spin-orbital coupling and Zeeman field. It is found that a phase transition from a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state to the topological superconducting state occurs upon increasing the spin-orbital coupling. The nature of this topological phase transition and its critical property are investigated numerically. Physical properties of the topological superconducting phase are also explored. Moreover, the local density of states is calculated, through which the topological feature may be tested experimentally.
Spin-orbit evolution of Mercury revisited
Noyelles, Benoît; Frouard, Julien; Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael
2014-10-01
Although it is accepted that the significant eccentricity of Mercury (0.206) favours entrapment into the 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, open are the questions of how and when the capture took place. A recent work by Makarov (Makarov, V.V. [2012]. Astrophys. J., 752, 73) has proven that trapping into this state is certain for eccentricities larger than 0.2, provided we use a realistic tidal model based on the Darwin-Kaula expansion of the tidal torque. While in Ibid. a Mercury-like planet had its eccentricity fixed, we take into account its evolution. To that end, a family of possible histories of the eccentricity is generated, based on synthetic time evolution consistent with the expected statistics of the distribution of eccentricity. We employ a model of tidal friction, which takes into account both the rheology and self-gravitation of the planet. As opposed to the commonly used constant time lag (CTL) and constant phase lag (CPL) models, the physics-based tidal model changes dramatically the statistics of the possible final spin states. First, we discover that after only one encounter with the spin-orbit 3:2 resonance this resonance becomes the most probable end-state. Second, if a capture into this (or any other) resonance takes place, the capture becomes final, several crossings of the same state being forbidden by our model. Third, within our model the trapping of Mercury happens much faster than previously believed: for most histories, 10-20 Myr are sufficient. Fourth, even a weak laminar friction between the solid mantle and a molten core would most likely result in a capture in the 2:1 or even higher resonance, which is confirmed both semi-analytically and by limited numerical simulations. So the principal novelty of our paper is that the 3:2 end-state is more ancient than the same end-state obtained when the constant time lag model is employed. The swift capture justifies our treatment of Mercury as a homogeneous, unstratified body whose liquid core had not
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainland, G.B.
1988-01-01
Zero four-momentum, helicity eigenstates of the Bethe--Salpeter equation are found for a composite system consisting of a charged, spin-0 constituent and a charged, spin- 1/2 constituent bound by minimal electrodynamics. The form of the Bethe--Salpeter equation used to describe the bound state includes the contributions from both single photon exchange (ladder approximation) and the ''seagull'' diagram. Attention is restricted to zero orbital angular momentum states since these appear to be the most interesting physically
Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.
2017-10-01
Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.
Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction and phonon-mediated spin dynamics in quantum dots
Vaughan, M. P.; Rorison, J. M.
2018-01-01
Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction in a quantum dot are obtained. The resulting form does not neglect cubic terms and allows for a generalized structural inversion asymmetry. We also obtain analytical expressions for the coupling between states for the electron-phonon interaction and use these to derive spin-relaxation rates, which are found to be qualitatively similar to those derived elsewhere in the literature. We find that, due to the inclusion of cubic terms, the Dresselhaus contribution to the ground state spin relaxation disappears for spherical dots. A comparison with previous theory and existing experimental results shows good agreement thereby presenting a clear analytical formalism for future developments. Comparative calculations for potential materials are presented.
Prominent Role of Spin-Orbit Coupling in FeSe Revealed by Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingwei Ma
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In most existing theories for iron-based superconductors, spin-orbit coupling (SOC has been assumed to be insignificant. Here, we use spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering to show that collective low-energy spin excitations in the orthorhombic (or “nematic” phase of FeSe possess nearly no in-plane component. Such spin-space anisotropy is present over an energy range greater than the superconducting gap 2Δ_{sc} and gets fully inherited in the superconducting state, resulting in a c-axis polarized “spin resonance” without any noticeable isotropic spectral-weight rearrangement related to the superconductivity, which is distinct from observations in the superconducting iron pnictides. The contrast between the strong suppression of long-range magnetic order in FeSe and the persisting large spin-space anisotropy, which cannot be explained microscopically by introducing single-ion anisotropy into local-moment spin models, demonstrates the importance of SOC in an itinerant-electron description of the low-energy spin excitations. Our result helps to elucidate the nearby magnetic instabilities and the debated interplay between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in FeSe. The prominent role of SOC also implies a possible unusual nature of the superconducting state.
On-chip spin-controlled orbital angular momentum directional coupling
Xie, Zhenwei; Lei, Ting; Si, Guangyuan; Du, Luping; Lin, Jiao; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong
2018-01-01
Optical vortex beams have many potential applications in the particle trapping, quantum encoding, optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications and interconnects. However, the on-chip compact OAM detection is still a big challenge. Based on a holographic configuration and a spin-dependent structure design, we propose and demonstrate an on-chip spin-controlled OAM-mode directional coupler, which can couple the OAM signal to different directions due to its topological charge. While the directional coupling function can be switched on/off by altering the spin of incident beam. Both simulation and experimental measurements verify the validity of the proposed approach. This work would benefit the on-chip OAM devices for optical communications and high dimensional quantum coding/decoding in the future.
Kurkcuoglu, Doga Murat; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá
2018-05-01
We propose the creation and investigation of a system of spin-one fermions in the presence of artificial spin-orbit coupling, via the interaction of three hyperfine states of fermionic atoms to Raman laser fields. We explore the emergence of spinor physics in the Hamiltonian described by the interaction between light and atoms, and analyze spectroscopic properties such as dispersion relation, Fermi surfaces, spectral functions, spin-dependent momentum distributions and density of states. Connections to spin-one bosons and SU(3) systems is made, as well relations to the Lifshitz transition and Pomeranchuk instability are presented.
Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Heid, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.
2018-05-01
The effect of spin-orbit coupling on the electron-phonon interaction in a (4/3)-monolayer of Pb on Si(111) is investigated within the density-functional theory and linear-response approach in the mixed-basis pseudopotential representation. We show that the spin-orbit interaction produces a large weakening of the electron-phonon coupling strength, which appears to be strongly overestimated in the scalar relativistic calculations. The effect of spin-orbit interaction is largely determined by the induced modification of Pb electronic bands and a stiffening of the low-energy part of phonon spectrum, which favor a weakening of the electron-phonon coupling strength. The state-dependent strength of the electron-phonon interaction in occupied Pb electronic bands varies depending on binding energy rather than electronic momentum. It is markedly larger than the value averaged over electron momentum because substrate electronic bands make a small contribution to the phonon-mediated scattering and agrees well with the experimental data.
Avella, Adolfo; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Horsch, Peter
2018-04-01
We explore the effects of disordered charged defects on the electronic excitations observed in the photoemission spectra of doped transition metal oxides in the Mott insulating regime by the example of the R1 -xCaxVO3 perovskites, where R = La, ⋯, Lu. A fundamental characteristic of these vanadium d2 compounds with partly filled t2 g valence orbitals is the persistence of spin and orbital order up to high doping, in contrast to the loss of magnetic order in high-Tc cuprates at low defect concentration. We study the disordered electronic structure of such doped Mott-Hubbard insulators within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation and, as a result, manage to explain the spectral features that occur in photoemission and inverse photoemission. In particular, (i) the atomic multiplet excitations in the inverse photoemission spectra and the various defect-related states and satellites are qualitatively well reproduced, (ii) a robust Mott gap survives up to large doping, and (iii) we show that the defect states inside the Mott gap develop a soft gap at the Fermi energy. The soft defect-states gap, which separates the highest occupied from the lowest unoccupied states, can be characterized by a shape and a scale parameter extracted from a Weibull statistical sampling of the density of states near the chemical potential. These parameters provide a criterion and a comprehensive schematization for the insulator-metal transition in disordered systems. Our results provide clear indications that doped holes are bound to charged defects and form small spin-orbital polarons whose internal kinetic energy is responsible for the opening of the soft defect-states gap. We show that this kinetic gap survives disorder fluctuations of defects and is amplified by the long-range electron-electron interactions, whereas we observe a Coulomb singularity in the atomic limit. The small size of spin-orbital polarons is inferred by an analysis of the inverse participation ratio and by
Experimental study on the spin-orbit coupling property in low-dimensional semiconductor structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Hongming
2010-01-01
The spin-orbit coupling and optical properties have been studied in several low-dimensional semiconductor structures. First, the spin dynamics in (001) GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas was investigated by time resolved Kerr rotation technique under a transverse magnetic field. The in-plane spin lifetime is found to be anisotropic. The results show that the electron density in two-dimensional electron gas channel strongly affects the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Then, a large anisotropy of the magnitude of in-plane conduction electron g factor in asymmetric (001) GaAs/AlGaAs QWs was observed and its tendency of temperature dependence was studied. Second, the experimental study of the in-plane-orientation dependent spin splitting in the C(0001) GaN/AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas at room temperature was reported. The measurement of circular photo-galvanic effect current clearly shows the isotropic in-plane spin splitting in this system for the first time. Third, the first measurement of conduction electron g factor in GaAsN at room temperature was done by using time resolved Kerr rotation technique. It demonstrates that the g factor can be modified drastically by introducing a small amount of nitrogen in GaAs bulk. Finally, the optical characteristic of indirect type II transition in a series of size and shape-controlled linear CdTe/CdSe/CdTe heterostructure nano-rods was studied by steady-state and time resolved photoluminescence. Results show the steady transfer from the direct optical transition (type I) within CdSe to the indirect transition (type II) between CdSe/CdTe as the length of the nano-rods increases. (author)
Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geranton, Guillaume
2017-01-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag_2Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag_2Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT-based magnetic
Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geranton, Guillaume
2017-09-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag{sub 2}Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag{sub 2}Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT
Interplay of Rashba effect and spin Hall effect in perpendicular Pt/Co/MgO magnetic multilayers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵云驰; 杨光; 董博闻; 王守国; 王超; 孙阳; 张静言; 于广华
2016-01-01
The interplay of the Rashba effect and the spin Hall effect originating from current induced spin–orbit coupling was investigated in the as-deposited and annealed Pt/Co/MgO stacks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The above two effects were analyzed based on Hall measurements under external magnetic fields longitudinal and vertical to dc current, respectively. The coercive field as a function of dc current in vertical mode with only the Rashba effect involved decreases due to thermal annealing. Meanwhile, spin orbit torques calculated from Hall resistance with only the spin Hall effect involved in the longitudinal mode decrease in the annealed sample. The experimental results prove that the bottom Pt/Co interface rather than the Co/MgO top one plays a more critical role in both Rashba effect and spin Hall effect.
Spin effects in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jun; Li Baoan; Xia Yin; Shen Wenqing
2014-01-01
In this paper, we report and extend our recent work where the nucleon spin-orbit interaction and its spin degree of freedom were introduced explicitly for the first time in the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model for heavy-ion reactions. Despite of the significant cancellation of the time-even and time-odd spin-related mean-field potentials from the spin-orbit interaction,an appreciable local spin polarization is observed in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies because of the dominating role of the time-odd terms. It is also found that the spin up-down differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions is a useful probe of the strength, density dependence, and isospin dependence of the in-medium spin-orbit interaction, and its magnitude is still considerable even at smaller systems. (authors)
Mawrie, Alestin; Verma, Sonu; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2017-09-01
We investigate effect of k-cubic spin-orbit interaction on electrical and thermoelectric transport properties of two-dimensional fermionic systems. We obtain exact analytical expressions of the inverse relaxation time (IRT) and the Drude conductivity for long-range Coulomb and short-range delta scattering potentials. The IRT reveals that the scattering is completely suppressed along the three directions θ = (2n+1)π/3 with n=1,2,3. We also obtain analytical results of the thermopower and thermal conductivity at low temperature. The thermoelectric transport coefficients obey the Wiedemann-Franz law, even in the presence of k-cubic Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) at low temperature. In the presence of quantizing magnetic field, the signature of the RSOI is revealed through the appearance of the beating pattern in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations of thermopower and thermal conductivity in low magnetic field regime. The empirical formulae for the SdH oscillation frequencies accurately describe the locations of the beating nodes. The beating pattern in magnetothermoelectric measurement can be used to extract the spin-orbit coupling constant. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Mawrie, Alestin; Verma, Sonu; Kanti Ghosh, Tarun
2017-11-01
We investigate the effect of k-cubic spin-orbit interaction on the electrical and thermoelectric transport properties of two-dimensional fermionic systems. We obtain exact analytical expressions of the inverse relaxation time (IRT) and the Drude conductivity for long-range Coulomb and short-range delta scattering potentials. The IRT reveals that the scattering is completely suppressed along the three directions θ^\\prime = (2n+1)π/3 with n=1, 2, 3 . We also obtain analytical results of the thermopower and thermal conductivity at low temperature. The thermoelectric transport coefficients obey the Wiedemann-Franz law, even in the presence of k-cubic Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) at low temperature. In the presence of a quantizing magnetic field, the signature of the RSOI is revealed through the appearance of the beating pattern in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations of thermopower and thermal conductivity in the low magnetic field regime. The empirical formulae for the SdH oscillation frequencies accurately describe the locations of the beating nodes. The beating pattern in magnetothermoelectric measurement can be used to extract the spin-orbit coupling constant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)
2014-09-08
Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.
2014-01-01
Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Degang
2006-01-01
We study a two-dimensional electron system in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a perpendicular magnetic field. Defining two suitable boson operators and using the unitary transformations we are able to obtain the exact Landau levels in the range of all the parameters. When the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are equal, a new analytical solution for the vanishing Zeeman energy is found, where the orbital and spin wavefunctions of the electron are separated. It is also shown that in this case the Zeeman and spin-orbit splittings are independent of the Landau level index n. Due to the Zeeman energy, new crossing between the eigenstates vertical bar n, k, s = 1, σ) and vertical bar n + 1, k, s' = -1, σ') is produced at a certain magnetic field for larger Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This degeneracy leads to a resonant spin Hall conductance if it happens at the Fermi level. (letter to the editor)
Morphology effects on spin-dependent transport and recombination in polyfluorene thin films
Miller, Richards; van Schooten, K. J.; Malissa, H.; Joshi, G.; Jamali, S.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.
2016-12-01
We have studied the role of spin-dependent processes on conductivity in polyfluorene (PFO) thin films by preforming continuous wave (cw) electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy at temperatures between 10 K and room temperature using microwave frequencies between about 1 GHz and 20 GHz, as well as pulsed EDMR at the X band (10 GHz). Variable frequency EDMR allows us to establish the role of spin-orbit coupling in spin-dependent processes whereas pulsed EDMR allows for the observation of coherent spin motion effects. We used PFO for this study in order to allow for the investigation of the effects of microscopic morphological ordering since this material can adopt two distinct intrachain morphologies: an amorphous (glassy) phase, in which monomer units are twisted with respect to each other, and an ordered (β) phase, where all monomers lie within one plane. In thin films of organic light-emitting diodes, the appearance of a particular phase can be controlled by deposition parameters and solvent vapor annealing, and is verified by electroluminescence spectroscopy. Under bipolar charge-carrier injection conditions, we conducted multifrequency cw EDMR, electrically detected Rabi spin-beat experiments, and Hahn echo and inversion-recovery measurements. Coherent echo spectroscopy reveals electrically detected electron-spin-echo envelope modulation due to the coupling of the carrier spins to nearby nuclear spins. Our results demonstrate that, while conformational disorder can influence the observed EDMR signals, including the sign of the current changes on resonance as well as the magnitudes of local hyperfine fields and charge-carrier spin-orbit interactions, it does not qualitatively affect the nature of spin-dependent transitions in this material. In both morphologies, we observe the presence of at least two different spin-dependent recombination processes. At room temperature and 10 K, polaron-pair recombination through weakly spin-spin coupled
Skyrmion formation and optical spin-Hall effect in an expanding coherent cloud of indirect excitons.
Vishnevsky, D V; Flayac, H; Nalitov, A V; Solnyshkov, D D; Gippius, N A; Malpuech, G
2013-06-14
We provide a theoretical description of the polarization pattern and phase singularities experimentally evidenced recently in a condensate of indirect excitons [H. High et al., Nature 483, 584 (2012)]. We show that the averaging of the electron and hole orbital motion leads to a comparable spin-orbit interaction for both types of carriers. We demonstrate that the interplay between a radial coherent flux of bright indirect excitons and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction results in the formation of spin domains and of topological defects similar to Skyrmions. We reproduce qualitatively all the features of the experimental data and obtain a polarization pattern as in the optical spin-Hall effect despite the different symmetry of the spin-orbit interactions.
The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.
Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.
2003-01-01
We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...
Kohno, M; Fujita, T; Nakamoto, C; Suzuki, Y
2000-01-01
Using the SU sub 6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction which was recently developed by the Kyoto-Niigata group, we calculate N N, LAMBDA N and SIGMA N G--matrices in ordinary nuclear matter. Following the Scheerbaum's prescription, the strength of the single-particle spin-orbit potential S sub B is quantitatively discussed. The S subLAMBDA becomes small because of the cancellation between spin-orbit and anti-symmetric spin-orbit components. The short-range correlation is found to further reduce S subLAMBDA.
Rakhmilevitch, David; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Bitton, Ora; Kronik, Leeor; Tal, Oren
2016-03-09
Molecular junctions based on ferromagnetic electrodes allow the study of electronic spin transport near the limit of spintronics miniaturization. However, these junctions reveal moderate magnetoresistance that is sensitive to the orbital structure at their ferromagnet-molecule interfaces. The key structural parameters that should be controlled in order to gain high magnetoresistance have not been established, despite their importance for efficient manipulation of spin transport at the nanoscale. Here, we show that single-molecule junctions based on nickel electrodes and benzene molecules can yield a significant anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to ∼200% near the conductance quantum G0. The measured magnetoresistance is mechanically tuned by changing the distance between the electrodes, revealing a nonmonotonic response to junction elongation. These findings are ascribed with the aid of first-principles calculations to variations in the metal-molecule orientation that can be adjusted to obtain highly spin-selective orbital hybridization. Our results demonstrate the important role of geometrical considerations in determining the spin transport properties of metal-molecule interfaces.
Half-metal phases in a quantum wire with modulated spin-orbit interaction
Cabra, D. C.; Rossini, G. L.; Ferraz, A.; Japaridze, G. I.; Johannesson, H.
2017-11-01
We propose a spin filter device based on the interplay of a modulated spin-orbit interaction and a uniform external magnetic field acting on a quantum wire. Half-metal phases, where electrons with only a selected spin polarization exhibit ballistic conductance, can be tuned by varying the magnetic field. These half-metal phases are proven to be robust against electron-electron repulsive interactions. Our results arise from a combination of explicit band diagonalization, bosonization techniques, and extensive density matrix renormalization group computations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.
2015-06-01
Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure
Spin Hall effect in a 2DEG in the presence of magnetic couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorini, C; Schwab, P; Dzierzawa, M; Raimondi, R; Milletari, M
2009-01-01
It is now well established that the peculiar linear-in-momentum dependence of the Rashba (and of the Dresselhaus) spin-orbit coupling leads to the vanishing of the spin Hall conductivity in the bulk of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this paper we discuss how generic magnetic couplings change this behaviour providing then a potential handle on the spin Hall effect. In particular we examine the influence of magnetic impurities and an in-plane magnetic field. We find that in both cases there is a finite spin Hall effect and we provide explicit expressions for the spin Hall conductivity. The results can be obtained by means of the quasiclassical Green function approach, that we have recently extended to spin-orbit coupled electron systems.
KN phase shifts in a model with a spin-orbit interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
2001-01-01
The I=1 and I=0 kaon-nucleon s, p, d, f, g-waves phase shifts have been calculated in a non relativistic quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM). The interquark potential includes gluon exchanges with a spin-orbit interaction. This force was determined to reproduce as well as possible the meson and baryon spectra. The same force is employed for the cluster and intercluster dynamics and the relative KN wave function is calculated without any approximation. While some channels are correctly described, the theory is still unable to explain others
Spin-orbit-enhanced Wigner localization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Malet, F.; Cremon, J. C.
2011-01-01
We investigate quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the strongly-correlated regime. We show that the presence of the Rashba interaction enhances the Wigner localization in these systems, making it achievable for higher densities than those at which it is observed in Rashba-free quantum...... dots. Recurring shapes in the pair distribution functions of the yrast spectrum, which might be associated with rotational and vibrational modes, are also reported....
Spin and Pseudospin Symmetries with Trigonometric Pöschl-Teller Potential including Tensor Coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hamzavi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the trigonometric Pöschl-Teller (tPT potential and a Coulomb-like tensor potential for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number κ under the presence of exact spin and pseudospin ( p -spin symmetries. The bound state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding two-component wave functions of the Dirac particle are obtained using the parametric generalization of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU method. We show that tensor interaction removes degeneracies between spin and pseudospin doublets. The case of nonrelativistic limit is studied too.
Bokhan, Denis; Trubnikov, Dmitrii N.; Perera, Ajith; Bartlett, Rodney J.
2018-04-01
An explicitly-correlated method of calculation of excited states with spin-orbit couplings, has been formulated and implemented. Developed approach utilizes left and right eigenvectors of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model, which is based on the linearly approximated explicitly correlated coupled-cluster singles and doubles [CCSD(F12)] method. The spin-orbit interactions are introduced by using the spin-orbit mean field (SOMF) approximation of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Numerical tests for several atoms and molecules show good agreement between explicitly-correlated results and the corresponding values, calculated in complete basis set limit (CBS); the highly-accurate excitation energies can be obtained already at triple- ζ level.
Spin-orbit coupling in InGaSb/InAlSb and InGaAs/InP 2DEGs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Schaepers, Thomas; Estevez, Sergio; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Akabori, Masashi; Sato, Taku; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu; Yamada, Syoji
2008-01-01
Spin-orbit interaction in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed in high indium content InGaAs-based and InGaSb-based quantum wells was studied. Magnetotransort measurements were performed at low temperatures in a wide range of magnetic field. Characteristic beating pattern in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations as well as the enhancement of magnetoconductance at B=0 T due to weak antilocalization (WAL) effect were observed. A comparison of the values of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling parameters estimated from analysis of the beatings with the ones obtained from the fit of the WAL curves showed a good agreement. A control over the strength of the Rashba coupling parameter in the InGaAs 2DEG was achieved by applying a gate voltage. We found that in particular range of the negative gate voltages no beatings can be observed anymore, whereas the weak antilocalization becomes more pronounced. Under such conditions analysis of the WAL is a reliable method to determine the strength of the spin-orbit interaction in 2DEGs
Repulsively interacting fermions in a two-dimensional deformed trap with spin-orbit coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchukov, O. V.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.
2015-01-01
We investigate a two-dimensional system of fermions with two internal (spin) degrees of freedom. It is confined by a deformed harmonic trap and subject to a Zeeman field, Rashba or Dresselhaus one-body spin-orbit couplings and two-body short range repulsion. We obtain self-consistent mean-field $N...
Korenev, V. L.
2005-01-01
It is shown that spin Hall effect creates uniform spin polarization of electrons in semiconductor with a linear in the momentum spin splitting of conduction band. In turn, the profile of the non-uniform spin polarization accumulated at the edge of the sample oscillates in space even in the absence of an external magnetic field.
Smirnov, N. A.
2018-03-01
The paper investigates the role of spin-orbit interaction in the prediction of structural stability, lattice dynamics, elasticity, thermodynamic and transport properties (electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity) of lead under pressure with the FP-LMTO (full-potential linear-muffin-tin orbital) method for the first-principles band structure calculations. Our calculations were carried out for three polymorphous lead modifications (fcc, hcp, and bcc) in generalized gradient approximation with the exchange-correlation functional PBEsol. They suggest that compared to the scalar-relativistic calculation, the account for the SO effects insignificantly influences the compressibility of Pb. At the same time, in the calculation of phonon spectra and transport properties, the role of SO interaction is important, at least, for P ≲150 GPa. At higher pressures, the contribution from SO interaction reduces but not vanishes. As for the relative structural stability, our studies show that SO effects influence weakly the pressure of the fcc →hcp transition and much higher the pressure of the hcp →bcc transition.
Ballistic spin interferometer based on the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni Jiating; Chen Bin; Koga, T.
2008-01-01
By using the Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) model, we give the amplitude changing with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Dresselhaus SOI strength. In the first idea 1D square loop (SL), Rashba SOI acts on two sides while Dresselhaus SOI acts on the other two sides. In the second SL, we consume Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI act on four sides simultaneously. This model can be replaced by another one that Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI act on every side independently, and each side is twice long. We theoretically illustrate the influence of the Dresselhaus SOI on node position and number. To explain the 'half oscillation' phenomenon found in experiment, we apply Dresselhaus SOI to the ideal 1D SL. The conclusion is that the Dresselhaus SOI has a strong effect on the emergence of 'half oscillation'
The SOAPS project – Spin-orbit alignment of planetary systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hebb L.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The wealth of information rendered by Kepler planets and planet candidates is indispensable for statistically significant studies of distinct planet populations, in both single and multiple systems. Empirical evidences suggest that Kepler's planet population shows different physical properties as compared to the bulk of known exoplanets. The SOAPS project, aims to shed light on Kepler's planets formation, their migration and architecture. By measuring v sini accurately for Kepler hosts with rotation periods measured from their high-precision light curves, we will assess the alignment of the planetary orbit with respect to the stellar spin axis. This degree of alignment traces the formation history and evolution of the planetary systems, and thus, allows to distinguish between different proposed migration theories. SOAPS will increase by a factor of 2 the number of spin-orbit alignment measurements pushing the parameters space down to the SuperEarth domain. Here we present our preliminary results.
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.
2007-01-01
An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khotkevich, N.V.; Kolesnichenko, Yu.A.; Vovk, N.P.
2016-01-01
The electron tunneling from the quasi-two-dimensional (surface) states with the spin-orbit interaction into bulk-mode states is studied in the framework of a model of an infinitely thin inhomogeneous tunnel magnetic barrier. The influence of the scattering of quasi-two-dimensional electrons by a single magnetic defect on the tunnel current is analyzed. Analytic formulas for the conductance of a tunnel point-contact as a function of its distance from the defect are obtained. It is shown that the analysis of the local magnetization density around the defect by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy allows finding the constant of spin orbit interaction.
Conductance of a quantum ring with spin-orbit interaction in the presence of an impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.
2006-01-01
The conductance of a quantum ring has been calculated on the basis of the tunneling Hamiltonian in the quasiballistic regime of the motion of electrons with allowance for the spin-orbit interaction. The effect of the scattering of electrons by a single short-range interacting impurity in the quantum ring on the tunneling electron current is analyzed. Two types of impurities, spinless and paramagnetic, are considered. The conductance symmetry is discussed for various electron-spin orientations with respect to change in the sign of the magnetic flux through the quantum ring
Charge transport in 2DEG/s-wave superconductor junction with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.
2007-01-01
We study spin-dependent charge transport in superconducting junctions. We consider ballistic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)/s-wave superconductor junctions with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling (DSOC). We calculate the conductance normalized by that in the normal state of superconductor in order to study the effect of DSOC in 2DEG on conductance, changing the height of insulating barrier. We find the DSOC suppresses the conductance for low insulating barrier, while it can slightly enhance the conductance for high insulating barrier. It has a reentrant dependence on DSOC for middle strength insulating barrier. The effect of DSOC is weaken as the insulating barrier becomes high
Szczęśniak, Dominik; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Ahzi, Saïd
2016-09-01
Recently, the transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted renewed attention due to the potential use of their low-dimensional forms in both nano- and opto-electronics. In such applications, the electronic and transport properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides play a pivotal role. The present paper provides a new insight into these essential properties by studying the complex band structures of popular transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MX 2, where M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) while including spin-orbit coupling effects. The conducted symmetry-based tight-binding calculations show that the analytical continuation from the real band structures to the complex momentum space leads to nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problems. Herein an efficient method for solving such a class of nonlinear problems is presented and yields a complete set of physically relevant eigenvalues. Solutions obtained by this method are characterized and classified into propagating and evanescent states, where the latter states manifest not only monotonic but also oscillatory decay character. It is observed that some of the oscillatory evanescent states create characteristic complex loops at the direct band gap of MX 2 monolayers, where electrons can directly tunnel between the band gap edges. To describe these tunneling currents, decay behavior of electronic states in the forbidden energy region is elucidated and their importance within the ballistic transport regime is briefly discussed.
Manifold corrections on spinning compact binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Shuangying; Wu Xin
2010-01-01
This paper deals mainly with a discussion of three new manifold correction methods and three existing ones, which can numerically preserve or correct all integrals in the conservative post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. Two of them are listed here. One is a new momentum-position scaling scheme for complete consistency of both the total energy and the magnitude of the total angular momentum, and the other is the Nacozy's approach with least-squares correction of the four integrals including the total energy and the total angular momentum vector. The post-Newtonian contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits play an important role in the effectiveness of these six manifold corrections. They are all nearly equivalent to correct the integrals at the level of the machine epsilon for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order post-Newtonian contributions are added to the pure orbital part, three of these corrections have only minor effects on controlling the errors of these integrals. When the spin effects are also included, the effectiveness of the Nacozy's approach becomes further weakened, and even gets useless for the chaotic case. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position scaling scheme always shows the optimal performance. It requires a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist and several time-saving techniques are used. As an interesting case, the efficiency of the correction to chaotic eccentric orbits is generally better than one to quasicircular regular orbits. Besides this, the corrected fast Lyapunov indicators and Lyapunov exponents of chaotic eccentric orbits are large as compared with the uncorrected counterparts. The amplification is a true expression of the original dynamical behavior. With the aid of both the manifold correction added to a certain low-order integration algorithm as a fast and high-precision device and the fast Lyapunov
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-07-07
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa B.; Akosa, C. A.; Fischer, M. H.; Vaezi, A.; Kim, E.-A.; Manchon, A.
2017-07-01
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Fischer, M. H.; Vaezi, A.; Kim, E.-A.; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Spin hall effect associated with SU(2) gauge field
Tao, Y.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the connection between spin Hall effect and spin force. Here we investigate that the spin force due to spin-orbit coupling, which, in two-dimensional system, is equivalent to forces of Hirsch and Chudnovsky besides constant factors 3 and frac{3}{2} respectively, is a part of classic Anandan force, and that the spin Hall effect is an anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, we develop the method of AC phase to derive the expression for the spin force, and note that the most basic spin Hall effect indeed originate from the AC phase and is therefore an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of spin. This method differs from approach of Berry phase in the study of anomalous Hall effect , which is the intrinsic property of the perfect crystal. On the other hand, we use an elegant skill to show that the Chudnovsky-Drude model is reasonable. Here we have improved the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity of Chudnovsky. Compared to the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity in the Chudnovsky-Drude model, ours are in better agreement with experimentation. Finally, we discuss the relation between spin Hall effect and fractional statistics.
Valley–spin Seebeck effect in heavy group-IV monolayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai, Xuechao; Wang, Shengdong; Zhang, Yan
2017-01-01
Akin to electron spin, the valley has become another highly valued degree of freedom in modern electronics, specifically after tremendous studies on monolayers of group-IV materials, i.e. graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. Except for graphene, the other heavy group-IV monolayers have observable intrinsic spin–orbit interactions due to their buckled structures. Distinct from the usual electric or optical control of valley and spin, we here employ a temperature difference to drive electron motion in ferromagnetic heavy group-IV monolayers via designing a caloritronic device locally modulated by an interlayer electric (E z ) field. A unique valley–spin Seebeck (VSS) effect is discovered, with the current contributed only by one (the other) valley and one (the other) spin moving along one (the opposite) direction. This effect is suggested to be detected below the critical temperature about 18 K for silicene, 200 K for germanene and 400 K for stanene, arising from the characteristic valley–spin nondegenerate band structures tuned by the E z field, but cannot be driven in graphene without spin–orbit interaction. Above the critical temperature, the VSS effect is broken by overlarge temperature broadening. Besides the temperature, it is also found that the E z field can drive a transition between the VSS effect and the normal spin Seebeck effect. Further calculations indicate that the VSS effect is robust against many realistic perturbations. Our research represents a conceptually but substantially major step towards the study of the Seebeck effect. These findings provide a platform for encoding information simultaneously by the valley and spin quantum numbers of electrons in future thermal-logic circuits and energy-saving devices. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.
2012-01-01
flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...... particles within a field where the transverse energy circulation is associated exclusively with the spin flow. This result can be treated as the first demonstration of mechanical action of the spin flow of a light field....
Ren, Y. J.; Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Shen, R.; Shao, L. B.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.
2017-12-01
The spin-orbit torque provides an efficient method for switching the direction of a magnetization by using an electric field. Owing to the spin-orbit coupling, when an electric field is applied, a nonequilibrium spin density is generated, which exerts a torque on the local magnetization. Here, we investigate the spin-orbit torque in a thin film of topological insulator \\text{Bi}2\\text{Se}3 based upon a Boltzmann equation, with proper boundary conditions, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime. It is shown that due to the spin-momentum interlocking of the electron surface states, the magnitude of the field-like torque is simply in linear proportion to the longitudinal electrical current. For a fixed electric field, the spin-orbit torque is proportional to the sample length in the ballistic limit, and saturates to a constant in the diffusive limit. The dependence of the torque on the magnetization direction and exchange coupling strength is also studied. Our theory may offer useful guidance for experimental investigations of the spin-orbit torque in finite-size systems.
Spin-orbit driven ferromagnetic resonance: a nanoscale magnetic characterisation technique
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fang, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Výborný, Karel; Zarbo, Liviu; Campion, R. P.; Casiraghi, A.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 6, č. 7 (2011), s. 413-417 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100802; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08087 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic resonance * spin-orbit coupling * nanomagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 27.270, year: 2011
Tunable spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices
Grusdt, Fabian; Li, Tracy; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene
2017-06-01
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is at the heart of many exotic band structures and can give rise to many-body states with topological order. Here we present a general scheme based on a combination of microwave driving and lattice shaking for the realization of two-dimensional SOC with ultracold atoms in systems with inversion symmetry. We show that the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC can be independently tuned in a spin-dependent square lattice. More generally, our method can be used to open gaps between different spin states without breaking time-reversal symmetry. We demonstrate that this allows for the realization of topological insulators with nontrivial spin textures closely related to the Kane-Mele model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Lixiang; She Weilong
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme to generate hybrid Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement where multiple photons are entangled in different degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), and path (linear momentum). The generation involves mapping the preliminary OAM entanglement of photon pairs onto their spin-orbit and spin-path degrees of freedom, respectively. Based on the hybrid GHZ entanglement, we demonstrate an open-destination teleportation with multiples degrees of freedom, via which a spin state of a single photon is teleported onto a superposition of multiple photons with the postselection technique and the original information could be read out at any photon in individual spin, OAM, or the linear-momentum state. Our scheme holds promise for asymmetric optical quantum network.
Optical conductivity of layered ruthenates. The role of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Pavarini, Eva [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
We use the combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory (LDA+DMFT) to calculate the optical conductivity of the layered ruthenates Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} and Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The calculations are performed via linear response theory and Kubo's formalism. For Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} two sets of interaction parameters, (U,J)=(2.3,0.4)eV and (3.1,0.7)eV, both commonly employed for ruthenates, are used. We show that including the spin-orbit coupling improves the agreement with experimental data. Finally, we analyze the effects of low-symmetry Coulomb interaction.
Signatures of spin-orbital states of t2g 2 system in optical conductivity: R VO3 (R =Y and La)
Kim, Minjae
2018-04-01
We investigate signatures of the spin and orbital states of R VO3 (R =Y and La) in optical conductivity using density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT+DMFT). From the assignment of multiplet state configurations to optical transitions, the DFT+DMFT reproduces experimental temperature-dependent evolutions of optical conductivity for both YVO3 and LaVO3. We also show that the optical conductivity is a useful quantity to probe the evolution of the orbital state even in the absence of spin order. The result provides a reference to investigate the spin and orbital states of t2g 2 vanadate systems, which is an important issue for both fundamental physics on spin and orbital states and applications of vanadates by means of orbital state control.
Spin valve effect in single-atom contacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziegler, M; Neel, N; Berndt, R; Lazo, C; Ferriani, P; Heinze, S; Kroeger, J
2011-01-01
Magnetic single-atom contacts have been controllably fabricated with a scanning tunnelling microscope. A voltage-dependent spin valve effect with conductance variations of ∼40% is reproducibly observed from contacts comprising a Cr-covered tip and Co and Cr atoms on ferromagnetic nanoscale islands on W(110) with opposite magnetization. The spin-dependent conductances are interpreted from first-principles calculations in terms of the orbital character of the relevant electronic states of the junction.
Yu, Zi-Fa; Chai, Xu-Dan; Xue, Ju-Kui
2018-05-01
We investigate the energetic and dynamical instability of spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a deep optical lattice via a tight-binding model. The stability phase diagram is completely revealed in full parameter space, while the dependence of superfluidity on the dispersion relation is illustrated explicitly. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling, the superfluidity only exists in the center of the Brillouin zone. However, the combination of spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman field, nonlinearity and optical lattice potential can modify the dispersion relation of the system, and change the position of Brillouin zone for generating the superfluidity. Thus, the superfluidity can appear in either the center or the other position of the Brillouin zone. Namely, in the center of the Brillouin zone, the system is either superfluid or Landau unstable, which depends on the momentum of the lowest energy. Therefore, the superfluidity can occur at optional position of the Brillouin zone by elaborating spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman splitting, nonlinearity and optical lattice potential. For the linear case, the system is always dynamically stable, however, the nonlinearity can induce the dynamical instability, and also expand the superfluid region. These predicted results can provide a theoretical evidence for exploring the superfluidity of the system experimentally.
Dehghan, E.; Khoshnoud, D. Sanavi; Naeimi, A. S.
2018-06-01
Aim of this study is to investigate spin transportation in double quantum ring (DQR). We developed an array of DQR to measure the transmission coefficient and analyze the spin transportation through this system in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and magnetic flux estimated using S-matrix method. In this article, we compute the spin transport and spin-current characteristics numerically as functions of electron energy, angles between the leads, coupling constant of the leads, RSOI, and magnetic flux. Our results suggest that, for typical values of the magnetic flux (ϕ /ϕ0) and Rashba constant (αR), such system can demonstrates many spintronic properties. It is possible to design a new geometry of DQR by incoming electrons polarization in a way to optimize the system to work as a spin-filtering and spin-inverting nano-device with very high efficiency. The results prove that the spin current will strongly modulate with an increase in the magnetic flux and Rashba constant. Moreover it is shown that, when the lead coupling is weak, the perfect spin-inverter does not occur.
Changing spin-orbit interaction with increasing exoticism across the periodic table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, Sukhendusekhar
2005-01-01
Recently, experimental information about nuclei away from the valley of stability are being available. Several workers have suggested that shell structures may change away from the line of stability and nuclear spin-orbit interaction weakens as a function of the neutron excess
Spin-Orbit Coupling, Antilocalization, and Parallel Magnetic Fields in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zumbuhl, D.; Miller, Jessica; M. Marcus, C.
2002-01-01
We investigate antilocalization due to spin-orbit coupling in ballistic GaAs quantum dots. Antilocalization that is prominent in large dots is suppressed in small dots, as anticipated theoretically. Parallel magnetic fields suppress both antilocalization and also, at larger fields, weak localizat...
Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin Orbit Phases
2016-06-14
Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-06-2016 15-Mar-2013 14-Mar-2016 Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin-Orbit Phases The views...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ultrafast optical spectroscopy , nonlinear optical spectroscopy , iridates, cuprates REPORT...California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 -0001 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and
Ultrafast demagnetization in rare-earth alloys: the role of spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Guyader, Loic; Solopow, Sergej; Radu, Florin; Holldack, Karsten; Mitzner, Rolf; Kachel, Torsten; Pontius, Niko; Foehlisch, Alexander; Radu, Ilie [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Abrudan, Radu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik/Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)
2015-07-01
Understanding the ultrafast demagnetization occurring upon femtosecond laser excitation of a magnetic material is a fundamental problem of modern magnetism and its microscopic origin remains highly elusive and intensely debated. Particularly, the spin-orbit coupling mediating the spin-lattice interaction is one of the key ingredients. An intriguing case of tunable parallel to anti-parallel LS coupling can be realized in rare-earth (RE) alloys. For instance, Gd60Sm40 and Gd60Dy40 alloys have similar absolute S and L, but exhibit opposite LS coupling while displaying the same ferromagnetic ordering temperature of 250 K. They constitute thus an ideal case to investigate the particular role of the LS coupling on the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report on the properties of such RE thin film alloys using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) with the spin and orbit sum rules at M5,4 edges. Femtosecond time-resolved transmission XMCD measurements performed at the slicing beamline reveal the element-specific demagnetization time constant in these alloys. Funding from European Union through FEMTOSPIN is gratefully acknowledged.
Conditions of Passage and Entrapment of Terrestrial Planets in Spin-Orbit Resonances
2012-06-10
May 25 ABSTRACT The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using... planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury -like planet with a current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in... Mercury rarely fails to align itself into this state of unstable equilibrium before it traverses 2:1 resonance. Key words: celestial mechanics – planets
MICROSCOPIC FERMI-LIQUID APPROACH TO THE RESONANT EFFECTS OF SPIN-ORBIT INTERACTION IN SOLIDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Александр КЛЮКАНОВ
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Kondo effect, saturation magnetization and heat capacity of ferromagnetic are calculated from the first principles in the spirit of Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory. Temperature dependence of resistivity of metal with magnetic impurity is obtained in a good agreement with existing experimental data. Resistance curves demonstrate a minimum due to the resonance character of the interaction between spins of the localized and conduction electrons. It has been demonstrated that both temperature dependence of magnetic momentum and internal energy of ferromagnetic are in a good agreement with those predicted by the Heisenberg’s model.METODA FERMI-LICHID MICROSCOPICĂ PENTRU EFECTELE DE REZONANȚĂ A INTERACȚIUNII SPIN-ORBITE ÎN SUBSTANȚELE SOLIDEEfectul Kondo, magnetizarea de saturație și căldura specifică a unui feromagnet sunt calculate folosind principiile fundamentale în spiritul teoriei Fermi-lichid Landau. Dependența de temperatură a rezistenței metalului cu impurități magnetice este în concordanță cu experimentul. Rezistența minimă este legată de natura rezonantă a interacțiunii unui electron de conducție cu un electron localizat. Se arată că dependența de temperatură a momentului magnetic și energia interioară este în bună concordanță cu modelul Heisenberg.
Spin-Orbit Qubits of Rare-Earth-Metal Ions in Axially Symmetric Crystal Fields
Bertaina, S.; Shim, J. H.; Gambarelli, S.; Malkin, B. Z.; Barbara, B.
2009-11-01
Contrary to the well-known spin qubits, rare-earth-metal qubits are characterized by a strong influence of crystal field due to large spin-orbit coupling. At low temperature and in the presence of resonance microwaves, it is the magnetic moment of the crystal-field ground state which nutates (for several μs) and the Rabi frequency ΩR is anisotropic. Here, we present a study of the variations of ΩR(H→0) with the magnitude and direction of the static magnetic field H→0 for the odd Er167 isotope in a single crystal CaWO4:Er3+. The hyperfine interactions split the ΩR(H→0) curve into eight different curves which are fitted numerically and described analytically. These “spin-orbit qubits” should allow detailed studies of decoherence mechanisms which become relevant at high temperature and open new ways for qubit addressing using properly oriented magnetic fields.
Orbital occupancy evolution across spin- and charge-ordering transitions in YBaFe2O5
Lindén, J.; Lindroos, F.; Karen, P.
2017-08-01
Thermal evolution of the Fe2+-Fe3+ valence mixing in YBaFe2O5 is investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. In this high-spin double-cell perovskite, the d6 and d5 Fe states differ by the single minority-spin electron which then controls all the spin- and charge-ordering transitions. Orbital occupancies can be extracted from the spectra in terms of the dxz , dz2 and either dx2-y2 (Main Article) or dxy (Supplement) populations of this electron upon conserving its angular momentum. At low temperatures, the minority-spin electrons fill up the ordered dxz orbitals of Fe2+, in agreement with the considerable orthorhombic distortion of the structure. Heating through the Verwey transition supplies 93% of the mixing entropy, at which point the predominantly mixing electron occupies mainly the dx2-y2 /dxy orbitals weakly bonding the two Fe atoms that face each other across the bases of their coordination pyramids. This might stabilize a weak coulombic checkerboard order suggested by McQueeney et alii in Phys. Rev. B 87(2013)045127. When the remaining 7% of entropy is supplied at a subsequent transition, the mixing electron couples the two Fe atoms predominantly via their dz2 orbitals. The valence mixing concerns more than 95% of the Fe atoms present in the crystalline solid; the rest is semi-quantitatively interpreted as domain walls and antiphase boundaries formed upon cooling through the Néel and Verwey-transition temperatures, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Portugal, L.; Jesus, Anderson L. de
2015-01-01
We consider a particle with spin 1/2 with position-dependent mass moving in a plane. Considering separately Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we write down the Hamiltonian for this problem and solve it for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our radial wavefunctions have two contributions: homogeneous ones which are written as Bessel functions of non-integer orders—that depend on angular momentum m—and particular solutions which are obtained after decoupling the non-homogeneous system. In this process, we find non-homogeneous Bessel equation, Laguerre, as well as biconfluent Heun equation. We also present the probability densities for m = 0, 1, 2 in an annular quantum well. Our results indicate that the background as well as the spin-orbit interaction naturally splits the spinor components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Alexandre G. M., E-mail: agmschmidt@gmail.com; Portugal, L., E-mail: liciniolportugal@gmail.com; Jesus, Anderson L. de [Departamento de Física do polo universitário de Volta Redonda, Instituto de Ciências Exatas—Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Des. Ellis Hermydio Figueira, 783, Volta Redonda, RJ CEP 27215-350 (Brazil)
2015-01-15
We consider a particle with spin 1/2 with position-dependent mass moving in a plane. Considering separately Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we write down the Hamiltonian for this problem and solve it for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our radial wavefunctions have two contributions: homogeneous ones which are written as Bessel functions of non-integer orders—that depend on angular momentum m—and particular solutions which are obtained after decoupling the non-homogeneous system. In this process, we find non-homogeneous Bessel equation, Laguerre, as well as biconfluent Heun equation. We also present the probability densities for m = 0, 1, 2 in an annular quantum well. Our results indicate that the background as well as the spin-orbit interaction naturally splits the spinor components.
Spin filling of valley-orbit states in a silicon quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, W H; Yang, C H; Zwanenburg, F A; Dzurak, A S, E-mail: wee.lim@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)
2011-08-19
We report the demonstration of a low-disorder silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (Si MOS) quantum dot containing a tunable number of electrons from zero to N = 27. The observed evolution of addition energies with parallel magnetic field reveals the spin filling of electrons into valley-orbit states. We find a splitting of 0.10 meV between the ground and first excited states, consistent with theory and placing a lower bound on the valley splitting. Our results provide optimism for the realisation in the near future of spin qubits based on silicon quantum dots.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasanirokh, K.; Phirouznia, A.
2013-01-01
Influence of electrons interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons on magnetoelectric and spin-related transport effects are investigated. The considered system is a two-dimensional electron gas system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit couplings. The works which have previously been performed in this field, have revealed that the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings cannot be responsible for spin current in the non-equilibrium regime. In the current Letter, a semiclassical method was employed using the Boltzmann approach and it was shown that the spin current of the system, in general, does not go all the way to zero when the electron–phonon coupling is taken into account. It was also shown that spin accumulation of the system could be influenced by electron–phonon coupling.
Highly Anisotropic Magnon Dispersion in Ca_{2}RuO_{4}: Evidence for Strong Spin Orbit Coupling.
Kunkemöller, S; Khomskii, D; Steffens, P; Piovano, A; Nugroho, A A; Braden, M
2015-12-11
The magnon dispersion in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} has been determined by inelastic neutron scattering on single crytals containing 1% of Ti. The dispersion is well described by a conventional Heisenberg model suggesting a local moment model with nearest neighbor interaction of J=8 meV. Nearest and next-nearest neighbor interaction as well as interlayer coupling parameters are required to properly describe the entire dispersion. Spin-orbit coupling induces a very large anisotropy gap in the magnetic excitations in apparent contrast with a simple planar magnetic model. Orbital ordering breaking tetragonal symmetry, and strong spin-orbit coupling can thus be identified as important factors in this system.
Bulk magnon spin current theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezende, S.M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla, 306 Santiago (Chile); Cunha, R.O.; López Ortiz, J.C.; Azevedo, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)
2016-02-15
The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) consists in the generation of a spin current parallel to a temperature gradient applied across the thickness of a bilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI), such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and a metallic layer (ML) with strong spin orbit coupling, such as platinum. The LSSE is usually detected by a DC voltage generated along the ML due to the conversion of the spin current into a charge current perpendicular to the static magnetic field by means of the inverse spin Hall effect. Here we present a model for the LSSE that relies on the bulk magnon spin current created by the temperature gradient across the thickness of the FMI. We show that the spin current pumped into the metallic layer by the magnon accumulation in the FMI provides continuity of the spin current at the FMI/ML interface and is essential for the existence of the LSSE. The results of the theory are in good agreement with experimental LSSE data in YIG/Pt bilayers on the variation of the DC voltage with the sample temperature, with the FMI layer thickness and with the intensity of high magnetic fields. - Highlights: • We present a theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect based on bulk magnons. • The model explains quantitatively the measured voltage in YIG/Pt created by the LSSE. • The model explains quantitatively the temperature dependence of LSSE measured in YIG/Pt. • The model agrees qualitatively with the measured dependence of LSSE with YIG thickness. • The model agrees qualitatively with the measured dependence of LSSE on magnetic field.
Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej
2015-01-01
Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic to a...
Observation of spin Hall effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements.
Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2014-12-09
Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) manifesting itself as spin-dependent splitting escapes detection in previous photon tunneling experiments due to the fact that the induced beam centroid shift is restricted to a fraction of wavelength. In this work, we report on the first observation of this tiny effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements based on preselection and postselection technique on the spin states. We find that the spin-dependent splitting is even larger than the potential barrier thickness when spin-polarized photons tunneling through a potential barrier. This photonic SHE is attributed to spin-redirection Berry phase which can be described as a consequence of the spin-orbit coupling. These findings provide new insight into photon tunneling effect and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.
Observation of Spin Hall Effect in Photon Tunneling via Weak Measurements
Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2014-01-01
Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) manifesting itself as spin-dependent splitting escapes detection in previous photon tunneling experiments due to the fact that the induced beam centroid shift is restricted to a fraction of wavelength. In this work, we report on the first observation of this tiny effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements based on preselection and postselection technique on the spin states. We find that the spin-dependent splitting is even larger than the potential barrier thickness when spin-polarized photons tunneling through a potential barrier. This photonic SHE is attributed to spin-redirection Berry phase which can be described as a consequence of the spin-orbit coupling. These findings provide new insight into photon tunneling effect and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications. PMID:25487043
Specific heat of parabolic quantum dot with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjeev Kumar, D., E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India - 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [DVR College of Engineering & Technology, Kashipur, Medak, India - 502285 (India)
2016-04-13
The heat capacity of a two electron quantum dot with parabolic confinement in magnetic field in the presence of electron-electron interaction, Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) has been studied. The electron-electron interaction has been treated by a model potential which makes the Hamiltonian to be soluble exactly. The RSOI has been treated by a unitary transformation and the terms up to second order in DSOI constants have been considered. The heat capacity is obtained by canonical averaging. So far no study has been reported in literature on the effect of DSOI on the heat capacity of quantum dot.
Electrical switching of antiferromagnets via strongly spin-orbit coupled materials
Li, Xi-Lai; Duan, Xiaopeng; Semenov, Yuriy G.; Kim, Ki Wook
2017-01-01
Electrically controlled ultra-fast switching of an antiferromagnet (AFM) is shown to be realizable by interfacing it with a material of strong spin-orbit coupling. The proximity interaction between the sublattice magnetic moments of a layered AFM and the spin-polarized free electrons at the interface offers an efficient way to manipulate antiferromagnetic states. A quantitative analysis, using the combination with a topological insulator as an example, demonstrates highly reliable 90° and 180° rotations of AFM magnetic states under two different mechanisms of effective torque generation at the interface. The estimated switching speed and energy requirement are in the ps and aJ ranges, respectively, which are about two-three orders of magnitude better than the ferromagnetic counterparts. The observed differences in the magnetization dynamics may explain the disparate characteristic responses. Unlike the usual precessional/chiral motions in the ferromagnets, those of the AFMs can essentially be described as a damped oscillator with a more direct path. The impact of random thermal fluctuations is also examined.
Wu, Mingzhong
As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).
Allen, Philip B.; Pickett, Warren E.
2018-06-01
Since closed lines of accidental electronic degeneracies were demonstrated to be possible, even frequent, by Herring in 1937, no further developments arose for eight decades. The earliest report of such a nodal loop in a real material - aluminum - is recounted and elaborated on. Nodal loop semimetals have become a focus of recent activity, with emphasis on other issues. Band degeneracies are, after all, the origin of topological phases in crystalline materials. Spin-orbit interaction lifts accidental band degeneracies, with the resulting spectrum being provided here. The geometric phase γ(C) = ± π for circuits C surrounding a line of such degeneracy cannot survive completely unchanged. The change depends on how the spin is fixed during adiabatic evolution. For spin fixed along the internal spin-orbit field, γ(C) decreases to zero as the circuit collapses around the line of lifted degeneracy. For spin fixed along a perpendicular axis, the conical intersection persists and γ(C) = ± π is unchanged.
Elementary isovector spin and orbital magnetic dipole modes revisited in the shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, A.
1988-08-01
A review is given on the status of mainly spin magnetic dipole modes in some sd- and fp-shell nuclei studied with inelastic electron and proton scattering, and by β + -decay. Particular emphasis is also placed on a fairly new, mainly orbital magnetic dipole mode investigated by high-resolution (e,e') and (p,p') scattering experiments on a series of fp-shell nuclei. Both modes are discussed in terms of the shell model with various effective interactions. (orig.)
Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.
2011-06-22
High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.
Bodily tides near the 1:1 spin-orbit resonance: correction to Goldreich's dynamical model
Williams, James G.; Efroimsky, Michael
2012-12-01
triaxial primary body experiencing both a tidal and a permanent-figure torque exerted by an orbiting secondary. We consider the effect of the triaxiality on both circulating and librating rotation near the synchronous state. Circulating rotation may evolve toward the libration region or toward a spin faster than synchronous (the so-called pseudosynchronous spin). Which behaviour depends on the orbit eccentricity, the triaxial figure of the primary, and the mass ratio of the secondary and primary bodies. The spin evolution will always stall for the oblate case. For libration with a small amplitude, expressions are derived for the libration frequency, damping rate, and average orientation. Importantly, the stability of pseudosynchronous spin hinges upon the dissipation model. Makarove and Efroimsky (Astrophys J, 2012) have found that a more realistic tidal dissipation model than the corrected MacDonald torque makes pseudosynchronous spin unstable. Besides, for a sufficiently large triaxiality, pseudosynchronism is impossible, no matter what dissipation model is used.
Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities
Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.
2017-11-01
The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.
Ang, Yee Sin; Ma, Zhongshui; Zhang, C
2014-01-21
The unusual tunneling effects of massless chiral fermions (mCF) and massive chiral fermions (MCF) in a single layer graphene and bilayer graphene represent some of the most bizarre quantum transport phenomena in condensed matter system. Here we show that in a two-dimensional semiconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (R2DEG), the real-spin chiral-like tunneling of electrons at normal incidence simultaneously exhibits features of mCF and MCF. The parabolic branch of opposite spin in R2DEG crosses at a Dirac-like point and has a band turning point. These features generate transport properties not found in usual two-dimensional electron gas. Albeit its π Berry phase, electron backscattering is present in R2DEG. An electron mimics mCF if its energy is in the vicinity of the subband crossing point or it mimics MCF if its energy is near the subband minima.
Microwave imaging of spinning object using orbital angular momentum
Liu, Kang; Li, Xiang; Gao, Yue; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang
2017-09-01
The linear Doppler shift used for the detection of a spinning object becomes significantly weakened when the line of sight (LOS) is perpendicular to the object, which will result in the failure of detection. In this paper, a new detection and imaging technique for spinning objects is developed. The rotational Doppler phenomenon is observed by using the microwave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). To converge the radiation energy on the area where objects might exist, the generation method of OAM beams is proposed based on the frequency diversity principle, and the imaging model is derived accordingly. The detection method of the rotational Doppler shift and the imaging approach of the azimuthal profiles are proposed, which are verified by proof-of-concept experiments. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that OAM beams can still be used to obtain the azimuthal profiles of spinning objects even when the LOS is perpendicular to the object. This work remedies the insufficiency in existing microwave sensing technology and offers a new solution to the object identification problem.
Spin precession and spin waves in a chiral electron gas: Beyond Larmor's theorem
Karimi, Shahrzad; Baboux, Florent; Perez, Florent; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz
2017-07-01
Larmor's theorem holds for magnetic systems that are invariant under spin rotation. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling this invariance is lost and Larmor's theorem is broken: for systems of interacting electrons, this gives rise to a subtle interplay between the spin-orbit coupling acting on individual single-particle states and Coulomb many-body effects. We consider a quasi-two-dimensional, partially spin-polarized electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Using a linear-response approach based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we calculate the dispersions of spin-flip waves. We obtain analytic results for small wave vectors and up to second order in the Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling strengths α and β . Comparison with experimental data from inelastic light scattering allows us to extract α and β as well as the spin-wave stiffness very accurately. We find significant deviations from the local density approximation for spin-dependent electron systems.
Energy levels of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential
Wang, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin
2015-02-01
We investigate the energy levels of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential under the mean-field approximation. We find that the energy levels of the system can be significantly influenced by the atomic interactions. Without atomic interaction, four energy levels change linearly with the tunneling amplitude, the Raman coupling, and the spin-orbit coupling. However, whenever atomic interaction is considered, three more energy levels will appear, which have a nonlinear dependence on those parameters above. These three energy levels are multi-degenerate and related to the macro-symmetry of the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farrokhpour, H; Alagia, M; Amusia, M Ya
2006-01-01
The ionization cross-section of the 3d spin-orbit components of the Cs atom has been measured from about 12 to 70 eV above their respective thresholds. The measured relative ionization cross-section of the 3d 5/2 channel exhibits a pronounced minimum above threshold followed by a second maximum near the 3d 3/2 ionization onset and thus qualitatively confirms the theoretical predictions of a spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling (Amusia et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett 88 093002)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farrokhpour, H [Chemistry Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Alagia, M [CNR-ISMN Sez.Roma1, P.le A Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy) and CNR-Lab. Naz. TASC-INFM, Gas Phase Beamline at Elettra, Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)] (and others)
2006-02-21
The ionization cross-section of the 3d spin-orbit components of the Cs atom has been measured from about 12 to 70 eV above their respective thresholds. The measured relative ionization cross-section of the 3d{sub 5/2} channel exhibits a pronounced minimum above threshold followed by a second maximum near the 3d{sub 3/2} ionization onset and thus qualitatively confirms the theoretical predictions of a spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling (Amusia et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett 88 093002)
Spin-orbit coupling in ultracold Fermi gases of 173Yb atoms
Song, Bo; He, Chengdong; Hajiyev, Elnur; Ren, Zejian; Seo, Bojeong; Cai, Geyue; Amanov, Dovran; Zhang, Shanchao; Jo, Gyu-Boong
2017-04-01
Synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in cold atoms opens an intriguing new way to probe nontrivial topological orders beyond natural conditions. Here, we report the realization of the SOC physics both in a bulk system and in an optical lattice. First, we demonstrate two hallmarks induced from SOC in a bulk system, spin dephasing in the Rabi oscillation and asymmetric atomic distribution in the momentum space respectively. Then we describe the observation of non-trivial spin textures and the determination of the topological phase transition in a spin-dependent optical lattice dressed by the periodic Raman field. Furthermore, we discuss the quench dynamics between topological and trivial states by suddenly changing the band topology. Our work paves a new way to study non-equilibrium topological states in a controlled manner. Funded by Croucher Foundation and Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong (Project ECS26300014, GRF16300215, GRF16311516, and Croucher Innovation Grants).
Majorana surface modes of nodal topological pairings in spin-3/2 semimetals
Yang, Wang; Xiang, Tao; Wu, Congjun
2017-10-01
When solid state systems possess active orbital-band structures subject to spin-orbit coupling, their multicomponent electronic structures are often described in terms of effective large-spin fermion models. Their topological structures of superconductivity are beyond the framework of spin singlet and triplet Cooper pairings for spin-1/2 systems. Examples include the half-Heusler compound series of RPtBi, where R stands for a rare-earth element. Their spin-orbit coupled electronic structures are described by the Luttinger-Kohn model with effective spin-3/2 fermions and are characterized by band inversion. Recent experiments provide evidence to unconventional superconductivity in the YPtBi material with nodal spin-septet pairing. We systematically study topological pairing structures in spin-3/2 systems with the cubic group symmetries and calculate the surface Majorana spectra, which exhibit zero energy flat bands, or, cubic dispersion depending on the specific symmetry of the superconducting gap functions. The signatures of these surface states in the quasiparticle interference patterns of tunneling spectroscopy are studied, which can be tested in future experiments.
Fulde-Ferrell-Like Molecular States in Spin-Orbit Coupled Ultracold Fermi Gases
Ye, Chong; Fu, Li-Bin
2017-08-01
We study the molecular state in three-component Fermi gases with a single impurity of 6 Li immersing in a no-interacting Fermi sea of 40 K in the presence of an equal weight combination of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling. In the region where the Fermi sea has two disjointed Fermi surfaces, we find that there are two Fulde-Ferrell-like molecular states with dominating contributions from the lower helicity branch. Decreasing the scattering length or the spin-orbit coupled Fermi energy, we find the Fulde-Ferrell-like molecular state with small center-of-mass momentum is always energy favored and the other one will suddenly disappear. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under Grant Nos. 2013CBA01502, 2013CB834100, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11374040, 11475027, 11575027, 11274051, and 11075020
Spin-orbit maps and electron spin dynamics for the luminosity upgrade project at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berglund, G.Z.M.
2001-09-01
HERA is the high energy electron(positron)-proton collider at deutsches elektronen-synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg. Following eight years of successful running, five of which were with a longitudinally spin polarized electron(positron) beam for the HERMES experiment, the rings have now been modified to increase the luminosity by a factor of about five and spin rotators have been installed for the H1 and ZEUS experiments. The modifications involve nonstandard configurations of overlapping magnetic fields and other aspects which have profound implications for the polarization. This thesis addresses the problem of calculating the polarization in the upgraded machine and the measures needed to maintain the polarization. A central topic is the construction of realistic spin-orbit transport maps for the regions of overlapping fields and their implementation in existing software. This is the first time that calculations with such fields have been possible. Using the upgraded software, calculations are presented for the polarization that can be expected in the upgraded machine and an analysis is made of the contributions to depolarization from the various parts of the machine. It is concluded that about 50% polarization should be possible. The key issues for tuning the machine are discussed. The last chapter deals with a separate topic, namely how to exploit a simple unitary model of spin motion to describe electron depolarization and thereby expose a misconception appearing in the literature. (orig.)
Dynamics of the conservative and dissipative spin-orbit problem
Celletti, A; Lega, E
2006-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of the spin--orbit coupling under different settings. First we consider the conservative problem, and then we add a dissipative torque as provided by MacDonald's or Darwin's models. By means of frequency analysis and of the computation of the maximum Lyapunov indicator we explore the different dynamical behaviors associated to the main resonances. In particular we focus on the 1:1 and 3:2 resonances in which the Moon and Mercury are actually trapped.
Dynamics of High-Order Spin-Orbit Couplings about Linear Momenta in Compact Binary Systems*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Li; Wu Xin; Huang Guo-Qing; Mei Li-Jie
2017-01-01
This paper relates to the post-Newtonian Hamiltonian dynamics of spinning compact binaries, consisting of the Newtonian Kepler problem and the leading, next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading order spin-orbit couplings as linear functions of spins and momenta. When this Hamiltonian form is transformed to a Lagrangian form, besides the terms corresponding to the same order terms in the Hamiltonian, several additional terms, third post-Newtonian (3PN), 4PN, 5PN, 6PN and 7PN order spin-spin coupling terms, yield in the Lagrangian. That means that the Hamiltonian is nonequivalent to the Lagrangian at the same PN order but is exactly equivalent to the full Lagrangian without any truncations. The full Lagrangian without the spin-spin couplings truncated is integrable and regular. Whereas it is non-integrable and becomes possibly chaotic when any one of the spin-spin terms is dropped. These results are also supported numerically. (paper)
Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei
2017-12-01
We present an ab initio, numerically exact study of attractive fermions in square lattices with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The ground state of this system is a supersolid, with coexisting charge and superfluid order. The superfluid is composed of both singlet and triplet pairs induced by spin-orbit coupling. We perform large-scale calculations using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method to provide the first full, quantitative description of the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the system. In addition to characterizing the exotic physics, our results will serve as essential high-accuracy benchmarks for the intense theoretical and especially experimental efforts in ultracold atoms to realize and understand an expanding variety of quantum Hall and topological superconductor systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Lischka, Hans
2014-01-01
An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Müller, Thomas, E-mail: th.mueller@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plasser, Felix [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lischka, Hans [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)
2014-08-21
An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.
Harter, J. W.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Yan, J.-Q.; Mandrus, D. G.; Hsieh, D.
Strong interactions between electrons are known to drive metallic systems toward a variety of well-known symmetry-broken phases, including superconducting, electronic liquid crystalline, and charge- and spin-density wave ordered states. In contrast, the electronic instabilities of correlated metals with strong spin-orbit coupling have only recently begun to be explored. We uncover a novel multipolar nematic phase of matter in the metallic pyrochlore Cd2Re2O7 using spatially-resolved second-harmonic optical anisotropy measurements. Like previously discovered electronic liquid crystalline phases, this multipolar nematic phase spontaneously breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance. However, it has the distinguishing property of being odd under spatial inversion, which is allowed only in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. By examining the critical behavior of the multipolar nematic order parameter, we show that it drives the thermal phase transition near 200 K in Cd2Re2O7 and induces a parity-breaking lattice distortion as a secondary order parameter.
The magnetic g-tensors for ion complexes with large spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, P.K.L.; Liu, Y.S.
1977-01-01
A nonperturbative method for calculating the magnetic g-tensors is presented and discussed for complexes of transition metal ions of large spin-orbit coupling, in the ground term 2 D. A numerical example for CuCl 2 .2H 2 O is given [pt
Second post-Newtonian Lagrangian dynamics of spinning compact binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Li; Wu, Xin [Nanchang University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang (China); Ma, DaZhu [Hubei University for Nationalities, School of Science, Enshi (China)
2016-09-15
The leading-order spin-orbit coupling is included in a post-Newtonian Lagrangian formulation of spinning compact binaries, which consists of the Newtonian term, first post-Newtonian (1PN) and 2PN non-spin terms and 2PN spin-spin coupling. This leads to a 3PN spin-spin coupling occurring in the derived Hamiltonian. The spin-spin couplings are mainly responsible for chaos in the Hamiltonians. However, the 3PN spin-spin Hamiltonian is small and has different signs, compared with the 2PN spin-spin Hamiltonian equivalent to the 2PN spin-spin Lagrangian. As a result, the probability of the occurrence of chaos in the Lagrangian formulation without the spin-orbit coupling is larger than that in the Lagrangian formulation with the spin-orbit coupling. Numerical evidences support this claim. (orig.)
Effect of orbital symmetry on the anisotropic superexchange interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Beom Hyun; Min, B I
2011-01-01
Employing the microscopic superexchange model incorporating the effect of spin-orbit interaction, we have investigated the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction in perovskite transition-metal (TM) oxides and explored the interplay between the DM interaction and the TM-3d orbital symmetry. For d 3 and d 5 systems with isotropic orbital symmetry, the DM vectors are well described by a simple symmetry analysis considering only the bond geometry. In contrast, the DM interaction for d 4 systems with anisotropic orbital symmetry shows slightly different behavior, which does not obey simple symmetry analysis. The direction as well as the strength of the DM vector varies depending on the occupied orbital shape. We have understood this behavior based on the orbital symmetry induced by local crystal field variation.
Ultra-fast three terminal perpendicular spin-orbit torque MRAM (Presentation Recording)
Boulle, Olivier; Cubukcu, Murat; Hamelin, Claire; Lamard, Nathalie; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Garello, Kevin; Gambardella, Pietro; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold; Miron, Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles
2015-09-01
The discovery that a current flowing in a heavy metal can exert a torque on a neighboring ferromagnet has opened a new way to manipulate the magnetization at the nanoscale. This "spin orbit torque" (SOT) has been demonstrated in ultrathin magnetic multilayers with structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) and high spin orbit coupling, such as Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers. We have shown that this torque can lead to the magnetization switching of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by an in-plane current injection. The manipulation of magnetization by SOT has led to a novel concept of magnetic RAM memory, the SOT-MRAM, which combines non volatility, high speed, reliability and large endurance. These features make the SOT-MRAM a good candidate to replace SRAM for non-volatile cache memory application. We will present the proof of concept of a perpendicular SOT-MRAM cell composed of a Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate ultra-fast (down to 300 ps) deterministic bipolar magnetization switching. Macrospin and micromagnetic simulations including SOT cannot reproduce the experimental results, which suggests that additional physical mechanisms are at stacks. Our results show that SOT-MRAM is fast, reliable and low power, which is promising for non-volatile cache memory application. We will also discuss recent experiments of magnetization reversal in ultrathin multilayers Pt/Co/AlOx by very short (<200 ps) current pulses. We will show that in this material, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction plays a key role in the reversal process.
Zamani, A.; Setareh, F.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.
2017-10-01
A wide variety of semiconductor nanostructures have been fabricated experimentally and both theoretical and experimental investigations of their features imply the great role they have in new generation technological devices. However, mathematical modeling provide a powerful means due to definitive goal of predicting the features and understanding of such structures behavior under different circumstances. Therefore, effective Hamiltonian for an electron in a quantum ring with axial symmetry in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) is derived. Here we report our study of the electronic structure and electron g-factor in the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings under the influence of external magnetic field at finite temperature. This investigation shows that, when Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings are simultaneously present, the degeneracy is removed and energy levels split into two branches. Furthermore, with enhancing the applied magnetic field, separation of former degenerate levels increases and also avoided crossings (anti-crossing) in the energy spectra is detected. It is also discussed how the energy levels of the system can be adjusted with variation of temperature as well as the magnetic field and geometrical sizes.
MacLeod, Matthew K; Michl, Josef
2013-05-16
RIUMP2/def2-TZVPPD calculations show that in addition to its usual conformation with charge and spin delocalized over the Si backbone, the isolated Si4Me10(-•) radical anion also has isomeric conformations with localized charge and spin. A structure with localization on a terminal Si atom has been examined in detail. In vacuum, it is calculated to lie 11.5 kcal/mol higher in energy than the charge-and-spin delocalized conformation, and in water the difference is as little as 1.6 kcal/mol. According to natural orbital and localized orbital analyses, the charge-and-spin-carrying terminal Si atom uses five stereoactive hybrid orbitals in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Four are built mostly from 3s and 3p atomic orbitals (AOs) and are used to attach a Si3(CH3)7 and three CH3 groups, whereas the larger equatorial fifth orbital is constructed from 4s and 4p AOs and acts as a nonbonding (radical) hybrid orbital with an occupancy of about 0.65 e.
Spin Hall effect on a noncommutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Kai; Dulat, Sayipjamal
2011-01-01
We study the spin-orbital interaction and the spin Hall effect of an electron moving on a noncommutative space under the influence of a vector potential A(vector sign). On a noncommutative space, we find that the commutator between the vector potential A(vector sign) and the electric potential V 1 (r(vector sign)) of the lattice induces a new term, which can be treated as an effective electric field, and the spin Hall conductivity obtains some correction. On a noncommutative space, the spin current and spin Hall conductivity have distinct values in different directions, and depend explicitly on the noncommutative parameter. Once this spin Hall conductivity in different directions can be measured experimentally with a high level of accuracy, the data can then be used to impose bounds on the value of the space noncommutativity parameter. We have also defined a new parameter, σ=ρθ (ρ is the electron concentration, θ is the noncommutativity parameter), which can be measured experimentally. Our approach is based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, which gives a general Hamiltonian of a nonrelativistic electron moving on a noncommutative space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhandari, Nikhil; Dutta, Maitreya; Charles, James; Cahay, Marc; Newrock, Richard S; Herbert, Stephen T
2013-01-01
Spin-based electronics or ‘spintronics’ has been a topic of interest for over two decades. Electronic devices based on the manipulation of the electron spin are believed to offer the possibility of very small, non-volatile and ultrafast devices with very low power consumption. Since the proposal of a spin-field-effect transistor (SpinFET) by Datta and Das in 1990, many attempts have been made to achieve spin injection, detection and manipulation in semiconductor materials either by incorporating ferromagnetic materials into device architectures or by using external magnetic fields. This approach has significant design complexities, partly due to the influence of stray magnetic fields on device operation. In addition, magnetic electrodes can have magneto-resistance and spurious Hall voltages that can complicate device performance. To date, there has been no successful report of a working Datta–Das SpinFET. Over the last few years we have investigated an all-electric means of manipulating spins, one that only relies on electric fields and voltages and not on ferromagnetic materials or external magnetic fields. We believe we have found a pathway toward this goal, using in-plane side-gated quantum point contacts (QPCs) that rely on lateral spin–orbit coupling to create spin polarization. In this paper we discuss several aspects of our work, beginning with our finding what we believe is nearly complete spin-polarization in InAs QPCs by purely electrical means, our theoretical work to understand the basic mechanisms leading to that situation (asymmetric lateral confinement, lateral spin–orbit coupling and a strong e–e interaction), and our recent work extending the effort to GaAs and to dual QPC systems where one QPC acts as a polarizer and the other as an analyzer. (review)
Anisotropy of exciton spectrum and spin-orbit interactions in quantum wells in tilted magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olendski, Oleg; Shahbazyan, Tigran V
2006-01-01
We study theoretically excitonic energy spectrum and optical absorption in narrowgap semiconductor quantum wells in strong magnetic field. We show that, in the presence of an in-plane field component, the absorption coefficient exhibit a double-peak structure due to hybridization of bright and dark excitons. If both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit terms are present, the spectrum is anisotropic in in-plane field orientation with respect to [100] axis. In particular, the magnitude of the splitting can be tuned in a wide interval by varying the azimuthal angle of the in-plane field. The absorption spectrrum anisotropy would allow simultaneous measurement Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coefficients
Orso, Giuliano
2017-03-01
We investigate the metal-insulator transition occurring in two-dimensional (2D) systems of noninteracting atoms in the presence of artificial spin-orbit interactions and a spatially correlated disorder generated by laser speckles. Based on a high order discretization scheme, we calculate the precise position of the mobility edge and verify that the transition belongs to the symplectic universality class. We show that the mobility edge depends strongly on the mixing angle between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. For equal couplings a non-power-law divergence is found, signaling the crossing to the orthogonal class, where such a 2D transition is forbidden.
Spin-orbit interaction induced anisotropic property in interacting quantum wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang Kai
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the ground state and transport property of electrons in interacting quantum wires (QWs oriented along different crystallographic directions in (001 and (110 planes in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI and Dresselhaus SOI (DSOI. The electron ground state can cross over different phases, e.g., spin density wave, charge density wave, singlet superconductivity, and metamagnetism, by changing the strengths of the SOIs and the crystallographic orientation of the QW. The interplay between the SOIs and Coulomb interaction leads to the anisotropic dc transport property of QW which provides us a possible way to detect the strengths of the RSOI and DSOI. PACS numbers: 73.63.Nm, 71.10.Pm, 73.23.-b, 71.70.Ej