Zimmermann, Esther; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult...... life as obese....
The review showed that patients with diabetes mellitus had signi cantly low ... of life (physical health, psychological health, social relations, and environment). ... of quality of life regarding gender, age, or the level of education of the patients. ... neuropathy, impaired vision, elevated blood lipids and amputation of toes or feet.
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter
Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...
Vieira, Camila Bolivar Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda
To assess the Quality of Life in siblings of children of the autism spectrum through self-response to the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. Social-demographic data of 77 children included in the autism spectrum, aged 3 to 16 years, were collected. From these information, 21 older siblings, aged 16 to 30 years, were selected to answer said questionnaire, proposed by the World Health Organization Mental Health Program for quality of life evaluation. The data have shown a difference between the Environmental domain and the Physical and Psychological domains. The aspects related to the environment have an important role to the perception of quality of life self-declared by the subjects. However, family individuality, coping behaviors, social support, and assistance received directly interfere on this perception.
Gimmler, Antje; Lenk, Christian (ed.); Aumüller, Gerhard (ed.)
How could one define health and disease? On what presuppositions, and oughtwe look for such definitions? Does quality of life inherit a subjective orobjective evaluation? Are health and quality of life culture dependentconcepts? Under the conditions of technologically advanced medicine...... and thecommon tendency towards a hedonistic lifestyle such questions come intofocus. Hence, one question is of special relevance: which role does healthplay in our quality of life? The contributions of this interdisciplinaryvolume aim at the clarification of the various concepts in use.Internationally well......-known scholars and scientists such as AlfredMusschenga, Alfons Labisch, Lennart Nordenfelt, Peter Janich, Henrik Wulffand several others outline the framework for a more comprehensive anddemanding concept of health and quality of life including philosophical andcultural aspects as well as medical...
Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena
Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.
Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.
For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…
Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta
Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult life as obese. METHODS: Among 362,200 Danish young men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (defined as BMI≥31.0 kg/m(2, and, as controls, a random 1% sample of the others was identified. In the age range of 18-25 years, there were 1,862 obese, which encompass the men above the 99.5 percentile, and 3,476 controls. Information on morbidity was obtained via national registers. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative morbidity assessed as first incidence of disease, occurrence of disease in the year preceding death and prevalent disease at time of death. RESULTS: From age 18 through 80 years the obese had an increased risk of becoming diseased by or die from a broad range of diseases. Generally, the incidence of first event, occurrence in the year prior to death, and prevalence at time of death showed the same pattern. As an example, the relative hazard of type 2 diabetes was constant throughout life at 4.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.1-5.9, 5.2 (95% CI: 3.6-7.5, and 6.8 (95% CI: 4.6-10.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly support the continued need to avoid beginning adult life as obese, as obese young men experience an increased morbidity, including fatal morbidity, from many diseases throughout life.
Full Text Available With the effect of recent rapid developments in communication technologies, every day, various new experiences are introduced into daily life practices. The spread of smart devices and the increase in their accessibility causes a reorganization of the information concerning the daily life via smart phones, tablets, all peripheral devices which can communicate with them, and applications which are installed in these devices. There is also a rapid development in the field of health which has an important position among the fastest growing fields in digital life; and the information and possibilities which are provided by mobile health applications to people who are not health care professionals are also developing rapidly. In this study, health applications which are developed for IOS operating system and presented to the consumers through Apple App-Store on Apple I-Phone and I-Pad mobile devices are examined in order to reveal what mobile health applications as new practices of daily life offer in terms of health and how they direct the individuals towards healthy behaviour; and some of the most frequently used free applications are included as sample applications. Mobile health applications offer many conveniences to the patients or the caretakers of patients such as reminding about medicines or treatments, and administering and monitoring simple treatments.
Ziółkowski, Artur; Błachnio, Aleksandra; Pąchalska, Maria
Modern medicine is still searching for the antecedents which will lead to successful aging. The article discusses the self-perception of life satisfaction and health of senior citizens. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between self-evaluation of life satisfaction and health by senior citizens in comparison to different age groups. The study included 463 persons - 230 men and 233 women. The age of the participants was in the range 16 - 83 years. All participants were asked to fill the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit - FLZ). The FLZ questionnaire assesses the global life satisfaction of a person and health domain separately. The results show age-related differences in the evaluation of life satisfaction. Accordingly, there is a significant change in health evaluations in different age groups, but there are no significant gender differences in health self-report data. The senior citizens' assessment of general health, although the lowest among all the age-subgroups, showed significant difference only in relation to the people below 45 years of age. The significant differences in satisfaction from mental health occurred only for the elderly and participants aged 25-34 and 35-44. Life satisfaction is associated with subjective health evaluations. There are two domains (mental health and performance) that are positively evaluated by more than two-thirds of senior citizens. The observed differences challenge stereotypes and prejudices relating to negative aging process. Senior citizens can improve their control beliefs and develop self-regulation and coping skills.
Gunnarsson, Kristina; Josephson, Malin
This study investigated the association between self-reported good health and self-valued good social life. An additional aim was to examine entrepreneur's strategies for maintaining good health. The study design included a two-wave questionnaire, with five years between the surveys (2001 and 2006), and qualitative interviews. The study group consisted of 246 entrepreneurs from the central region of Sweden and represented ten different trades. Entrepreneurs reporting good health in both 2001 and 2006 were compared with entrepreneurs reporting poor health on both occasions or with inconsistent answers. Six of the entrepreneurs were strategically chosen for the interview study. Consistent good health was reported by 56% of the entrepreneurs. Good social life in 2001 was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for consistent good health when the analyses were adjusted for physical work conditions and job satisfaction (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.07-4.17). Findings for good leisure time, weekly moderate physical exercise, and a rating of work being less or equally important as other life areas, were similar but not statistically significant when job satisfaction was considered in the analyses. Strategies for maintaining good health included good planning and control over work, flexibility at work, good social contact with family, friends and other entrepreneurs, and regular physical exercise. This study demonstrated an association between self-reported good health and good social life for entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises. In addition, the entrepreneurs emphasised strategies such as planning and control over work and physical exercise are important for maintaining good health.
Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; Gonz?lez-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen
Background Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. Methods We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15?years who were interviewed in 2014 (n?=?2732) and 2015 (n =3005). Demographic information and diag...
Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)
Luy, Marc; Minagawa, Yuka
The literature suggests that women report worse health but live longer than men--a phenomenon known as the gender paradox in health and mortality. Although studies examining the paradox abound, relatively little is known about mechanisms underlying the gap. With data on healthy life expectancy from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, this article analyses the relationship between length of life and health among men and women in 45 more-developed countries. The proportion of life spent in poor health is used as an indicator of health. This approach accounts for gender differences in longevity and illustrates the female health disadvantage pattern more clearly. Life expectancy at birth and the proportion of life in poor health are closely related for both genders. Furthermore, the larger the female excess in longevity, the larger the female excess in the proportion of life in poor health. By focusing on the proportion of life in poor health, this analysis suggests that women's longevity advantage translates into a health disadvantages relative to men. The results indicate that women suffer from poor health not in spite of living longer, but because they live longer.
Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Modern medicine is still searching for the antecedents which will lead to [i]successful aging[/i]. The article discusses the self-perception of life satisfaction and health of senior citizens. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between self-evaluation of life satisfaction and health by senior citizens in comparison to different age groups. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study included 463 persons – 230 men and 233 women. The age of the participants was in the range 16 – 83 years. All participants were asked to fill the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire ([i]Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit [/i]– FLZ. The FLZ questionnaire assesses the global life satisfaction of a person and health domain separately. [b]Results[/b]. The results show age-related differences in the evaluation of life satisfaction. Accordingly, there is a significant change in health evaluations in different age groups, but there are no significant gender differences in health self-report data. The senior citizens’ assessment of general health, although the lowest among all the age-subgroups, showed significant difference only in relation to the people below 45 years of age. The significant differences in satisfaction from mental health occurred only for the elderly and participants aged 25–34 and 35–44. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Life satisfaction is associated with subjective health evaluations. There are two domains (mental health and performance that are positively evaluated by more than two-thirds of senior citizens. The observed differences challenge stereotypes and prejudices relating to negative aging process. Senior citizens can improve their control beliefs and develop self-regulation and coping skills.
Hsu, Ya-Hui; Chai, Hsiu-Ying; Lin, Yu-Fen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Chen, Shu-Ching
To (i) investigate the characteristics of health-related quality of life and satisfaction with case management and (ii) to identify factors associated with health-related quality of life in cancer survivors. The level of health-related quality of life can reflect treatment efficacy and satisfaction with cancer care. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Subjects from the outpatient setting of a cancer centre in northern Taiwan were recruited by consecutive sampling. A set of questionnaires were employed, including a background information form, case management service satisfaction survey (CMSS) and The European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). Descriptive statistics were used to examine levels of health-related quality of life and satisfaction with case management. Pearson's correlation was used to identify relationships between treatment characteristics, satisfaction with case management and health-related quality of life. Multiple stepwise regression was used to identify factors associated with health-related quality of life. A total of 252 cancer patients were recruited. The three lowest scores for items of health-related quality of life were mobility, self-care and usual activities. Cancer survivors with higher mobility, less pain and discomfort, and lower anxiety and depression were more likely to have better health-related quality of life. Mobility, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression are important predictive factors of high health-related quality of life in cancer survivors. In clinical care, patients' physical mobility, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression are important indicators of health-related quality of life. Case managers should include self-care and symptom management into survivorship care plans to improve health-related quality of life during survival after treatment concludes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cox, Jared; Loughran, Mary Jo; Adams, Eve M; Navarro, Rachel L
This study investigated the relationship between life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health for an ethnically diverse, low SES sample of primary care patients. Results indicated that several specific domains of health-related quality of life (HRQL), including health perception, social functioning, mental health, and energy/fatigue, significantly predicted life satisfaction in this sample of 60 patients. Self-esteem mediated this relationship, partially with health perception and fully with the remaining three domains. The results of this study underscore the importance of healthcare interventions that consider the bidirectional relationship between physical and emotional well-being.
Hämmig, O; Bauer, G F
Work-life conflict has been poorly studied as a cause of ill-health in occupational medicine. To study associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions, including work-life conflict on the one hand and general, physical and mental health outcomes on the other. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies in Switzerland. Physical work factors included five demands and exposures such as heavy loads, repetitive work and poor posture. Psychosocial factors included 14 demands and limited resources such as time pressure, overtime, monotonous work, job insecurity, low job autonomy, low social support and work-life conflict. Health outcomes studied were self-rated health, sickness absence, musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disorders, stress and burnout. There was a response rate of 49%; 2014 employees participated. All adverse working conditions were positively associated with several poor health outcomes in both men and women. After mutual adjustment for all work factors and additional covariates, only a few, mainly psychosocial work factors remained significant as risk factors for health. Work-life conflict, a largely neglected work-related psychosocial factor in occupational medicine, turned out to be the only factor that was significantly and strongly associated with all studied health outcomes and was consistently found to be the strongest or second strongest of all the studied risk factors. Even in an industrial work environment, psychosocial work factors, and particularly work-life conflict, play a key role and need to be taken into consideration in research and workplace health promotion.
Bruna de Oliveira Ascef
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS and its associated factors. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015. Data were collected with a questionnaire that included the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D instrument. Patients from the five regions of Brazil were interviewed. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze their Health-Related Quality of Life and its associated factors. RESULTS Of the total of 8,590 patients, the most frequent dimensions were pain/discomfort (50.7% and anxiety/depression (38.8%. About 10% of the patients reported extreme problems in these dimensions. The following factors were significantly associated with a worse quality of life: being female; having arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatism; cerebrovascular accident; heart disease; depression; health self-assessment as poor or very poor; drinking alcoholic beverages once or more per month; dieting to lose weight, avoiding salt consumption, and reducing fat intake. Significant association was observed between a better quality of life and: living in the North and Southeast regions of Brazil; practicing physical activities; and having a higher educational level. No association was observed with factors related to the health services. CONCLUSIONS The Health-Related Quality of Life of patients was influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors that were related to health conditions and lifestyle, being useful to guide specific actions for promoting health and the integral care to patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Full Text Available Researchers interested in the relationships between place and health have been slow to incorporate a life course perspective, probably due to the lack of readily available historical environmental data. This hinders the identification of causal relationships. It also restricts our understanding as to whether there are accumulative effects over the life course and if there are critical periods in people’s lives when places are particularly pertinent. This study considers the feasibility of constructing longitudinal data on the availability of urban green space. The suitability of various historical and contemporary data sources is considered, including paper maps, aerial photographs and tabular land use data. Measures of urban green space are created for all neighbourhoods across the Edinburgh region of Scotland at various points during the past 100 years. We demonstrate that it is feasible to develop such measures, but there are complex issues involved in doing so. We also test the utility of the measures via an analysis of how accessibility to green space might alter over the life course of both people, and their residential neighbourhoods. The findings emphasise the potential for utilising historical data to significantly enhance understanding of the relationships between nature and health, and between health and place more generally. We encourage researchers to use data from other locations to consider including a longitudinal perspective to examine relationships between people’s health and their environment.
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.
Dahl, K E; Wang, N J; Ohrn, K
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral health on aspects of daily life measured by the Dental Impact Profile (DIP) in 35- to 47-year-old individuals in Norway, and to study associations between reported effects and demographic variables, subjectively assessed oral health, general health, oral health behaviour and clinical oral health. A stratified randomized sample of 249 individuals received a questionnaire regarding demographic questions, dental visits, oral hygiene behaviour, self-rated oral health and general health and satisfaction with oral health. The DIP measured the effects of oral health on daily life. Teeth present and caries experience were registered by clinical examination. Bi- and multivariate analyses and factor analysis were used. Items most frequently reported to be positively or negatively influenced by oral health were chewing and biting, eating, smiling and laughing, feeling comfortable and appearance. Only 1% reported no effects of oral health. Individuals with fewer than two decayed teeth, individuals who rated their oral health as good or practised good oral health habits reported more positive effects than others on oral quality of life (P ≤ 0.05). When the variables were included in multivariate analysis, none was statistically significant. The subscales of the DIP were somewhat different from the originally suggested subscales. This study showed that most adults reported oral health to be important for masticatory functions and confirmed that oral health also had impacts on other aspects of life. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto
Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.
Benjamin Wilk Chaffee
Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.
Wang, Shou-Qi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuang-Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Sun, Jiao
With the rapid development of science and technology, the pace of life has accelerated. Health and life satisfaction issues of persons are gaining more attention. China, Japan, Malaysia, and Taiwan conducted international cooperative research on health of four regional populations. This research was a part of the study in mainland China, which aimed to explore health-related life satisfaction and its influencing factors on large samples in mainland China. A random group of 1404 persons from universities, factories, companies, and elderly centers in Changchun completed a structured questionnaire. This study centered on life satisfaction indicators, which included the current whole life, income, family relationships, peer relationships, relationships with the neighbors, living environment, personal health, family health, spare time, and housework share. Other collected data included the Body Mass Index, blood pressure, self-rated health, Breslow's seven health practices, medical treatment within the past 6 months, physical examinations, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 Scale, social activities, networking relationships with persons around the community, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Associations between life satisfaction, demographics, and health-related variables were analyzed through a multiway ANOVA. The living environment and income of Chinese persons were related to their low life satisfaction. The multiway ANOVA showed that the independent relationship of self-rated health, regular physical examinations, GHQ-12 Scale, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and age related with life satisfaction accounting for 20.3% of the variance. Education and age showed interactive effects on life satisfaction. This study identified seven factors that influenced the life satisfaction of persons in mainland China. Life satisfaction can be enhanced through interventions to improve self-rated health, regular physical
Topolski, Tari D; Edwards, Todd C; Patrick, Donald L
This paper addresses population monitoring of youth health and quality of life, including the concepts used, methodological and practical criteria for indicators, and existing surveys and measures. Current population surveys of youth generally focus on poor health, such as disability or health-risk behaviors. Although these are important end points, indicators of illness or risk do not reflect the health or life perspective of the majority of youth who do not experience health problems. The measures used to monitor youth health should be appropriate and sensitive to future needs and capture the perspectives of youths. Two potential concepts for this "scorecard" are self-perceived health and quality of life, which have been shown to be useful in adults. For youth, the quality of life framework seems particularly relevant as it incorporates both positive and negative aspects of health and well-being and also captures salient aspects of health other than physical health, such as sense of self, social relationships, environment and culture, and life satisfaction.
İşik, Hatice; Ergöl, Şule; Aynioğlu, Öner; Şahbaz, Ahmet; Kuzu, Ayşe; Uzun, Müge
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the incidence of PMS, risk factors affecting PMS symptoms, and life quality in health science students. A total of 608 volunteer female students studying at the health campus of a state university in Turkey were included in the study. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires on sociodemographic data, PMS symptoms, and SF-36 life quality tests. The overall frequency of PMS among participants was 84.5%. The average PMS and general health SF scores were 118.34 ± 37.3 and 20.03 ± 3.72, respectively. Students who had irregular breakfast, drank ≥2 cups of coffee/day, and consumed alcohol or fast food had higher PMS scores. Irregular menstruation and family history increased PMS scores and decreased life quality (P life quality of the students significantly decreased as the severity of PMS increased (P life quality, students should be informed about the symptoms, risk factors, and management options of PMS.
Getanda, Elijah Mironga; Papadopoulos, Chris; Evans, Hala
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable people in the world today. Previous research highlights that conflict-induced forced displacement can cause problems with mental health and wellbeing. This study aimed to contribute to this body of knowledge by investigating the mental health, quality of life, and life satisfaction among IDPs living in Nakuru, Kenya. A questionnaire that included the General Health Questionnaire-12, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and a modified version of the WHO Quality of Life-BREF tool was used for data collection. The questionnaire also included an open-ended question inviting qualitative responses about their experience as an IDP. The questionnaire was distributed through a three-stage sampling approach across four refugee camps from four regions of the Nakuru County in Kenya. One hundred IDPs participated in this study. All participants scored substantially higher than the applied GHQ-12 threshold for caseness (mean GHQ-12 score = 28.7, SD = 3.6). Quality of life and life satisfaction scores were also very poor (M = 10.24, SD = 1.9; M = 6.82, SD = 1.5 respectively). The qualitative results reflected these findings with statements reflecting suicidal thoughts, unhappiness with the government, lack of support, and fear for themselves and their children. Significantly higher GHQ-12 scores were found among older IDPs (rho = .202, sig = .046), widowers compared to married IDPs (mean difference = -2.41, SE = .885, sig = .027), while lower scores were found among IDPs who reported having friends as a source of support (U = 834, sig = .045), while quality of life scores were higher among IDPs who reported receiving governmental support (U = 248, sig = .018). The findings revealed poor levels of mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction. Older, widowed IDPs and those who did not perceive support from friends or the government were found to be at the highest risk of poor health and wellbeing.
Porter, Jessie; Ntouva, Antiopi; Read, Andrew; Murdoch, Mandy; Ola, Dennis; Tsakos, Georgios
Background Good oral health in older residents of nursing homes is important for general health and quality of life. Very few studies have assessed how oral symptoms affect residents? quality of life. Objective To assess the clinical and subjective oral health, including oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the association of oral symptoms with OHRQoL in older people residing in nursing homes in Islington, London. Method Overall, 325 residents from nine nursing homes were clinica...
Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T
This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group.
Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to living with a stoma is complex, and studies have shown that stoma creation has a great impact on patients' health related quality of life. The objective was to explore the effect of a structured patient education program on health related quality of life. Therefore, we...... included 50 patients in the study. Health related quality of life was measured before hospital discharge, three months and six months after stoma creation. The program included educational interventions involving lay-teachers, alongside health professional teachers. RESULTS: We found a significant rise...... in health related quality of life baseline (p = 0.045) with lower scores in the intervention group compared with the intervention group. However, there were no significant differences in the demographic variables at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Educational activities aimed at increase in knowledge and focusing...
Kolbe, Lloyd J; Tirozzi, Gerald N; Marx, Eva; Bobbitt-Cooke, Mary; Riedel, Sara; Jones, Jack; Schmoyer, Michael
School health programmes in the 21st century could include eight components: 1) health services; 2) health education; 3) healthy physical and psychosocial environments; 4) psychological, counselling, and social services; 5) physical education and other physical activities; 6) healthy food services; and 7) integrated efforts of schools, families, and communities to improve the health of school students and employees. The eighth component of modern school health programmes, health programmes for school employees, is the focus of this article. Health programmes for school employees could be designed to increase the recruitment, retention, and productivity of school employees by partially focusing each of the preceding seven components of the school health programme on improving the health and quality of life of school employees as well as students. Thus, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees may be distinct from, but integrated with, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and education of students. School employee health programmes can improve employee: 1) recruitment; 2) morale; 3) retention; and 4) productivity. They can reduce employee: 5) risk behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity); 6) risk factors (e.g., stress, obesity, high blood pressure); (7) illnesses; 8) work-related injuries; 9) absentee days; 10) worker compensation and disability claims; and 11) health care and health insurance costs. Further, if we hope to improve our schools' performance and raise student achievement levels, developing effective school employee health programmes can increase the likelihood that employees will: 12) serve as healthy role models for students; 13) implement effective school health programmes for students; and 14) present a positive image of the school to the community. If we are to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees in the 21st century: school administrators, employees, and
Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann
The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.
Eliany Nazaré Oliveira
Full Text Available Background: Immigrants face many challenges when settling in a foreign country, numerous factors influence this immigrant experience including the resources they bring with them and those they find in the host society. The literature has indicated that a significant number of individuals migrate in search of a better quality of life. In this context, the objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal, using the "Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey" (SF-36. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach developed under the project titled: Health status and quality of life of Brazilian immigrants in Portugal conducted in the first half of 2016, with 682 Brazilian immigrant women over 18 living in Portugal. This study adopted as reference SF-36, a generic instrument for the evaluation of Quality of Life. It can be affirmed that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, since all dimensions presented values above 50%. It was evidenced that Brazilian immigrants who live alone have lower levels of quality of life and health than those who live with someone and, that Brazilian immigrants who are unemployed, have low levels of quality of life and health compared to those who are in another employment situation, and Brazilian immigrants entering the labor market with a workload of more than 40 hours per week present similar levels of quality of life and health compared to those who work fewer hours. Conclusion: In general, one can affirm that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, but due to the particularities of the migration process in the current political and international context, a systematic monitoring of living conditions and health of this population is necessary. Keywords: Emigrants and Immigrants; Quality of life; Women, Mental health
Knecht, Michaela K; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver
The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.
Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Ostergaard, Mikkel
OBJECTIVE: To compare validity, reliability, and responsiveness of generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two samples of patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ)-5D......, 15D, Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, fatigue, and global RA. Validity (convergent, discriminant, and known-groups) was evaluated in a cross-section of 200 patients. Reliability was evaluated...
Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane
Life skills play a key role in promoting educational and occupational success in early life, but their relevance at older ages is uncertain. Here we measured five life skills-conscientiousness, emotional stability, determination, control, and optimism-in 8,119 men and women aged 52 and older (mean 66.7 y). We show that the number of skills is associated with wealth, income, subjective wellbeing, less depression, low social isolation and loneliness, more close relationships, better self-rated health, fewer chronic diseases and impaired activities of daily living, faster walking speed, and favorable objective biomarkers (concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D and C-reactive protein, and less central obesity). Life skills also predicted sustained psychological wellbeing, less loneliness, and a lower incidence of new chronic disease and physical impairment over a 4-y period. These analyses took account of age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, education, and cognitive function. No single life skill was responsible for the associations we observed, nor were they driven by factors such as socioeconomic status or health. Despite the vicissitudes of later life, life skills impact a range of outcomes, and the maintenance of these attributes may benefit the older population.
Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However
Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Jeffery, Diana D.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Reeve, Bryce B.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.
Introduction Discussions about sexual health are uncommon in clinical encounters, despite the sexual dysfunction associated with many common health conditions. Understanding of the importance of sexual health and sexual satisfaction among US adults is limited. Aim To provide epidemiologic data on the importance of sexual health for quality of life and people’s satisfaction with their sex lives and to examine how each is associated with demographic and health factors. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire from a sample of 3515 English-speaking US adults recruited from an online panel that uses address-based probability sampling. Main Outcome Measures We report ratings of importance of sexual health to quality of life (single item with 5-point response) and the PROMIS® Satisfaction with Sex Life score (5 items, each with 5-point responses, scores centered on the US mean). Results High importance of sexual health to quality of life was reported by 62.2% of men (95% CI, 59.4%–65.0%) and 42.8% of women (95% CI, 39.6%–46.1%; P < .001). Importance of sexual health varied by sex, age, sexual activity status, and general self-rated health. For the 55% of men and 45% of women who reported sexual activity in the previous 30 days, satisfaction with sex life differed by sex, age, race/ethnicity (among men only), and health. Men and women in excellent health had significantly higher satisfaction than participants in fair or poor health. Women with hypertension reported significantly lower satisfaction (especially younger women), as did men with depression or anxiety (especially younger men). Conclusion In this large study of US adults’ ratings of the importance of sexual health and satisfaction with sex life, sexual health was a highly important aspect of quality of life for many participants, including participants in poor health. Moreover, participants in poorer health reported lower sexual satisfaction. Accordingly, sexual health should
Slavich, George M.
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, includ...
Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction. PMID:21529345
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1 to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2 to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel, covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based, and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%. A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.
Gil-Montoya, J A; Subirá, C; Ramón, J M; González-Moles, M A
This study examines whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with malnutrition risk in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was designed using a representative sample of Spaniards over 65 years old. Data on sociodemographics and oral health status were gathered by interview and examination. Oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and malnutrition risk using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The final sample included 2,860 elderly, 41.7 percent males and 58.3 percent females, with a mean age of 73.7 +/- 6.8 years. Mean GOHAI score was 52.1 +/- 7.2, with 70.7 percent of the sample needing oral health care according to this index. The mean MNA score was 24.0 +/- 3.31; 3.5 percent of the elderly were malnourished, 31.5 percent were at risk of malnutrition, and 65.0 percent were considered adequately nourished. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Incidence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been estimated to be 18.5%. GDM is associated with various challenges in terms of care and public health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of health education and behavioral interventions on the quality of life in the patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 149 eligible participants, who were randomly assigned to the intervention and control group with the allocation ratio of 1:1. Participants were divided into four groups, including nutrition therapy with and without education and insulin therapy with and without education. Follow-up of the patients was performed during 12 weeks (January 2014-April 2015. The educational intervention consisted of various aspects, including diet, exercise, glycemic control, postpartum diabetes control and recommendations for delivery. Primary and secondary outcomes were the effects of the educational intervention on the metabolic control and quality of life, respectively. All the women completed the Iranian version of the Diabetes Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory (IDQL-BCI prior to and after the educational intervention. Data analysis was performed using variance, covariance and Chi-square in SPSS version 15, at the significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed between the four groups in terms of the quality of life score in the DQOL-BCL before the educational program. However, this score increased in all study groups, especially in the insulin therapy group (mean difference=16.43. Conclusion: According to the results, health education program could be effective in enhancing health-related quality of life in the women with GDM.
Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M; Martin, Brandon E; Gordon, James E; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J
Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes (SAs). Cross-sectional study. A large Division I university. Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17-84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P students (P 99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = -0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. The SAs demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful evidence of greater joint health concerns later in life, comparable
Bachmann, Justin M; Goggins, Kathryn M; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Kripalani, Sunil; Wallston, Kenneth A
Evaluate the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on health behavior and health-related quality of life. We analyzed 2063 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome and/or congestive heart failure at a large academic hospital in the United States. Multivariable linear regression models investigated associations between the two-item perceived health competence scale (PHCS-2) and positive health behaviors such as medication adherence and exercise (Health Behavior Index) as well as health-related quality of life (5-item Patient Reported Outcome Information Measurement System Global Health Scale). After multivariable adjustment, perceived health competence was highly associated with health behaviors (pperceived health competence was associated with a decrease in health-related quality of life between hospitalization and 90days after discharge (pPerceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease as well as change in health-related quality of life after discharge. Patients with low perceived health competence may be at risk for a decline in health-related quality of life after hospitalization and thus a potential target for counseling and other behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skelton John R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life is increasingly recognised as an important outcome measure that complements existing measures of clinical effectiveness. The education available on this subject for different healthcare professionals is varied. This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a Special Study Module on Health-Related Quality of Life for undergraduate medical students at the University of Birmingham. Methods The course involves 10 hours of "guided discovery learning" covering core concepts of Health-Related Quality of Life assessment including methodological considerations, use in clinical trials, routine practice and in health policy followed by self-directed learning. The taught components aim to provide students with the skills and knowledge to enable them to explore and evaluate the use of quality of life assessments in a particular patient group, or setting, through self-directed learning supported by tutorials. Results The use of case studies, recent publications and research, and discussion with a research oncology nurse in task-based learning appeared to provide students with a stimulating environment in which to develop their ideas and was reflected in the diverse range of subjects chosen by students for self-directed study and the positive feedback on the module. Course evaluation and student assessment suggests that quality of life education appears to integrate well within the medical curriculum and allows students to develop and utilise skills of time-management and independent, self-directed learning that can be applied in any context. Conclusion We suggest that education and training initiatives in quality of life may improve the quality of studies, and help bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Resources for curriculum development on health-related quality of life have been developed by the International Society for Quality of Life Research and may prove a useful
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empirically investigate it in children. METHODS: The contributory factors to Health Related Quality of Life that we included were symptom status (presence of chronic disease or hospitalizations, functional status (developmental status, developmental aspects of the individual (social-emotional behavior, and characteristics of the social environment (socioeconomic status and area of education. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the measurement structure of the model in 214 German children (3-5 years old participating in a follow-up study that investigates pediatric health outcomes. RESULTS: Model fit was χ2 = 5.5; df = 6; p = 0.48; SRMR = 0.01. The variance explained of Health Related Quality of Life was 15%. Health Related Quality of Life was affected by the area education (i.e. where kindergartens were located and development status. Developmental status was affected by the area of education, socioeconomic status and individual behavior. Symptoms did not affect the model. CONCLUSIONS: The goodness of fit and the overall variance explained were good. However, the results between children' and adults' tests differed and denote a conceptual gap between adult and children measures. Indeed, there is a lot of variety in pediatric Health Related Quality of Life measures, which represents a lack of a common definition of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life. We recommend that researchers invest time in the development of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life theory and theory based evaluations.
Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona
Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565
Suomi, Reima; Mäntymäki, Matti; Söderlund, Sari
Social media services can help empower people to take greater responsibility for their health. For example, virtual worlds are media-rich environments that have many technically advantageous characteristics that can be used for Health 2.0 purposes. Second Life has been used to build environments where people can obtain information and interact with other users for peer support and advice from health care professionals. The intent of the study was to find out whether Second Life is a working and functional platform supporting the empowerment of people in health-related issues. We conducted a review of the current health-related activity in Second Life, coupled with an extensive series of observations and interactions with the respective resources inside Second Life. A total of 24 operative health resources were found in Second Life, indicating that health-related activity is rather limited in Second Life, though at first glance it appears to contain very rich health-related content. The other main shortcomings of Second Life relate to a lack of activity, a low number of resource users, problems with Second Life's search features, and the difficulty of finding trustworthy information. For the average user, Second Life offers very little unique value compared to other online health resources.
Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk
One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.
Yilmaz, Fikriye; N Tekin, Rukiye
Few studies on the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of adults have been conducted in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of older adults. We administered a questionnaire to 350 adults, aged 50-89 years, living in Cankaya, Ankara. The questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics, early life characteristics, health status, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Ageing scale. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests, independent samples t-tests, one-way anova, and binary logistic regression analysis. The analyses showed that the most important risk factors for chronic disease were being ≥65 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34), having a chronic health problem before 18 years of age (OR = 2.48), experiencing prolonged hospitalization or bed rest before 18 years of age (OR = 2.65), and experiencing parental unconcern during early life (OR = 2.13) (P quality of life (P life factors are among the important determinants of the health and quality of life of older adults in Turkey. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Krul-Poel, Y H M; Westra, S; van Wijland, H J
AIMS: To test whether vitamin D status was associated with health-related quality of life in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life scores, were obtained from 241 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes managed...... associations were found between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status was not associated with health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This could be explained by the relatively high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, good glycaemic...... of the patients included in the study was 67 ± 8 years. Their mean HbA1c concentration was 52 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.9 ± 0.7%) and their mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 59 ± 23 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Sut, Hatice Kahyaoglu; Asci, Ozlem; Topac, Nalan
The aim of this study was to investigate sleep quality and health-related quality of life in pregnancy. In a cross-sectional design, 492 women (292 pregnant and 200 nonpregnant healthy controls) were included in this study between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants completed a survey on sociodemographic characteristics, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). The PSQI total and EQ-5D scores of pregnant women were significantly worse than the controls (P = .017 and P sleep quality increased 2.11-fold in the second trimester (P = .048) and 1.86-fold in the third trimester (P = .054). Compared with the first trimester, EQ-5D scores significantly decreased in the second (P = .038) and third (P Sleep quality and health-related quality of life of pregnant women were worse than those of nonpregnant healthy controls. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of deteriorations in sleep quality and health-related quality of life of pregnant women.
Knecht, Michaela; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver
Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 ...
Aalto, A M; Uutela, A; Aro, A R
This crossectional questionnaire study examined the associations of health factors and psychosocial factors with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in a sample of adult type I diabetic patients (n = 385). Health related quality of life was measured by the Finnish version of MOS SF-20. Psychos......This crossectional questionnaire study examined the associations of health factors and psychosocial factors with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in a sample of adult type I diabetic patients (n = 385). Health related quality of life was measured by the Finnish version of MOS SF-20...
Capello, Fabio; Manca, Marco
The debate over eHealth is alive as never before. Supporters suggest that it will result in dramatic innovations in healthcare, including a giant leap towards patient-centered care, new opportunities to improve effectiveness, and enhanced wellness and quality of life. In addition, the growing market value of investments in health IT suggests that eHealth can offer at least a partial cure for the current economic stagnation. Detractors counter these arguments by claiming that eHealth has already failed: the UK Department of Health has shut down the NHS National Program for IT, Google has discontinued its Health flagship, and doubts have arisen over privacy safeguards for both patients and medical professionals. This book briefly explains why caregivers, professionals, technicians, patients, politicians, and others should all consider themselves stakeholders in eHealth. It offers myth-busting responses to some ill-considered arguments from both sides of the trench, in the process allowing a fresh look at eHeal...
Kieffer, J.M.; Hoogstraten, J.
The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of attention to social health among women is an obvious case and supporting the Family Health, society and environment are as important as, preparing social health of women is an inevitable case. Determining of the social health condition and its correlation between life satisfaction and social health is the basic object of this research. Methods: The present research was survey cross- sectional study. The population of this study included all Women 18-60 years old, the city of Yazd in 2014. The sample size was determined based on Cochran formula 288 and was used with Probability Proportionate to Size Sampling (PPS. Data based on Keyes social health (1998 and life satisfaction Diener et al (1985 standard questionnaire were collected. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient between life satisfaction and social health are: social integration (r=0.215, Social participation (r=0.176, social acceptance (r=0.311, Social actualization (r=0.175, Social solidarity (r=0.213 that are statistically significant. Conclusion: The results show that there is significant and direct correlation between life satisfaction and social health and with the increase in life satisfaction, social health increases.
Flynn, Kathryn E; Lin, Li; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Cyranowski, Jill M; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Reeve, Bryce B; Shelby, Rebecca A; Weinfurt, Kevin P
Discussions about sexual health are uncommon in clinical encounters, despite the sexual dysfunction associated with many common health conditions. Understanding of the importance of sexual health and sexual satisfaction in U.S. adults is limited. To provide epidemiologic data on the importance of sexual health for quality of life and people's satisfaction with their sex lives and to examine how each is associated with demographic and health factors. Data are from a cross-sectional self-report questionnaire from a sample of 3,515 English-speaking U.S. adults recruited from an online panel that uses address-based probability sampling. We report ratings of importance of sexual health to quality of life (single item with five-point response) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Satisfaction With Sex Life score (five items, each with five-point responses, scores centered on the U.S. mean). High importance of sexual health to quality of life was reported by 62.2% of men (95% CI = 59.4-65.0) and 42.8% of women (95% CI = 39.6-46.1, P < .001). Importance of sexual health varied by sex, age, sexual activity status, and general self-rated health. For the 55% of men and 45% of women who reported sexual activity in the previous 30 days, satisfaction with sex life differed by sex, age, race-ethnicity (among men only), and health. Men and women in excellent health had significantly higher satisfaction than participants in fair or poor health. Women with hypertension reported significantly lower satisfaction (especially younger women), as did men with depression or anxiety (especially younger men). In this large study of U.S. adults' ratings of the importance of sexual health and satisfaction with sex life, sexual health was a highly important aspect of quality of life for many participants, including participants in poor health. Moreover, participants in poorer health reported lower sexual satisfaction. Accordingly, sexual health should be a routine
Kevin R. Tarlow
Full Text Available Sixty million US residents live in rural areas, but health policies and interventions developed from an urban mindset often fail to address the significant barriers to health experienced by these local communities. Telepsychology, or psychological services delivered by distance via technology, is an emerging treatment modality with special implications for underserved rural areas. This study found that a sample of rural residents seeking telepsychology services (n=94 had low health-related quality of life (HRQOL, often due to cooccurring physical and mental health diagnoses including high rates of depression. However, a brief telepsychology treatment delivered to rural clients (n=40 was associated with an improvement in mental health-related quality of life (d = 0.70, P<.001. These results indicate that despite the complex health needs of these underserved communities, telepsychology interventions may help offset the disparities in health service access in rural areas.
Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C
Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.
Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen
Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15 years who were interviewed in 2014 ( n = 2732) and 2015 ( n =3005). Demographic information and diagnostic features of DSM-5 eating disorders were asked including the occurrence of regular (at least weekly over the past 3 months) objective binge eating with levels of distress, extreme dietary restriction/fasting for weight/shape control, purging behaviors, overvaluation of shape and/or weight, and the presence of an avoidant/restrictive food intake without overvaluation of shape and/or weight. In 2014 functional impact or role performance was measured with the 'days out of role' question and in 2015, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Short Form -12 item questionnaire (SF-12v1). The 2014 and 2015 3-month prevalence of eating disorders were: anorexia nervosa-broad 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7) and 0.5% (0.3-0.9); bulimia nervosa 1.1% (0.7-1.5) and 1.2% (0.9-1.7); ARFID 0.3% (0.1-0.5) and 0.3% (0.2-0.6). The 2015 3-month prevalence rates were: BED-broad 1.5% (1.1-2.0); Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) 3.2 (2.6-3.9); and Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (UFED) 10.4% (0.9-11.5). Most people with OSFED had atypical anorexia nervosa and majority with UFED were characterised by having recurrent binge eating without marked distress. Eating disorders were represented throughout sociodemographic groups and those with bulimia nervosa and BED-broad had mean weight (BMI, kg/m 2 ) in the obese range. Mental HRQoL was poor in all eating disorder groups but particularly poor for those with BED-broad and ARFID. Individuals with bulimia nervosa, BED
Dajak, Lidija; Mastilica, Miroslav; Orešković, Stjepan; Vuletić, Gorka
To analyse the differences in the self-estimate of life quality depending on the ageing type - passive, active. Life-quality linked to health was measured with an SF-36 survey, which gives multi-dimensional criteria of health and life-quality. SF-36 survey represents a theoretically based and empirically proven operationalization of two overal health concepts, which are body and mental health, and its two general manifestations, functioning, and welfare. 200 examinees in total, aged from 55 to 92, were included in the research. Divided by sex, in the research participated 148 women and 52 men. Depending on the ageing way, the examinees were divided into 2 categories: passive ageing (n=100), active ageing (n=100), and for these groups a detailed result analysis was done. Statistical analysis includes descriptive statistics, Hi-square test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U test. In all dimensions of health, examinees from the category Active ageing achieve higher scores, which indicates better health and better functioning. Between the groups, a statistically significant difference was determined, on the following dimensions: Overall health, Pains, Energy and vitality, Social operations, and Limits due to emotional difficulties. With the Hi-square test, it was determined that there are differences between the groups. The biggest difference can be seen in the reply categories related to health deterioration (χ 2 =10.391; df=4; p=0.034). Examinees from the Active ageing group mention significantly less that their health has gotten worse compared to the previous year (26% of the active ones state that their health is somewhat worse, and only 2% that their health is significantly worse, compared to the passive ones where 36% state that their health is worse, and 9% that it's much worse compared to the year before). Tested was the difference between arithmetic middles on the issue of mental health based on the ageing type (p>0.05), and the results
Monaro, Susan; West, Sandra; Gullick, Janice
To examine the domains and the domain-specific characteristics within a peripheral arterial disease health-related quality of life framework for their usefulness in defining critical limb ischaemia health-related quality of life. Critical Limb Ischaemia presents a highly individualised set of personal and health circumstances. Treatment options include conservative management, revascularisation or amputation. However, the links between treatment decisions and quality of life require further investigation. The framework for this integrative review was the peripheral arterial disease-specific health-related quality of life domains identified by Treat-Jacobson et al. The literature expanded and refined Treat-Jacobson's framework by modifying the characteristics to better describe health-related quality of life in critical limb ischaemia. Given that critical limb ischaemia is a highly individualised situation with powerful health-related quality of life implications, further research focusing on patient and family-centred decision-making relating to therapeutic options and advanced care planning is required. A critical limb ischaemia-specific, health-related quality of life tool is required to capture both the unique characteristics of this disorder, and the outcomes for active or conservative care among this complex group of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maass, Ruca; Kloeckner, Christian A; Lindstrøm, Bengt; Lillefjell, Monica
Neighborhood social capital has repeatedly been linked to favorable health-outcomes and life satisfaction. However, it has been questioned whether it's impact on health has been over-rated. We aim to investigate relationships between neighborhood social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and life satisfaction (LS) respectively, both directly and indirectly mediated via Sense of Coherence and self-esteem. Based on a cross-sectional population-survey (N=865) in a medium size Norwegian municipality, we specified a structural equation model (SEM) including the above-listed variables, while controlling for gender, age, education, income, and employment status. The applied model explains more variance in LS (46%) than in SRH (23%). Social capital has a stronger impact on life satisfaction than on health. The indirect pathway via SOC had the highest impact on life satisfaction, but no significant relationship to SRH. Self-rated health was more tightly linked to personal background variables. Enhancing social capital in the neighborhood might be a beneficial strategy to promote life satisfaction, as well as strengthening sense of coherence even in healthy communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease is influenced both by disease activity as well as by the psychosocial characteristics of the individual patient. The Short Health Scale (SHS) is a four-part visual analogue scale questionnaire using open-ended questions that are designed to assess the impact of inflammatory bowel disease on a health related quality of life. The four dimensions include bowel symptoms, activities of daily life, worry and general wellbeing. It has previously been validated in Swedish and Norwegian speaking patients.
Ioannou, Panagiotis; Katsikavali, Vassiliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Papadatou, Danai; Sourtzi, Panayota
Employee job satisfaction and its relationship with health and quality of life has been an issue of major concern over the past decades. Nurses experience difficult working conditions that affect their job satisfaction, health, and quality of life. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in three general hospitals and their respective health centers. Stratified random sampling by level of education was used, and 508 nurses and nursing assistants were included. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which included the Measure of Job Satisfaction, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, as well as demographic details, education, and work conditions data, was used. Greek nurses were found to be dissatisfied with their job according to the total score of the job satisfaction scale, although personal satisfaction and satisfaction with support had had higher scores. Their general health was reported as average, because of physical and mental health problems, low vitality, low energy, and increased physical pain. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that males and those wishing to stay in the job had higher physical and mental health. Increased job satisfaction was related to increased physical and mental health. Although Greek nurses are not satisfied with their work, those with high levels of job satisfaction had better health-related quality of life. The findings suggest that improvement of the work environment would contribute to a healthier and more satisfied nursing workforce.
Youm, Yoosik; Laumann, Edward O; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Waite, Linda J; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Joo, Won-Tak; Lee, Jin A
This paper has two objectives. Firstly, it provides an overview of the social network module, data collection procedures, and measurement of ego-centric and complete-network properties in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Secondly, it directly compares the KSHAP structure and results to the ego-centric network structure and results of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which conducted in-home interviews with 3,005 persons 57 to 85 years of age in the United States. The structure of the complete social network of 814 KSHAP respondents living in Township K was measured and examined at two levels of networks. Ego-centric network properties include network size, composition, volume of contact with network members, density, and bridging potential. Complete-network properties are degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and brokerage role. We found that KSHAP respondents with a smaller number of social network members were more likely to be older and tended to have poorer self-rated health. Compared to the NSHAP, the KSHAP respondents maintained a smaller network size with a greater network density among their members and lower bridging potential. Further analysis of the complete network properties of KSHAP respondents revealed that more brokerage roles inside the same neighborhood (Ri) were significantly associated with better self-rated health. Socially isolated respondents identified by network components had the worst self-rated health. The findings demonstrate the importance of social network analysis for the study of older adults' health status in Korea. The study also highlights the importance of complete-network data and its ability to reveal mechanisms beyond ego-centric network data.
Fergusson, D M; McLeod, G F H; Horwood, L J; Swain, N R; Chapple, S; Poulton, R
Previous research has found that mental health is strongly associated with life satisfaction. In this study we examine associations between mental health problems and life satisfaction in a birth cohort studied from 18 to 35 years. Data were gathered during the Christchurch Health and Development Study, which is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1977. Assessments of psychiatric disorder (major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and illicit substance dependence) using DSM diagnostic criteria and life satisfaction were obtained at 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35 years. Significant associations (p life satisfaction and the psychiatric disorders major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and substance dependence. After adjustment for non-observed sources of confounding by fixed effects, statistically significant associations (p life satisfaction and major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality and substance dependence. Overall, those reporting three or more mental health disorders had mean life satisfaction scores that were nearly 0.60 standard deviations below those without mental health problems. A structural equation model examined the direction of causation between life satisfaction and mental health problems. Statistically significant (p life satisfaction and mental health problems. After adjustment for confounding, robust and reciprocal associations were found between mental health problems and life satisfaction. Overall, this study showed evidence that life satisfaction influences mental disorder, and that mental disorder influences life satisfaction.
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia
The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.
Sundgren, Elisabet; Hallqvist, Johan; Fredriksson, Lennart
To investigate the health and lifestyle habits of smokers with schizophrenia and describe their experience of smoking in relation to health. Semi-structured interviews with 10 smokers with schizophrenia were conducted in Sweden from May to October 2013. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to describe and interpret respondents' experiences. Good health for a person with schizophrenia was defined as accepting their mental illness, having strategies to gain control over psychotic symptoms, and engaging in activities and good relationships. Lifestyle habits were described as structures in the respondents' daily life: arising in the morning, taking a cigarette, reading the newspaper, eating breakfast and doing the things planned for the day. The meaning of health for smokers with schizophrenia is not the same as being well or ill. Rather, health is an experience of a struggle to maintain a dignified life, including self-acceptance of the mental illness and control over the psychotic symptoms. People with schizophrenia have high willingness but low motivation to stop smoking because they fear that cigarette withdrawal will increase their psychotic symptoms. Therefore, they find it difficult to stop smoking. To succeed with health care intervention, health care providers must understand the life style habits and experiences specific to smokers with schizophrenia and the unique experience of health and life style habits that people with schizophrenia experience. Smokers with schizophrenia experience health as a struggle to maintain a dignified life and to maintain control over their psychotic symptoms. In smoking cessation programmes, health care providers must pay attention to the fear that people with schizophrenia have of losing control over their psychotic symptoms, if they stop smoking, and support them to find activities to replace smoking. This study suggests that to provide good support in health prevention for people with schizophrenia, it is vital
Wilkinson, Lindsay R; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Mustillo, Sarah A
Guided by cumulative inequality theory, this study poses two main questions: (a) Does women's poor health compromise household financial assets? (b) If yes, is wealth sensitive to the timing of women's health limitations? In addressing these questions, we consider the effect of health limitations on wealth at older ages, as well as examine how health limitations influence wealth over particular segments of the life course, giving attention to both the onset and duration of health limitations. Using 36 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, piecewise growth curve and linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of life course timing and duration of health limitations on household wealth. The findings reveal that women who experienced health limitations accumulated substantially less wealth over time, especially if the health limitations were manifest during childhood or early adulthood. This study identifies how early-life health problems lead to less wealth in later life.
Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas
Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.
Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Cullen, Mark R
Researchers investigating health outcomes for populations over age 65 can utilize Medicare claims data, but these data include no direct information about individuals' health prior to age 65 and are not typically linkable to files containing data on exposures and behaviors during their worklives. The current paper is a proof-of-concept, of merging employers' administrative data and private, employment-based health claims with Medicare data. Characteristics of the linked data, including sensitivity and specificity, are evaluated with an eye toward potential uses of such linked data. This paper uses a sample of former manufacturing workers from an industrial cohort as a test case. The dataset created by this integration could be useful to research in areas such as social epidemiology and occupational health. Medicare and employment administrative data were linked for a large cohort of manufacturing workers (employed at some point during 1996-2008) who transitioned onto Medicare between 2001-2009. Data on work-life health, including biometric indicators, were used to predict health at age 65 and to investigate the concordance of employment-based insurance claims with subsequent Medicare insurance claims. Chronic diseases were found to have relatively high levels of concordance between employment-based private insurance and subsequent Medicare insurance. Information about patient health prior to receipt of Medicare, including biometric indicators, were found to predict health at age 65. Combining these data allows for evaluation of continuous health trajectories, as well as modeling later-life health as a function of work-life behaviors and exposures. It also provides a potential endpoint for occupational health research. This is the first harmonization of its kind, providing a proof-of-concept. The dataset created by this integration could be useful for research in areas such as social epidemiology and occupational health.
Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Fang, Qijuan; Mueller, Collin
Research has linked several aspects of religion--including service attendance, prayer, meditation, religious coping strategies, congregational support systems, and relations with God, among others--with positive mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study examines a neglected dimension of religious life: listening to religious music. Two waves of nationally representative data on older U.S. adults were analyzed (n = 1,024). Findings suggest that the frequency of listening to religious music is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and increases in life satisfaction, self-esteem, and a sense of control across the 2 waves of data. In addition, the frequency of listening to gospel music (a specific type of religious music) is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and an increase in a sense of control. These associations are similar for blacks and whites, women and men, and low- and high-socioeconomic status individuals. Religion is an important socioemotional resource that has been linked with desirable mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study shows that listening to religious music may promote psychological well-being in later life. Given that religious music is available to most individuals--even those with health problems or physical limitations that might preclude participation in more formal aspects of religious life--it might be a valuable resource for promoting mental health later in the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.
Full Text Available Introduction. University students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, i.e. academic pressures, social issues and financial problems. This can affect their academic achievements and quality of life. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the health-related quality of life of university students, and how it is affected by the presence of chronic diseases, mental disorders comorbidity, and patterns of medical services’ use. Methods. This web-based study included a sample of 1,410 Slovenian university students. We used a self-administered questionnaire, containing a sheet with demographic data, Zung’s self-assessment inventories about anxiety and depression, and EQ-5D questionnaire. The main outcome measures were scores on EQ-5D part and VAS part of the EQ-5D questionnaire. Results. Independent factors associated with the health-related quality of life of university students, were the presence of chronic pain, the presence of depression and anxiety, need for urgent medical help and at least one visit to a clinical specialist in the past year. The independent factors associated with the health status of university students were the presence of chronic diseases, chronic pain, depression and anxiety, a visit to a clinical specialist, a need for urgent medical help and a visit to an emergency unit in the past year. Conclusion. Health-related quality of life of university students can be seriously affected by the presence of mental disorders and chronic pain. Appropriate health-related measures should be adopted to achieve early recognition of worse health-related quality of life, the presence of mental disorders and other chronic conditions, and to enable their effective treatment.
Daroudi, Rajabali; Rashidian, Arash; Zeraati, Hojjat; Oliyaeemanesh, Alireza; Akbari Sari, Ali
Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction.
Siddique, Muhammad; Ayub, Ayaz; Hussain, Hamid
In several countries health related quality of life (HRQoL) scales have been used for adolescents, to assess the impact of disease. Health related quality of life scales are used on a range of different domains: physical, psychological, social and spiritual focusing on personal life including the concept of the World Health Organization definition of health. Health related quality of life in adolescent going to schools in the cantonment area of Peshawar garrison was assessed in a cross sectional descriptive study. Data was gathered by using a self-administered questionnaire (Kiddo-KINDL-R Questionnaire), previously tested to assess quality of life across six dimensions of health i.e. Physical and emotional well-being, self-esteem, family, social and school. A total of 300 students of average age 13.41±1.34 years, with 145 (48.3%) females. Mean (SD) of total QoL score was 86.98 (12.86). The mean total scores were 86.28±12.34 and 87.64±13.34 for girls and boys, respectively. On the whole quality of life scores of the adolescent are good in the four dimensions. Special attention is needed towards the school environment, as majority of the participants are not satisfied with their schools. Similarly self-esteem scores are also low in the majority. However it is encouraging that most of the participants have scored highest scales in dimensions of family and physical health. Any effort to assess quality of life of the adolescents at the national level will give better view of quality of life of our youth.
Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko
We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263
van den Berg, Agnes E; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A; Groenewegen, Peter P
This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2), conducted in 2000-2002. Health measures included: (1) the number of health complaints in the last 14 days; (2) perceived mental health (measured by the GHQ-12); and (3) a single item measure of perceived general health ranging from 'excellent' to 'poor'. Percentages of green space in a 1-km and 3-km radius around the home were derived from the 2001 National Land cover Classification database (LGN4). Data were analysed using multilevel regression analysis, with GP practices as the group-level units. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, income, education level, and level of urbanity. The results show that the relationships of stressful life events with number of health complaints and perceived general health were significantly moderated by amount of green space in a 3-km radius. Respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant. The moderating effects of green space were found only for green space within 3 km, and not for green space within 1 km of residents' homes, presumably because the 3-km indicator is more affected by the presence of larger areas of green space, that are supposed to sustain deeper forms of restoration. These results support the notion that green space can provide a buffer against the negative health impact of stressful life events. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Mijin; Kim, Jinhyun; Park, Byunghyun
This research examined the relationship between health and life satisfaction in women over 65 years of age in local communities. The World Health Organization's definition of health as physical, mental, and social well-being was used as the foundation for analyzing the effects of health on life satisfaction. The Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging was utilized to analyze data from 2,356 women over 65. Our results showed that significant influential factors included satisfaction in relationship with children, self-rated health, depression, participation in social activities, and number of family members. Our findings suggest how older women's health and life satisfaction can be improved, and give necessary directions for future studies.
Slavich, George M
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Stress has also been implicated in accelerated biological aging and premature mortality. These effects have been studied most commonly using self-report checklist measures of life stress exposure, although interview-based approaches provide a more comprehensive assessment of individuals' exposure to stress. Most recently, online systems like the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN) have been developed for assessing lifetime stress exposure, and such systems may provide important new information to help advance our understanding of how stressors occurring over the life course get embedded in the brain and body to affect lifespan health.
Moore, S. E.
Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The ?Developmental Origins of Health and Disease? (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a ?mismatch? betw...
26. Ammentorp J, Uhrenfeldt L, Angel F, Ehrensvärd, Carlsen E, Kofoed P-E. Can life coaching improve health outcomes? – A systematic review of intervention studies. Poster presented at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, Montreal Canada, 30 Sept 2013.......26. Ammentorp J, Uhrenfeldt L, Angel F, Ehrensvärd, Carlsen E, Kofoed P-E. Can life coaching improve health outcomes? – A systematic review of intervention studies. Poster presented at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, Montreal Canada, 30 Sept 2013....
Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg
To investigate the prevalence and mental health effects of an unequal work-life balance (WLB) including potential gender differences. A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Swiss employed population aged 20 to 64 (women: n = 1661; men: n = 1591). Based on a single-item measure, more than every seventh employee in Switzerland indicated major difficulties combining work and private life. In certain socio-demographic categories, up to 30% showed such work-life conflict (WLC). For both genders, work-life imbalance turned out to be a risk factor affecting mental health. Employees with self-reported WLC presented a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health (women: aOR = 2.6/men: aOR = 2.0), negative emotions and depression (aOR = 3.0/3.1), low energy and optimism (aOR = 2.1/1.6), fatigue (aOR = 2.4/2.6), and sleep disorders (aOR = 1.8/1.5) compared to employees with no WLC. Internationally, few data on the prevalence of WLC exist. In Switzerland, work-life imbalance is not a marginal phenomenon among the workforce and needs to be addressed as a notable public and mental health issue.
Full Text Available Wheelchairs for children with impaired mobility provide health, developmental and psychosocial benefits, however there is limited understanding of how mobility aids affect the health-related quality of life of children with impaired mobility. Preference-based health-related quality of life outcome measures are used to calculate quality-adjusted life years; an important concept in health economics. The aim of this research was to understand how young wheelchair users and their parents define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment and wheelchair use.The sampling frame was children with impaired mobility (≤18 years who use a wheelchair and their parents. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted in participants' homes. Qualitative framework analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. An a priori thematic coding framework was developed. Emerging codes were grouped into categories, and refined into analytical themes. The data were used to build an understanding of how children with impaired mobility define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment, and to assess the applicability of two standard measures of health-related quality of life.Eleven children with impaired mobility and 24 parents were interviewed across 27 interviews. Participants defined mobility-related quality of life through three distinct but interrelated concepts: 1 participation and positive experiences; 2 self-worth and feeling fulfilled; 3 health and functioning. A good degree of consensus was found between child and parent responses, although there was some evidence to suggest a shift in perception of mobility-related quality of life with child age.Young wheelchair users define health-related quality of life in a distinct way as a result of their mobility impairment and adaptation use. Generic, preference-based measures of health-related quality of life lack sensitivity in this
Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan
We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages
Bermingham, Sarah L; Ashe, Joanna F
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Values for equivalent health states can vary substantially depending on the measure used and method of valuation; this has a direct impact on the results of economic analyses. To date, the majority of existing economic evaluations that include UTI as a health state refer to an analysis in which the Index of Well Being was used to estimate the quality of life experienced by young women with UTIs. Currently, there are no validated methods or filters for systematically searching for the type of generic quality of life data required for decision analytic models. This study is the only systematic review of quality of life in people with UTI in the literature. Twelve studies were identified which report quality of life using a variety of generic methods; the results of these papers were summarized in a way that is useful for a health researcher seeking to populate a decision model, design a clinical study or assess the effect of UTI on quality of life relative to other conditions. One research group provided previously unpublished data from a large cohort study; these scores were mapped to EuroQol 5-Dimension values using published algorithms and probabilistic simulations. The aim of this review was to identify studies that have evaluated the impact of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) and UTI-associated bacteraemia on quality of life, and to summarize these data in a way that is useful for a health researcher seeking to populate a cost-utility model, design a clinical study or assess the effect of UTIs on quality of life relative to other conditions. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the NHS Economic Evaluations database, Health Technology Assessment database, Health Economics Evaluations database, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and EuroQol website. Studies that reported utility values for symptomatic UTI or UTI-associated bacteraemia derived from a generic Qo
OBJECTIVES Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. METHODS We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction. PMID:27809456
Full Text Available Abstract Background As Iran started to experience population ageing, it is important to consider and address the elderly people's needs and concerns, which might have direct impacts on their well-being and quality of life. There have been only a few researches into different aspects of life of the elderly population in Iran including their health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL of elderly Iranians and to identify its some determinant factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of community residents of Tehran aged 65 years old and over. HRQoL was measured using the Short From Health Survey (SF-36. The study participants were interviewed at their homes. Uni-variate analysis was performed for group comparison and logistic regression analysis conducted to predict quality of life determinants. Results In all, 400 elderly Iranian were interviewed. The majority of the participants were men (56.5% and almost half of the participants were illiterate (n = 199, 49.8%. Eighty-five percent of the elderly were living with their family or relatives and about 70% were married. Only 12% of participants evaluated their economic status as being good and most of people had moderate or poor economic status. The mean scores for the SF-36 subscales ranged from 70.0 (SD = 25.9 for physical functioning to 53.5 (SD = 29.1 for bodily pain and in general, the respondents significantly showed better condition on mental component of the SF-36 than its physical component (mean scores 63.8 versus 55.0. Performing uni-variate analysis we found that women reported significantly poorer HRQoL. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that for the physical component summary score of the SF-36, age, gender, education and economic status were significant determinants of poorer physical health-related quality of life; while for the mental component summary score only gender and
Czekierda, Katarzyna; Banik, Anna; Park, Crystal L; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations between meaning in life and physical health using random-effects models. Conceptualisation of meaning (order in world vs. purpose in life), type of health indicators, participants' health status, and age issues were investigated as moderators. Systematic searches of six databases resulted in inclusion of k = 66 studies (total N = 73,546). Findings indicated that meaning in life and physical health formed weak-to-moderate associations (the overall estimate of the average effect = 0.258). Conceptualisation of meaning, participants' health status, and their age did not moderate these associations. Operationalisation of health moderated the relationship between meaning in life and health. The strongest associations were found for subjective indicators of physical health. Significant albeit weak associations between meaning in life and objective indices of health were found. Furthermore, stronger effects were observed when the measures of meaning combined items referring to meaning in life and meaning-related sense of harmony, peace, and well-being, compared to measures focusing solely on meaning in life. Overall, the results point to the potential role of meaning in life in explaining physical health.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adolescents are vulnerable group in term of acquisition of oral health-related knowledge, habits and attitudes. That is why the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental status, dental anxiety and oral health-related behavior and oral healthrelated quality of life as captured by Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP index. Methods. This crosssectional survey included representative sample of 404 adolescents (15 years old, randomly recruited from high schools in Belgrade, Serbia. The adolescents were interviewed using Serbian versions of eight-item OIDP index, Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HUDBI and modified Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS. Three previously trained and calibrated dentists examined the subjects in the classrooms to determine the oral health status of adolescents [the Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index and visual signs of gingivitis]. Results. At least one oral impact was reported in 49.50% of adolescents. Most frequently, oral health problems affected eating (26.73%, tooth cleaning (27.47% and sleep and relaxation (16.83%. In comparison with adolescents without oral impacts, the adolescents with at least one oral impact reported, had higher DMFT score, more often reported problems with bleeding gums, usage of hard toothbrush, worries about the color of their teeth and seeing the dentist because of the symptoms. Logistic regression showed that dental anxiety (MDAS score, dental behavior (HUDBI score and worrying about the color of the teeth significantly affected OIDP score. Conclusion. Oral healthrelated quality of life among adolescents was affected by their behavior and dental anxiety levels. Implementing public health policies that target adolescents with poor oral health or bad habits might be helpful in improving their oral health-related quality of life.
Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson; Norlin, J M; Malmberg, I
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common skin condition that may progress to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The disease may influence Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), but studies of HRQoL in patients with AK are limited. The purpose of the study was to analyze HRQoL in patients......-center setting. Dermatologists assessed AK severity and patients completed: Actinic Keratosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (AKQoL), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and EQ-5D-5 L including EQ-VAS. Differences between categorical subgroups were tested with Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between...... with different severity levels of AK treated in dermatology specialist care using generic and disease-specific HRQoL instruments and to analyze their relationship. METHODS: AK patients who visited dermatological clinics in Denmark were included in an observational, cross-sectional, study in a multi...
Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie
The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.
McCook, Judy Griffin; Reame, Nancy E; Thatcher, Samuel S
To evaluate the influence of obesity, fertility status, and androgenism scores on health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional, correlational. Private reproductive endocrinology practice in two southeast U.S. cities. Convenience sample of 128 women with PCOS, half of whom were attempting to conceive in addition to being treated for PCOS. Most were White (97%), married (78%), with a mean age of 30.4 years (SD +/- 5.5). The Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (PCOSQ) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A laboratory panel and clinical measures, including body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and degree of hirsutism. The most common health-related quality of life concern reported by women with PCOS was weight, followed in descending order by menstrual problems, infertility, emotions, and body hair. The psychological implications of PCOS are easily underestimated and have been largely ignored. Nursing has a pivotal role in recognizing these concerns and implementing therapy to improve quality of life in women with PCOS.
Lee, Yeong Yeh; Hassan, Siti Asma; Ismail, Intan Hakimah; Chong, Sze Yee; Raja Ali, Raja Affendi; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Lee, Way Seah; Majid, Noorizan Abdul
The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts' stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life. However, as evidence is lacking, especially from the Asia-Pacific region, further studies are needed to understand how gut microbiota in early life affects subsequent diseases, including allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and infantile colic. Lastly, although beneficial in acute diarrhoeal disease and probably allergic eczema, probiotics (and/or prebiotics) should be used cautiously in other gut dysbiotic conditions until more data are available. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Nena, Evangelia; Katsaouni, Maria; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Theodorou, Evangelos; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Tripsianis, Grigorios
Shift work is associated with sleep disruption, impaired quality of life, and is a risk factor for several health conditions. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of shift work on sleep and quality of life of health-care workers (HCW). Tertiary University hospital in Greece. Cross-sectional study. Included were HCW, working either in an irregular shift system or exclusively in morning shifts. All participants answered the WHO-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and a questionnaire on demographics and medical history. Shift workers filled the Shift Work Disorders Screening Questionnaire (SWDSQ). Descriptive statistics, Student's t -test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's r correlation coefficient, and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis were applied. Included were 312 employees (87.9% females), 194 working in irregular shift system and 118 in morning shifts. Most shift-workers (58.2%) were somehow or totally dissatisfied with their sleep quality. Regression analysis revealed the following independent determinants for sleep impairment: parenthood ( P 3 night shifts/week ( P work >5 years in an irregular shift system ( P work impairs quality of life, whereas its duration and frequency, along with age and family status of employees can have adverse effects on sleep.
Minssen, Timo; Pierce, Justin
, especially in the life science sectors where competitive innovation and research and development (R&D) resources are persistent considerations. For private actors, the like of pharmaceutical companies, health care providers, laboratories and insurance companies, it is becoming common practice to accumulate R......Undeniably “Big Data” plays a crucial role in the ongoing evolution of health care and life science sector innovations. In recent years U.S. and European authorities have developed public platforms and infrastructures providing access to vast stores of health-care knowledge, including data from......&D data making it searchable through medical databases. This trend is advanced and supported by recent initiatives and legislation that are increasing the transparency of various forms of data, such as clinical trials data. As a result, researchers, companies, patients and health care providers gain...
Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K
Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life
de Bock, G H; Hermans, J; van Marwijk, H W; Kaptein, A A; Mulder, J D
There is some evidence that nabumetone (1000 mg once daily) in comparison with piroxicam (20 mg once daily) in patients with OA in general practice is associated with a lower incidence and less severe occurrence of stomach pain but with more withdrawals due to lack of efficacy. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether these differences are reflected in health-related quality of life assessments. Patients (n = 198) included in this study were selected in general practice according to a protocol. The patients were randomized and treated for a period of six weeks. Clinical assessments were performed by the general practitioner (CP) during treatment. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and a pain questionnaire were filled out by the patients before and after treatment. As measured with the SIP, the ADL and the pain questionnaire, there were no significant differences between nabumetone and piroxicam. The correlations between (changes in) patient assessments and (changes in) clinical assessments were low. The differences between the two drugs regarding withdrawals and adverse events were not reflected by patient health-related quality of life assessments. There was a low correlation between patient health-related quality of life assessment and clinical assessments. To get a complete picture of the efficacy and safety of a drug, patient health-related quality of life assessments should be a part of a clinical trial.
Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik Reidar; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas
Background: Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. Methods: This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006–08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity particip...
Full Text Available The level of quality of life and health status of the population largely depends on the determinants related to occupational activity. The results of reviewed bibliography indicate a significant and growing importance of employment conditions on the quality of life and population health status in most countries of the world, especially in those with market economy. Of the evaluated determinants the following factors should be listed in particular: sources and the amount of income, stability of the income and employment, the nature of work and the degree of job satisfaction, as well as autonomy and career prospects. Moreover, they proved that the situation of persisting and long-term unemployment and precarious employment leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life and health, especially among young people. In conclusion, the study of quality of life and population health status should take into consideration factors related to occupational activity. Med Pr 2016;67(5:663–671
Full Text Available The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP is a population-based longitudinal study of health determinants among elderly Koreans. The target population of the KSHAP are people aged 60 years or older and their spouses living in a rural community of Korea. A complete enumeration survey was conducted in the first wave of the KSHAP on 94.7% (814 of 860 of the target population between December 2011 and July 2012. The KSHAP-Health Examination (KSHAP-HE cohort consists of 698 people who completed additional health examinations at a public health center (n=533 or at their home (n=165. Face-to-face questionnaires were used to interview participants on their demographics, social network characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, cognitive function, and depression symptoms. Health center examinations included anthropometric measures, body impedance analysis, resting blood pressure measurement, radial artery tonometry, bone densitometry, the timed up-and-go test, and fasting blood analysis. However, only anthropometric measures, blood pressure measurement, and non-fasting blood analysis were available for home health examinations. Collaboration is encouraged and access to the KSHAP baseline data will be available via the website of the Korean Social Science Data Archive (http://www.kossda.or.kr.
Hjorth, Peter; Medici, Clara Reece; Juel, Anette
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QoL) and poor physical health, which is explained, in part, by unhealthy lifestyle, tobacco smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. AIM: To measure QoL and physical health in patients with schizophrenia and to quantify...... associations between QoL and physical health. METHODS: This was a naturalistic longitudinal 30-month follow-up study including individual guidance, group sessions and treatment as usual. RESULTS: We included 190 patients. QoL was low among newly diagnosed patients. Higher body mass index was significantly...... associated with lower QoL. Newly diagnosed male patients showed lower QoL compared with females. Newly diagnosed patients experienced worsened health during the study period. In contrast, long-term schizophrenic patients started with worse physical health but improved with regard to weight, waist...
Tse, Mimi M Y; Wan, Vanessa T C; Vong, Sinfia K S
The purpose of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to explore the health-related profile and quality of life among older persons living with and without pain in nursing homes. Ten nursing homes were approached, and 535 older persons were invited to join the study from 2009 to 2011. The nursing home residents' demographic information and information regarding their pain situation and the use of oral analgesic drug and nondrug therapy among the older residents with chronic pain were also collected. Residents' physical health (using the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Elderly Mobility Scores); psychologic health, including happiness, life satisfaction, depression, and loneliness (using the Happiness Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale); and quality of life were investigated. Among the 535 nursing home residents, 396 (74%) of them suffered from pain, with mean pain scores of 4.09 ± 2.19, indicating medium pain intensity a remaining 139 (26%) reported no pain. The location of pain was mainly in the knees, back and shoulders. Our results demonstrated that, with the exception of the no-pain group (p nursing home residents' pain affected both their psychologic health, including happiness, life satisfaction, and depression, and their physical quality of life. Nevertheless, only one-half of the older persons with pain used oral analgesic drug or nondrug therapy to relieve their pain. Pain had a significant impact on their mobility and ADL, was positively correlated with happiness and life satisfaction, and was negatively correlated with loneliness and depression. Pain management is a high priority in elderly care; as such, innovative and interdisciplinary strategies are necessary to enhance quality of life particularly for older persons living in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gabriela Freire de Almeida Vitorino
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the quality of life of hypertensive elderly women in the Family Health Strategy. Method: cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study that evaluated 60 hypertensive older women using the tool World Health Organization Quality of Life with 26 items divided into four domains: social relations, psychological, physical and environment. Results: regarding the quality of life in all domains, except the psychological domain, the quality of life was considered regular. The psychological domain demonstrated a quality of life that needs to improve. Some questions are presented as unsatisfactory, such as the items: pain and discomfort, dependence on antihypertensive medications, negative feelings, lack of health care and recreation. Conclusion: understanding the health profile and the quality of life of hypertensive elderly women allows better knowledge about them and their adaptation to the condition imposed by the disease, offering support for planning care strategies and health education interventions.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
of pre-surgical psychological factors on mental wellbeing after surgery is unclear. The aim of the current article therefore is to review recent research investigating psychological predictors of mental health and HRQOL outcome. METHODS: We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science for studies...... investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. RESULTS: Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest......BACKGROUND: Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence...
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are recognized as integral part of the comprehensive care of patients with cardiovascular disease and are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association (AHA). In this study we used serial administration of the short form 36 (SF36) to evaluate patient\\'s response to CR in terms of improvement in Health related Quality of Life. A total of 49 patients were included in the analysis. There was a significant improvement observed after CR in the Physical Capacity Score (42.3 vs 49.9 p = 0.0005). There was no significant improvement in the Mental Capacity Score (54.8 vs 54.9 p = 0.96). We conclude that Cardiac Rehabilitation Program causes a significant improvement in the health related quality of life of patients by improving their physical health and well being but does not improve the mental capacity which is already at a healthy level before CR.
King, Victoria; Wickrama, K A S; Klopack, Erick; Lorenz, Frederick O
Using data from 416 middle-aged mothers gathered over the course of a decade, this study examined the influence of mastery trajectories (the initial level and change), on change in physical health. Mastery is defined as one's ability to control and influence his/her life and environment to reach a desired outcome or goal. Both the initial level and change in mastery from 1991 to 1994 were associated with decreased physical health problems over the middle years (1991-2001). Contextual moderation of this association by stressful life contexts including negative life events and work-family conflict was investigated. Moderation analysis showed that under conditions of low contextual life stressors, the level and increase in mastery significantly contributed to decreases in physical health problems in middle-aged mothers. Alternatively, conditions of high contextual life stressors inhibited the ability of mastery to influence physical health of mothers, suggesting that the positive health impact of mastery on physical health is mitigated by stressful life experiences. Implications for the need to maintain important personal resources, such as mastery, during times of stress are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M
The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.
Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J. M.
depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p physical health characteristics...... having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p....... CONCLUSION: Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant...
Flink, Ilse J E; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Looman, Caspar; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Tiemeier, Henning; Mol, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein
To assess whether the health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups differs from the health-related quality of life of native Dutch infants and to evaluate whether infant health and family characteristics explain the potential differences. We included 4,506 infants participating in the Generation R Study, a longitudinal birth cohort. When the child was 12 months, parents completed the Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL); ITQOL scale scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Influence of infant health and family characteristics on ITQOL scale scores were evaluated using multivariate regression models. Infants from ethnic minority groups presented significantly lower ITQOL scale scores compared to the Dutch subgroup (e.g., Temperament and Moods scale: median score of Turkish subgroup, 70.8 (IQR, 15.3); median score of Dutch subgroup, 80.6 (IQR, 13.9; P ethnic minority status and infant health-related quality of life. However, these factors could not fully explain all the differences in the ITQOL scale scores. Parent-reported health-related quality of life is lower in infants from ethnic minority groups compared to native Dutch infants, which could partly be explained by infant health and by family characteristics.
Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Maniam, Thambu; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Stanistreet, Debbi; Furnham, Adrian
To examine the associations between life satisfaction, loneliness, general health and depression among 172 medical students in Malaysia. Participants completed a questionnaire battery, which included the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Life satisfaction was negatively and significantly correlated with suicidal attitudes, loneliness and depression; and positively with health, which was negatively and significantly correlated with depression and loneliness. Self-concept was negatively correlated with loneliness and depression, depression was positively and significantly correlated with loneliness. Mediational analyses showed that the effects of loneliness and life dissatisfaction on depression were fully mediated by health. Even though less satisfied, and particularly lonelier, individuals are more likely to report higher levels of depression, this is only the case because both higher loneliness and life dissatisfaction are associated with poorer health. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders in developing nations.
Piko, Bettina F
Previous research suggests that youth's life satisfaction may be influenced by health and certain socioeconomic/sociocultural factors, which may be important in a post-socialist country like Hungary. We investigated the relationship between youth's life satisfaction, materialism and their psychosocial health in a sample of secondary school students (N = 1114) in Hungary. Findings show that youth's psychosocial health may play an important role in their levels of life satisfaction, particularly depressive and psychosomatic symptoms and health behaviors (e.g. diet control and smoking). SES self-assessment and materialistic success were positively, while materialistic happiness was negatively related to youth's life satisfaction.
Bikker, Jaap; Popescu, Adelina
This paper investigates the cost efficiency and competitive behaviour of the non-life – or property and casualty – insurance market in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. We focus on the 2006 health care reform, where public health care insurance has been included in the non-life insurance
Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace
A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls
The purpose of this article is to explore health coaching as an effective intervention in times of health crisis for patients, families, and health-care staff. The pause that a health crisis creates in the activities of normal life allows for deeper questions about a person's life to emerge. Health coaching provides a safe space for clients to engage with these life questions while facilitating a connection with their sense of personal empowerment and innate inner wisdom. The result is a more meaningful and resilient life despite the outcome of the health crisis.
Choi, Eunsuk; Kim, Jiyun
Although the relationship between work-life balance (WLB) and health is well known, it has been poorly studied in Korea. This study investigated factors related to WLB for Korean workers, including working time features and the relationships between WLB and health outcomes. Data were obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, which examined a representative working population. This study investigated general characteristics, working time characteristics, work related health, and WLB. A multivariate logistic regression was used to test the associations between WLB and health outcome variables, including general health status, mental health, work-related risks to health and safety, sickness absenteeism, presenteeism, musculoskeletal disease, headache/eyestrain, and fatigue. General characteristics including gender, age, working sector, occupation, and employment type were found to be related to WLB. Moreover, working time characteristics were found to be strongly related to WLB. In addition, WLB was significantly related to various health outcomes. Our findings indicate that WLB is strongly related to health outcomes among Korean workers. The results suggest that there is a need for interventions that focus on implementing working time strategies for better health.
Full Text Available It is well established that engaging in lifelong Physical activity (PA can help delay the onset of many chronic lifestyle related and non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Additionally, growing evidence also documents the importance of PA for brain health, with numerous studies indicating regular engagement in physical activities may be protective against cognitive decline and dementia in late life. Indeed, the link between PA and brain health may be different at each stage of life from childhood, mid-life and late life. Building on this emerging body of multidisciplinary research, this review aims to summarize the current body of evidence linking regular PA and brain health across the lifespan. Specifically, we will focus on the relationship between PA and brain health at three distinct stages of life: childhood and adolescence, mid-life, late life in cognitively healthy adults and later life in adults living with age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD.
Thomas Kristie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL can be measured by a wide range of instruments, many of which have been designed for specific conditions or uses. "Preference-based" measures assess the value individuals place on health, and are included in economic evaluations of treatments and interventions (such as cost effectiveness analysis. As economic evaluation becomes more common, it is important to assess the applicability of preference-based health related quality of life (HRQOL measures to public health issues. This study investigated the usefulness of such instruments in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV, a public health concern that that can seriously affect quality of life. Methods The study consisted of focus groups with abused women to determine the aspects of life affected by IPV, and an analysis of existing HRQOL measures. Eight focus groups (n = 40 were conducted in which participants discussed the domains of health affected by IPV. Results were content analyzed and compared with the domains of health included in four commonly-used, preference-based HRQOL measures. Results The average focus group participant was 43 years old, unemployed, African American, with 3 children. Domains of health reported to be affected by IPV included physical functioning, emotional and psychological functioning, social functioning and children's functioning. Psychological health was the most severely affected domain. The Short Form 36, the Health Utilities Index, the EuroQol 5D, and the Quality of Well-being Scale were found to vary in the degree to which they include domains of health important in IPV. Psychological health is included to a limited extent, and the spill-over effect of a condition on other family members, including children, is not included at all. Conclusion Emotional and psychological health plays an important role in the overall HRQOL of abused women but is relatively underemphasized in preference-based HRQOL
Sommer, Maja S.; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette
. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 73% of whom completed rehabilitation. Results on emotional well-being (P mental health component score (P = .0004) showed an overall statistically significant improvement during the study. CONCLUSION: This feasibility...... study demonstrated that global quality of life, mental health, and emotional well-being improved significantly during the study, from time of diagnosis until 1 year after resection, in patients with NSCLC participating in rehabilitation.......INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with significant morbidity, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to present health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over time before and 1...
Shepherd, Daniel; McBride, David; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N; Hill, Erin M
We report a cross-sectional study comparing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals residing in the proximity of a wind farm to those residing in a demographically matched area sufficiently displaced from wind turbines. The study employed a nonequivalent comparison group posttest-only design. Self-administered questionnaires, which included the brief version of the World Health Organization quality of life scale, were delivered to residents in two adjacent areas in semirural New Zealand. Participants were also asked to identify annoying noises, indicate their degree of noise sensitivity, and rate amenity. Statistically significant differences were noted in some HRQOL domain scores, with residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality, and rated their environment as less restful. Our data suggest that wind farm noise can negatively impact facets of HRQOL.
Full Text Available We report a cross-sectional study comparing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of individuals residing in the proximity of a wind farm to those residing in a demographically matched area sufficiently displaced from wind turbines. The study employed a nonequivalent comparison group posttest-only design. Self-administered questionnaires, which included the brief version of the World Health Organization quality of life scale, were delivered to residents in two adjacent areas in semirural New Zealand. Participants were also asked to identify annoying noises, indicate their degree of noise sensitivity, and rate amenity. Statistically significant differences were noted in some HRQOL domain scores, with residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality, and rated their environment as less restful. Our data suggest that wind farm noise can negatively impact facets of HRQOL.
Prosser Lisa A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However
Hirsch, Jameson K; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C; Sirois, Fuschia M
Temporal perspective, including views about future goals, may influence motivational processes related to health. An adaptive sense of future orientation is linked to better health, but little research has examined potential underlying factors, such as vitality. In a sample of 101 primary care patients, we examined whether belief in the changeability of the future was related to mental and physical energization and, in turn, to health-related quality of life. Participants were working, uninsured primary care patients, who completed self-report measures of future orientation, vitality, and health-related quality of life. Mediation models, covarying age, sex, and race/ethnicity indicated that vitality significantly mediated the association between future orientation and the outcomes of general health, mental health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role limitations due to emotional and physical reasons. Vitality exerted an indirect-only effect on the relation between future orientation and physical functioning. Our findings suggest that adaptive beliefs about the future may promote, or allow access to, physical and mental energy and, in turn, may result in better mental and physical health functioning. Individual-level and public health interventions designed to promote future orientation and vitality may beneficially influence quality of life and well-being.
Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva
The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.
Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte
Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.
da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Hernandez, Salma Stéphany Soleman; Arancibia, Beatriz Angélica Valdivia; Castro, Thiago Luis da Silva; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; da Silva, Rudney
The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L
Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence of pre-surgical psychological factors on mental wellbeing after surgery is unclear. The aim of the current article therefore is to review recent research investigating psychological predictors of mental health and HRQOL outcome. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science for studies investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest that preoperative psychological factors including psychiatric symptoms, body image and self-esteem may be important for mental health postoperatively. Predictors of postoperative HRQOL seem to include personality, severe psychiatric disorder at baseline and improvement of depressive symptoms. In addition, psychiatric symptoms that persist after surgery and inappropriate eating behaviour postoperatively are likely to contribute to poor health-related quality of life outcome. Certain psychological factors appear to be important for mental health and HRQOL after bariatric surgery. However, the literature is extremely sparse and further research is highly needed. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Carlos K. H.; Lam, Cindy L. K.; Poon, Jensen T. C.; Kwong, Dora L. W.
BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to assess the health preference and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with colorectal neoplasms (CRN), and to determine the clinical correlates that significantly influence the HRQOL of patients. METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-four CRN patients, inclusive of colorectal polyp or cancer, who attended the colorectal specialist outpatient clinic at Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong between October 2009 and July 2010, were included. Patients ...
Kudlicka, Aleksandra; Clare, Linda; Hindle, John V
High-quality person-centred care for people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) and their families relies on identifying and addressing factors that specifically impact on quality of life (QoL). Deficits in executive functions (EF) are common in Parkinson's disease, but their impact on PwPD and their caregivers is not well understood. The present study evaluated how EF contributes to QoL and health status for the PwPD and caregiver burden. Sixty-five PwPD completed measures of QoL, health status and EF, and 50 caregivers rated the EF of the PwPD and their own burden. Multiple regression analyses examined predictors of QoL (general life, health and movement disorders domains), health status and caregiver burden. Quality of life in the health and movement disorders domains was best explained by caregiver-rated EF, whereas QoL in the general life domain was best explained by level of depression. Health status was predicted by self-rated EF, with an objective EF measure also included in the regression model. Caregiver burden was best explained by caregiver-rated EF and disease severity, with general cognition and other factors also included in the regression model. Executive functions-related behavioural problems may contribute to QoL and health status in PwPD and affect caregiver burden. The findings support the view that the concepts of subjective QoL and self-assessed health status are only partially related and should not be seen as identical. Adequate strategies to reduce the impact of EF deficits are needed as this may have the potential to improve QoL in PwPD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or she... he or she wishes to retain coverage under the retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance...
Full Text Available Background: Life skills include the abilities resulting in improvement of the mental health of community members, the richness of human relations and increase of health related behaviors in the community. If these ability have the Quranic approach could increase the adaptation level and positive and effective behaviors resulting in improvement of happiness and success in life. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention, called "Life skills training with Quranic Approach", on the quality of life (emotional reaction, social functioning, vitality and energy, mental and physical health of women. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, with a pretest-posttest design and included a casecontrol groups between 80 basij women aged 20-40 in the year 2015 that were applicants for the workshops, 30 women were selected and randomly assigned to two group. The experimental group attended 12, 90-minute sessions of the life skills training with Quranic approach workshop as the intervention. A 12-question quality-of-life questionnaire and Oxford happiness questionnaire were used to assess the dependent variables. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics dependent, independent t-test, and analysis of Covariance. P<0.05 was considered significant. Findings: Analysis of Covariance demonstrated an increase in some subscales of life quality dependent variables, including emotional reaction, joy and vital energy and mental health; but, there was no significant difference in the subscales of physical health and social functioning between two groups. Conclusion: In general, the results affirm the effectiveness of the intervention on dependent variables. Life skills training with Quranic approach were effective in increasing emotional reaction and quality of life in studied subjects. Women are as an important pillar of the family, and this effect will be play important role in creating healthy society.
Full Text Available Hsiu-Yu Ho,1,2 Mei-Hui Chen,2,3 Meei-Fang Lou1 1School of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, 3National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adults living with comorbidities that include diabetes. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes. Methods: A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected from a selected field of 12 patients with diabetes mellitus in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology, and four criteria of Lincoln and Guba were used to evaluate the rigor of the study. Results: The following 5 themes and 14 subthemes were derived: 1 expecting to heal or reduce the symptoms of the disease (trying to alleviate the distress of symptoms and trusting in health practitioners combining the use of Chinese and Western medicines; 2 comparing complex medical treatments (differences in physician practices and presentation, conditionally adhering to medical treatment, and partnering with medical professionals; 3 inconsistent information (inconsistent health information and inconsistent medical advice; 4 impacting on daily life (activities are limited and hobbies cannot be maintained and psychological distress; and 5 weighing the pros and cons (taking the initiative to deal with issues, limiting activity, adjusting mental outlook and pace of life, developing strategies for individual health regimens, and seeking support. Surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life was explored. Conclusion: This study found that the experience of older adults
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik
Objectives Identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population: 4402 volunteers invited among participants of main study (n=18065) in 12...... Danish cities. Age 18-96 years (average 54) Structured interviews (from main study and dental study) and clinical oral examination Oral-health-related quality of life measured by a 10 item index Non-parametric statistical methods, chi-square, simple and multivariate logistic regression Conclusions...... Regular dental visits and high number of natural teeth are determinants for high level of oral-health-related quality of life Untreated caries, wearing dentures and high caries experience are determinants for reduced oral-health-related quality of life Results 33 persons were edentulous, 7 % wore dentures...
Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min
The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.
Background Profound knowledge about child growth, development, health, and disease in contemporary children and adolescents is still rare. Epidemiological studies together with new powerful research technologies present exciting opportunities to the elucidation of risk factor-outcome associations with potentially major consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aim To conduct a unique prospective longitudinal cohort study in order to assess how environmental, metabolic and genetic factors affect growth, development and health from fetal life to adulthood. Methods The ‘Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child Study’ focuses on two main research objectives: (1) monitoring of normal growth, development and health; (2) non-communicable diseases such as childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, atopy and mental health problems. Detailed assessments will be conducted alongside long-term storage of biological samples in 2,000 pregnant women and more than 10,000 children and their families. Results Close coordination and engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the LIFE Child study successfully established procedures and systems for balancing many competing study and ethical needs. Full participant recruitment and complete data collection started in July 2011. Early data indicate a high acceptance rate of the study program, successful recruitment strategies and the establishment of a representative cohort for the population of Leipzig. A series of subprojects are ongoing, and analyses and publications are on their way. Discussion This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of the new prospective longitudinal cohort study LIFE Child. Given the recognized need for long-term data on adverse effects on health and protective factors, our study data collection should provide magnificent opportunities to examine complex interactions that govern the emergence of non-communicable diseases. PMID:23181778
Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound knowledge about child growth, development, health, and disease in contemporary children and adolescents is still rare. Epidemiological studies together with new powerful research technologies present exciting opportunities to the elucidation of risk factor-outcome associations with potentially major consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aim To conduct a unique prospective longitudinal cohort study in order to assess how environmental, metabolic and genetic factors affect growth, development and health from fetal life to adulthood. Methods The ‘Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Child Study’ focuses on two main research objectives: (1 monitoring of normal growth, development and health; (2 non-communicable diseases such as childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, atopy and mental health problems. Detailed assessments will be conducted alongside long-term storage of biological samples in 2,000 pregnant women and more than 10,000 children and their families. Results Close coordination and engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the LIFE Child study successfully established procedures and systems for balancing many competing study and ethical needs. Full participant recruitment and complete data collection started in July 2011. Early data indicate a high acceptance rate of the study program, successful recruitment strategies and the establishment of a representative cohort for the population of Leipzig. A series of subprojects are ongoing, and analyses and publications are on their way. Discussion This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of the new prospective longitudinal cohort study LIFE Child. Given the recognized need for long-term data on adverse effects on health and protective factors, our study data collection should provide magnificent opportunities to examine complex interactions that govern the emergence of non-communicable diseases.
Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S A; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M S; Grootenhuis, Martha A
The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill child. This will contribute to pediatric family care. Our goal was to determine the health-related quality of life of parents of chronically ill children compared with parents of healthy schoolchildren. A survey of 533 parents of children with chronic conditions (10 diagnosis groups, children aged 1-19 years, diagnosed >1 year ago, living at home) and 443 parents of schoolchildren was conducted between January 2006 and September 2007. Parents were approached through Emma Children's Hospital (which has a tertiary referral and a regional function) and through parent associations. The comparison group included parents of healthy schoolchildren. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult's Health Related Quality of Life. Health-related quality of life measures gross and fine motor function, cognitive functioning, sleep, pain, social functioning, daily activities, sexuality, vitality, positive and depressive emotions, and aggressiveness. The health-related quality of life of the study group was compared with that of the comparison group, and effect sizes were estimated. The percentages of parents at risk for a low health-related quality of life were compared with the 25th percentile scores of the comparison group. RESULTS. Parents of chronically ill children had a significantly lower health-related quality of life. Subgroup analysis showed lower health-related quality of life on sleep, social functioning, daily activities, vitality, positive emotions, and depressive emotions in disease-specific groups. On average, 45% of the parents were at risk for health-related quality-of-life impairment. Parents of chronically ill children report a seriously
Hossein Mozafar Saadati
Full Text Available Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.
Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca
In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the relationship between resilience, cardiorespiratory fitness, and mental health-related quality of life, and examined whether resilience acts as a mediator between the latter two. The study included 770 university students, aged 18-30 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Anthropometric, sociodemographic, cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run test), biochemical parameters, resilience, and mental health-related quality of life measurements were analyzed. The results showed that mental health-related quality-of-life values were significantly higher in students who had good cardiorespiratory fitness and a high level of resilience. Moreover, resilience acted as a partial mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life at 33.79%. Therefore, in young adults, resilience mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life. These findings should be taken into account by nurses and other public health professionals, because in addition to the development of physical activity interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life, it is necessary to implement measures that increase resilience to achieve mental wellness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of individuals is determined by multiple factors operating at both micro and macro levels and the interactive effects of them. Measures of health inequalities should reflect such determinants explicitly through sources of levels and combining mean differences at group levels and the variation of individuals, for the benefits of decision making and intervention planning. Measures derived recently from marginal models such as beta-binomial and frailty survival, address this issue to some extent, but are limited in handling data with complex structures. Beta-binomial models were also limited in relation to measuring inequalities of life expectancy (LE directly. Methods We propose a multilevel survival model analysis that estimates life expectancy based on survival time with censored data. The model explicitly disentangles total health inequalities in terms of variance components of life expectancy compared to the source of variation at the level of individuals in households and parishes and so on, and estimates group differences of inequalities at the same time. Adjusted distributions of life expectancy by gender and by household socioeconomic level are calculated. Relative and absolute health inequality indices are derived based on model estimates. The model based analysis is illustrated on a large Swedish cohort of 22,680 men and 26,474 women aged 6569 in 1970 and followed up for 30 years. Model based inequality measures are compared to the conventional calculations. Results Much variation of life expectancy is observed at individual and household levels. Contextual effects at Parish and Municipality level are negligible. Women have longer life expectancy than men and lower inequality. There is marked inequality by the level of household socioeconomic status measured by the median life expectancy in each socio-economic group and the variation in life expectancy within each group. Conclusion Multilevel
Full Text Available Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about three years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their current health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age.
Hong, Minjoo; De Gagne, Jennie C; Shin, Hyewon
In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we compared the sociodemographic characteristics, social networks, health-promoting behavior, and the health-related quality of life of older Korean adults living in South Korea to those of older Korean adult immigrants living in the USA. A total of 354 older adults, aged 65 years or older, participated. Data were collected through self-directed questionnaires, and analyzed using a two way analysis of variance, t-tests, χ 2 -tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The association between four sociodemographic characteristics and health-related quality of life was significantly different between the two groups. For the older Korean adults living in South Korea, positive correlations existed between a measure of their social networks and both health-promoting behavior and health-related quality of life. For the older Korean immigrants, the findings revealed a positive correlation only between social networks and health-promoting behavior. The study findings support the important association social networks can have with health-related quality of life, and their possible relationship to health-promoting behaviors of older Korean adults. We suggest that health policy-makers and healthcare providers develop comprehensive programs that are designed to improve older adults' social networks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Foot problems are believed to reduce quality of life and are increasingly present. Even among young adults of university age, untreated foot problems can lead to postural and mobility problems. Accordingly, our aim here was to determine the relationship between foot health and quality of life and general health among male and female university students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at the Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Clinic of the University of Coruña, Ferrol, Spain. METHODS: A sample of 112 participants of median age 22 years came to a health center, where self-reported data were registered, including professional activity, and scores obtained through the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ were compared. RESULTS: In Section One of the FHSQ, the university students recorded lower scores of 66.66 in the footwear domain and 60 in the general foot health domain and higher scores of 84.37 in the foot pain domain and 93.75 in the foot function domain. In Section Two, they obtained lower scores of 60 in the overall health domain and 62.50 in the vigor domain and higher scores of 100 in the physical activity and 87.50 in the social capacity domain. Differences between males and females were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, which showing statistical significance (P < 0.05 regarding the dimensions of footwear and general foot health. CONCLUSIONS: These university students’ quality of life relating to foot health was poor. This appears to be associated with the university period, regardless of gender.
Ho, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Hui
Background Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adults living with comorbidities that include diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes. Methods A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected from a selected field of 12 patients with diabetes mellitus in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology, and four criteria of Lincoln and Guba were used to evaluate the rigor of the study. Results The following 5 themes and 14 subthemes were derived: 1) expecting to heal or reduce the symptoms of the disease (trying to alleviate the distress of symptoms and trusting in health practitioners combining the use of Chinese and Western medicines); 2) comparing complex medical treatments (differences in physician practices and presentation, conditionally adhering to medical treatment, and partnering with medical professionals); 3) inconsistent information (inconsistent health information and inconsistent medical advice); 4) impacting on daily life (activities are limited and hobbies cannot be maintained and psychological distress); and 5) weighing the pros and cons (taking the initiative to deal with issues, limiting activity, adjusting mental outlook and pace of life, developing strategies for individual health regimens, and seeking support). Surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life was explored. Conclusion This study found that the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes was similar to that of a single disease, but the extent was greater than a single disease. The biggest difference is that the elderly think that their most serious problem is not diabetes, but rather, the comorbidities causing life limitations
de Andrade, Fabíola Bof; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; da Cruz Teixeira, Doralice Severo; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida
To assess the impact of oral health on quality of life in elderly Brazilians and to evaluate its association with clinical oral health measures and socioeconomic and general health factors. Cross-sectional study. Population-based cohort study on health, well-being, and aging. Eight hundred fifty-seven participants representing 588,384 community-dwelling elderly adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Self-perceived impact of oral health on quality of life was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), with scores categorized as good, moderate, or poor, indicating low, moderate, and high degrees of negative impact on quality of life, respectively. Nearly half of the individuals had good GOHAI scores (44.7% of overall sample, 45.9% of dentate participants, and 43.4% of edentulous participants). In the overall sample, those with poor self-rated general health and a need for dental prostheses were more likely to have poor and moderate GOHAI scores. Individuals with depression were significantly more likely to have poor GOHAI scores. No socioeconomic variables were related to the outcome, except self-perception of sufficient income, which was a protective factor against a poor GOHAI score in dentate participants. Moderate and high degrees of negative impact of oral health on quality of life were associated with general health and clinical oral health measures, independent of socioeconomic factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine whether risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy eating habits are associated with satisfaction with life and if they are able to predict it. 225 respondents, aged between 18 and 65 years, participated. Results show that all risk factors together explain 3 % of variance in satisfaction with life after controlling for both demographic and personality variables. Unhealthy eating habit is the only risk factor that can predict lower satisfaction with life. We also examined if objective and subjective evaluations of health associate with satisfaction with life and (unhealthy lifestyle. Results show that lower health is mostly associated with inadequate physical activity and that subjective evaluation of health is more associated with satisfaction with life than are objective indicators of health. Those findings can give us an important starting point for preventive actions against chronic non-communicable diseases in Slovenia.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the main strategies for keeping health is having healthy life style. Due to important role of adolescent health in community health promotion, this study aimed to determine health promoting life style in female adolescents of high schools and its associated factors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 810 girls ranging in ages from 14to 18 years old, who were studying in high schools and selected using cluster sampling from in Mashhad, Iran in 2013. They completed questionnaires of demographic data and Adolescent Health Promoting AH scale. Data were analyzed by statistical tests of Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Freedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation coefficient and General linear model. Results: The mean age of subjects was 15.51±0.98 and the mean score of life style was 63.92±12.01. The highest score of life style subscales was allocated to the “spiritual growth or life-appreciation (77.66±15.56 and the least to the physical and sport activities (51.66±22.49. There was a significant relationship between the life style score of adolescents with parents educational level (mother P=0.024, father P=0.014. However no significant relationship was found between adolescents' life style and their residential area and also parents' job. Among different dimension of life style, the highest correlation was seen between spiritual growth score and life style total score (p=0.01. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is necessary to prioritize implementing of health-related educational programs in order to changing and modification of unhealthy life style related factors, with focus on sport activities as well as health and nutrition. Also it is needed to provide special facilities to select healthy living behaviors among Female adolescents.
Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of movement and posture resulting from disturbances in the immature brain. Accompanying impairments including secondary musculoskeletal problems and mental health problems are common, and impairment is life-long. Thus, from a health care perspective, CP is an excellent model disease for asking what frames of reference should guide our understanding and evidence gathering about patient well-being, and what instruments should we use to assess thes...
Mª Mercedes Gago López
Full Text Available The need to provide care 24 hours of the day, 365 days of the year, means for nurses, compulsory work in a system of rotating shifts, including the realization of nights. This system has repercussions on the life, health and well-being of nurses.In order to identify evidence on the relationship between the work to shift and/or night the health and well-being of nurses and develop recommendations to improve the adaptation to the system of rotating shifts and/or night, have carried out a review of the literature.After detailed analysis of the literature, we can conclude that the quality of the care provided is in direct relation to the health and well-being of the nursing professional. Implement measures to reduce the physical, psychic, social and family wear must be priority, being necessary to educate professionals, families, society and business. Among the recommendations highlight, those directed to the company; set realistic goals, to reduce workloads in the night shift adapting them to the actual number of nurses, flexible schedules and recommendations addressed to the professional related: diet, sleep, exercise, family life and social hygiene. The implementation of these measures will mean: increase satisfaction, reduce absenteeism, increase productivity, reduce the number of errors and decrease spending.
Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P.; Sutinen, Jussi; Sintonen, Harri
We examined how HIV-related self-stigma was associated with different domains of quality of life (QoL), as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life in HIV-infected persons instrument (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the generic 15D (15-dimensional measure of HRQoL), to identify the factors associated with self-stigma of people living with HIV (PLWH). The study sample included 440 patients living with HIV followed at the Infectious D...
Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Mohanty, Jayashree
Using stress process theory and structural equation modelling, this study investigated the complex relationship between health status, family strain, dependency, and the life satisfaction of rural older adults with reported functional impairments in India. Data were extracted from a large-scale study of 903 randomly selected adults aged 61 years and older from 30 rural clusters of India. The sample for this study was confined to 653 older adults who reported functional impairments. Structural equation modelling showed that poor health status indirectly lowered the life satisfaction of older adults through family strains. Moreover, poor health status also indirectly influenced life satisfaction through dependency and family strain (poor health→dependency→family strains→life satisfaction). The findings indicate that for professionals who deal with the health of older adults, exploring relationship strains and dependency is vital to the assessment and intervention of subjective wellbeing. Inter-sectoral coordination and communication between healthcare and social service agencies might facilitate effective management of health problems among older adults. Moreover, taking family strains and dependency into account when caring for older adults with health problems is critical to help improve their quality of life and maintain their wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.
Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.
Bourbonnais, Julie M; Malaisamy, Subramanian; Dalal, Bhavinkumar D; Samarakoon, Priyan C; Parikh, Swapna R; Samavati, Lobelia
Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease with different phenotypic manifestations. Health-related quality of life is an important aspect in sarcoidosis, yet difficult to measure. The objective of this study was to identify clinical markers predictive of poor quality of life in sarcoidosis patients that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention. We assessed the quality of life of 162 patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a prospective, cross-sectional study using the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) and Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). We evaluated the validity of these questionnaires and sought to identify variables that would best explain the performance scores of the patients. On multivariate regression analyses, the very best composite model to predict total scores from both surveys was a model containing the distance-saturation product and Borg Dyspnea Scale score at the end of a 6-min walk test. This model could better predict SF-36 scores (R² = 0.33) than SHQ scores (R² = 0.24). Substitution of distanced walked in 6 min for the distance-saturation product in this model resulted in a lesser ability to predict both scores (R² = 0.26 for SF-36; R² = 0.22 for SHQ). Both the SHQ and SF-36 surveys are valuable tools in the assessment of health-related quality of life in sarcoidosis patients. The best model to predict quality of life among these patients, as determined by regression analyses, included the distance-saturation product and Borg score after the 6-min walk test. Both variables represent easily obtainable clinical parameters that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention.
Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Carlsson, Gunilla; Horstmann, Vibeke; Gard, Gunvor; Holmström, Eva
The aim was to explore aspects of everyday life in addition to established risk factors and their relationship to subjective health and well-being among public sector employees in Sweden. Gainful employment impact on employees' health and well-being, but work is only one part of everyday life and a broader perspective is essential in order to identify health-related factors. Data were obtained from employees at six Social Insurance Offices in Sweden, 250 women and 50 men. A questionnaire based on established instruments and questions specifically designed for this study was used. Relationships between five factors of everyday life, subjective health and well-being were investigated by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. The final model revealed a limited importance of certain work-related factors. A general satisfaction with everyday activities, a stress-free environment and general control in addition to not having monotonous movements at work were found to be factors explaining 46.3% of subjective good health and well-being. A person's entire activity pattern, including work, is important, and strategies for promoting health should take into account the person's situation as a whole. The interplay between risk and health factors is not clear and further research is warranted.
Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley
Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.
Kennedy, Richard E; Williams, Courtney P; Sawyer, Patricia; Lo, Alexander X; Connelly, Kay; Nassel, Ariann; Brown, Cynthia J
To determine whether decline in life-space mobility predicts increased health care utilization among community-dwelling older adults. Health care utilization (number of emergency department [ED] visits and hospitalizations) was self-reported during monthly interviews among 419 community-dwelling African American and non-Hispanic White adults aged 75 years and older in The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging II. Life-space was measured using the UAB Life-Space Assessment. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations of life-space at the beginning of each interval with health care utilization over the 1-month interval. Overall, 400 participants were followed for 36 months. A 10-point decrease in life-space was associated with 14% increased odds of an ED visit and/or hospitalization over the next month, adjusting for demographics, transportation difficulty, comorbidity, and having a doctor visit in the last month. Life-space is a practical alternative in predicting future health care utilization to performance-based measures, which can be difficult to incorporate into clinical or public health practice.
Lombardo, Patrick; Jones, Wayne; Wang, Liangliang; Shen, Xin; Goldner, Elliot M
A self-reported life satisfaction question is routinely used as an indicator of societal well-being. Several studies support that mental illness is an important determinant for life satisfaction and improvement of mental healthcare access therefore could have beneficial effects on a population's life satisfaction. However, only a few studies report the relationship between subjective mental health and life satisfaction. Subjective mental health is a broader concept than the presence or absence of psychopathology. In this study, we examine the strength of the association between a self-reported mental health question and self-reported life satisfaction, taking into account other relevant factors. We conducted this analysis using successive waves of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) collected between 2003 and 2012. Respondents included more than 400,000 participants aged 12 and over. We extracted information on self-reported mental health, socio-demographic and other factors and examined correlation with self-reported life satisfaction using a proportional ordered logistic regression. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with self-reported mental health, even after simultaneously considering factors such as income, general health, and gender. The poor-self-reported mental health group had a particularly low life satisfaction. In the fair-self-reported mental health category, the odds of having a higher life satisfaction were 2.35 (95% CI 2.21 to 2.50) times higher than the odds in the poor category. In contrast, for the "between 60,000 CAD and 79,999 CAD" household income category, the odds of having a higher life satisfaction were only 1.96 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.01) times higher than the odds in the "less than 19,999 CAD" category. Subjective mental health contributes highly to life satisfaction, being more strongly associated than other selected previously known factors. Future studies could be useful to deepen our understanding of the interplay between
Schünemann, Johannes; Strulik, Holger; Trimborn, Timo
Unhealthy persons adapt to their bad state of health and persons in bad health are usually happier than estimated by healthy persons. In this paper we investigate how adaptation to a deteriorating state of health affects health spending, life expectancy, and the value of life. We set up a life cycle model in which individuals are subject to physiological aging, calibrate it with data from gerontology, and compare behavior and outcomes of adapting and non-adapting individuals. While adaptation...
Coleman, Jennifer A; Harper, Leia A; Perrin, Paul B; Olivera, Silvia L; Perdomo, Jose L; Arango, Jose A; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C
Although considerable research has been carried out on family caregivers of individuals with various types of disabilities, spinal cord injury (SCI) caregivers have received considerably less attention in terms of research, especially in regions such as Latin America. This study examined the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with SCI and their family caregiver's mental health in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty-four individuals with SCI and their primary caregivers (34 dyads; n=68) from the Foundation for the Integral Development of People with Disabilities in Neiva, Colombia, were included in this study. Individuals with SCI completed eight subscales of the SF-36 that assessed HRQOL. Five aspects of caregiver mental health were assessed, including burden (Zarit Burden Interview), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). A series of multiple regressions uncovered strong associations among the HRQOL of individuals with SCI and various aspects of caregiver mental health. In these regressions, patient physical functioning and pain were independently related to caregiver burden; patient pain and general health were independently related to caregiver satisfaction with life; and patient pain was independently related to caregiver anxiety. HRQOL in individuals with SCI was robustly related to their caregiver's mental health, suggesting that the two sets of variables are closely linked. These findings suggest that caregiver mental health should be a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, especially in Latin America.
Studies have consistently found positive associations between social participation and health, but it is unclear if they vary across the life course. Younger individuals are likely to initiate and benefit from social participation in different ways from older individuals, which may in turn alter its overall influence on health outcomes. Age-varying associations, if present, may then attenuate or amplify the health consequences stemming from changes in social participation over the adult life course. To assess the strength of the association between social participation and health across the life course, and whether it increases with age. I use five waves of panel data (N = 11202 person-year observations) from the Americans' Changing Lives Survey, collected over 25 years (1986-2011), to examine the association of formal and informal social participation with (1) the number of chronic health conditions and (2) depressive symptoms, focusing on whether these associations become stronger with age. Growth curve models (stratified by gender) with an accelerated longitudinal design were used to construct age trajectories of the dependent variables. An interaction term was then included to test for age-varying effects for each health outcome. Results show that the association between formal social participation and depressive symptoms grew stronger with age, but only for men. For women, positive associations between social participation and health were found, but seemed to remain consistent over the life course. Findings suggest that the social participation and health association over the life course is likely to be contingent on gender, the type of social participation, and the specific health outcome being considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics among Iranian ... for the groups of students due to the modern highly stressful education period. ... of life among the male and female students in the Islamic Azad University of ...
Grace T. Cruz
Full Text Available The study provides a baseline information on the functional health transition patterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALE using a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that females and urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of their remaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transition analysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex, place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health, drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health and mortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show any significant effect.
Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria
The aims were to assess the association between lifetime traumatic events and post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and satisfaction with life stratified by gender among a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Data used came from the ESA-Services study (2011-2013) and included a large convenience sample of 1811 older adults. Traumatic events were measured using a list of 14 events. PTSS was measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. HRQOL and life satisfaction were measured with the EQ-5D-3L and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between traumatic events, PTSS, and quality of life. Respondents had a mean age of 73.90 years (SD: 6.13, range 65-97). Our results showed that exposure to violence (OR 4.88, CI 2.72-8.77), an accident (OR 2.33, CI 1.29-4.22), and sexual abuse (OR 2.26 CI 1.17-4.37) was associated with PTSS only in women. No traumatic event was associated only in men. The interaction between gender and exposure to violence and life-threatening disease of a close one was significant. Experiencing violence (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease of a close one, sexual abuse, and other type of traumatic events. A life-threatening disease (β = -0.90, p life satisfaction only in men and the exposure of violence (β = -1.18, p life satisfaction in women. Our study could help healthcare professionals to identify and monitor traumatic events that are at higher risk to be associated with PTSS and a lower quality of life for older men and women.
Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott M
Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram
This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.
Steenstrup, Troels; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hjelmborg, Jacob
Aim: The present study aims to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods: The study was based on two Danish twin cohorts (46,417 twin individuals) originating from...
Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matt; Singh, Gopal K
To examine the effect of happiness and life satisfaction on health. Longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3, conducted in 2001 and 2004, respectively, of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Australia. A total of 9981 respondents aged 18 years and older. Outcomes were self-reported health; the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions; and physical health. Happiness was assessed with the following question: "During the past 4 weeks, have you been a happy person"? Life satisfaction was determined with the following question: "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life"? We used multiple regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs), beta coefficients (beta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between baseline happiness or life satisfaction and health at wave 3. Baseline happiness and life satisfaction both were positively associated at wave 3 with excellent, very good, or good health (OR = 1.50, CI = 1.33-1.70, p < .0001; and OR = 1.62, CI = 1.27-2.08, p < .0001, respectively); with the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions (OR = 1.53, CI = 1.35-1.75, p < .0001; and OR = 1.51, CI = 1.25-1.82, p < .0001, respectively); and with higher physical health levels (beta = .99, CI = .60-1.39, p < .0001; and beta = .99, CI = .20-1.78, p < .0145, respectively). This study showed that happier people and those who were more satisfied with their lives at baseline reported better health (self-rated health; absence of limiting, long-term conditions; and physical health) at the 2-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline health and other relevant covariates.
Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among
Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição
Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.
Gaber, Amal; Galarneau, Chantal; Feine, Jocelyne S; Emami, Elham
The objective of this population-based cross-sectional study was to estimate rural-urban disparity in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the Quebec adult population. A 2-stage sampling design was used to collect data from the 1788 parents/caregivers of schoolchildren living in the 8 regions of the province of Quebec in Canada. Andersen's behavioural model for health services utilization was used as a conceptual framework. Place of residency was defined according to the Statistics Canada Census Metropolitan Area and Census Agglomeration Influenced Zone classification. The outcome of interest was OHRQoL measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 validated questionnaire. Data weighting was applied, and the prevalence, extent and severity of negative oral health impacts were calculated. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of poor oral health-related quality life (OHRQoL) was statistically higher in rural areas than in urban zones (P = .02). Rural residents reported a significantly higher prevalence of negative daily-life impacts in pain, psychological discomfort and social disability OHIP domains (P < .05). Additionally, the rural population showed a greater number of negative oral health impacts (P = .03). There was no significant rural-urban difference in the severity of poor oral health. Logistic regression indicated that the prevalence of poor OHRQoL was significantly related to place of residency (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.5; P = .022), perceived oral health (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = 5.7-15.5; P < .001), dental treatment needs factors (perceived need for dental treatment, pain, dental care seeking) (OR = 8.7; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6; P < .001) and education (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.8-3.9; P < .001). The results of this study suggest a potential difference in OHRQoL of Quebec rural and urban populations, and a need to develop strategies to promote oral health outcomes
Worach-Kardas, Halina; Kostrzewski, Szymon
The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the subjective quality of life (QoL) and health state of unemployed people at the age of 45 and older in the city environment. The study also aimed at evaluating some social and demographic factors on the quality of life and health of the unemployed. A group of 454 unemployed people aged 45 and older, registered in labour offices in the city of Łódź, Poland were included in the study. Two groups were formed: short-term and long-term unemploy...
Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan
To understand Chinese gay men's health and life satisfaction in Guanzhou, and to analyze the main factors for life satisfaction. Methods: Male gay participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face investigations with self-administered questionnaires, including a general demographic questionnaire, a suicide questionnaire, the Depression-Anxiety Stress Scale, the Self-Stigma Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Surveys were successfully conducted for 420 gay men. High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed among the respondents. A total of 29.3% had suicidal tendency in the past year, 36.5% experienced dating violence, 39.2% had homosexual sex without protection in the past 6 months, and 14.0% were infected with at least one type of infection of sexually transmitted diseases. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gay men who felt highly satisfied with life exhibited low levels of self-stigma, high self-esteem, and low levels of depression. Moreover, they did not suffer dating violence and playing passive sex roles. Conclusion: The survey confirmed that gay men in Guangzhou, China, have poor health and lower life satisfaction levels. Self-stigma, self-esteem, sex roles, depression, and dating violence are the main factors that influence the life satisfaction of them.
Cinar, Ayse Basak; Murtomaa, Heikki
Obesity, dental caries, and periodontal diseases are among major public health concerns which may affect children's growth and development. This study seeks any clustering between obesity, oral health, and life-style factors among school children in Istanbul, Turkey. A cross-sectional study...... (BMI), and life-style factors (tooth-brushing frequency, milk consumption at breakfast and bedtimes on school nights) of children were examined. Data analysis included factor analysis, Student's t-test, and Chi-square tests by cross-tabulation. Public school children were more dentally diseased...... but less obese than were those in private school (P calculus (62%) and reported non-recommended tooth-brushing (68%) than did those in private school (37%, 56), (P
Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara
As a substantial body of research attests, the acceptability of life-prolonging treatment (e.g., tube feeding) tends to be greater among people in worse health than among healthier ones. Because a decision for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between two prospects-life (usually in poor health) and death-we propose a decision model, Prospect Theory, as a theoretical account of this phenomenon. Prospect Theory postulates that pairs of distant prospects are less distinguishable than pairs of closer ones. Thus, to healthy individuals, the prospects of death and life in poor health would both be remote, and therefore, the distinction between them, small. To less healthy individuals, however, the difference between the same pairs of prospects would appear greater, and therefore, life-prolonging treatment may be more acceptable. In a cross-sectional study of 304 community-dwelling people, aged 60 years and over in the Philadelphia area, USA, preferences for 4 life-prolonging treatments in 9 health scenarios were examined in relation to participants' current health, operationalized as number of deficits in physical functioning. As predicted, less healthy people expressed stronger preferences for all life-prolonging treatments compared with healthier ones, with differences greatest in the worse-health scenarios. Preferences also varied by health scenario, with any treatment preferred in the better health scenarios. Treatment preferences did not differ by type of treatment, depressed mood or any demographic characteristic except race, with African-Americans expressing stronger treatment preferences. Implications for advance care planning are discussed.
Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna
Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Objectives: The education promotion of elderly health is an Important preference of health that should be planned for it. Several problems of elderly are supposed to be due to life style so the community education of healthy life style should be considered. The appropriate approach to achieve those objectives is to use of female health volunteers for transformation of this education to families. Methods & Materials: To determine the level of knowledge of health voluntaries about healthy life style for prevention of problems in elderly period, in Shiraz. Method & Materials: In a cross-sectional study, 320 health voluntaries were selected by randomized method. The sample size was calculated with the results. A pilot study on one hundred with use of a questionnaire contain of 5 demographic questions and 32 questions about life style including nutrition, prevention of disease, oral health's and health advices. They filled the questionaries' and the data were entered in EPI 2002 software and were analyzed by descriptive tests. Results: The mean age all of 320 health were 33.7 years, with standard deviation of 8.6 years. The knowledge level of them in health advices were 15% weak, 66.9% medium and 18.2% well. In oral health 21.6% well, 61.3% medium & 7.2% well. In prevention of disease 37% weak, 62.2% medium and 9% well, in nutrition 24.6% weak, 69.3% medium and 5.9% well. Overall the level of knowledge of health volunteers about life style were 20.9% weak, 65.5% medium and 13.8% well. Conclusion: In the aim achieving to their approaches program of health, volunteers was started by Ministry of Health in 1990. This program was performed by the aim of health promotion in these group with participation of themselves. Till now they have trained in the recognition of health problems and healthy approach to them. So, the volunteers transfer their knowledge to community specially to under their coverage. At present the health problems are not only due to
Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Ab Rahman, Azriani; Mohd Saat, Nur Zakiah; Che Din, Normah; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Mohd Ismail, Muhammad Faiz
Families caring for children with disabilities face particular challenges and demands compared to those caring for children without disabilities. Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers of children with disabilities adapt to their caregiving demands and stressors. The different adaptations to the children with disabilities may cause different impacts on the health and well-being of caregivers. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on the impact of caring for children with disabilities on the health and quality of life of caregivers and the factors related to the health outcomes and quality of life. A literature search was conducted by using various electronic databases, including PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and MEDLINE using specific key terms. Thirty-one articles published in peer-review journals from the last six years (2009-2014) were reviewed. Most of the studies were quantitative studies. Factors discussed that impact on caregivers' health and quality of life include the caregivers' sociodemographic background and child's disability-related factors. Several mediators and moderators including coping strategies, social support, parental stress, self-esteem and self-efficacy are described in this paper. This review highlighted the importance of these factors to better understand the complex nature of stress processes and the caregivers' adaptations to their children's disabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição
Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that worsens the quality of life and the survival rate of individuals with this disease on account the osteoporotic fractures. Studies have long focused on women, and its presence in men has been underestimated. While many studies conducted in different countries mainly assess health-related quality of life and identify fracture risks factors in women, few data are available on a Spanish male population. Methods/Design Observational study. Study population Men ≥ 40 years of age with/without diagnosed osteoporosis and with/without osteoporotic fracture included by their family doctor. Measurements The relationship between customary clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and health-related quality of life in a Spanish male population. A telephone questionnaire on health-related quality of life is made. Statistical analysis The association between qualitative variables will be assessed by the Chi-square test. The distribution of quantitative variables by Student's t-test. If the conditions for using this test are not met, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's U test will be used. The validation of the results obtained by the FRAX™ tool will be performed by way of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and by calculating the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (AUC. All tests will be performed with a confidence intervals set at 95%. Discussion The applicability and usefulness of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL studies are well documented in many countries. These studies allow implementing cost-effective measures in cases of a given disease and reducing the costly consequences derived therefrom. This study attempts to provide objective data on how quality of life is affected by the clinical aspects involved in osteoporosis in a Spanish male population and can be useful as well in cost utility analyses conducted by health authorities. The sample selected is not based
Wheeler, Raymond M.
Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew
Coons, Stephen Joel; Chongpison, Yuda; Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S
To explore whether there was a significant relationship between difficulty paying for ostomy supplies and overall quality of life among a sample of ostomates receiving care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The data were collected as part of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Ostomy Health-Related Quality of Life Study, in which 511 respondents (239 cases, 272 controls) completed a survey instrument that included the modified City of Hope Quality of Life (mCOH-QOL) Ostomy questionnaire, SF-36V, and sociodemographic items. Responses from the 239 cases (ie, patients with intestinal stomas) were used in this analysis. The modified City of Hope Quality of Life Ostomy questionnaire item, "How good is your overall quality of life?," was the dependent variable for this analysis. The primary independent variable was the response (yes/no) to the item, "If you pay for any of the (ostomy) costs, is it difficult for you?" A hierarchical regression model was used to examine whether difficulty paying was significantly related to overall quality of life after adjusting for age, income, race/ethnicity, and physical health. After accounting for the proportion of variance explained by age, income, race/ethnicity, and physical health, the additional proportion of variance explained by difficulty paying was statistically significant. Individuals reporting difficulty paying had a roughly 1 point lower (ie, beta-coefficient = -1.052; SE = 0.481) overall quality of life score on the 11-point scale. We found a significant association between difficulty paying for ostomy supplies and overall quality of life. Although the cross-sectional study design does not allow causal inference, the results suggest a relationship that merits further examination.
H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)
textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health
Ammentorp, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Angel, Flemming; Ehrensvärd, Martin; Carlsen, Ebbe B; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
In recent years, coaching has received special attention as a method to improve healthy lifestyle behaviours. The fact that coaching has found its way into healthcare and may provide new ways of engaging the patients and making them accountable for their health, justifies the need for an overview of the evidence regarding coaching interventions used in patient care, the effect of the interventions, and the quality of the studies published. However, in order to provide a clear definition of the coaching interventions selected for this review, we have found it necessary to distinguish between health coaching and life coaching. In this review, we will only focus on the latter method and on that basis assess the health related outcomes of life coaching. Intervention studies using quantitative or qualitative methods to evaluate the outcome of the life coach interventions were identified through systematic literature searches in PubMed, Embase, Psycinfo, and CINAHL. The quality of the methodology was independently assessed by three of the authors using a criteria list. A total of 4359 citations were identified in the electronic search and five studies were included; two of them were randomized controlled trials and met all quality criteria. The two studies investigating objective health outcomes (HbA1c) showed mixed but promising results, especially concerning the patient group that usually does not benefit from intensified interventions. Because of the very limited number of solid studies, this review can only present tendencies for patient outcomes and a preliminary description of an effective life coaching intervention.The coaching method used in these studies aims to improve self-efficacy and self-empowerment. This may explain why the studies including disadvantaged patients showed the most convincing results. The findings also indicate that some patients benefit from being met with an alternative approach and a different type of communication than they are used to
Malak, Malakeh Z
Assessment and evaluation of the health-related quality of life of industrial workers is an important research focus. This descriptive correlational study identifies the predictors of health-related quality of life using a random sampling of industrial workers (n = 640) from construction factories in Amman Governorate in Jordan using demographic characteristics, a health and work-related factors questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief scale. Results showed that industrial workers had good physical health but a poor working environment. There was a statistically significant relationship between educational level, conflict between work and individual life and work and social life, working hours, and workload, and all domains of health-related quality of life. Overall, educational level was the main predictor for all domains of health-related quality of life. Such results confirm the need to develop appropriate interventions and strategies to improve workers' health-related quality of life. Furthermore, developing an integrated approach among policymakers, employers, and work organizations to enhance industrial workers' occupational health programs could be effective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen
Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on
Anjara, S G; Nellums, L B; Bonetto, C; Van Bortel, T
There is a global increase in migrant workers. In Singapore, there are over 230,000 migrant domestic workers (MDWs). Female MDWs may experience high levels of stress and social isolation, which may negatively impact on their health and quality of life. There have also been documented cases of abuse and exploitation. However, there is a lack of empirical research with this population. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting on the health and quality of life of female MDWs in Singapore, including socio-demographic and job related characteristics, stress, social isolation, and working management style. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 182 female MDWs in Singapore. The survey examined health and quality of life (WHOQoL-Bréf), social connectedness (the Friendship Scale), and preferred and experienced working management style (the Theory X and Theory Y Questionnaire). Descriptive analyses were carried out in addition to ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square tests, followed by a multivariate analysis using linear regression. Participants were found to have good overall quality of life and satisfaction with health. Age and working experience were found to be significantly (p health). Agreement between experienced and preferred working management style was also found to be associated with higher quality of life scores (with the exception of the social relationships domain). Though women reported relatively good overall quality of life, more than half of participants reported feeling stressed. In addition, nearly 20% of participants reported being isolated or very isolated. Stress was identified to be associated with isolation. In the multivariate analysis, stress was found to contribute to worse quality of life in all domains except social relationships, after adjusting for confounders. Social connectedness was positively associated with all domains of quality of life, and agreement of working management style was positively associated with physical health
Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self......-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus......) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants...
Zahran, Hatice S; Kobau, Rosemarie; Moriarty, David G; Zack, Matthew M; Holt, James; Donehoo, Ralph
Population-based surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is needed to promote the health and quality of life of U.S. residents and to monitor progress in achieving the two overall Healthy People 2010 goals: 1) increase the quality and years of healthy life and 2) eliminate health disparities. This report examines surveillance-based HRQOL data from 1993 through 2002. Survey data from a validated set of HRQOL measures (CDC HRQOL-4) were analyzed for 1993-2001 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for 2001-2002 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). These measures assessed self-rated health; physically unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which physical health, including physical illness and injury, was not good); mentally unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which mental health, including stress, depression, and problems with emotions, was not good); and days with activity limitation (i.e., number of days during the preceding 30 days that poor physical or mental health prevented normal daily activities). A summary measure of overall unhealthy days also was computed from the sum of a respondent's physically unhealthy and mentally unhealthy days, with a maximum of 30 days. During 1993-2001, the mean number of physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, overall unhealthy days, and activity limitation days was higher after 1997 than before 1997. During 1993-1997, the percentage of respondents with zero overall unhealthy days was stable (51%-53%) but declined to 48% by 2001. The percentage of respondents with >/=14 overall unhealthy days increased from 15%-16% during 1993-1997 to 18% by 2001. Adults increasingly rated their health as fair or poor and decreasingly rated it as excellent or very good. Women, American Indians/Alaska Natives, persons of "other races
Peicius, Eimantas; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kaminskas, Raimondas
This paper joins the debate over changes in the role of health professionals when applying advance directives to manage the decision-making process at the end of life care. Issues in relation to advance directives occur in clinical units in Lithuania; however, it remains one of the few countries in the European Union (EU) where the discussion on advance directives is not included in the health-care policy-making agenda. To encourage the discussion of advance directives, a study was designed to examine health professionals' understanding and preferences related to advance directives. In addition, the study sought to explore the views of health care professionals of the application of Advance Directives (AD) in clinical practice in Lithuania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by interviewing 478 health professionals based at major health care centers in Kaunas district, Lithuania. The design of the study included the use of a questionnaire developed for this study and validated by a pilot study. The collected data were analyzed using standard descriptive statistical methods. The analysis of knowledge about AD revealed some statistically significant differences when comparing the respondents' profession and gender. The analysis also indicated key emerging themes among respondents including tranquility of mind, the longest possible life expectancy and freedom of choice. Further, the study findings revealed that more than half of the study participants preferred to express their will while alive by using advance directives. The study findings revealed a low level of knowledge on advance directives among health professionals. Most health professionals agreed that AD's improved end-of-life decision making while the majority of physicians appreciated AD as the best tool for sharing responsibilities in clinical practice in Lithuania. More physicians than nurses preferred the presence of advance directives to support their decision making in end-of-life situations.
Ruth Pinedo González
Full Text Available Affects are composed of two key dimensions: the positive affect (PA and negative affect (NA. Both dimensions are related to psychological adjustment of the person and life satisfaction. This study is exploratory in nature and aims to make a first correlational analysis between different constructs: emotional disposition, academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction in a sample of 143 student teachers. We have used the following scales adapted to the culture: The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS. Among the most interesting results it was found that positive affect was associated with academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction. Positive and negative affects and satisfaction with life were formed as predictors of future teachers’ mental health. Extensive analysis and discussion of the results is included in the document.
Urzúa M, Alfonso; Chirino, Alejandra; Valladares, Geraldine
Type 2 diabetes mellitus may affect profoundly the quality of life of patients. To assess health related quality of life among patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire was applied to 296 patients with diabetes mellitus aged 63 ± lO years (201 women) seen in primary health care centers. The concern about the future effects of diabetes was the worst evaluated domain. Women perceived a lower health related quality of life than men. There was an inverse correlation between age and satisfaction with treatment, concern about vocational, social and future effects of the disease. Type 2 diabetes affects health related quality of life, especially in some specific domains such as perception of the future.
Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes
This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stone, Juliet; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David
Research investigating associations between social class over the life-course and later health relies primarily on secondary analysis of existing data, limiting the number and timing of available measurements. This paper aims to examine the impact of these constraints on the measurement of life-course occupational social class and subsequent explanatory analyses predicting health in later life. Participants of the UK Boyd Orr Lifegrid Subsample ( n = 294), aged an average of 68 years, provided retrospective information on their life-course occupational social class, coded at 6-month intervals. This was used to simulate two types of life-course data: (1) Theoretical: Life stage (four data-points at key life stages); (2) A-theoretical: Panel data (data-points at regular intervals of varying length). The percentage of life time in disadvantage and the predictive value for limiting longstanding illness (LLI) in later life using the full life-course and simulated data was compared. The presence of 'critical periods' of exposure and the role of trajectories of social class were also investigated. Compared with the full data, the life stage approach estimated a higher percentage of life time in disadvantage and emphasised 'transient' periods in disadvantage (e.g. labour market entry). With varying intervals using the a-theoretical approach, there was no clear pattern. Percentage of life time in manual class was a significant predictor of LLI only when using the four-point life stage approach. Occupational social class at labour market entry was a predictor of LLI in later life, suggesting a 'critical period'. Comparison of trajectories of social class further emphasised the importance of the sequence and timing of exposures to disadvantage in determining later health. We conclude that producing a valid summary of life-course occupational social class does not necessarily require a large number of data-points, particularly if guided by relevant theory, and that such
Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M
The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.
Gacci, Mauro; Baldi, Elisabetta; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.
Ulinski, Karla Giovana Bavaresco; do Nascimento, Mariele Andrade; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the factors associated with the impact of oral health on the quality of life in a sample of 504 Brazilian independent elderly. Data collection included oral examinations and structured interviews. The simplified form of the Oral Health Impact...... Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dental services, and subjective measures of health was collected. Poisson regression within a hierarchical model was used to data analyses. The following variables were associated with a negative impact...
McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael
Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Couture, Éva Marjorie; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Fortin, Martin; Hudon, Catherine
Although health literacy and quality of life are important concepts in health care, the link between them is unclear, especially for a population of frequent users of health care services with chronic diseases. Low health literacy is a common problem that has been linked to several negative health outcomes. Quality of life is an important health outcome in patient-centered care. Frequent users of health care services are a vulnerable population that deserves attention due to high costs and negative outcomes such as lower quality of life and higher mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health literacy and the physical and mental components of quality of life among frequent users of health care services with chronic diseases. This study presents the cross-sectional analysis of data collected through the V1SAGES project, a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a case management intervention in primary care in Quebec, Canada. Participants (n = 247) were frequent users of health care services presenting at least one chronic condition. Health literacy was measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the physical and mental components of quality of life were evaluated by the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2). The association between health literacy (independent variable) and the physical and mental components of quality of life was examined using biserial correlation. No association was found between health literacy and quality of life (physical component: r = 0.108, ρ = 0.11; mental component: r = 0.147, ρ = 0.15). This study suggests that there is no relationship between health literacy and the physical and mental components of quality of life among frequent users of health care services. NCT01719991 . Registered October 25, 2012.
Human body is dinamic, energetic system under the influences of food intake, environment, interpersonal relationships, inheritance, culture and human activities. The environmental and psychosocioeconomic factors affect the individual's health altering the performance of biological systems effecting disease risk and disease progression. The concerns in modern society are more and more devoted to stress and its influences on health. Life span is extended but the quality of life, well-being and productivity usually do not follow that extention. Body is a flow of energy and dynamic communications with inside and outside environment. The way to improve health is to address its social determinants. Only in sinergy the questions about disease and health could be better understood. It is not enough to diagnose illness, important is to diagnose circumstances and environmental influences that consequently lead to disease. Emotional disruptions make base for physical disruptions. Social gradient and stress involving personal life and work is a significant factor in physical and mental illness. The best indicator of the successful social policy result is the sense of well-being of the inhabitants. Holistic approach to a patient and discussions about the influences in patient's life can lead to a better health outcome. Anthropology studies people's habits, means and conditions of life and can be the bridge between the medicine and the life circumstances that put people's health at risk providing important insights into health and disease and assist in public health policies, preventive measures and health improvement of the populations.
Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz
There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Hetherington, Lee; Wheeler, Steve
This hybrid review-case study introduces three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and their educational potential to medical/health librarians and educators. Second life (http://secondlife.com/) is perhaps the most popular virtual world platform in use today, with an emphasis on social interaction. We describe some medical and health education examples from Second Life, including Second Life Medical and Consumer Health Libraries (Healthinfo Island-funded by a grant from the US National Library of Medicine), and VNEC (Virtual Neurological Education Centre-developed at the University of Plymouth, UK), which we present as two detailed 'case studies'. The pedagogical potentials of Second Life are then discussed, as well as some issues and challenges related to the use of virtual worlds. We have also compiled an up-to-date resource page (http://healthcybermap.org/sl.htm), with additional online material and pointers to support and extend this study.
de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Virdis, Andrea; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa
Health is defined as a state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, therefore, it should not be considered as simply the absence of disease. In this light, the assessment of self-perceived health and life satisfaction plays an important role as it allows addressing the subjective perception of physical health, as well as mental health and social functioning. This study analyzed data from 8516 university students enrolled in the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk"). In particular, it addressed self-perceived health and life satisfaction, reported somatic and psychological symptoms and ability to cope with daily problems of university students from 18 to 30 years old. Overall, 77.1% of students declared to have a good or very good health and the mean score of life satisfaction was 7.46. In respect to somatic and psychological symptoms, 25.8% of students reported to suffer almost daily of at least one among headache, stomach pain, back pain, tiredness, nervousness, dizziness and troubles falling asleep. Results varied on the basis of sex, with women showing lower self-perceived health compared to men and reporting more symptoms. Furthermore, self-perceived health was shown better in younger students and in those belonging to higher socio-economic level. The survey showed that concern exists with respect to university students' self-perceived health, which is different from that arising from other evidence. Female students had a significant lower self-perceived health and reported somatic and psychological symptoms more commonly than men. On the other hand, results about life satisfaction seem to be aligned with the literature. One of the most important implications of the study is the need to address self-perceived health and reported symptoms in university students in order to monitor them and initiate interventions aimed at improving well-being and controlling inequalities.
Helavirta, I; Hyöty, M; Oksanen, P; Huhtala, H; Haapamäki, J; Aitola, P
Patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy have often suffered from active ulcerative colitis which should be remembered when assessing quality of life after operation. The aim of this study was to explore health-related quality of life after restorative proctocolectomy in those with poor or good pouch function and to compare that to patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis and to the general population. Altogether, 282 restorative proctocolectomy patients were investigated. The control group comprised 408 ulcerative colitis patients from the local register. Generic 15D and disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire health-related quality of life instruments were used. Population-based data were available for 15D. Pouch function was evaluated with Öresland score and colitis activity with simple clinical colitis activity index. 15D results showed that patients with good pouch function had health-related quality of life similar to that of the general population. Health-related quality of life with inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire was equally good in patients with good pouch function (n = 131; 70%) and inactive colitis (n = 95; 63%), and equally impaired in patients with poor pouch function (n = 56; 30%) and active colitis (n = 18; 12%). The majority of patients had health-related quality of life comparable to that in general population. Most patients with active ulcerative colitis are likely to improve their health-related quality of life after successful surgery. These findings are important when informing colitis patients about life after surgery.
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Full Text Available Introduction: Given growing elderly population and high prevalence of oral and dental diseases in this age group, this study was conducted to investigate oral health status and related quality of life among older adults in Yazd located in central Iran. Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out on 210 elderly people aged ≥ 60 years under the guise of Yazd health care centers who entered the study via cluster random sampling. Oral health was assessed by DMFT index; and self-reported oral and dental health scale was also tested. Further, to measure the oral health-related quality of life, the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index was applied. Data were then analyzed by SPSS software through descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean score of age for the studied population was 67.22 ± 5.62 years. Of whom 60.48 % were women, 79.05 % were married and 42.4% were edentulous. The oral health-related quality of life mean score was 42.46 ± 5.76 (possible rang 12-60 and the DMFT index mean score was 20.33 ± 4.76. The correlation of oral health-related quality of life score with age (r=-0.213, p=0.002 and DMFT index (r= -0.542, p<0.001 was inversely significant. Further, that had a direct significant correlation with self-reported oral health score(r= 0.302, p<0.001. Conclusion: Elderly people's oral health-related quality of life, self-reported oral and dental health status was not desirable. These factors have significant relationships with each other so that increase in DMFT index was associated with decrease in self-reported oral and dental health.
Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva
The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Expectations held by patients and health professionals may affect treatment choices and participation (by both patients and health professionals in therapeutic interventions in contemporary patient-centered healthcare environments. If patients in rehabilitation settings overestimate their discharge health-related quality of life, they may become despondent as their progress falls short of their expectations. On the other hand, underestimating their discharge health-related quality of life may lead to a lack of motivation to participate in therapies if they do not perceive likely benefit. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence evaluating whether patients’ expectations of future health states are accurate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy with which older patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation can anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life. Methods A prospective longitudinal cohort investigation of agreement between patients’ anticipated discharge health-related quality of life (as reported on the EQ-5D instrument at admission to a rehabilitation unit and their actual self-reported health-related quality of life at the time of discharge from this unit was undertaken. The mini-mental state examination was used as an indicator of patients’ cognitive ability. Results Overall, 232(85% patients had all assessment data completed and were included in analysis. Kappa scores ranged from 0.42-0.68 across the five EQ-5D domains and two patient cognition groups. The percentage of exact correct matches within each domain ranged from 69% to 85% across domains and cognition groups. Overall 40% of participants in each cognition group correctly anticipated all of their self-reported discharge EQ-5D domain responses. Conclusions Patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation were able to anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life on the EQ-5D instrument
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the possible relationship among emotional style (rumination and emotional inhibition and the perceived health and quality of life of pregnant women. To do so, a sample of 94 Venezuelan women on their first trimester of pregnancy completed questionnaires measuring the studied variables: Rumination, Emotional Inhibition, Global Health and perceived Quality of Life. Results support previous findings regarding the positive association between negative emotional style and the deterioration of the health status, while brings new evidence of the inverse relationship between these individual difference and the quality of life in this particular group, who has been poorly studied in its psychosocial dimension.
Rocha, Poliana Cristina; Rocha, Dálian Cristina; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar
To investigate the association between functional health literacy and sociodemographic factors, quality of life, self-perception of health, and perception of contexts of violence in adolescents in state schools in Belo Horizonte. This is a cross-sectional analytical observational study with a probabilistic sample of 384 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old. Data collection was carried out in schools and included self-reporting questionnaires to assess the functional health literacy, socioeconomic classification, self-perceived health, and quality of life. The reliability of internal consistency of the functional health literacy instrument was determined by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using hierarchical data entry according to the level of determination of the theoretical model established. In order to evaluate the association, a significance level of 5% was considered, while the Odds Ratio used as a measure of the magnitude of the associations. The functional health literacy instrument presented a coefficient of 0.766, indicating adequate internal consistency. More than half of teenagers presented good functional health literacy. In the final model of multivariate analysis, the variables not practicing a religion (p = 0.006; OR = 2.108); social domain of quality of life (p = 0.004; OR = 1.022); and educational domain of quality of life (p = 0.009; OR = 1.019) remained associated with functional health literacy. Not practicing a religion and the increase in the scores of social and educational domains of quality of life increased the chances of better functional health literacy.
Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina
Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Kandelman, Daniel; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ueda, Hiroshi
The purpose of this report is to review the interrelationship between poor oral health conditions of older people and general health. The impact of poor oral health on quality of life (QOL) is analyzed, and the implications for public health intervention and oral health care are discussed. Findings...... from the current research may lead to the following conclusions: The available scientific evidence is particularly strong for a direct relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease; the direct relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease is less convincing. General...... and associated oral health conditions have a direct influence on elder people's QOL and lifestyle. The growing number of elderly people challenges health authorities in most countries. The evidence on oral health-general health relationships is particularly important to WHO in its effort to strengthen integrated...
Pickard, A Simon; Jalundhwala, Yash J; Bewsher, Helen; Sharp, Lisa K; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T; Caskey, Rachel N
Strategies to improve public health may benefit from targeting specific lifestyles associated with poor health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine the relationship between health and lifestyle-related attitudes (HLAs) and self-rated health and life-satisfaction. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a 2012 community wellness survey in Kirklees, UK. Using a validated HLA tool, respondents (n = 9130) were categorized into five segments: health conscious realists (33%), balanced compensators (14%), live-for-todays (18%), hedonistic immortals (10%), and unconfident fatalists (25%). Multivariate regression was used to examine whether HLAs could explain self-rated health using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and life-satisfaction. Health conscious realists served as the reference group. Self-rated health differed by HLA, with adjusted mean EQ-VAS scores being significantly higher (better) among balanced compensators (1.15, 95% CI 0.27, 2.03) and lower scores among unconfident fatalists (- 9.02, 95% CI - 9.85, - 8.21) and live-for-todays (- 1.96, 95% CI - 2.80, - 1.14). Balanced compensators were less likely to report low life-satisfaction (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90), while unconfident fatalists were most likely to have low life-satisfaction (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.92, 4.23). Segmentation by HLA explained differences in self-rated health and life-satisfaction, with unconfident fatalists being a distinct segment with significantly worse health perceptions and life-satisfaction. Health promotion efforts may benefit from considering the HLA segment that predominates a patient group, especially unconfident fatalists.
Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose of the Study: Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. Design and Methods: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Results: Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Implications: Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. PMID:28087793
Rasmussen, Susanne R; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Kilsmark, Janni
AIMS: The intention was to investigate whether preventive health checks and health discussions are cost effective. METHODS: In a randomized trial the authors compared two intervention groups (A and B) and one control group. In 1991 2,000 30- to 49-year-old persons were invited and those who...... were given fixed appointments for health consultations. The follow-up period was six years. Analysis was carried out on the "intention to treat" principle. Outcome parameters were life years gained, and direct and total health costs (including productivity costs), discounted by 3% annually. Costs were...... in average direct (3,255 euro (3,703 euro) versus 4,186 euro) and total costs (10,409 euro (9,399 euro) versus 10,667 euro). The effect in group B is, however, better than in group A with no significant differences in costs. The results are insensitive to a range of assumptions regarding costs, effects...
Kieffer, Jacobien M; Hoogstraten, Johan
The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated oral health (SROH) - were administered. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to evaluate differences between SRGH and SROH categories, regarding OHIP subscale scores and RAND subscale scores. More than 75% of the subjects rated their oral and general health as good. Mean OHIP scores and RAND scores indicated a relatively good oral- and general health-related QoL respectively. The correlation between oral and general health was weak. Significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding RAND subscale scores, except for the 'role emotional' and 'mental health' subscales. Significant differences were also found between SROH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, except for the 'psychological disability' subscale. However, no significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, or between SROH categories regarding RAND subscale scores. The findings suggest that oral health, general health, and QoL have different determinants. Furthermore, oral health and general health appear to be mostly unrelated in this seemingly healthy population. It is proposed that if no apparent disease is present, oral and general health must be regarded as separate constructs.
Shet, RGK; Jain, Gaurvi; Maroli, Sohani; Srivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Kasina, Sitaram Prasad; Shwetha, GS
Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including
Xiu Yun Wu
Full Text Available The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents has been mostly investigated in those young people with chronic disease conditions. No systematic review to date has synthesized the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life in the general healthy population of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to review systematically the existing literature that evaluated the relations between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life in the general population of children and adolescents.We conducted a computer search for English language literature from databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCINFO and PubMed-related articles as well as the reference lists of existing literature between 1946 and the second week of January 2017 to retrieve eligible studies. We included the studies that assessed associations between physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life among the general population of children and adolescents aged between 3-18 years. The study design included cross-sectional, longitudinal and health intervention studies. We excluded the studies that examined associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life among children and adolescents with specific chronic diseases, and other studies and reports including reviews, meta-analyses, study protocols, comments, letters, case reports and guidelines. We followed up the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement in the reporting of this review. The risk of bias of the primary studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized the difference in health-related quality of life scores between different levels of physical activity and sedentary time.In total, 31 studies met the inclusion criteria and were
Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec, Violetta; Plinta, Ryszard
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of hirsutism on general quality of life, self-esteem and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. Fifty adolescent females with hirsutism, aged 13-18 years, were enrolled in the research group. The control group comprised 50 non-hirsute adolescents. A specific questionnaire was used as the research tool. It included self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey Version 2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Quality of life indices for hirsute girls scored lower than for the controls and statistically significantly so with regard to physical functioning (p = 0.04), general health (p = 0.002) and social functioning (p = 0.007). Anxiety was diagnosed in 26% in the group of hirsute girls as compared with 10% of the controls (p = 0.03). The study analysis revealed more clinically significant problems of low self-esteem in hirsute adolescents compared with non-hirsute girls (14% vs. 2%). Hirsutism is associated with a decreased quality of life, a higher prevalence of anxiety disorder and lower self-esteem in adolescent females. The mother's level of education is associated with the quality of life in adolescent girls.
Herrmann, Gianna; Müller, Karolina; Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian
Dry mouth is a frequently occurrence in elderly people and causes numerous clinical and social problems. To investigate the quality of life in geriatric patients living in nursing homes depending on the subjective sensation of dry mouth and associated oral parameters. A total of 62 male and female elderly patients living in 7 cooperating nursing homes were interviewed employing questionnaires with regard to their oral health-related quality of life (GOHAI) and their subjective perception of dry mouth (sXI-D). Dental status, drinking habits and current medication were documented. The mean GOHAI score was 53.6 and the mean sXI-D score was 7.9. Oral health-related quality of life was significantly influenced by the subjective sensation of dry mouth (p Xerostomia was significantly influenced by the number of medications consumed (p = 0.039). Xerostomia has a significant impact on the oral health-related quality of life of elderly people living in nursing homes. Thus, dental treatment should focus on the alleviation of xerostomia to improve the oral health-related quality of life in the elderly population.
Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen
To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.
Kim, Miji; Ryu, Eunjung
The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation model of quality of work life for clinical nurses based on Peterson and Wilson's Culture-Work-Health model (CWHM). A structured questionnaire was completed by 523 clinical nurses to analyze the relationships between concepts of CWHM-organizational culture, social support, employee health, organizational health, and quality of work life. Among these conceptual variables of CWHM, employee health was measured by perceived health status, and organizational health was measured by presenteeism. SPSS21.0 and AMOS 21.0 programs were used to analyze the efficiency of the hypothesized model and calculate the direct and indirect effects of factors affecting quality of work life among clinical nurses. The goodness-of-fit statistics of the final modified hypothetical model are as follows: χ²=586.03, χ²/df=4.19, GFI=.89, AGFI=.85, CFI=.91, TLI=.90, NFI=.89, and RMSEA=.08. The results revealed that organizational culture, social support, organizational health, and employee health accounted for 69% of clinical nurses' quality of work life. The major findings of this study indicate that it is essential to create a positive organizational culture and provide adequate organizational support to maintain a balance between the health of clinical nurses and the organization. Further repeated and expanded studies are needed to explore the multidimensional aspects of clinical nurses' quality of work life in Korea, including various factors, such as work environment, work stress, and burnout.
Kuruvilla, Shyama; Sadana, Ritu; Montesinos, Eugenio Villar; Beard, John; Vasdeki, Jennifer Franz; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Thomas, Rebekah Bosco; Drisse, Marie-Noel Brunne; Daelmans, Bernadette; Goodman, Tracey; Koller, Theadora; Officer, Alana; Vogel, Joanna; Valentine, Nicole; Wootton, Emily; Banerjee, Anshu; Magar, Veronica; Neira, Maria; Bele, Jean Marie Okwo; Worning, Anne Marie; Bustreo, Flavia
A life-course approach to health encompasses strategies across individuals' lives that optimize their functional ability (taking into account the interdependence of individual, social, environmental, temporal and intergenerational factors), thereby enabling well-being and the realization of rights. The approach is a perfect fit with efforts to achieve universal health coverage and meet the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Properly applied, a life-course approach can increase the effectiveness of the former and help realize the vision of the latter, especially in ensuring health and well-being for all at all ages. Its implementation requires a shared understanding by individuals and societies of how health is shaped by multiple factors throughout life and across generations. Most studies have focused on noncommunicable disease and ageing populations in high-income countries and on epidemiological, theoretical and clinical issues. The aim of this article is to show how the life-course approach to health can be extended to all age groups, health topics and countries by building on a synthesis of existing scientific evidence, experience in different countries and advances in health strategies and programmes. A conceptual framework for the approach is presented along with implications for implementation in the areas of: (i) policy and investment; (ii) health services and systems; (iii) local, multisectoral and multistakeholder action; and (iv) measurement, monitoring and research. The SDGs provide a unique context for applying a holistic, multisectoral approach to achieving transformative outcomes for people, prosperity and the environment. A life-course approach can reinforce these efforts, particularly given its emphasis on rights and equity.
Ardebil, M. D.; Bouzari, Z.; Shenas, M. H.; Keighobadi, M.
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of depression in women with breast cancer and relate it to their health-related quality of life. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Iran between January and December 2009, and comprised 60 women with breast cancer with a mean age of 43.8+-47.12 years. In order to assess the health-related quality of life, the study used the parameters of the Iranian version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer. To identify expressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory was used. General linear model regression and SPSS 14 were used to analyse the data. Results: Significant differences in the prevalence of depression between treatment types was found. The presence of depression was significantly correlated with poorer overall health-related quality of life and the four subscales of the protocol. The patients reported statistically significant effects of depression in the overall category (p= 0.001). Participants with depression were more likely to have a poorer overall health-related quality of life, the exception being the social/family well-being subscale. Conclusions: Depression affects health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients. Although further studies are necessary to confirm our findings, but our results emphasise the necessity for better mental health strategies for such patients. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigation of the effectiveness of life skill instruction on the mental health of students with hearing loss in Tehran province. Materials & Methods: The present research was an experimental study by pre-test, post-test design with control group. The study population included of male students with hearing loss from second and third level of high schools in Tehran province. Subjects were selected by in available method. Forty students participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomly (experimental and control group, each of group was consisted of 20 students. Experimental group received life skill training in 9 sessions while control group did not. The instruments of present research were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for adult and General Health Questionnaire. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by Mancova. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increase in mental health scores of experimental group in the post intervention in comparison with control group (P<0.05. Also mental health scores of experimental group was significantly in somatic symptoms, anxiety, deficiency in social performance and depression (P<0.05. Conclusion: The life skill instructional program led to improvement of the mental health of hearing loss students and decreased somatic symptoms, anxiety, deficiency in social performance and depression. Therefore, planning for providing of social competence instruction is of a particular importance.
Full Text Available Dava Szalda,1 Esther Kim,2 Jill P Ginsberg1,2 1Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adults (AYAs with cancer have needs unique from their pediatric or adult counterparts at diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout survivorship care. Healthcare teams may find it difficult to assess and manage the complex psychosocial needs of AYA patients, however, attention to the multi-faceted care of the AYA oncology patient may directly affect health outcomes and quality of life. Comprehensive AYA care therefore must be maximized during treatment and in transition to survivorship care by including assessments of general health, sexual health, mental health, health behaviors, and conversations concerning transition to survivorship and adulthood with AYA patients. Identifying and treating issues that arise in the AYA population may help promote adherence to treatment, engagement in follow-up care, and ultimately quality of life for this unique group of patients. Keywords: quality of life, sexual health, health behaviors, mental health, transition, survivorship
Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele
This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.
Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.
Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Mei-Yueh
Female stroke victims have a higher survival rate and experience a greater loss of quality of life than do male stroke victims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of health-related quality of life in middle-aged women stroke survivors. This study is a cross-sectional design. This cross-sectional research uses a descriptive, prospective, and correlational study design to investigate the associations between latent variables. Participants included women stroke survivors, aged 45-65 years, who were patients at a medical center in Taiwan. Participants completed an interview and a six-part questionnaire comprising the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Burden Scale, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and five items that pertain to the survivor's cognitive appraisal of coping. Structural equation modeling (SEM), with the use of the partial least squares (PLS) method, was used to examine the proposed conceptual model. A total of 48 dyad samples (48 female stroke survivors, mean age = 55.29; 48 caregivers, mean age = 42.71) participated in the study. Overall, women's physical functioning (PF; stroke severity), cognitive appraisal of coping, and caregiver's psychosocial functioning were the predictors, explaining 43.3% of the variance in women's health-related quality of life. We found that female stroke survivors' level of stroke severity and negative appraisal-impact of stroke are significant predictors of the stroke survivor's quality of life. In addition to assisting women in their PF rehabilitation, rehabilitation nurses also should help to develop survivors' self-care confidence as a means to avoid the recurrence of stroke.
Byles, Julie E; Leigh, Lucy; Vo, Kha; Forder, Peta; Curryer, Cassie
The ability of older people to mobilise within and outside their community is dependent on a number of factors. This study explored the relationship between spatial mobility and psychological health among older adults living in Australia. The survey sample consisted of 260 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-80 years, who returned a postal survey measuring spatial mobility (using the Life Space Questionnaire) and psychological health (using the SF36 Health Related Quality of Life Profile). From the Life Space Questionnaire, participants were given a life-space score and multinomial regression was used to explore the potential effect of mental health on life-space score. The study found a significant association between mental health and life space. However, gender, physical functioning, and ability to drive were most strongly associated with the extent of life space and spatial mobility. Compared to men, older women are more likely to experience less spatial mobility and restricted life space, and hence are more vulnerable to social isolation. Mental health and life space were associated for the older people in this study. These findings have important implications for health policy and highlight the need to support older persons to maintain independence and social networks, and to successfully age in place within their community. This study also highlights the utility of the Life Space Questionnaire in terms of identifying older persons at risk of poorer mental health.
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
Qualityadjusted life year (QALY) models are widely used for economic evaluation in the health care sector. In the first part of the paper, we establish an overview of QALY models where health varies over time and provide a theoretical analysis of model identification and parameter estimation from...... time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. The second part of the paper discusses four issues recurrently debated in the literature. This discussion includes questioning...... of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken when drawing conclusions from models with chronic health states to situations where health varies over time. One notable difference is that in the former case, risk aversion may be indistinguishable from...
Huang, I-Chan; Lee, Joy L.; Ketheeswaran, Pavinarmatha; Jones, Conor M.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Wu, Albert W.
Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly measured as an outcome for clinical and health services research. However, relatively little is known about how non-health factors affect HRQOL. Personality is a potentially important factor, yet evidence regarding the effects of personality on HRQOL measures is unclear. Methods This systematic review examined the relationships among aspects of personality and HRQOL. Eligible studies were identified from Medline and PsycINFO. The review included 76 English-language studies with HRQOL as a primary outcome and that assessed personality from the psychological perspective. Individuals with various health states, including ill (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disorders), aging, and healthy, were included in this review study. Results Some personality characteristics were consistently related to psychosocial aspects more often than physical aspects of HRQOL. Personality characteristics, especially neuroticism, mastery, optimism, and sense of coherence were most likely to be associated with psychosocial HRQOL. Personality explained varying proportions of variance in different domains of HRQOL. The range of variance explained in psychosocial HRQOL was 0 to 45% and the range of explained variance in physical HRQOL was 0 to 39%. Conclusions Personality characteristics are related to HRQOL. Systematic collection and analysis of personality data alongside HRQOL measures may be helpful in medical research, clinical practice, and health policy evaluation. PMID:28355244
Castellar, Juarez I; Fernandes, César A; Tosta, C Eduardo
Breast cancer survivors frequently present long-lasting impairments, caused either by the disease or its treatment, capable of compromising their emotional health and quality of life. Meditation appears to be a valuable complementary measure for overcoming some of these impairments. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the effect of pranic meditation on the quality of life and mental health of breast cancer survivors. This study was a prospective single-arm observational study using before and after measurements. The subjects were 75 women submitted either to breast cancer therapy or to posttherapy control who agreed to practice pranic meditation for 20 minutes, twice a day, during 8 weeks, after receiving a formal training. The quality of life of the practitioners was assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and EORTC BR-023 questionnaires, and the mental health status by the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire. After 8 weeks of pranic meditation practice, the subjects showed a significant improvement of their quality of life scores that included physical (P = .0007), role (P = .01), emotional (P = .002), and social functioning (P = .004), as well as global health status (P = .005), fatigue (P meditation was associated with improvement of the mental health parameters of the practitioners that included psychic stress (P = .001), death ideation (P = .02), performance diffidence (P = .001), psychosomatic disorders (P = .02), and severity of mental disorders (P = .0003). The extension of the meditation period from 8 to 15 weeks caused no substantial extra benefits in practitioners. The results of this pilot study showed that breast cancer survivors presented significant benefits related to their mental health and quality of life scores after a short period of practice of pranic meditation, consisting of simple and easy-to-learn exercises. However, because of the limitations of the study, further
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0629 TITLE: Understanding, Predicting, and Preventing Life -Changing and Life -Threatening Health Changes among Aging...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Understanding, Predicting, and Preventing Life -Changing and Life ... hope of preventing them. Our purpose is to better understand the how and why of the development of negative health spirals and how they may best be
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,671] Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including Teleworkers Reporting to... Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston...
Braun, Joseph M; Gray, Kimberly
Epidemiological studies play an important role in quantifying how early life environmental chemical exposures influence the risk of childhood diseases. These studies face at least four major challenges that can produce noise when trying to identify signals of associations between chemical exposure and childhood health. Challenges include accurately estimating chemical exposure, confounding from causes of both exposure and disease, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability to chemical exposures, and determining the effects of chemical mixtures. We provide recommendations that will aid in identifying these signals with more precision.
Mohebbifar, Rafat; Pakpour, Amir H; Nahvijou, Azin; Sadeghi, Atefeh
As the essence of health in humans, spiritual health is a fundamental concept for discussing chronic diseases such as cancer and a major approach for improving quality of life in patients is through creating meaningfulness and purpose. The present descriptive analytical study was conducted to assess the relationship between spiritual health and quality of life in 210 patients with cancer admitted to the Cancer Institute of Iran, selected through convenience sampling in 2014. Data were collected using Spiritual Health Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). Patients' performance was assessed through the Karnofsky Performance Status Indicator and their cognitive status through the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics and stepwise linear regression. The results obtained reported the mean and standard deviation of the patients' spiritual health scoreas 78.4±16.1and the mean and standard deviation of their quality of life score as 58.1±18.7. The stepwise linear regression analysis confirmed a positive and significant relationship between spiritual health and quality of life in patients with cancer (β=0.688 and r=0.00). The results of the study show that spiritual health should be more emphasized and reinforced as a factor involved in improving quality of life in patients with cancer. Designing care therapies and spiritual interventions is a priority in the treatment of these patients.
Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi,1,2 Euijung Ryu,3 Janet E Olson,3 Erin M Winkler,4 Matthew A Hathcock,3 Ruchi Gupta,3 Jeff A Sloan,3 Jyotishman Pathak,3 Suzette J Bielinski,3 James R Cerhan3 1Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Health Sciences Research, 4Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Hospital risk stratification models using electronic health records (EHRs often use age and comorbid health burden. Our primary aim was to determine if quality of life or health behaviors captured in an EHR-linked biobank can predict future risk of hospitalization. Methods: Participants in the Mayo Clinic Biobank completed self-administered questionnaires at enrollment that included quality of life and health behaviors. Participants enrolled as of December 31, 2010 were followed for one year to ascertain hospitalization. Data on comorbidities and hospitalization were derived from the Mayo Clinic EHR. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI were used, adjusted for age and sex. We used gradient boosting machines models to integrate multiple factors. Different models were compared using C-statistic. Results: Of the 8,927 eligible Mayo Clinic Biobank participants, 834 (9.3% were hospitalized. Self-perceived health status and alcohol use had the strongest associations with risk of hospitalization. Compared to participants with excellent self-perceived health, those reporting poor/fair health had higher risk of hospitalization (HR =3.66, 95% CI 2.74–4.88. Alcohol use was inversely associated with hospitalization (HR =0.57 95% CI 0.45–0.72. The gradient boosting machines model estimated self-perceived health as the most influential factor (relative influence =16%. The predictive ability of the model based on comorbidities was slightly higher than the one based on the self-perceived health (C-statistic =0.67 vs 0.65. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that self
Mathew A. Mwanyangala
Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Welsh, Jennifer; Kendig, Hal
The influence of social capital has been shown to improve health and wellbeing. This study investigates the relationship between changes in social capital and health outcomes during a 6-year follow-up in mid to later life in Australia. Nationally representative data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey included participants aged 45 years and over who responded in 2006, 2010 and 2012 (N = 3606). Each of the three components of social capital (connectedness, trust and participation) was measured in Waves 2006 and 2010 and categorised as: 'never low', 'transitioned to low', 'transitioned out of low' and 'consistently low'. Health outcomes in 2012 included self-rated overall health, physical functioning, and mental health based on the Short Form 36-item health survey (SF-36). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in social capital (measured in 2006 and 2010) predicted poor health (measured in 2012), adjusting for covariates. Consistently low trust was significantly associated with higher odds of transitions into poor physical functioning (AOR 1.54; 95% Confidence Interval 1.06-1.22), poor mental health (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08-2.36) and poor self-rated health (AOR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72). Transition into low trust was also a predictor of poor self-rated health after adjusting for covariates (AOR 1.74; 95% CI 1.11-2.73). Changes in social connectedness in both directions (transitioned out of and into low) were statistically associated with poor self-rated health (AORs 1.40; 95% CI 1.00-1.97 and 1.61; 95% CI 1.11-2.34, respectively) after adjusting for confounders as well as other social capital components. Our longitudinal findings reveal social capital dynamics and effects on health in mid to later life. Social trust and connectedness could be important enablers for older persons to be more active in the community and potentially benefit their health and wellbeing over time.
Zurita-Cruz, Jessie N; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Arellano-Flores, María Luisa; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Najera-Ahumada, Alma Gloria; Cisneros-González, Nelly
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a chronic disease, and for treatment to succeed, it is necessary to harmonize the mental health of the patient with the environment, which impacts quality of life and adherence to medical regimens. The objetive of this study is describe the quality of life of patients with DM2 and the factors relates to its modification. This investigation was a cross-sectional study. Patients over 18 years of age with DM2 were selected. The following variables related to quality of life were studied: age, sex, occupation, marital status, years of DM2 evolution, comorbidities and presence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory). Perceived quality of life was measured with a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scale, the 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36). Patients were classified according to SF-36 HRQoL score ( 76 points). Among the 1394 patients included, the median age was 62 years. Global HRQoL had a median of 50.1 points. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, sex, occupation, comorbidities, duration of DM2 and comorbidities had impacts on HRQoL. The logistic regression model identified age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04) and depression (OR 4.4) as independent factors that influenced overall quality of life. Patients with DM2 have poor HRQoL, which is associated with a high frequency of depression. Older age and the presence of depression impair patient HRQoL. R-2013-781-052. Registered 20 December 2014.
Full Text Available Introduction: Substance dependents encounter with many problems which cause confusion in their quality of life. Method: This survey is a descriptive-analytical study. In this survey 150 persons of substance dependents who refer to addiction recovery centers at Rasht were selected by available sampling method. Information was collected via mental health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and quality of life questionnaire of World Health Organization. Results: Findings showed a significant relation between quality of life and mental health of substance dependents. Also results of simultaneous regression showed that many components of quality of life were correlated to mental health components. Mental health domain of quality of life showed significant correlation with 3 domains namely: anxiety, social dysfunction and depression. Also physical health domain of quality of life showed significant correlation with somatization domain of mental health. Conclusion: It could be possible to increase mental health of substance dependents by improving of quality of life, in accordance to survey findings.
Fernández-Martínez, Gladyz; Zamora-Legoff, Víctor; Hernández Molina, Gabriela
To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life, and correlate them with unstimulated whole salivary flow (UWSF) and oral sicca symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). We included 60 patients with PSS and 60 healthy controls matched according to gender and age (±3 years). We measured the UWSF and scored the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI). We assessed the short version of the SF-36 as a generic measurement of HRQoL and the Xerostomia Quality of Life Scale (XeQoLS) questionnaire to evaluate oral quality of life. We evaluated oral symptoms using an 8-item Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. We observed a poorer HRQoL (lower scores in SF-36) and oral quality of life (higher scores in XeQoLS), as well as a greater severity of symptoms in the VAS questionnaire upon comparing patients vs. controls. The XeQoL correlated with the UWSF (τ = -0.24, P = .008), the ESSPRI (τ =0.45, P = .0001), VAS 1-2 and VAS 5-8 and the SF-36 score (τ = -0.28, P = .002). Patients with PSS had a poorer HRQoL and oral quality of life than controls. UWSF contributes to the oral quality of life which, in turn, has an impact on HRQoL. Symptomatic treatment of xerostomia as well as the prevention of infections, decay and tooth loss would help to improve the oral quality of life in these patients. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bohle, Philip; Willaby, Harold; Quinlan, Michael; McNamara, Maria
Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent full-time workers, 37 (20.7%) were permanent part-time, and 49 (27.4%) were casual employees. Hypothesised structural relationships between employment status, working hours and work organisation, work-life conflict and health were tested using partial least squares modelling in PLS (Chin, 1998). The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit. It supported important elements of the hypothesised structure, although four of the proposed paths failed to reach significance and the fit was enhanced by adding a path. The final model indicated that casual workers reported more variable working hours which were relatively weakly associated with greater dissatisfaction with hours. The interaction of schedule control and variability of hours also predicted dissatisfaction with hours. Conversely, permanent workers reported greater work intensity, which was associated with both lower work schedule control and greater work-life conflict. Greater work-life conflict was associated with more fatigue and psychological symptoms. Labour market factors and the undesirability of longer hours in a stressful, high-intensity work environment appear to have contributed to the results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Chiara de Waure
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing, therefore, it should not be considered as simply the absence of disease. In this light, the assessment of self-perceived health and life satisfaction plays an important role as it allows addressing the subjective perception of physical health, as well as mental health and social functioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study analyzed data from 8516 university students enrolled in the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk". In particular, it addressed self-perceived health and life satisfaction, reported somatic and psychological symptoms and ability to cope with daily problems of university students from 18 to 30 years old. RESULTS: Overall, 77.1% of students declared to have a good or very good health and the mean score of life satisfaction was 7.46. In respect to somatic and psychological symptoms, 25.8% of students reported to suffer almost daily of at least one among headache, stomach pain, back pain, tiredness, nervousness, dizziness and troubles falling asleep. Results varied on the basis of sex, with women showing lower self-perceived health compared to men and reporting more symptoms. Furthermore, self-perceived health was shown better in younger students and in those belonging to higher socio-economic level. DISCUSSION: The survey showed that concern exists with respect to university students' self-perceived health, which is different from that arising from other evidence. Female students had a significant lower self-perceived health and reported somatic and psychological symptoms more commonly than men. On the other hand, results about life satisfaction seem to be aligned with the literature. CONCLUSION: One of the most important implications of the study is the need to address self-perceived health and reported symptoms in university students in order to monitor them and initiate interventions aimed at improving
Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico
Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ejlertsson, Lina; Heijbel, Bodil; Ejlertsson, Göran; Andersson, Ingemar
There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers. To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees. Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance. The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (β= 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (β= 0.25) and work experiences (β= 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work. Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recovery strategies in the workplace.
Moi, Asgjerd L; Nilsen, Roy M
The aim of the study was to explore pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burn patients. Data on burn-specific health, generic health, overall quality of life, injury characteristics and socio-demographics were obtained from 95 adult burn patients 47.0 (23.8) [mean (SD)] months after injury. A theoretical path model was established based on the concepts of Wilson and Cleary's model on health-related quality of life , and the proposed model was examined by structural equation modelling. Two main paths were identified, one leading to general health perception and the other leading to overall quality of life. Together, direct and indirect paths explained 63% of the variance of perceived general health and 43% of the variance in overall quality of life. The total effects of the SF-36 domain Vitality on perceived general health and overall quality of life were 0.62 and 0.66, respectively. No statistically significant path could be revealed between general health perception and overall quality of life. The results indicate that self-perceived general health and overall quality of life are related but distinct constructs. Moreover, vitality seems to be an important factor for the perception of both general health and overall quality of life in burned adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Marra Carlo A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past few decades mankind has been mainly affected with chronic noncommunicable diseases, which led to compromised quality of life. Common dental diseases come under same categories that are largely social and behavioral in origin. Health-related quality of life helps us address the limitations of traditional clinical indicators of health. Aim: To measure the impact of oral health on quality of life among patients visiting dental teaching hospitals and private clinics in Bangalore city using oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL - U.K index. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 individuals who are above 16-year of age were selected through stratified cluster random sampling technique for this study. Data were collected using OHQoL-U.K instrument. Results: Most of the subjects (78% perceived their oral health as impacting their quality of life. Many participants perceived their oral health had positive impact on life quality through enhancing their smile, appearance, speech. But 44.9% and 28.5% of respondents said their oral health has a negative impact on quality of life because of breath odor and finance respectively. Subjects are belonging to lower socioeconomic background, women and older adults (>45 years perceived their oral health has a negative impact on quality of life compared to subjects from higher social class, men and young adults. Conclusion: Oral health has more impact on physical and functional aspects rather than on social and psychological domains.
Porter, Jessie; Ntouva, Antiopi; Read, Andrew; Murdoch, Mandy; Ola, Dennis; Tsakos, Georgios
Good oral health in older residents of nursing homes is important for general health and quality of life. Very few studies have assessed how oral symptoms affect residents' quality of life. To assess the clinical and subjective oral health, including oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the association of oral symptoms with OHRQoL in older people residing in nursing homes in Islington, London. Overall, 325 residents from nine nursing homes were clinically examined and 180 residents were interviewed to assess their oral symptoms and their OHRQoL using the OIDP measure. Managers and carers working in the homes were also interviewed. Almost two thirds of the sample were dentate (64.5%). 61.3% of dentate and 50.9% of edentate residents reported problems such as dry mouth, sore cracked lips, broken teeth and toothache and ill-fitting dentures. Oral health impacted considerably upon resident's OHRQoL; 20.2% of dentate and 30.9% of edentate reported at least one oral impact in the past 6 months. Sensitive teeth, toothache, bleeding gums, dry mouth and loose natural teeth among the dentate and loose or ill-fitting dentures among the edentate were strongly associated with higher prevalence of oral impacts even after adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors, and for the number of teeth (dentate only). The burden of oral conditions was considerable. Oral symptoms were very common and were strongly associated with residents' worse OHRQoL. Health promotion programmes are important to help residents maintain an acceptable level of oral health and function.
Shearer, David; Morshed, Saam
The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) through generic outcome instruments is important for comparisons of populations across disease states and interventions. The growing number of questionnaires available has made selection and interpretation more difficult. Profile instruments such as the SF-36 and Sickness Impact Profile provide insight into various domains of health with established population norms. Preference-based measures, including the EQ-5D, Health Utilities Index, SF-6D, and QWB-SA are used to generate utility scores, which can be used for cost-effectiveness analysis and therefore have particular relevance in health policy. Both types of generic measures have been used in clinical trials in injured populations to assess the relative impact of interventions on quality-of-life. Comparisons of internal consistency and test-retest reliability across measures reveal minimal differences between instruments, and reported values are acceptable for group comparisons but insufficient for individual clinical use. There is a dearth of studies evaluating the validity of these measures in the trauma population, but available data suggest most of the available instruments are acceptable. Populations that may require special consideration are patients with head, spinal cord, and upper-extremity injuries. Practical issues to consider in selecting a questionnaire include time for completion, which ranges from less than 2 min for the EQ-5D to 20-30 min for the Sickness Impact Profile. Selection of the appropriate measure ultimately depends largely on the population to be studied and whether utility-estimation is desired. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeluf, Galit; Dhejne, Cecilia; Orre, Carolina; Nilunger Mannheimer, Louise; Deogan, Charlotte; Höijer, Jonas; Ekéus Thorson, Anna
Swedish research concerning the general health of trans people is scarce. Despite the diversity of the group, most Swedish research has focused on gender dysphoric people seeking medical help for their gender incongruence, or on outcomes after medical gender-confirming interventions. This paper examines self-rated health, self-reported disability and quality of life among a diverse group of trans people including trans feminine, trans masculine, and gender nonbinary people (identifying with a gender in between male of female, or identify with neither of these genders) as well as people self-identifying as transvestites. Participants were self-selected anonymously to a web-based survey conducted in 2014. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Three backward selection regression models were conducted in order to identify significant variables for the outcomes self-rated health, self-reported disability and quality of life. Study participants included 796 individuals, between 15 and 94 years of age who live in Sweden. Respondents represented a heterogeneous group with regards to trans experience, with the majority being gender nonbinary (44 %), followed by trans masculine (24 %), trans feminine (19 %) and transvestites (14 %). A fifth of the respondents reported poor self-rated health, 53 % reported a disability and 44 % reported quality of life scores below the median cut-off value of 6 (out of 10). Nonbinary gender identity (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.19; 95 % CI: 1.24, 3.84), negative health care experiences (aOR = 1.92; 95 % CI: 1.26, 2.91) and not accessing legal gender recognition (aOR = 3.06; 95 % CI: 1.64, 5.72) were significant predictors for self-rated health. Being gender nonbinary (aOR = 2.18; 95 % CI: 1.35, 3.54) and history of negative health care experiences (aOR = 2.33; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.52) were, in addition, associated with self-reported disability. Lastly, not accessing legal gender
Full Text Available Abstract Background Swedish research concerning the general health of trans people is scarce. Despite the diversity of the group, most Swedish research has focused on gender dysphoric people seeking medical help for their gender incongruence, or on outcomes after medical gender-confirming interventions. This paper examines self-rated health, self-reported disability and quality of life among a diverse group of trans people including trans feminine, trans masculine, and gender nonbinary people (identifying with a gender in between male of female, or identify with neither of these genders as well as people self-identifying as transvestites. Methods Participants were self-selected anonymously to a web-based survey conducted in 2014. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Three backward selection regression models were conducted in order to identify significant variables for the outcomes self-rated health, self-reported disability and quality of life. Results Study participants included 796 individuals, between 15 and 94 years of age who live in Sweden. Respondents represented a heterogeneous group with regards to trans experience, with the majority being gender nonbinary (44 %, followed by trans masculine (24 %, trans feminine (19 % and transvestites (14 %. A fifth of the respondents reported poor self-rated health, 53 % reported a disability and 44 % reported quality of life scores below the median cut-off value of 6 (out of 10. Nonbinary gender identity (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 2.19; 95 % CI: 1.24, 3.84, negative health care experiences (aOR = 1.92; 95 % CI: 1.26, 2.91 and not accessing legal gender recognition (aOR = 3.06; 95 % CI: 1.64, 5.72 were significant predictors for self-rated health. Being gender nonbinary (aOR = 2.18; 95 % CI: 1.35, 3.54 and history of negative health care experiences (aOR = 2.33; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.52 were, in addition, associated with self
Dirlam, Jonathan; Zheng, Hui
Understanding the health consequence of job dissatisfaction becomes increasingly important because job insecurity, stress and dissatisfaction have significantly increased in the United States in the last decade. Despite the extensive work in this area, prior studies nonetheless may underestimate the harmful effect of job dissatisfaction due to the cross-sectional nature of their data and sample selection bias. This study applies a life-course approach to more comprehensively examine the relationship between job satisfaction and health. Using data from the NLSY 1979 cohort, we estimate group based job satisfaction trajectories of respondents starting at age 25 and ending at age 39. Four job satisfaction trajectory groups are identified, a consistently high satisfaction group, a downward group, an upward group, and a lowest satisfaction group. We examine the effects of these trajectories on several physical and mental health outcomes of respondents in their early forties. We find membership in the lowest job satisfaction trajectory group to be negatively associated with all five mental health outcomes, supporting the accumulation of risks life course model. Those in the upward job satisfaction trajectory group have similar health outcomes to those in the high job satisfaction trajectory group, supporting the social mobility life course model. Overall, we find the relationship between job satisfaction trajectories and health to be stronger for mental health compared to physical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Love-Koh, James; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Griffin, Susan
To model the social distribution of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in England by combining survey data on health-related quality of life with administrative data on mortality. Health Survey for England data sets for 2010, 2011, and 2012 were pooled (n = 35,062) and used to model health-related quality of life as a function of sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Office for National Statistics mortality rates were used to construct life tables for age-sex-SES groups. These quality-of-life and length-of-life estimates were then combined to predict QALE as a function of these characteristics. Missing data were imputed, and Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate standard errors. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore alternative regression models and measures of SES. Socioeconomic inequality in QALE at birth was estimated at 11.87 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with a sex difference of 1 QALY. When the socioeconomic-sex subgroups are ranked by QALE, a differential of 10.97 QALYs is found between the most and least healthy quintile groups. This differential can be broken down into a life expectancy difference of 7.28 years and a quality-of-life adjustment of 3.69 years. The methods proposed in this article refine simple binary quality-adjustment measures such as the widely used disability-free life expectancy, providing a more accurate picture of overall health inequality in society than has hitherto been available. The predictions also lend themselves well to the task of evaluating the health inequality impact of interventions in the context of cost-effectiveness analysis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Paulo Almeida; Nunes, Manuel; Mendes, Rui Amaral
Individuals with disabilities are regarded as a highly vulnerable population group, particularly as far as oral health is concern. However, few studies have assessed the impact of the oral condition on the quality of life of these individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand knowledge on the oral health status of the Portuguese adults with mild intellectual disability, and to assess how the patient’s oral health is related to their quality of life. A sample of 240 adults with mild intellectual disabilities linked to the Portuguese Federation for Intellectual Disability, were interviewed using a previously validated version of the Oral Health Impact Profile. An oral health examination was also conducted using three oral health indexes: Clinical Oral Health Index (COHI); Clinical Oral Care Needs Index (COCNI) and the Clinical Oral Prevention Index (COPI). Sociodemographic characteristics and dental health factors were also collected, following statistical analysis. More than half of the individuals (54,9%) presented one or more problems of major to severe impact on health (COHI level 2); only 4,6% of the individuals do not need treatment or examination (COCNI level 0) and 85% of the study sample needs measures of educational or preventive action (COPI level 1). In 76,9% of the participants, oral health had impact on the quality of life. The most affected dimensions of life were physical pain with 61,9%, followed by psychological discomfort and psychological disability with 45,1% and 45%, respectively. With relation to oral health factors and sociodemographic variables it was verified that fewer teeth and higher self-perception of need for dental treatment had a negative impact on the quality of life. On the other hand, institutionalization and an increase in at least one category in the self-perception of the oral health status had a positive impact on the quality of life. Given the high burden of oral disease and the considerable impact on quality of
Full Text Available It has been shown that frailty is associated with low levels of wellbeing and life satisfaction. Further exploration is needed, however, to better understand which components constitute life satisfaction for frail older people and how satisfaction is related to other life circumstances. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between frail older people’s life satisfaction and their socioeconomic conditions, social networks, and health-related conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted (n=179. A logistic regression analysis was performed, including life satisfaction as the dependent variable and 12 items as independent variables. Four of the independent variables made statistically significant contributions: financial situation (OR 3.53, social contacts (OR 2.44, risk of depression (OR 2.26, and selfrated health (OR 2.79. This study demonstrates that financial situation, self-rated health conditions and social networks are important components for frail older people’s life satisfaction. Health and social care professionals and policy makers should consider this knowledge in the care and service for frail older people; and actions that benefit life satisfaction − such as social support − should be promoted.
... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including Teleworkers Reporting to... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit...). Since eligible workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...
Ramsay, Sheena E; Papachristou, Efstathios; Watt, Richard G; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, A Olia; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya
The influence of life-course socioeconomic disadvantage on oral health at older ages is not well-established. We examined the influence of socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age on oral health at older ages, and tested conceptual life-course models (sensitive period, accumulation of risk, social mobility) to determine which best described observed associations. A representative cohort of British men aged 71-92 in 2010-12 included socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age. Oral health assessment at 71-92 years (n = 1622) included tooth count, periodontal disease and self-rated oral health (excellent/good, fair/poor) (n = 2147). Life-course models (adjusted for age and town of residence) were compared with a saturated model using Likelihood-ratio tests. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, middle-age and older age was associated with complete tooth loss at 71-92 years-age and town adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.39 (1.02-1.90), 2.26 (1.70-3.01), 1.83 (1.35-2.49), respectively. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and middle-age was associated with poor self-rated oral health; adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.48 (1.19-1.85) and 1.45 (1.18-1.78), respectively. A sensitive period for socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age provided the best model fit for tooth loss, while accumulation of risk model was the strongest for poor self-rated oral health. None of the life-course models were significant for periodontal disease measures. Socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age has a particularly strong influence on tooth loss in older age. Poor self-rated oral health in older age is influenced by socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course. Addressing socioeconomic factors in middle and older ages are likely to be important for better oral health in later life.
Kendig, Hal; Loh, Vanessa; O'Loughlin, Kate; Byles, Julie; Nazroo, James Y
In many countries like Australia and the United States, baby boomers are referred to as the 'lucky cohort', yet there has been little research on the origins and extent of inequalities within this cohort. This study uses path analysis to investigate direct and indirect effects of childhood and adult socioeconomic status and health on two subjective well-being measures: quality of life and life satisfaction. Retrospective life course data were obtained for 1,261 people aged 60 to 64 in the 2011-12 Life Histories and Health survey, a sub-study of the Australian 45 and Up Study. Supporting an accumulation model, the number of negative childhood and adult exposures were inversely related to both types of well-being. Consistent with a critical period model, childhood exposures had small but significant effects on subjective well-being and were relatively more important for quality of life than for life satisfaction. However, these childhood effects were largely indirect and significantly mediated by more proximal adult exposures, providing support for a pathway model. A key implication of this research is that the critical period for later life well-being is significant in adulthood rather than childhood, suggesting that there may be key opportunities for improving individuals' later life well-being far beyond the early, formative years. This research highlights the importance of understanding how earlier life exposures impact experiences in later life, and investing in health and socioeconomic opportunities to reduce inequalities across all stages of life.
Cetrano, Gaia; Tedeschi, Federico; Rabbi, Laura; Gosetti, Giorgio; Lora, Antonio; Lamonaca, Dario; Manthorpe, Jill; Amaddeo, Francesco
BACKGROUND: Quality of working life includes elements such as autonomy, trust, ergonomics, participation, job complexity, and work-life balance. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate if and how quality of working life affects Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction among mental health practitioners.METHODS: Staff working in three Italian Mental Health Departments completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale, measuring Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compas...
Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Damiano, Rodolfo Furlan; DiLalla, Lisabeth F; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Moutinho, Ivana Lúcia Damásio; da Silva Ezequiel, Oscarina; Kevin Dorsey, J
This study aimed to compare mental health, quality of life, empathy, and burnout in medical students from a medical institution in the USA and another one in Brazil. This cross-cultural study included students enrolled in the first and second years of their undergraduate medical training. We evaluated depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS 21), empathy, openness to spirituality, and wellness (ESWIM), burnout (Oldenburg), and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref) and compared them between schools. A total of 138 Brazilian and 73 US medical students were included. The comparison between all US medical students and all Brazilian medical students revealed that Brazilians reported more depression and stress and US students reported greater wellness, less exhaustion, and greater environmental quality of life. In order to address a possible response bias favoring respondents with better mental health, we also compared all US medical students with the 50% of Brazilian medical students who reported better mental health. In this comparison, we found Brazilian medical students had higher physical quality of life and US students again reported greater environmental quality of life. Cultural, social, infrastructural, and curricular differences were compared between institutions. Some noted differences were that students at the US institution were older and were exposed to smaller class sizes, earlier patient encounters, problem-based learning, and psychological support. We found important differences between Brazilian and US medical students, particularly in mental health and wellness. These findings could be explained by a complex interaction between several factors, highlighting the importance of considering cultural and school-level influences on well-being.
Niemitz, Mandy; Gunst, Diana C M; Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig H; Hofbeck, Michael; Kaulitz, Renate; Galm, Christoph; Berger, Felix; Nagdyman, Nicole; Stiller, Brigitte; Borth-Bruhns, Thomas; Konzag, Ines; Balmer, Christian; Goldbeck, Lutz
Chronic paediatric heart disease is often associated with residual symptoms, persisting functional restrictions, and late sequelae for psychosocial development. It is, therefore, increasingly important to evaluate the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine medical and socio-demographic variables affecting health-related quality of life in school-aged children and adolescents with chronic heart disease. Patients and methods The Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory was administered to 375 children and adolescents and 386 parental caregivers. Medical information was obtained from the charts. The socio-demographic information was provided by the patients and caregivers. Greater disease severity, low school attendance, current cardiac medication, current parental employment, uncertain or limited prognosis, history of connection to a heart-lung machine, number of nights spent in a hospital, and need for treatment in a paediatric aftercare clinic independently contributed to lower health-related quality of life (self-report: R2=0.41; proxy-report: R2=0.46). High correlations between self-reports and parent-proxy reports indicated concordance regarding the evaluation of a child's health-related quality of life. Beyond medical treatment, integration into school is important to increase health-related quality of life in children and adolescents surviving with chronic heart disease. Regular screening of health-related quality of life is recommended to identify patients with special needs.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to measure the changes in oral health-related quality of life of the patients, referred to Shahid Chamran Hospital in Shiraz before and after the orthognathic surgery. Methods: This prospective study was performed using the 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 questionnaire. The questionnaires were given both before and four months after the orthognathic surgery to all the patients referred to Shahid Chamran Hospital of Shiraz between 20th of November 2012 and 20th of February 2013. The patients were asked about their motivation for surgery and the responses were classified as functional, esthetic or a combination of functional and esthetic problems. The data achieved from all the questions before and after the surgery were analyzed using repeated measures test. Results: Twenty eight patients including 10 men and 18 women participated in this study. The mean scores of quality of life after the surgery decreased significantly compared to that before the treatment (P
Ashley Di Battista
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is (TBI a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI.mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents, using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only.Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs  = -0.88, p<0.001. Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs  = -0.68, p = 0.02. Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2 = 0.79, F [1, 10] = 33.48, p<0.001, but age at injury did not (R2 = 0.19, F [1, 10] = 2.09, p = 0.18.Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored.
Ancient patterns of African communal life involve healthy, breath-coordinated movements and gestures in a mutual reciprocity of person-world relations. Traditional Zulu cultural forms of human movement, which promote life and health, such as play, martial arts and dance, remain widely practised, especially in rural areas of ...
Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Hoffmann, Anne Lisbeth
AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes......AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes...
Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H
Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low ( or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (Pmental health-related quality of life or addiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.
Gamallo, Silvia Maria Moussi; Caparroz, Fábio; Terreri, Maria Teresa Ramos Ascensão; Hilário, Maria Odete Esteves; Len, Claudio Arnaldo
In this study, we measured the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and fatigue of the children of health professionals, aged between two and eleven years, and assessed the daytime and sleep habits of these children and their parents. The study included children from a public school. Data regarding demographics and daily habits were collected. The HRQOL, sleep habits and fatigue were measured using questionnaires. A total of 249 parents participated - 63.5% reported getting an adequate amount of sleep, while 47.4% woke up feeling tired. The children's mean age was 5.6 years - 62.2% watched television in their rooms, 50% used the computer (> 4 hours/day) and 27.8% engaged in extracurricular physical exercise. The sleep score was 45.8 ± 12.2. The HRQOL scores were higher in the physical and lower in the emotional aspects. We found that poorer sleep on the part of both children and parents may be related to the children's lower HRQOL. We conclude that the inadequate habits of parents as well as children, are related to a decrease in HRQOL, particularly regarding the emotional aspect.
Gorecki, Claudia; Lamping, Donna L; Brown, Julia M; Madill, Anna; Firth, Jill; Nixon, Jane
Evaluating outcomes such as health-related quality of life is particularly important and relevant in skin conditions such as pressure ulcers where the condition and associated interventions pose substantial burden to patients. Measures to evaluate such outcomes need to be developed by utilising patient-perspective to ensure that content and conceptualisation is relevant to patients. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework of health-related quality of life in pressure ulcers, based on patients' views about the impact of pressure ulcers and interventions on health-related quality of life to inform the development of a new patient-reported outcome measure. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We developed a working conceptual framework based on a previous review of the literature, then used semi-structured qualitative interviews with 30 adults with pressure ulcers (22-94 years) purposively sampled from hospital, community and rehabilitation care settings in England and Northern Ireland to obtain patients' views, and thematic content analysis and review by a multidisciplinary expert group to develop the final conceptual framework. Our conceptual model includes four health-related quality of life domains (symptoms, physical functioning, psychological well-being, social functioning), divided into 13 sub-domains and defined by specific descriptive components. We have identified health-related quality of life outcomes that are important to people with pressure ulcers and developed a conceptual framework using robust and systematic methods, which provides the basis for the development of a new pressure ulcer-specific measure of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zaman, Sojib Bin; Hossain, Naznin; Mehta, Varshil; Sharmin, Shuchita; Mahmood, Shakeel Ahmed Ibne
Abstract Introduction: Gradual total health expenditure (THE) has become a major concern. It is not only the increased THE, but also its unequal growth in overall economy, found among the developing countries. If increased life expectancy is considered as a leverage for an individual’s investment in health services, it can be expected that as the life expectancy increases, tendency of health care investment will also experience a boost up. Objective: The aim of the present study wa...
Georgios, Lykesas; Ioannis, Giosos; Olga, Theocharidou; Dimitris, Chatzopoulos; Maria, Koutsouba
Physical exercise is acknowledged to play a highly significant role in human health and life quality. The concept "Quality of Life" (QoL) refers to many parameters, including the individual's physical condition, psychological status, level of independence, social relationships and interaction with the environment. Participating in dance…
Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P
The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nesterko, Yuriy; Braehler, Elmar; Grande, Gesine; Glaesmer, Heide
There is a lack of population-based studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and satisfaction with life (SWL) of immigrants compared to the native populations. Findings of previous research are inconclusive. Our study compares HRQoL and SWL in immigrants and native-born Germans, investigating immigration-related factors as suspected determinants of HRQoL and SWL in immigrants. In the German Socio-economic panel from 2006, HRQoL (measured with the SF-12v2) and SWL as well as immigration-related factors were assessed in 21,079 subjects (including 2,971 immigrants). Analyses of variance were applied as statistical tests in our study. Native-born Germans report a higher amount of SWL and of HRQoL on the physical health component compared to the immigrants. With effect sizes ranging from E² = 0.001 to 0.111, these findings are of minimal practical relevance. In immigrants, the physical health component of HRQoL is significantly associated with younger age at migration and with country of origin. As the effect sizes are extremely low, these findings have limited practical relevance. There are small differences in SWL and HRQoL of immigrants and native-born Germans. Some immigration-related factors are related to HRQoL, but not to SWL. As immigrants are a quite heterogeneous group, it seems useful to focus on immigration-related factors, not simply comparing immigrants and the native-born. Our findings suggest that research on the association of immigration-related factors with quality of life in immigrants seems a promising approach to better identify subgroups of immigrants with lower levels of quality of life.
Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution, declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course - deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse - but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society. There is considerable evidence that stressful early life events influence a variety of physical and/or psychological health problems later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from number of chronic diseases. A model outlining potential biobehavioural pathways is put forward that may be a potential explanation of how exposure to violence among both men and women work as an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work.
Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang
To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Revicki, Dennis A; Kleinman, Leah; Cella, David
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional concept that includes subjective reports of symptoms, side effects, functioning in multiple life domains, and general perceptions of life satisfaction and quality. Rather than estimating it from external observations, interview, or clinical assessment, it is best measured by direct query. Due to a perception that respondents may not be reliable or credible, there has been some reluctance to use self-report outcomes in psychiatry. More recently, and increasingly, HRQoL assessment through direct patient query has become common when evaluating a range of psychiatric, psychological, and social therapies. With few exceptions, psychiatric patients are credible and reliable reporters of this information. This article summarizes studies that highlight the development, validation, and application of HRQoL measures in psychiatry. Thoughtful application of these tools in psychiatric research can provide a much-needed patient perspective in the future of comparative effectiveness research, patient-centered outcomes research, and clinical care.
Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H
For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO 2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.
Mascarenhas, Claudio Henrique Meira; Prado, Fabio Ornellas; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique
This study examined the association of socio-demographic, occupational and risk and health behavioral factors with the loss of quality of life for community health agents of the municipality of Jequié in the state of Bahia. It is a cross-sectional study with 316 individuals, in which WHOQOL-Bref was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Poisson regression model was applied adopting the confidence interval of 95%. The variables associated with the largest threat to the Physical domain were gender, age, pain and satisfaction with health. Threats to the Psychological domain were schooling, psycho-social aspects, smoking, pain and satisfaction with health were analyzed. Threats to the Social Relations domain of were sex, marital situation, schooling, psycho-social aspects, and satisfaction with health. Threats to the Environmental domain were sex, family income, workplace, psycho-social aspects and satisfaction with health. It is hoped that this study will foster the development of public policies designed to enhance the conditions of life and work of this group of workers.
Gina Andrade Abdala
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults.METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE. The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components. The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve = 0.91.RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.
Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo
OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870
Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo
To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach's alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.
Chang, Angela Y; Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K; Resch, Stephen C
In "Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation," The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health (CIH) adds the value of increased life expectancy to the value of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) when assessing national well-being. To value changes in life expectancy, the CIH relies on several strong assumptions to bridge gaps in the empirical research. It finds that the value of a life year (VLY) averages 2.3 times GDP per capita for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) assuming the changes in life expectancy they experienced from 2000 to 2011 are permanent. The CIH VLY estimate is based on a specific shift in population life expectancy and includes a 50 percent reduction for children ages 0 through 4. We investigate the sensitivity of this estimate to the underlying assumptions, including the effects of income, age, and life expectancy, and the sequencing of the calculations. We find that reasonable alternative assumptions regarding the effects of income, age, and life expectancy may reduce the VLY estimates to 0.2 to 2.1 times GDP per capita for LMICs. Removing the reduction for young children increases the VLY, while reversing the sequencing of the calculations reduces the VLY. Because the VLY is sensitive to the underlying assumptions, analysts interested in applying this approach elsewhere must tailor the estimates to the impacts of the intervention and the characteristics of the affected population. Analysts should test the sensitivity of their conclusions to reasonable alternative assumptions. More work is needed to investigate options for improving the approach.
Assaf, Annlouise R; Beresford, Shirley A A; Risica, Patricia Markham; Aragaki, Aaron; Brunner, Robert L; Bowen, Deborah J; Naughton, Michelle; Rosal, Milagros C; Snetselaar, Linda; Wenger, Nanette
Intensive dietary intervention programs may lead to benefits in vitality and other components of health quality. The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) intervention includes a large randomized controlled trial of an intensive intervention. To evaluate whether the intervention is associated with improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) subscales, overall self-reported health, depression symptoms, cognitive functioning, and sleep quality. This randomized controlled trial was analyzed as intent to treat. Between 1993 and 1998, 48,835 women aged 50 to 79 years were recruited by 40 clinical centers across the United States. Eligibility included having fat intake at baseline ≥32% of total calories, and excluded women with any prior colorectal or breast cancer, recent other cancers, type 1 diabetes, or medical conditions with predicted survival <3 years. Goals were to reduce calories from fat to 20%, increase vegetables and fruit to 5+ servings, and increase grain servings to 6+ servings a day. During the first year, 18 group sessions were held, with quarterly sessions thereafter. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey was used to assess HRQoL at baseline, Year 1, and close-out (about 8 years postrandomization), and estimate differential HRQoL subscale change scores. Mean change in HRQoL scores (Year 1 minus baseline) were compared by randomization group using linear models. At 1 year, there was a differential change between intervention and comparison group of 1.7 units (95% CI 1.5, 2.0) in general health associated with the intervention. DM intervention improved physical functioning by 2.0 units (95% CI 1.7, 2.3), vitality by 1.9 units (95% CI 1.6, 2.2), and global quality of life by 0.09 units (95% CI 0.07, 0.12). With the exception of global quality of life, these effects were significantly modified by body mass index at baseline. DM intervention was associated with small, but significant improvements in three HRQoL subscales: general health
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…
Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Konduri, Niranjan
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between student-life stress and health related quality of life (HRQOL) among Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students. Data were collected for 166 students in the first three years of a Pharm.D. curriculum. Student-Life Stress Inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated to mental…
Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Lyons, Kelly E.; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C.; Selai, Caroline; Siderowf, Andrew; Welsh, Mickie; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Oliver; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette
Health-related quality of life is an important patient-reported outcome used in intervention trials and for monitoring the consequences of health status on physical, mental, and social domains. Parkinson's disease is a complex disorder that strongly affects patients' quality of life. Several
José J. Muros
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this research was to examine the association between body mass index, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and health-related quality of life in a sample of Spanish adolescents. Method: The study involved 456 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years. They completed questionnaires on the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children [PAQ-C], and quality of life (KIDSCREEN-27. Body mass index was calculated. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to determine whether health-related quality of life could be predicted by the measured variables. The variables were analyzed in a stepwise manner, with Mediterranean diet entered in the first step, body mass index in the second, and physical activity in the third. Results: Mediterranean diet accounted for 4.6% of the variance in adolescent's health-related quality of life, with higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet predicting higher health-related quality of life-scores. Body mass index accounted for a further 4.1% of the variance, with a higher body mass index predicting lower health-related quality of life scores. Finally, physical activity explained an additional 11.3% of the variance, with a higher level of physical activity being associated with higher health-related quality of life scores. Together, these variables explained 20% of the variance in the adolescents' health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Physical activity, body mass index, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet are important components to consider when targeting improvements in the health-related quality of life of adolescents, with physical activity representing the component with the greatest influence.
Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Lapo, María Del Carmen; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Hueche, Clementina
To distinguish typologies of seniors according to their levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to the importance assigned to family, health-related aspects, eating habits, nutritional status and sociodemographic characteristics. A survey was administered to a non-probabilistic sample of 817 seniors aged 60 years and over, of both genders, resident in urban and rural zones of the province of Guayas, Ecuador. The instrument included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), the Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4) and the Family Importance Scale (FIS). Eating habits, sociodemographic variables, approximate weight and height were asked about. A cluster analysis was used to distinguish three typologies that differed significantly in the scores on the SWLS, SWFL, FIS, number of days with mental health problems, self-perception of health status, body mass index, eating habits and zone of residence. Two typologies presented high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, although the variables associated with overall well-being and in the food domain were different in each typology. The results suggest that high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian seniors are associated with both healthful eating habits and having lunch in company, fewer mental health problems and greater importance assigned to family.
Gurven, Michael; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin; Blackwell, Aaron D; Beheim, Bret; Davis, Helen; Hooper, Paul; Kaplan, Hillard
The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood. A third aim addresses how modernization shapes human life histories and sociality. Here we outline the project's goals, history, and main findings since its inception in 2002. We reflect on the implications of current findings and highlight the need for more coordinated ethnographic and biomedical study of contemporary nonindustrial populations to address broad questions that can situate evolutionary anthropology in a key position within the social and life sciences. © 2017 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ozgül, Ahmet; Peker, Fatma; Taskaynatan, M Ali; Tan, A Kenan; Dinçer, Kemal; Kalyon, Tunç Alp
The aim of this study was to determine the emotional and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the impact of the disease on their social life and quality of life (QOL). This study included 101 patients with the diagnosis of AS. All patients filled in a questionnaire comprising their sociodemographic and emotional status and their self-rating on the disease and completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The impact of the disease on work status, sexuality, and family relations was measured on a Likert scale. The impact of the disease on employment, family and sexual relations, work life as well as SF-36 was investigated. Therefore, the effect of educational level, employment, social security, and sexual relations with spouse, etc. on QOL were assessed. More than half of the patients had no knowledge about the disease and half of them were not under a physician's control. Thirty-two percent of the previously working patients quit their jobs because of the disease. Quitting a job due to the disease was more frequent in the first 10 years of the disease. The most affected domains of the SF-36 were physical role power, general health, and pain. Patients unemployed due to the disease had lower SF-36 scores compared with employed ones. Unemployed patients without social insurance had lower values on SF-36 subscales (prelations (pwork and social life. Work disability affects QOL. Educating the patients about the disease may play an important role in improving his/her life quality and coping with the disease. Thus, the socioeconomic burden of the disease on the person and on society can be diminished.
Shah, Drishti; Vaidya, Varun; Patel, Amit; Borovicka, Mary; Goodman, Monica-Holiday
Effectiveness of antidepressants is generally comparable between and within classes. However, real-world studies on antidepressant treatment and its consequences on the overall quality of life and mental health of individuals are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of specific class of antidepressants with the health-related quality of life, psychological distress and self-reported mental health of individuals suffering from depression who are on monotherapy. This retrospective, longitudinal study included individuals with depression who were on antidepressant monotherapy, using data from 2008 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Changes in health-related quality of life, self-reported mental health and psychological distress over a year's time were observed. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to examine the association between the class of antidepressant medications and the dependent variables. A total of 688 adults met the study inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed in the change in Physical Component Summary (PCS), self-reported mental health and psychological distress based on the class of antidepressants. However, individuals on serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (OR 0.337, 95 % CI 0.155-0.730) were significantly less likely to show improvement on Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as compared to those on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The study findings suggest that practitioners should be aware of the differences in the health-related quality of life of those taking SSRIs versus other classes of antidepressants. Further research needs to be done to determine the reason for SSRIs to show greater improvement on mental health as compared to SNRIs.
Osypuk, Theresa L
Research on racial residential segregation and health typically uses multilevel, population-based, slice-in-time data. Although research using this approach, including that by Kershaw et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(4):299-309), has been valuable, I argue that to advance our understanding of how residential segregation influences health and health disparities, it is critical to incorporate a life-course perspective and integrate social theory. Applying a life-course perspective would entail modeling transitions, cumulative risk, and developmental and dynamic processes and mechanisms, as well as recognizing the contingency of contextual effects on different social groups. I discuss the need for analytic methods appropriate for modeling health effects of distal causes experienced across the life course, such as segregation, that operate through multiple levels and sequences of mediators, potentially across decades. Sociological theories of neighborhood attainment (e.g., segmented assimilation, ethnic resurgence, and place stratification theories) can guide effect-modification tests to help illuminate health effects resulting from intersections of residential processes, race/ethnicity, immigration, and other social determinants of health. For example, nativity and immigration history may crucially shape residential processes and exposures, but these have received limited attention in prior segregation-health literature.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie
In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…
Valesca DALL'ALBA; Sidia Maria CALLEGARI-JACQUES; Cláudio KRAHE; Juliana Paula BRUCH; Bruna Cherubini ALVES; Sérgio Gabriel Silva de BARROS
Background Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant wo...
Maksimović, Nataša; Janković, Slavenka; Marinković, Jelena; Sekulović, Lidija K; Zivković, Zorica; Spirić, Vesna T
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing condition that can have considerable effects on the patients' quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to measure the health-related QOL in patients with AD, using generic and specific instruments, to compare the scores obtained by different instruments and to verify the relationship between them. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 132 outpatients with AD. To assess the QOL, Short Form 36 (SF-36), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were administered. In order to assess the disease severity of AD, we used the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and physician assessment of disease severity. Stressful life events during the last 12 months were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. Patients with AD had inferior social functioning and mental health scores compared with the general population. The correlations between the DLQI and SF-36 were found for the mental components of the QOL. Increasing disease severity was associated with greater impairment in QOL in both, children and adults. Our study found the influence of the stressful life events on the role emotional of AD patients. These results demonstrate that AD influences health-related QOL, especially in children. This study supports the decision to use both generic and skin-specific instruments to assess the impact of AD on QOL. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso
Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia; Pickett-Bernard, Denise; White Gorman, Andrea; Dehpahlavan, Jaleh
Studies of health providers suggest that satisfaction with life is related to their values and sense of purpose which is best achieved when their professional role is in harmony with personal philosophy. Cross-sectional surveys suggest that personal health beliefs and practices of health professionals influence their clinical counseling practices. However, little is known about the influence of health philosophy on the personal satisfaction with life for dietitians. This study recruited a randomly selected, cross-sectional sample to complete a self-administered online survey. An exploratory factor analysis of was conducted for 479 participants resulting in a two-factor solution, clinical (α = 0.914) and wellness (α = 0.894) perceptions of health. An index score for the following valid and reliable scales were calculated: satisfaction with life, health conception, and healthy lifestyle and personal control. Pearson correlation coefficients between scores were analyzed to determine the degree of relationship. Potential mediators were explored with multiple regression. The relationships between variables were tested with structural equation modeling using a multigroup comparison between genders. The male participants were removed from the overall model and were separately evaluated. Health philosophy that is oriented toward wellness, was positively and significantly associated with life satisfaction, r (462) = 0.103, p life satisfaction, r (462) = 0.27, p = 0.000. Healthy lifestyle alone predicted 8.8% of the variance in life satisfaction ( R ² = 0.088, df 1462, p = 0.005). SEM confirmed the model had goodness-of-fit (χ² = 2.63, p = 0.453). The satisfaction with life of dietitians is directly and positively influenced by a greater wellness orientation and personal healthy lifestyle practices. The effect of practice and lifestyle on life satisfaction appears to be greater for men.
Ritter, M M; Richter, W O
A vegetarian diet has a positive effect on various risk factors for coronary artery disease: these include usually lower average body weight, lower total and LDL cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure. In conjunction with a generally more healthy way of life (more exercise, less alcohol and tobacco use), vegetarians have roughly 30% reduction in overall mortality. The prevalence of bronchial, colon and breast cancer is also lower. In particular in its strict form (total vegetarianism or veganism), a vegetarian regimen may lead to deficiency disorders, in particular vitamin B12 deficiency, which may occur especially in vegetarian children, pregnant or lactating women. Overall, however, a vegetarian regimen has a more beneficial effect on health than the usual Central European diet.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...
Wagman, Petra; Nordin, Maria; Alfredsson, Lars; Westerholm, Peter J M; Fransson, Eleonor I
The amount and perception of domestic work may affect satisfaction with everyday life, but further knowledge is needed about the relationship between domestic work division and health and well-being. To describe the division of, and satisfaction with, domestic work and responsibility for home/family in adults living with a partner. A further aim was to investigate the associations between these aspects and self-rated life satisfaction and health. Data from the Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen survey collected 2009 were used, comprising 4924 participants living with a partner. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. The majority shared domestic work and responsibility for home/family equally with their partner. However, more women conducted the majority of the domestic work and were less satisfied with its division. When both division and satisfaction with division was included in the analysis, solely satisfaction with the division and the responsibility were associated with higher odds for good life satisfaction. Regarding health, higher odds for good self-rated health were seen in those who were satisfied with their division of responsibility. The results highlight the importance of taking into account not solely the actual division of domestic work but also the satisfaction with it.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease, are chronic, non-infectious diseases of long duration. NCDs are increasingly widespread worldwide and are becoming a serious health and economic burden. NCDs arise from complex interactions between the genetic make-up of an individual and environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies have revealed that the perinatal environment influences health later in life, and have proposed the concept of developmental programming or developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). These studies suggest the importance of life course health care from fetal life, early childhood, adulthood, and through to old age. Recent progress in genomics, proteomics and diagnostic modalities holds promise for identifying high risk groups, predicting latent diseases, and allowing early intervention. Preemptive medicine is the ultimate goal of medicine, but to achieve it, the full participation of the public and all sectors of society is imperative.
López-Ortega, Mariana; Torres-Castro, Sara; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar
The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) has been widely used and has proven to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing satisfaction with life in diverse population groups, however, research on satisfaction with life and validation of different measuring instruments in Mexican adults is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a representative sample of Mexican adults. This is a methodological study to evaluate a satisfaction with life scale in a sample of 13,220 Mexican adults 50 years of age or older from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) was analysed using Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Known-groups validity was evaluated comparing good-health and bad-health participants. Comorbidity, perceived financial situation, self-reported general health, depression symptoms, and social support were included to evaluate the validity between these measures and the total score of the scale using Spearman's correlations. The analysis of the scale's reliability showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of a unique factor structure that explained 54% of the variance. SWLS was related to depression, perceived health, financial situation, and social support, and these relations were all statistically significant (P life satisfaction between the good- and bad-health groups. Results show good internal consistency and construct validity of the SWLS. These results are comparable with results from previous studies. Meeting the study's objective to validate the scale, the results show that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a reliable and valid measure of satisfaction with life in the Mexican context.
Kim, Kyounghae; Heinze, Katherine; Xu, Jiayun; Kurtz, Melissa; Park, Hyunjeong; Foradori, Megan; Nolan, Marie T
The aim of this meta-ethnography is to appraise the types and uses of theories relative to end-of-life decision making and to develop a conceptual framework to describe end-of-life decision making among patients with advanced cancers, heart failure, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their caregivers or providers. We used PubMed, Embase, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases to extract English-language articles published between January 2002 and April 2015. Forty-three articles were included. The most common theories included decision-making models ( n = 14) followed by family-centered ( n = 11) and behavioral change models ( n = 7). A conceptual framework was developed using themes including context of decision making, communication and negotiation of decision making, characteristics of decision makers, goals of decision making, options and alternatives, and outcomes. Future research should enhance and apply these theories to guide research to develop patient-centered decision-making programs that facilitate informed and shared decision making at the end of life among patients with advanced illness and their caregivers.
Lima, Maria José Barbosa de; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo
This study presents an instrument, the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) profile for independent elderly, to measure the health-related quality of life of the functionally independent elderly assisted in the outpatient setting, based on the adaptation of four validated scales: Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Duke-UNC Health Profile (DUHP), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The study also evaluates the instrument's reliability based on its use by two different observers with a 15-day interval. The instrument includes five dimensions (health perception, symptoms, physical function, psychological function, and social function) and 45 items. Reliability evaluation of the QUASI instrument was based on interviews with 142 elderly outpatients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence-adjusted kappa statistic was used to assess all 45 items. Correlation was also calculated between overall scores and scores on individual dimensions. In the reliability evaluation, 39 of the 45 items showed prevalence-adjusted kappa greater than 0.60.
Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Jønsson, Alexandra Brandt Ryborg
and the management of their treatment burdens. Dilemmas were identified within three domains: family and social life; work life; agendas and set goals in appointments with health professionals. Individual resources and priorities in everyday life play a dominant role in resolving dilemmas and navigating the tension...... study using individual interviews and participant-observations. An inductive analytical approach was applied, moving from observations and results to broader generalisations. Results: People with multimorbidity experience dilemmas related to their individual priorities in everyday life...... between everyday life and the health care system. Discussion: People with multimorbidity are seldom supported by health professionals in resolving the dilemmas they must face. This study suggests an increased focus on patient-centeredness and argues in favour of planning health care through cooperation...
Souza, Kenneth (Editor); Etheridge, Guy (Editor); Callahan, Paul X. (Editor)
We have now conducted space life sciences research for more than four decades. The continuing interest in studying the way living systems function in space derives from two main benefits of that research. First, in order for humans to engage in long-term space travel, we must understand and develop measures to counteract the most detrimental effects of space flight on biological systems. Problems in returning to the conditions of Earth must be kept to a manageable level. Second, increasing our understanding of how organisms function in the absence of gravity gives us new understanding of fundamental biological processes. This information can be used to improve human health and the quality of life on Earth.
Korenromp, Ingrid H.E.; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Purpose of review: The review presents an overview of the scientific publications in the field of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in sarcoidosis. Recent findings: Literature on HRQL in sarcoidosis is limited. HRQL was mainly used as a primary or secondary endpoint in intervention studies.
The EC Quality of Life Programme (QoL), Key Action 1 – Food, Nutrition & Health aims at providing a healthy, safe, and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer’s confidence in the safety of the European food. Key Action 1 is currently supporting several European projects investigating analytical methods for food control including sensors, risk analysis, and food safety standardisation. Their objectives range from the development and validation of prevention strategies for mycot...
Nasiri-Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali
The determinants of the health-related quality of life of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive instrument to assess the health-related quality of life of Iranian women with PCOS and to assess its psychometric properties. We used a mixed-method, sequential, exploratory design including both qualitative [in-depth interview to define the components of health-related quality of life questionnaire (PCOSQ)] and quantitative approaches (to assess the psychometric properties of PCOSQ). A preliminary questionnaire was developed including 147 items which emerged from the qualitative phase of the study. Considering the optimum cutoff points for content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI), and impact score, items of the preliminary questionnaire were reduced from 147 to 88 items. Finally, by excluding highly correlated items using the exploratory factor analysis, a 50-item questionnaire was obtained. The Kaiser criteria (eigenvalues >1) and Scree plot tests demonstrated that six factors were optimum with an estimated 47.3 % of variance. Assessment of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire demonstrated a mean CVI = 0.92, CVR = 0.91, Cronbach's alpha for whole questionnaire = 0.88 (0.61-0.88 for subscales), Spearman's correlation coefficients of test-retest = 0.75, and the intra-class correlation coefficient for the PCOS questionnaire subscales ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Eventually the final questionnaire included 50 items in six domains, 'psychosocial and emotional,' 'fertility,' 'sexual function,' 'obesity and menstrual disorders,' 'hirsutism,' and 'coping' and rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The PCOSQ-50 is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of quality of life of women with PCOS, capable of assessing some obscure aspects overlooked by previous HRQL questionnaires.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO24 Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) to extend to 240 days the current 120-day ``no-health'' period during...
Martha Cerqueira Reis
Full Text Available Describe health conditions and self-reported factors associated with life satisfaction of Physiotherapy course students. cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study, the type census, where 167 students were enrolled. The data collection instrument used was Isaq-A and had the outcome variable "satisfaction with life". The independent variables correspond sociodemographic and self-reported health status characteristics. Of the 167 students interviewed, 128 (76.65% autorrelataram have a good general state of health, 123 (73.65% a lot of stress, 146 (87.43% good sleep quality and 94 (56.30% they were satisfied with life. In the inferential analysis, a statistically significant association between life satisfaction and the variables gender (PR = 1.20; CI = 1.009 to 1.445, work (PR = 0.20; CI = 0.044 to 0.978, state of self-report health (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.011 to 1.466 and sleep quality (PR = 1.17; CI = 1.031 to 1.337. The highest proportion of students autorrelataram present a good general state of health, too much stress, good sleep quality and life satisfaction. Sex, work, health and quality of sleep are associated with life satisfaction.
Dall'alba, Valesca; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Krahe, Cláudio; Bruch, Juliana Paula; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Barros, Sérgio Gabriel Silva de
Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Sixty-two (76%) women had heartburn, and 58 (71%), regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43%) women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70%) were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women.
Full Text Available Background Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Results Sixty-two (76% women had heartburn, and 58 (71%, regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43% women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70% were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Conclusion Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women
Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Midori; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Osawa, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Motoko; Fukui, Yusuke; Shioda, Yohei; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Komiyama, Kazuo; Gionhaku, Nobuhito
Age-related deterioration in physical and oral health reduces healthy life expectancy and is thus an important problem for very elderly people. We investigated the effects of satisfaction with dietary life (SDL) in everyday life on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and subjective well-being and examined associations between these factors. We evaluated 426 elders aged 85 years or older. All participants completed a questionnaire that inquired about age, gender, drinking status, body mass index, cognitive function, disability, and comorbidities, among other covariates. Oral, physical, and mental health conditions were also examined. Associations of questionnaire results for SDL with items on subjective well-being (Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale [PGC] and World Health Organization-5 [WHO-5]) and OHRQoL (Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index [GOHAI]) were confirmed with multiple logistic regression analysis. In a multivariate model adjusted for various confounders, participants with self-reported "enjoyable" SDL had significantly lower risks for having the lowest scores on the GOHAI, PGC, and WHO-5 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.460, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.277-0.762; OR = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.348-0.996; and OR = 0.452, 95% CI = 0.263-0.775, respectively). These associations remained after further adjustment for number of teeth.
Adena M. Galinsky; Martha K. McClintock; Linda J. Waite
Introduction. Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample.
Interrelationship among the health-related and subjective quality of life, daily life activities, instrumental activities of daily living of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients.
Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Naruse, Susumu; Nanba, Yoshihumi
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the health-related and subjective quality of life of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients, and also examined how such quality of life correlate with their daily life activities and instrumental activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their health-related quality of life and subjective quality of life, life-space assessment, frenchay activities index were researched. [Results] For the relationships between the total subjective quality of life scores and health-related quality of life scores, significant positive correlations were observed for body pain, general health, vitality, social functions and mental health. The correlations were not statistically significant between the subjective quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. The correlations were statistically significant between some health-related quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. [Conclusion] The results suggest that supporting community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients to improve their sense of physical and mental well-being, and prevent and reduce their depression and physical pain, is required in order to improve their QOL.
Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
Research has shown that individual socio-economic circumstances throughout life affect health in older ages. However, little attention has been paid to the broad economic context affecting individual's life-chances. This paper examines whether economic downturns experienced during young and mid-adulthood have long-run effects on physical health. We exploit data on economic fluctuations in the period 1945-2010 in 11 European countries, linked to longitudinal data from three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We estimate a country fixed effect model assessing whether downturns experienced at 5-year intervals between ages 25 and 54 are associated with levels and onset of new limitations with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) in older age (55-80). Experiencing an economic downturn at ages 45-59 is associated with increased risk of having at least one disability limitation in later-life (odds ratio [OR] for ADL = 1.66, 95% CI [Confidence Interval] 1.24, 2.22; OR for IADL = 1.46, 95% CI 1.10, 1.94). Economic downturns at ages 40-44 and 45-49 also increase the risk of a new functional limitation in later-life (OR for IADL ages 40-44 = 1.20, 95% CI 1.03, 1.40; OR for IADL ages 45-49 = 1.44, CI 1.10-1.88). Economic downturns experienced around these ages are also associated with significantly greater risks of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption as well as lower incomes in older age. Exposure to an economic downturn at ages 40-49 is associated with poorer health in older ages, possibly by increasing risk of unhealthy behaviours and low incomes persisting into older age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
van Leeuwen, Christel M; Post, Marcel W; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline
To clarify relationships between activities, participation, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and specify how personal factors (self-efficacy, neuroticism, appraisals) interact with these components. We hypothesized that (1) activities are related directly to participation, participation is related directly to mental health and life satisfaction, and mental health and life satisfaction are 2 interrelated outcome variables; and (2) appraisals are mediators between participation and mental health and life satisfaction, and self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and life satisfaction and indirectly through appraisals. Follow-up measurement of a multicenter prospective cohort study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with specialized SCI units. Persons (N=143) aged 18 to 65 years at the onset of SCI. Not applicable. Mental health was measured by using the Mental Health subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and life satisfaction with the sum score of "current life satisfaction" and "current life satisfaction compared with life satisfaction before SCI." Structural equation modeling showed that activities and neuroticism were related to participation and explained 49% of the variance in participation. Self-efficacy, neuroticism, and 2 appraisals were related to mental health and explained 35% of the variance in mental health. Participation, 3 appraisals, and mental health were related to life satisfaction and together explained 50% of the total variance in life satisfaction. Mental health and life satisfaction can be seen as 2 separate but interrelated outcome variables. Self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and indirectly to life satisfaction through the mediating role of appraisals. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav
Quality of life (QOL) has over the past decade become an important part of health science and also increased public awareness. It has become increasingly apparent that illness is closely related to the individual perception of a good life, and therefore the exploration of indicators related to quality of life appears to be of broad importance for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Identifying, which factors constitute a good life may reveal an understanding about what areas in life should be encouraged, in order to enhance the global quality of life, health, and ability. In this paper we present results from studies initiated in 1989 to examine quality of life in relation to disease. The purpose of this presentation was to assemble the results from the study carried out in the years between 1993 and 1997, examining a total of 11,500 Danes, to show the association between quality of life and a wide series of social indicators.
Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S
The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.
Salem, K; Eshghi, P
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dental and some other aspects of oral health status of young patients with congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) and the impact of these on their quality of life (OHR-QoL) compared with controls. DMFS-dmfs (Decayed, Missed, Filled Tooth surfaces in permanent and primary teeth) scores, Simplified oral hygiene index, occurance of hypoplasia of first permanent molars, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and occlusion of 46 CBD patients at the age range of 2-15 years and 46 of other children as control were compared, and the impact of their oral health situation on quality of life was also investigated. Data were analysed by chi-square, t-test and Pearson correlation. Patients were significantly more caries-free with less decayed teeth in primary-permanent dentition (P = 0.03, t = -2.17).The mean scores of OHR-QoL of CBD patients and controls were not significantly different. Oral Bleeding was the significant variable in relation to 'oral health-related quality of life' in CBD groups (Pearson correlation, r = -0.56, P = 0.000). OHR-QoL in the control group was related to dmfs score (r = -0.392, P = 0.011) and male gender (r = -0.329, P = 0.026). Congenital bleeding disorder CBD patients were found to have a better dental health situation in primary dentition compared with controls; however, their 'oral health-related quality of life' was similar. Oral bleeding was the only significant factor related to OHR-QoL in CBD. It shows an overall importance of development of comprehensive care centres for CBD as the main cause of this achievement. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Rush, Georgia; Misajon, RoseAnne
The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective wellbeing, health-related quality of life and lived experience of women living with endometriosis. In 2015 five hundred participants between the ages of 18-63 (M = 30.5, SD = 7.46) were recruited through Endometriosis Australia and social media, completing an online questionnaire comprising the Personal Wellbeing Index, the Endometriosis Health Profile-30 and various open-ended questions. Results found that women with endometriosis reported low levels of subjective wellbeing (mean PWI total scores of 51.5 ± 2.03), considerably below the normative range of 70-80 for western populations. The mean Endometriosis Health Profile total score indicated a very low health-related quality of life amongst the women in this sample (78.9, ±13.14). There was also a significant relationship between scores on the Endometriosis Health Profile and Personal Wellbeing Index. The findings from the qualitative data suggest that endometriosis impacts negatively on women's lives in several areas such as; social life, relationships and future plans, this in turn affects women's overall life quality. The study highlights the strong negative impact that endometriosis can have on women's subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life, contributing to productivity issues, relationship difficulties and social dissatisfaction and increasing the risk of psychological comorbidities.
This study examined out-of-pocket premium burden of mid-life Asian Americans by comparing six sub-groups of Asians after controlling for geographic clustering at the county and state levels. The 2007-2011 National Health Interview Survey was linked to community-level data and analyzed for 4,628 Asians (ages 50-64), including 697 Asian Indians, 1,125 Chinese, 1,393 Filipinos, 434 Japanese, 524 Koreans, and 455 Vietnamese. Non-Hispanic Whites were included as a comparison group ( n = 48,135). Three-level multilevel modeling (state > county > individual) was conducted. Koreans and Vietnamese were found as vulnerable sub-groups considering their lower private health insurance rates and higher uninsured rates. Among those with private insurance, Asians, specifically Filipinos, paid significantly less than non-Hispanic Whites. Moderate but significant variations in the county- and state-level variance in out-of-pocket premiums were found, especially among mid-life Asians. This study demonstrates the importance of examining within-group heterogeneity and geographic variations in understanding premium burden among mid-life Asians.
Najera-Zuloaga, Josu; Lee, Dae-Jin; Arostegui, Inmaculada
Health-related quality of life has become an increasingly important indicator of health status in clinical trials and epidemiological research. Moreover, the study of the relationship of health-related quality of life with patients and disease characteristics has become one of the primary aims of many health-related quality of life studies. Health-related quality of life scores are usually assumed to be distributed as binomial random variables and often highly skewed. The use of the beta-binomial distribution in the regression context has been proposed to model such data; however, the beta-binomial regression has been performed by means of two different approaches in the literature: (i) beta-binomial distribution with a logistic link; and (ii) hierarchical generalized linear models. None of the existing literature in the analysis of health-related quality of life survey data has performed a comparison of both approaches in terms of adequacy and regression parameter interpretation context. This paper is motivated by the analysis of a real data application of health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, where the use of both approaches yields to contradictory results in terms of covariate effects significance and consequently the interpretation of the most relevant factors in health-related quality of life. We present an explanation of the results in both methodologies through a simulation study and address the need to apply the proper approach in the analysis of health-related quality of life survey data for practitioners, providing an R package.
Sharkey, Christina M; Bakula, Dana M; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L; Mullins, Alexandria J; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L
To examine the relationship of grit, an intrapersonal characteristic defined by perseverance and passion for long-term goals, to health care management skills and adolescent and young adult (AYA) health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Higher levels of grit were expected to relate to greater health care management skills and HRQoL, and skills were predicted to mediate the relationship between grit and HRQoL. Four hundred seventy undergraduates (Mdnage=19, interquartile range = 2) completed online questionnaires, including the short Grit Scale, Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire, and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) (HRQoL). Higher grit related to greater health care management skills (R2=0.15 p.05). This preliminary investigation illustrates the role of grit in AYA health, suggesting that it may be a target for interventions aimed at improving skills and HRQoL outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Yang, Yang; Lee, Linda C.
This study assesses changes in sex and race disparities in health over the life course and across cohorts by conducting growth curve analyses of nationally representative longitudinal data that spans 15 years. It finds that changes in disparities in depressive symptoms, disability and self-assessments of health across the life course are…
Alemayehu, Mekuriaw; Wubshet, Mamo; Mesfin, Nebiyu; Tamiru, Aschalew; Gebayehu, Abebaw
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). When HIV infected patients coinfected with Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) the problem become severe because VL accelerates HIV replication and disease progression. The impact of VL on the quality of life of HIV infected patients has not been studied. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life of HIV infected patients with and without VL. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to September 2016 in selected health centers and hospitals, in Northwest Ethiopia. Data on quality of life was collected by trained nurses. The instrument used to collect the data was the short Amharic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life for HIV clients (WHOQoL-HIV). Depression was assessed using the validated version of Kessler scale. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate linear regression model was used to summarize the results. A total of 590 study participants were included in the study with response rate of 95%. Of the 590 patients included in our study 125 (21%) were HIV-VL coinfection. HIV-VL coinfected patients had a lower quality of life in all the domains as compared to HIV patients without VL. Depression was consistently and strongly associated with all the quality of life domains of both groups. Also, in HIV infected patients a longer duration in ART was associated with higher HRQoL domains except for the spiritual and level of independence domains. With regard to HIV-VL coinfected patients, a longer duration in ART was associated with psychological, spiritual and level of independence domains of HRQoL. Demographics, clinical, and treatment characteristics resulted few significant associations with HRQoL domains of both groups. HIV-VL coinfected patients had a poor quality of life in all the domains of the WHOQoL-HIV instrument
Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima; Norheim, Ole Frithjof
Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011. We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table system developed by the World Health Organization to model mortality rates, life expectancy, and length of life for Ethiopian population groups stratified by wealth quintiles, gender and residence. We then estimated and compared within-group and between-group inequality in length of life using the Gini index and absolute length of life inequality. Length of life inequality has decreased and life expectancy has increased for all population groups between 2000 and 2011. Length of life inequality within wealth quintiles is about three times larger than the between-group inequality of 9 years. Total length of life inequality in Ethiopia was 27.6 years in 2011. Longevity has increased and the distribution of health in Ethiopia is more equal in 2011 than 2000, with length of life inequality reduced for all population groups. Still there is considerable potential for further improvement. In the Ethiopian context with a poor and highly rural population, inequality in length of life within wealth quintiles is considerably larger than between them. This suggests that other factors than wealth substantially contribute to total health inequality in Ethiopia and that identification and quantification of these factors will be important for identifying proper measures to further reduce length of life inequality.
Full Text Available Anna Rosiek,1 Tomasz Kornatowski,1 Natalia Frąckowiak-Maciejewska,1 Aleksandra Rosiek-Kryszewska,2 Przemysław Wyżgowski,3 Krzysztof Leksowski1,3 1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 2Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 3Department of General Surgery, 10th Military Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland Background: The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM carries with it a number of changes to the patient’s lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle, health and preventive behaviors, as well as healthy nutrition habits play a key role in treating T2DM as well as limiting its complications.Materials and methods: The aim of this study was the analysis of the correlation of T2DM patients’ health behaviors and their influence on the patients’ quality of life. The study was performed on a group of 50 patients from the Kuyavian–Pomeranian Voivodeship. In this study, the Health Behavior Inventory and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. The results were statistically analyzed. The study was approved by the ethics committee.Results: The intensity of severity of health behavior and satisfaction with life of T2DM patients depends on the gender of the patient (P<0.05. The analysis of the patients’ behaviors in four categories, proper eating habits (consuming vegetables, fruit, whole meal bread, health practices (daily physical activity, recreation, sleeping habits, preventive behaviors (including keeping to health recommendations, and positive mental attitude, showed substantial correlation of the Health Behavior Inventory and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (P<0.05.Conclusion: The categorization of the prohealth behaviors shown by diabetics allowed us to measure the connection between the individual categories of satisfaction with life. Males with T2DM showed a higher satisfaction with life score than females with
Bayati, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reza; Kavosi, Zahra
Determinants of health or health production function in health economics literature constitute noticeable issues in health promotion. This study aimed at estimating a health production function for East Mediterranean Region (EMR) based on the Grossman theoretical model. This ecological study was performed using the econometric methods. The panel data model was used in order to determine the relationship between life expectancy and socioeconomic factors. The data for 21 EMR countries between 1995 and 2007 were used. Fixed-effect-model was employed to estimate the parameters based on Hausman test. In estimating the health production function, factors such as income per capita (β=0.05, Pdeterminants of health status, proxied by life expectancy at birth. A notable result was the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to the employment rate and its significance level was different between males (β=0.13, P0.001). In order to improve the health status in EMR countries, health policymakers should focus on the factors which lie outside the healthcare system. These factors are mainly associated with economic growth and development level. Thus, the economic stabilisation policies with the aim of increasing the productivity, economic growth, and reducing unemployment play significant roles in the health status of the people of the region.
McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...
Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.
of less healthy foods (sugar-sweetened beverages). Further studies are needed to test whether this conclusion holds within a more comprehensive assessment of environmental and nutritional health impacts. Conclusions This case study provides the first quantitative epidemiology-based estimate......Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional...
Full Text Available Background: Mental health professionals are the main instrument for intervention in this area considered as a priority in Public Health and are subject to emotional exhaustion and stress that can negatively affect their quality of life. Aims: This study aims to assess the influence of job characteristics on health-related quality of life of health professionals.Methods: To address this it was decided to conduct a cross-sectional analytical study with a quantitative approach. SF-36v2 was used as a generic instrument for assessing quality of life, which is already validated for Portuguese population, complemented by a social and professional survey. Data collection took place from 28 January to 30 April 2013.Results and Conclusions: The sample comprised 201 mental health professionals in Portugal. Health-related quality of life shows statistically significant differences in the groups of studied professionals, according to the number of hours worked per week (p=0.04 and the degree of job satisfaction (p<0.001. The assessment of the quality of life of mental health professionals allows the implementation of changes in the organization of mental health services and may contribute to an improvement in the provision of healthcare services.
Kimberly K. McClanahan
Full Text Available Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S. over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.
McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.
Pronk, Nicolaas P; Kottke, Thomas E; Lowry, Marcia; Katz, Abigail S; Gallagher, Jason M; Knudson, Susan M; Rauri, Sachin J; Tillema, Juliana O
We assessed and tracked perceptions of well-being among employees of member companies of HealthPartners, a nonprofit health care provider and health insurance company in Bloomington, Minnesota. The objective of our study was to determine the concordance between self-reported life satisfaction and a construct of subjective well-being that comprised 6 elements of well-being: emotional and mental health, social and interpersonal status, financial status, career status, physical health, and community support. We analyzed responses of 23,268 employees (of 37,982 invitees) from 6 HealthPartners companies who completed a health assessment in 2011. We compared respondents' answers to the question, "How satisfied are you with your life?" with their indicators of well-being where "high life satisfaction" was defined as a rating of 9 or 10 on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest) and "high level of well-being" was defined as a rating of 9 or 10 for 5 or 6 of the 6 indicators of well-being. We found a correlation between self-reported life satisfaction and the number of well-being elements scored as high (9 or 10) (r = 0.62, P life satisfaction, only 34.7% of those indicating high life satisfaction reported high overall well-being. The correlation between self-reported life satisfaction and our well-being measure was strong, and members who met our criterion of high overall well-being were likely to report high life satisfaction. However, many respondents who reported high life satisfaction did not meet our criterion for high overall well-being, which suggests that either they adapted to negative life circumstances or that our well-being measure did not identify their sources of life satisfaction.
Full Text Available Objective: The World Health Organization's definition of health now stands open to severe criticism due to changes in today's world and the accompanying mental void; in addition to physical, psychological, and social aspects, spiritual health and its interaction with the other aspects has been studied in scientific literature and recent research. The present study was conducted to investigate the mediating role of emotional regulation in the relationship between spiritual health with quality of life, psychological health, and burnout.Method: In this study, 231 staff from Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences completed Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF, General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28, and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. The gathered data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, Hierarchical Regression analysis, and Sobel’s test.Results: All variables were correlated with one another (p<0.001. The hierarchical regression analysis and Sobel’s test indicated that the emotional regulation have a relative mediating role in the relationship between spiritual health and quality of life (ß=0.53, Z=4.05, p<0.001 and a complete mediating role in the relationship between spiritual health with mental health (ß=0.68, Z=5.62, p<0.001 and burnout (ß=0.70, Z=6.12, p<0.001.Conclusion: There is a complex and non-linear relationship between spiritual health and the areas of quality of life, mental health and burnout. This relationship is potentially influenced by emotional regulation.
Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.
Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli
Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054
de Frias, Cindy M; Whyne, Erum
The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50-85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e. SF36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elders Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with higher levels of trait mindfulness. The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on mental health.
Hafslund, Bjorg; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen
To measure health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression ahead of mammography screening and to assess any differences in health-related quality of life compared to reference population. The study of health-related quality of life among attendees prior to mammography screening has received little attention, and increased knowledge is needed to better understand the overall health benefits of participation. A two-group cross-sectional comparative study was performed. The samples comprised 4,249 attendees to mammography screening and a comparison group of 943 women. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to assess health-related quality of life. Linear regression was used to study any differences between the groups with adjustment for age, level of education, occupation, having children and smoking status. Other normative data were also used. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Attendees scored statistically significant higher on the SF-36 than the comparison group but were in line with normative data. Attendees had anxiety mean 4·1 and depression mean 2·6. The majority of the attendees have a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression ahead of screening. Anxiety and depression were less than shown in normative data from Norway. Despite a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression among the majority, healthcare workers should pay special attention to the few women who are anxious and depressed, and have a lower health-related quality of life. Omitted from mammography screening may be women who are unemployed, have lower socioeconomic status, are anxious and are depressed. Further research should be performed with non-attendees and subgroups to improve the screening programme. It is important to identify which patients have the greatest need for support and caring in an organised mammography screening and who may be overlooked. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Christensen, Karl Bang
follow-up after 1 year. Scores of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), physical activity, anxiety and depression and health-related quality of life (FACT-Br) are obtained. Patients' physical activity level and KPS decrease during the disease- and treatment trajectory. The majority of patients did......The diagnosis of a high-grade glioma usual is followed by functional impairment(s), cognitive decline and an impaired psycho-social well-being. This might well have a significant and negative impact on the health related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity...... levels, prevalence and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life among patients with a highgrade glioma. This paper is based on a longitudinal mixed methods study. Patients (n = 30) completed questionnaires at 5 time points from time of diagnosis until the final...
Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.; Lund, Michael T.; Hansen, Merethe
Objective: To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method: Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study...... to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales () and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest...... contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion: The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery....
Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung
The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…
Slavich, George M.
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body…
Caplan, Nick; Robson, H; Robson, A; Barry, G; Wilkes, G
Community-based musculoskeletal physiotherapy is used to improve function and health related quality of life (HRQoL). The purpose of this retrospective, multi-centre observational study was to determine the association between community-based physiotherapy management for musculoskeletal disorders and changes in HRQoL. Four thousand one hundred twelve patients' data were included in the study. Patients were included if they received a single period of treatment for a musculoskeletal injury or disorder. Patients were only included if they were being treated for a single morbidity. Patients received standard physiotherapy appropriate to their specific disorder, which could include health education/advice, exercise therapy, manual therapy, taping, soft tissue techniques, electrotherapy and/or acupuncture. Health related quality of life was assessed using the EQ-5D index. EQ-5D improved by 0.203 across all patients (d = 1.10). When grouped by anatomical site of symptom, the largest increases in EQ-5D was in foot pain (0.233; d = 1.29) and lumbar pain (0.231; d = 1.13). Improvements in EQ-5D greater than the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) were seen in 68.4% of all patients. The highest proportion of patients with positive responses to treatment were in ankle pain (74.2%) and thoracic pain (73.4%). The hand (40.5%), elbow (34.7%), and hip (33.9%) showed the greatest proportion of patients that did not respond to treatment. Community-based musculoskeletal physiotherapy is associated with improved health related quality of life. A randomised controlled trial is needed to determine any causal relationship between community-based physiotherapy and health related quality of life improvements.
Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Albertini Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Lidén, Hilde
Aims and objectives: To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Background: Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. Results: Immigrant parents of children with complex health need...
Hung, Dorothy Y; Glasgow, Russell E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Froshaug, Desireé B; Fernald, Douglas H; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Green, Larry A
The chronic care model (CCM) is a system-level framework used to guide quality improvement efforts in health care. However, little is known about its relationship to patient-level health measures. This study describes the implementation of the CCM as adapted for prevention and health behavior counseling in primary care practices, and examines relationships between the CCM and patient health measures, including general health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Baseline data from Round 2 of the Prescription for Health initiative (2005-2007) were used to assess CCM implementation in 57 practices located nationwide. Relationships between the CCM and three separate measures of health among 4735 patients were analyzed in 2007. A hierarchical generalized linear modeling approach to ordinal regression was used to estimate categories of general health status, unhealthy days, and activity-limiting days, adjusting for patient covariates and clustering effects. Outcome variances were significantly accounted for by differences in practice characteristics (pPractices that used individual or group planned visits were more likely to see patients in lower health categories across all measures (OR=0.74-0.81, pPractices that used patient registries, health promotion champions, evidence-based guidelines, publicly reported performance measures, and support for behavior change were associated with higher patient health levels (OR=1.28-1.98, ppractice's implementation of the CCM was significantly related to patient health status and HRQOL. Adapting the CCM for prevention may serve to reorient care delivery toward more proactive behavior change and improvements in patient health outcomes.
Abuzar, Menaka A; Kahwagi, Esperance; Yamakawa, Takeshi
To investigate the prevalence and severity of oral health-related quality of life in patients treated with removable partial dentures at a publicly-funded dental hospital. The association between patients' demographic profiles, denture-related, variables and oral health-related quality of life was also investigated. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the use and satisfaction of removable partial dentures, and oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. The questionnaire was administered to 740 randomly-selected patients who received removable partial dentures during 2005-2008. The response rate was 31.35%. Non-parametric tests and a logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between denture-related variables and oral health-related quality of life. A question on symptoms unrelated to dentures was also analyzed. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 prevalence calculated was 43.1%. The removable partial denture experience and frequency of use was inversely associated with Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores. Metal-based removable partial dentures were associated with lower Oral Health Impact Profile prevalence and severity scores. No significant association was found between demographic profile, circumstance for provision of removable partial dentures and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 score. The participants of this study indicated that perceived denture performance, removable partial dentures material, experience, and frequency of use are associated with oral health-related quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Background: Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been shown to be more relevant to patients who have chronic diseases such as asthma, as achieving the best possible quality of life is the paramount objective in the management of such patients. This study assessed the quality of life of asthma patients ...
Full Text Available Objectives Yoga is commonly being adopted and prescribed with the intent to increase a participant’s health-related quality of life. In practice, the current gold-standard health-related quality of life measurement tool is the SF-36 and SF-12 assessments. Therefore, it is important for yoga scientists and practitioners to understand yoga’s effects on health-related quality of life when in fact a gold-standard assessment is implemented. The purpose of this study was to employ systematic review and meta-analytic techniques to examine the effect of yoga on measures of health-related quality of life measured using only the SF-36/12 assessments. Methods A current (January 2007 to December 2016 systematic review of the Pubmed database was conducted and included studies that used yoga as an intervention with outcomes measures of health-related quality of life measured by the SF-36/12. Ten different measures were extracted from studies including eight dimension scores (physical functioning, bodily pain, physical role function, general health, mental health, emotional role function, social function, and vitality and two summary scores (physical component and mental component. Ten different meta-analyses were performed using calculated standardized mean effect sizes and random effects models. Both moderator and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results A total of 34 studies were included is the analyses with 185 independent effect sizes. Yoga intervention showed a significant positive effect on all ten measures of the SF-36/12. Effects ranged from 0.56 (0.39-0.73 to 0.28 (0.17-0.40. Yoga type (Hatha, Iyengar, Other moderated the effects of yoga intervention on the mental component (p=.021, with Hatha yielding the greatest effects (ES=1.63, 0.61-2.65. The sensitivity analysis showed little to no bias in mean effect size estimates. Conclusions The meta-analytic evidence clearly supports the small-to-medium positive effects of yoga on health
Full Text Available The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.
Treyer, Karin; Bauer, Christian; Simons, Andrew
This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based quantification of the potential human health impacts (HHI) of base-load power generation technologies for the year 2030. Cumulative Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced are shown in order to provide the basis for comparison with existing literature. Minimising negative impacts on human health is one of the key elements of policy making towards sustainable development: besides their direct impacts on quality of life, HHI also trigger other impacts, e.g. external costs in the health care system. These HHI are measured using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods “ReCiPe” with its three different perspectives and “IMPACT2002+”. Total HHI as well as the shares of the contributing damage categories vary largely between these perspectives and methods. Impacts due to climate change, human toxicity, and particulate matter formation are the main contributors to total HHI. Independently of the perspective chosen, the overall impacts on human health from nuclear power and renewables are substantially lower than those caused by coal power, while natural gas can have lower HHI than nuclear and some renewables. Fossil fuel combustion as well as coal, uranium and metal mining are the life cycle stages generating the highest HHI. - Highlights: • Life cycle human health impacts (HHI) due to electricity production are analysed. • Results are shown for the three ReCiPe perspectives and IMPACT2002+LCIA method. • Total HHI of nuclear and renewables are much below those of fossil technologies. • Climate change and human toxicity contribute most to total HHI. • Fossil fuel combustion and coal mining are the most polluting life cycle stages
Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Minacapelli, Eleonora; Falautano, Monica; Demontis, Silvia; Carpentras, Giovanni; Pugliatti, Maura
Personality traits can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in different disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS), personality traits can determine patients' willingness to take on more risky treatment options, predispose to neuropsychiatric symptoms and affect coping strategies. We investigated the role of personality traits as possible predictors of HRQoL in a large cohort of persons with MS (PwMS). In total, 253 consecutively recruited PwMS were screened for intellectual deficits with Raven Colour Progressive Matrices (RCPM), state anxiety with STAI-X1 and major depression on a clinical basis. PwMS' self-perceived mental and physical health status was measured with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the personality profile with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). The correlation between HRQoL and personality traits was investigated by means of analysis of variance, adjusting for possible confounders. Of the 253 MS patients, 195 (F:M=2.75), aged 41.7±10.2 years were included in the analysis. The variance of SF-36 mental and physical composite score was largely explained by extraversion and neuroticism. Our data confirm that PwMS' HRQoL is largely influenced by personality traits, which may therefore act as predictors of perceived quality of life and should be included in clinical and experimental settings focusing on HRQoL. © The Author(s), 2015.
Lee, Jae Eun; Fos, Peter J; Zuniga, Miguel A; Kastl, Peter R; Sung, Jung Hye
This study was conducted to assess the presence and/or absence of cross-cultural differences or similarities between Korean and United States cataract patients. A systematic assessment was performed using utility and psychometric measures in the study population. A cross-sectional study design was used to examine the comparison of preoperative outcomes measures in cataract patients in Korea and the United States. Study subjects were selected using non-probabilistic methods and included 132 patients scheduled for cataract surgery in one eye. Subjects were adult cataract patients at Samsung and Kunyang General Hospital in Seoul, Korea, and Tulane University Hospital and Clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana. Preoperative utility was assessed using the verbal rating scale and standard reference gamble techniques. Current preoperative health status was assessed using the SF-36 and VF-14 surveys. Current preoperative Snellen visual acuity was used as a clinical measure of vision status. Korean patients were more likely to be younger (p = 0.001), less educated (p = 0.001), and to have worse Snellen visual acuity (p = 0.002) than United States patients. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that in contrast to Korean patients, United States patients were assessed to have higher scoring in general health, vitality, VF-14, and verbal rating for visual health. This higher scoring trend persisted after controlling for age, gender, education and Snellen visual acuity. The difference in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between the two countries was quite clear, especially in the older age and highly educated group. Subjects in Korea and the United States were significantly different in quality of life, functional status and clinical outcomes. Subjects in the United States had more favorable health outcomes than those in Korea. These differences may be caused by multiple factors, including country-specific differences in economic status, health care system
Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio, Laura; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona
The aim of this study was on one hand to examine the associations between health impairment and life satisfaction, as well as social support and life satisfaction, and on the other, to analyze the moderating effect of social support with regard to health impairment and life satisfaction in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from urban areas of Granada, southern Spain. This was a cross-sectional survey in which a sample of 406 older adults with ages between 65 and 99 years old (M age = 74.88, SD = 6.75) was selected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the impact of health impairment and perceived social support on life satisfaction. Moderation analysis was performed using the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping approach. Significant differences in life satisfaction scores were found by number and type of disease, restrictions in daily life activities and subjective health. Perceived health and perceived social support predicted life satisfaction. Besides global social support, emotional and affectionate support moderated the link between perceived health and life satisfaction. Older people who do not rate their health status positively and indicate low levels of social support have a higher risk of being dissatisfied with their lives and due to this they should receive special attention from gerontologists.
D'Egidio, V; Sestili, C; Mancino, M; Sciarra, I; Cocchiara, R; Backhaus, I; Mannocci, A; De Luca, Alessandro; Frusone, Federico; Monti, Massimo; La Torre, G
Higher survival rates for breast cancer patients have led to concerns in dealing with short- and long-term side effects. The most common complications are impairment of shoulder functions, pain, lymphedema, and dysesthesia of the injured arm; psychological consequences concern: emotional distress, anxiety, and depression, thereby, deeply impacting/affecting daily living activity, and health-related quality of life. To perform a systematic review for assessing the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions aiming at improving health-related quality of life, return to daily activity, and correct lifestyles among breast cancer patients. A literature search was conducted in December 2016 using the databases PubMed and Scopus. Search terms included: (counseling) AND (breast cancer) AND (quality of life). Articles on counseling interventions to improve quality of life, physical and psychological outcomes were included. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. The interventions were grouped in five main areas: concerning lifestyle counseling interventions, related to combined interventions (physical activity and nutritional counseling), physical therapy, peer counseling, multidisciplinary approach, included psychological, psycho-educational interventions, and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). Exercise counseling as well as physical therapy are effective to improve shoulder mobility, healing wounds, and limb strength. Psychological therapies such as psychoeducation and CBT may help to realize a social and psychological rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach can help in sustaining and restoring impaired physical, psychosocial, and occupational outcomes of breast cancer patients.
Lucchetti, G; Lucchetti, A L G; Oliveira, G R; Crispim, D; Pires, S L; Gorzoni, M L; Panicio, C R G; Koenig, H G
Despite the high number of studies on family caregivers, there is little research on the impact of religiosity on formal caregiving (paid providers). We examine the role of religiousness in the mental health, quality of life and stress of nurse aides (NA) who provide care for patients in a nursing home. NA in a Brazilian nursing home were invited to participate. Because of its coping function, we hypothesized that religiousness was related to better mental health and quality of life. Linear regression was used to test this hypothesis and control for confounders. Compared with the Brazilian general population, NA scored higher on measures of religious involvement. Intrinsic religiosity was associated with better mental health and quality of life. Organizational religiosity was associated with better social functioning, better general mental health and fewer anxiety symptoms. Non-organizational religiosity (prayer), however, was associated with negative outcomes, such as higher stress, poorer general health perceptions and more anxiety symptoms. Most NA indicated that they had prayed for and with their patients. In conclusion, paid caregivers (NA) have a strong sense of religiousness, which plays an important role in many ways, including the type of care they provide, their mental health and their quality of life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena
The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up. This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey. Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food) and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil). After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5) and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health) to -3.5 (for vitality). On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning) to +3.4 (for vitality) when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences. Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.
Full Text Available The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up.This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey.Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil. After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5 and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health to -3.5 (for vitality. On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning to +3.4 (for vitality when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences.Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
Full Text Available The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the Short Form–36, a generic (nondisease-specific health-related quality of life measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific health-related quality of life measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being.
Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B
The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.
Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Payne, Warren
To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA). 793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders. A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA. Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.
Flores, M.; Kalwij, A.S.
Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this paper provides empirical evidence for the Netherlands and Spain on the associations between individuals’ early life circumstances—measured by health and socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood—educational attainment, and
Juliane Piasseschi de Bernardin Gonçalves
Full Text Available To examine whether religious and spiritual interventions (RSIs can promote physical health and quality of life in individuals.The following databases were used to conduct a systematic review: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Scielo. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated RSIs regarding physical health outcomes and/or quality of life in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RSI protocols performed at a distance (i.e. intercessory prayer or for psychiatric disorders were excluded. This study consisted of two phases: (a reading titles and abstracts, and (b assessing the full articles and their methodological quality using the Cochrane Back Review Group scale.In total, 7,070 articles were identified in the search, but 6884 were excluded in phase 1 because they were off topic or repeated in databases. Among the 186 articles included in phase 2, 140 were excluded because they did not fit the inclusion criteria and 16 did not have adequate randomization process. Thus, a final selection of 30 articles remained. The participants of the selected studies were classified in three groups: chronic patients (e.g., cancer, obesity, pain, healthy individuals and healthcare professionals. The outcomes assessed included quality of life, physical activity, pain, cardiac outcomes, promotion of health behaviors, clinical practice of healthcare professionals and satisfaction with protocols. The divergence concerning scales and protocols proposed did not allow a meta-analysis. RSIs as a psychotherapy approach were performed in 40% of the studies, and the control group was more likely to use an educational intervention (56.7%. The results revealed small effect sizes favoring RSIs in quality of life and pain outcomes and very small effects sizes in physical activity, promotion of health behaviors and clinical practice of health professionals compared with other complementary strategies. Other outcomes, such as cardiac measures
Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie
The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.
Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Rudolf H.
Objective To evaluate the post-remission status of older remitted problem drinkers who achieved stable remission without treatment. Method The post-remission drinking behavior, health-related functioning, life context, coping, and help-seeking of older, untreated (n = 330) and treated (n = 120) former problem drinkers who had been remitted for a minimum of six years were compared twice over the course of six-years to each other and to lifetime nonproblem drinkers (n = 232). Analyses considered the impact of severity of drinking problem history. Results Untreated remitters were more likely than treated remitters to continue to drink, exhibited fewer chronic health problems and less depressive symptomatology, and were less likely to smoke. Untreated remitters’ life contexts were somewhat more benign than those of treated ones, and they were less likely to describe a coping motive for drinking and engage in post-remission help-seeking. Although untreated remitters more closely resembled lifetime nonproblem drinkers than did treated remitters, both untreated and treated remitter groups exhibited worse health-related functioning, more financial and interpersonal stressors, and more post-remission help-seeking than did lifetime nonproblem drinkers. Conclusions Regardless of whether late-life remission was gained without or with treatment, prior drinking problems conveyed a legacy of health-related and life context deficits. PMID:18829184
Vadstrup, Eva S; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans
Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness ...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....
Evers, A.W.M.; Duller, P.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Otero, E.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Kraaimaat, F.W.
BACKGROUND: In dermatological research and clinical practice, there is a need for comprehensive self-report instruments that assess a broad spectrum of health implications of chronic skin diseases, including generic and skin-specific aspects of disease-related quality of life. The advantages of
López-Valcárcel Beatriz G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although health is one of the main determinants of the welfare of societies, few studies have evaluated health related quality of life in representative samples of the population of a region or a country. Our aim is to describe the health-related quality of life of the inhabitants of two quite different Spanish regions (Canary Islands and Catalonia and to compare the prevalence of health problems between age-sex groups. Methods We use data obtained from the 2006 Health Survey of Catalonia and the 2004 Canary Islands Health Survey. With an ordinal composite variable measuring HRQOL we identify the association of characteristics of individuals with self-reported quality of life and test for differences between the regions. Results The prevalence of problems in the five EQ-5 D dimensions increases with age and is generally higher for women than for men. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems is "anxiety/depression", and there is noteworthy the extent of discomfort and pain among Canary Island women. Education, especially among the elderly, has an important effect on health-related quality of life. Conclusions There are substantial structural and compositional differences between the two regions. Regional context is a significant factor, independent of the compositional differences, and the effects of context are manifest above all in women. The findings show the importance of disease prevention and the need for improving the educational level of the population in order to reduce health inequalities.
Objective: To determine Health Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) profiles of patients with Rheumatoid. Arthritis (RA). ..... hypertension, accounting for 11 out the 20, followed by peptic .... of life and work in patients with RA and AS of working age.
Pokhrel, Khem N; Sharma, Vidya D; Shibanuma, Akira; Pokhrel, Kalpana G; Mlunde, Linda B; Jimba, Masamine
HIV-positive people often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use. Such conditions tend to impair their health-related quality of life (QOL). Evidence, however, is limited about the influence of mental health disorders and substance use on QOL by gender. Also, little is known about the influences of anxiety and high levels of stress on QOL. We recruited 682 HIV-positive people in Nepal and measured their depression, anxiety, stress levels, substance use, and QOL. Multiple linear regressions assessed the association of mental health disorders and substance use with QOL. Presence of depressive symptoms was negatively associated with all domains of QOL including the physical (men: β = -0.68, p = 0.037; women: β = -1.37, p mental health disorders and substance use had negative associations with QOL. Attention should be given to addressing the mental health care needs of HIV-positive people to improve their QOL.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...
Bonita, R; Howe, A L
This article, based on a report (Women, aging and health: achieving health across the life span) prepared for the WHO Global Commission on Women's Health under the guidance of WHO's Aging and Health Programme, presents demographic data that clearly demonstrate the need for recognition of the health of aging women as a global issue of major public health concern. The authors show that, while female life expectancy at birth is significantly different in developed and developing countries (because of high infant and maternal mortality in the latter), these differences tend to decrease for women in developing countries who reach middle age. The authors review the various facets of the "gender transition" brought about by demographic and epidemiological transitions, drawing attention to contrasts between the situation in developing countries in Asia and Latin America and that in Eastern Europe, for example. The role of older women as care-givers is discussed, as is the likelihood of a future increase in the proportion of older women living alone in the developing world (a factor which renders them particularly vulnerable in many socioeconomic and health respects). Suggestions are made on methodologies for monitoring health trends in aging women, and on the role of WHO in this respect. A basic goal for global strategies relating to the health of older women is formulated: reduction of the inequities in life expectancy between developed and developing countries.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J
The objective of the current study was to explore whether retired professional footballers suffering from lower extremity OA have a lower health-related quality of life than those without OA or current professional footballers. An observational study based on a cross-sectional design by means of questionnaires was conducted. Participants were retired and current professional footballers recruited by the World Players' Union (FIFPro). Information about lower extremity OA (clinically diagnosed by a medical professional) was gathered, while health-related quality of life (Global Physical Health and Global Mental Health scores) was assessed through a validated scale. A total of 396 retired and 361 current professional footballers were included in the analyses (response rate of 54%). The group of retired professional footballers was on average 36 years old, and they had competed in professional football for 11 years (retired for 5 years). The group of current professional footballers was on average 25 years old, and they had been active in professional football for 7 years. Within the group of retired professional footballers, prevalence of lower extremity OA was 33%. Both Global Physical Health and Global Mental Health scores among retired professional footballers with lower extremity OA were significantly lower than among retired players without OA and current players, but these scores were nearly similar to the norm for the general population (regardless the presence of OA or not). Health-related quality of life among retired professional footballers with lower extremity OA was significantly lower than among retired players without OA and current players but nearly similar to the norm for the general population (regardless the presence of OA or not). A rational recommendation is that a support measure such as the After Career Consultation should be introduced among retired professional footballers in order to empower their sustainable health and quality of life
A large, venerable literature demonstrates the importance of social relationships and social support for health, though much less research examines whether the benefits of social support to mothers extend to children. This paper examines the relationship between mothers' perceptions of instrumental support and children's health using longitudinal data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4342), a cohort of American children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents. Results suggest mothers' perceptions of instrumental support is positively associated with children's overall health, and this finding persists despite controlling for a host of individual-level characteristics of mothers and children (including a lagged indicator of children's health) and in fixed-effect models. Mothers' economic security and mothers' wellbeing attenuate some, but not all, of the association between perceived instrumental support and children's overall health. In addition, the link between perceived instrumental support and three specific indicators of health - asthma, overweight/obese, and number of emergency room visits - falls to statistical insignificance after accounting for individual-level characteristics, suggesting these associations result from social selection processes. Taken together, these findings suggest the beneficial health consequences of social support may extend to children across the early life course and demonstrate the need to better understand mothers' reports of children's overall health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heo, Eun Hwa; Kim, Sehyun; Park, Hye-Ja; Kil, Suk Yong
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a simulated laughter programme on mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. Forty participants were randomly assigned to a laughter group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Eleven participants completed the laughter programme after haemodialysis sessions and 18 control participants remained. The 4-week simulated laughter programme included weekly 60 min group sessions of simulated laughter, breathing, stretching exercises, and meditation, as well as daily 15 s individual laughter sessions administered via telephone. Mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life were analysed using the rank analysis of covariance, and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The laughter group exhibited improvements in mood, symptoms, social interaction quality, and role limitations due to physical health. The simulated laughter programme may help improve mood and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of health education on quality of life of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Design: Quasi-Experimental study. Setting: Comprehensive Care Centres (CCC), at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi District Hospital. Subject: One hundred and ninety five persons living with HIV/AIDS attending ...
Full Text Available The growth of the post-retirement population, which has occurred as a result of rapid growth in life expectancy coupled with the ageing of the baby boomer cohort, has led to significant concern. This concern, however, typically neglects the heterogeneity of later life experiences and how these are patterned by inequalities that reflect how process of social stratification continue to operate into later life. This paper draws on a programme of work, based on analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, to empirically examine questions of inequality in later life. It begins by illustrating the patterning of health inequality. It then investigates the importance of later life contexts and events in shaping inequality through and after the retirement process. In doing so it examines the extent to which later life continues to reflect stable social structures that shape inequalities and, consequently, health and wellbeing in later life. The paper then illustrates how the effects of socioeconomic position on health in later life can be theorised as a product of class processes, borrowing in part from Bourdieu. Other dimensions of inequality, such as gender, ethnicity, area and sexuality, are not discussed here. The paper concludes with a discussion of the need for a close focus on inequalities in later life in research, policy and practice.
Acharya, S; Bhat, P V; Acharya, S
To assess oral health status and to describe the possible factors that could affect the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a group of pregnant rural women in South India. A total of 259 pregnant women (mean age 26 +/- 5.5 years) who participated in the cross-sectional study were administered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and were clinically examined for caries and periodontal status. The highest oral impact on quality of life was reported for 'painful mouth' (mean: 1.7) and 'difficulty in eating' (mean: 1.1). On comparing the mean OHIP-14 scores against the various self-reported oral problems, it was seen that the mean OHIP-14 scores were significantly higher among those who reported various oral problems than those who did not. Those with previous history of pregnancies had more severe levels of gingivitis than those who were pregnant for the first time. Also gingival index scores, community periodontal index of treatment needs scores and previous pregnancies was associated with poorer OHRQoL scores. Increased health promotion interventions and simple educational preventive programmes on oral self-care and disease prevention during pregnancy can go a long way in improving oral health and lessening its impact on the quality of life in this important population.
Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wang, Wen-Chen; Hu, Kai-Fang
The effect of periodontal surgery on patients' quality of life was investigated. Sixty patients received regenerative surgery or resective osseous surgery. Oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life instruments were used to assess the participants' quality of life before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Periodontal surgery can improve patients' quality of life by alleviating the physical pain and psychological discomfort. The scores were lower (more favorable) in the regenerative surgery group, and the functional limitations of the regenerative surgery group improved substantially compared with those of the resective osseous surgery group (P = 0.0421). The patients' oral health-related quality of life scores improved significantly after periodontal surgery. Clinicians can take advantage of the positive functional oral health-related quality of life impacts of regenerative surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K
We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shea Christopher M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology (HIT applications that incorporate point-of-care use of health-related quality of life (HRQL assessments are believed to promote patient-centered interactions between seriously ill patients and physicians. However, it is unclear how willing primary care providers are to use such HRQL HIT applications. The specific aim of this study was to explore factors that providers consider when assessing the value added of an HRQL application for their geriatric patients. Methods Three case studies were developed using the following data sources: baseline surveys with providers and staff, observations of staff and patients, audio recordings of patient-provider interactions, and semi-structured interviews with providers and staff. Results The primary factors providers considered when assessing value added were whether the HRQL information from the module was (1 duplicative of information gathered via other means during the encounter; (2 specific enough to be useful and/or acted upon, and; (3 useful for enough patients to warrant time spent reviewing it for all geriatric patients. Secondary considerations included level of integration of the HRQL and EHR, impact on nursing workflow, and patient reluctance to provide HRQL information. Conclusions Health-related quality of life modules within electronic health record systems offer the potential benefit of improving patient centeredness and quality of care. However, the modules must provide benefits that are substantial and prominent in order for physicians to decide that they are worthwhile and sustainable. Implications of this study for future research include the identification of perceived "costs" as well as a foundation for operationalizing the concept of "usefulness" in the context of such modules. Finally, developers of these modules may need to make their products customizable for practices to account for variation in EHR capabilities and practice
Globally there is a serious need to equip children and young people with knowledge, attitudes, skills and values to assist them in making healthy lifestyle choices. Life skills education is possibly among the most important answers to the problems and challenges many young people are faced with. Life skills programs are being developed to address the alarming increase in high risk health behaviours among adolescents. According to international research, Health promotion is a critical life ski...
Conclusions: The findings from this study confirm that the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire is a reliable instrument to measure quality of life in health-care staff. From the data, it appears that Neyshabur health-care staff has WHOQOL-BREF scores that might be considered to indicate a relatively moderate quality of life.
Aabom, Anne; Nguyen, Dan; Fisker, Niels
have considerable impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adult patients. Half the patients with C1-INH-HAE develop symptoms before the age of 10 years. However, the HRQoL in children with C1-INH-HAE is almost unexplored. Objective: To investigate HRQoL in Danish children with C1...... were the PedsQL (Child Self-Report and Parent Proxy-Report forms); the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index; a nonvalidated, diseasespecific quality-of-life questionnaire; and two visual analog scales that rated general health. Results: The HRQoL scores in our study were comparable with the normal...... the Parent Proxy-Report form carried the disease. Conclusion: Overall, the children assessed on average had a normal HRQoL and better than those with other common skin disorders. However, according to our findings, health care providers should be especially attentive to HRQoL when children with C1-INH...
Barclay-Goddard, Ruth; King, Judy; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Schwartz, Carolyn E
A major goal of treatment for people living with chronic illness or disability is self-management leading to optimized health-related quality of life. This change process has been described in the adult education literature as transformative learning, while in health-related quality of life research, response shift has emerged as a key concept. Response shift and transformative learning literature were reviewed, and the theoretical frameworks of the 2 concepts were compared and contrasted. Response shift is described as a change in internal standards, values, or definition of a construct (eg, health-related quality of life) over time, commonly seen in individuals with chronic illness. In the context of chronic illness, transformative learning is described as a complex process of personal change including beliefs, feelings, knowledge, and values. Transformative learning is often triggered by the diagnosis of a chronic illness. This results in a critical reflection of taken-for-granted assumptions and leads to new ways of thinking, influencing personal changes in daily living. Comparing the models of response shift and transformative learning in chronic illness, the catalyst in response shift appears comparable with the trigger in transformational learning; mechanisms to process of changing; and perceived quality of life to outcomes. Both transformative learning and response shift have much to offer health care providers in understanding the learning process for the person living with chronic illness or disability to optimize their quality of life. Suggestions for future research in response shift and transformative learning in individuals with chronic health conditions and disability are proposed. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in
Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter
Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than
Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Caicedo Roa, Monica; Galvao, Tais Freire
To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner cities (0.908 ± 0.122; p quality of life than women (β = 0.041, p quality of life compared with being formally employed (β = 0.031, p = 0.037). The poorest people had a lower quality of life than the richest people (β = -0.118, p quality of life in the Manaus Metropolitan Region was high, as expected for the general population, and was higher among individuals who lived in the inner cities, men and those in higher social classes. Gender discrepancies and differences in quality of life between the capital and inner cities should be further investigated.
Höltge, Jan; Mc Gee, Shauna L; Thoma, Myriam V
The steeling effect suggests that early-life adversity can have a beneficial impact later in life. However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes . The study aimed to examine the role of early-life adversity (ELA) on successful aging, and whether this relationship can be explained by mental and physical health. Socio-demographics, early-life adversity (ELA), individual quality of life (iQoL), and mental and physical health of 270 individuals (M age = 66.82 years, 71.5% female) were assessed. Polynomial regressions and mediation analyses were conducted. Significant inverse U-shaped associations were found between ELA and iQoL (β = -.59, p = .005) and between ELA and mental health (β = -.64, p = .002), but not between ELA and physical health. Furthermore, mental health significantly mediated the relationship between ELA and iQoL (b = -.84, BCa CI [-1.66, -.27]). Highest level of individual quality of life (i.e. successful aging) was related to a moderate amount of ELA. Additionally, mental health significantly mediated this relationship. These findings suggest that some amount of ELA could be beneficial for successful aging. Resource-focused interventions are needed to improve health and promote successful aging for an underdetected, at-risk subgroup with low early-life adversity.
Ricci, P; Mezzarobba, M; Blotière, P O; Polton, D
To measure the reimbursed health expenditures in the last year of life and the proportion it represents in total reimbursement costs in 2008, to analyse the structure of such expenditures and to identify costs by cause of death. Data were obtained from the French national insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Data from the national hospital discharge database were linked to the outpatient reimbursement database for patients covered by the general health insurance scheme (n=49 million persons). The cost of the last year of life was calculated for the exhaustive population (361,328 deaths in 2008). The supposed cause of death was mainly derived from the primary diagnosis of the last hospital stay during which the patient died. The average reimbursed expenses during the last year of life were estimated at 22,000 € per person in 2008, with 12,500 € accounting for public hospital costs. Reimbursed health expenditures varied according to different medical causes of death: 52,300 € for HIV disease and about 40,000 € for tumors. A negative effect of age on the expenditure during the last year of life was observed. Health care spending increased with shorter time before death, the last month of life corresponding to 28% of reimbursed expenditures during the last year of life. Health care use in the last year of life represented 10.5% of the total health expenditures in 2008. This study found results similar to those observed in the past or in other countries. Our results show in particular that the weight of health expenditures during the last year of life on total health expenditures remains stable over the years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ammentorp, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Angel, Flemming
BACKGROUND In recent years, coaching has received special attention as a method to improve healthy lifestyle behaviours. The fact that coaching has found its way into healthcare and may provide new ways of engaging the patients and making them accountable for their health, justifies the need for ...... suggest that the description and categorisation of the coaching methods are described more comprehensively, and that research into this area is supplemented by a more qualitative approach....... between health coaching and life coaching. In this review, we will only focus on the latter method and on that basis assess the health related outcomes of life coaching. METHODS Intervention studies using quantitative or qualitative methods to evaluate the outcome of the life coach interventions were......BACKGROUND In recent years, coaching has received special attention as a method to improve healthy lifestyle behaviours. The fact that coaching has found its way into healthcare and may provide new ways of engaging the patients and making them accountable for their health, justifies the need...
Young, Nancy L; Rochon, Trista G; McCormick, Anna; Law, Mary; Wedge, John H; Fehlings, Darcy
Young NL, Rochon TG, McCormick A, Law M, Wedge JH, Fehlings D. The health and quality of life outcomes among youth and young adults with cerebral palsy. To describe the health and quality of life (QoL) of youth and young adults who have cerebral palsy (CP), and to assess the impact of 3 key factors (severity, age, and sex) on these outcomes. Cross-sectional survey. Participants were identified from 6 children's treatment centers in Ontario. The sample of participants (N=199) included youth (n=129; age, 13-17y) and adults (n=70; age, 23-33y) with a broad range of severity: 35% mild, 19% moderate, and 47% severe. Not applicable. Health Utilities Index (HUI(3)), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Self-Rated Health (SRH). SRH was reported to be excellent or very good by 57% of youth and 46% of adults. Mean HUI(3) scores were .30 for youth and .31 for adults. Mean AQoL scores were .28 for youth and adults. Severity of CP in childhood predicted 55% of the variance in HUI(3) scores and 45% of the variance in AQoL scores. Age and sex were not significant predictors of health or QoL. The observed health and QoL scores were much lower than those previously reported in the literature. This is likely a result of the inclusion of those with severe CP. The scores for youth were similar to those for adults and suggest that health and QoL outcomes were relatively stable across the transition to adulthood. Youth and adults with CP have limited health status and will require health care support throughout their lives to help them optimize their well being. Longitudinal follow-up studies are essential to understand better the patterns of health in this population over time. Copyright (c) 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…
Casellas, F; Aparici, A; Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, P
Chronic conditions impair perception of well-being. Malabsorption of lactose is the most frequent form of malabsorption and manifests as lactose intolerance. There is a lack of information regarding their impact on self-perception of health. The objective of this study is to determine the subjective impact of self-reported lactose intolerance or objective lactose malabsorption on patient health by using a patient-reported outcome to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and modification of lactose-containing food diet. A 3-year prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in patients referred for a lactose hydrogen breath test. Patients were asked about their subjective opinion relative to their lactose tolerance and completed a validated, specific questionnaire to determine symptoms of intolerance during habitual consumption of dairy. A 50-g lactose breath test was then performed. Patients were grouped as absorbers vs malabsorbers and tolerant vs intolerants. A total of 580 patients were included (median age 30 years, 419 female). Overall, 324 patients (56%) considered themselves lactose intolerant and that perception was associated with avoidance of dairy consumption (55% vs only 9% of self-defined tolerants). Self-perception of intolerance was associated with lower HRQOL scores (median, 60 vs 70, Plactose objective malabsorption was not clearly associated with dairy avoidance (41% of malabsorbers avoided dairy vs 31% of absorbers). However, HRQOL scores were also significantly lower in malabsorbers than in absorbers (60 vs 70 respectively, Plactose intolerance affects the decision to avoid dairy even more than objective malabsorption. However, both self-perception of lactose intolerance and objective lactose malabsorption are associated with poorer perceived quality of life.
Full Text Available Background. There is very little data describing the long-term health impacts of meditation. Aim. To compare the quality of life and functional health of long-term meditators to that of the normative population in Australia. Method. Using the SF-36 questionnaire and a Meditation Lifestyle Survey, we sampled 343 long-term Australian Sahaja Yoga meditation practitioners and compared their scores to those of the normative Australian population. Results. Six SF-36 subscales (bodily pain, general health, mental health, role limitation—emotional, social functioning, and vitality were significantly better in meditators compared to the national norms whereas two of the subscales (role limitation—physical, physical functioning were not significantly different. A substantial correlation between frequency of mental silence experience and the vitality, general health, and especially mental health subscales (P<0.005 was found. Conclusion. Long-term practitioners of Sahaja yoga meditation experience better functional health, especially mental health, compared to the general population. A relationship between functional health, especially mental health, and the frequency of meditative experience (mental silence exists that may be causal. Evidence for the potential role of this definition of meditation in enhancing quality of life, functional health and wellbeing is growing. Implications for primary mental health prevention are discussed.
Connell, Janice; Brazier, John; O'Cathain, Alicia; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Paisley, Suzy
To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or 'ill-being' were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.
Pruchno, Rachel; Heid, Allison R; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen
Historical events and personal experiences have the potential to alter the way people age. Using a life-course model, we examined how the Economic Recession of 2008 and experienced life events affected the mental health of 3,393 older adults in New Jersey. Data collected between 2006 and 2012 revealed a significant increase in mean depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that people with incident depression were more likely to have lost a job, become a caregiver, experienced a major illness, or have a family member with a major illness than people with no depression. Compared with the incident depression group, those with remitted depression were less likely to report having lost a job or experienced a major illness. Modeling the effects of individual life events and the economic recession on depression enriches understanding about the association between macro socioeconomic events, life events, and the mental health of older adults.
Haid, Marja-Lena; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
This study investigated effects of employed and unemployed job status on health outcomes with questionnaires in 50 young couples. Analysis of variance revealed higher pessimism, higher stress levels, and lower life satisfaction in couples in which one partner was unemployed. These couples also exhibited more health risk behaviours compared to couples in which both partners were working. The dyadic analysis of data, using an actor-partner interdependence model, demonstrated strong actor and partner effects for male partner's job status. Being unemployed was significantly associated not only with male partner's life satisfaction but also with the life satisfaction of his female partner. In addition, male partner's pessimism was identified as a significant variable which mediates between male partner's job status and female partner's life satisfaction. The study highlights the relevance of the accomplishment of tasks in the domains of work and partnership during young adulthood and it emphasises the gender specific importance.
Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Garcia, Atala Lotti; Gomes, Maria José; Bittar, Telmo Oliveira; Pereira, Antonio Carlos
The rapid process of change in the global economy in recent years and the organization of labor have influenced gender relations in the teaching profession. These transformations have been disadvantageous for women, leaving them in a situation of occupational overload. The scope of this study was to analyze the working conditions of female teachers in higher education in the health education area in the city of Vitória, State Espírito Santo, and their implications on health and quality of life. This is qualitative research into data gathered from interviews upon which Bardin content analysis was also employed. This technique revealed three categories: leisure, rest and health; sense of loss of social and family interaction; and perceived quality of life. The results show that insufficient leisure time may lead to sleep disturbances predisposing the individual to psychic illness; overwork; significant alterations in labor organization compromising social and family interaction with repercussions on health and quality of life. The work performed by female professors in the health area contributes to the onset of illness, with pejorative effects on their family, love, social, environmental and professional lives, with consequent loss of quality of life.
Rezende, Bárbara Antunes; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de
To examine the association between quality of life and health self-perception of children with poor school performance, considering sociodemographic factors. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted with 99 children aged 7 to 12 years receiving specialized educational assistance. Parents and legal guardians answered questions concerning the sociodemographic profile. For an assessment of the quality of life and proposed domains (autonomy, functioning, leisure, and family), the children completed the Autoquestionnarie Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé (AUQEI) and answered a question concerning their self-perceived health. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, considering a 5% significance level. Among the evaluated children, 69 (69.7%) male participants with mean age of 8.7±1.5, 27% self-assessed their health status as poor/very poor, and 36.4% of the children reported having impaired quality of life. As for the domains assessed by AUQEI, there was statistical significance in the associations between family with age, autonomy with economic classification, and leisure and functioning with self-perceived health. The quality of life of children with academic underachievement is associated with their health self-perception and sociodemographic characteristics.
Vadstrup, Eva S; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans; Borg, Eva; Røder, Michael
Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients. We randomised 143 type 2 diabetes patients to either a six-month multidisciplinary group-based rehabilitation programme including patient education, supervised exercise and a cooking-course or a six-month individual counselling programme. HRQOL was measured by Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) and self-rated health was measured by Diabetes Symptom Checklist - Revised (DCS-R). In both groups, the lowest estimated mean scores of the SF36 questionnaire at baseline were "vitality" and "general health". There were no significant differences in the change of any item between the two groups after the six-month intervention period. However, vitality-score increased 5.2 points (p = 0.12) within the rehabilitation group and 5.6 points (p = 0.03) points among individual counselling participants.In both groups, the highest estimated mean scores of the DSC-R questionnaire at baseline were "Fatigue" and "Hyperglycaemia". Hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic distress decreased significantly after individual counselling than after group-based rehabilitation (difference -0.3 points, p = 0.04). No between-group differences occurred for any other items. However, fatigue distress decreased 0.40 points within the rehabilitation group (p = 0.01) and 0.34 points within the individual counselling group (p group cardiovascular distress decreased 0.25 points (p = 0.01). A group-based rehabilitation programme did not improve health-related quality of life and self-rated health more than an individual counselling programme
Vadstrup Eva S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 143 type 2 diabetes patients to either a six-month multidisciplinary group-based rehabilitation programme including patient education, supervised exercise and a cooking-course or a six-month individual counselling programme. HRQOL was measured by Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36 and self-rated health was measured by Diabetes Symptom Checklist - Revised (DCS-R. Results In both groups, the lowest estimated mean scores of the SF36 questionnaire at baseline were "vitality" and "general health". There were no significant differences in the change of any item between the two groups after the six-month intervention period. However, vitality-score increased 5.2 points (p = 0.12 within the rehabilitation group and 5.6 points (p = 0.03 points among individual counselling participants. In both groups, the highest estimated mean scores of the DSC-R questionnaire at baseline were "Fatigue" and "Hyperglycaemia". Hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic distress decreased significantly after individual counselling than after group-based rehabilitation (difference -0.3 points, p = 0.04. No between-group differences occurred for any other items. However, fatigue distress decreased 0.40 points within the rehabilitation group (p = 0.01 and 0.34 points within the individual counselling group (p p = 0.01. Conclusions A group-based rehabilitation programme did not improve health-related quality of life and self-rated health more than an individual counselling
Arpino, Bruno; Gumà, Jordi; Julià, Albert
We examine to what extent the effect of early-life conditions (health and socioeconomic status) on health in later life is mediated by educational attainment and life-course trajectories (fertility, partnership, employment). Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 12,034), we apply, separately by gender, multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis to obtain groups of similar family and employment histories. The KHB method is used to disentangle direct and indirect effects of early-life conditions on health. Early-life-conditions indirectly impact on health in later life as result of their influence on education and family and employment trajectories. For example, between 22% and 42% of the effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Even higher percentages are found for men (35% - 57%). On the contrary, the positive effect of poor health at childhood on poor health at older ages is not significantly mediated by education and life-course trajectories. Education captures most of the mediating effect of parental socio-economic status. More specifically, between 66% and 75% of the indirect effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Again, higher percentages are found for men (86% - 93%). Early-life conditions, especially socioeconomic status, influence family and employment trajectories indirectly through their impact on education. We also find a persistent direct impact of early-life conditions on health at older ages. Our findings demonstrate that early-life experiences influence education and life-course trajectories and health in later life, suggesting that public investments in children are expected to produce long lasting effects on people's lives throughout the different phases of their
Tuchner, Maya; Meiner, Zeev; Parush, Shula; Hartman-Maeir, Adina
During the past few decades, terrorist acts have been an unfortunate reality worldwide. There is a striking paucity of research investigating the multitude of long-term outcomes after severe physical injury due to terrorist attacks, a unique subgroup of trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a profile of the long-term health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) after injury due to terrorist attacks and to explore the relationships between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), occupational status and injury severity with HR-QOL. We included 35 survivors of terrorist attacks living in the community, two years on average after the injury, mean age at follow-up = 32.1 (±13.8), mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 27 (±14.2). The subjects were recruited from consecutive admissions to a rehabilitation department in a tertiary care center between September 2000 - June 2004. Most of the subjects suffered multiple trauma. The main outcome measures were the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale and return to work rates. The mean scores on 6/8 of the SF-36 subscales were significantly lower among the survivors compared to normative population norms. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was found in 39% of the sample and 43% did not resume their main occupation two years after the injury. Multivariate analysis of variance of PTSD and occupational status (returned vs. did not return to work) on quality of life scores revealed significant main effects for both PTSD (p=. 000) and occupational status (p=. 005) with no interaction effect (p=. 476). No significant correlations were found between injury severity and the SF-36 scores. This study demonstrated the long-term impact of injury due to terrorism. Results showed independent effects of PTSD and occupational status on health related quality of life, two years after injury. These findings suggest that this group may benefit from intervention focusing on their emotional and
Vos, R.C.; Huisman, S.D.; Houdijk, E.C.A.M.; Pijl, H.; Wit, J.M.
Purpose To evaluate the effect of multidisciplinary treatment on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Obese children were randomized to a multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment, including medical, nutritional, physical, and psychological counseling during 3 months, (n = 40,
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373 were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007-2009. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10 provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2-43.8 compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8-57.2 for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5-41.5 for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6-54.0 for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The 14.8 fewer
Llanos, Alexandre Hugo; Silva, Carlos Guillermo Benítez; Ichimura, Karina Tamie; Rebeis, Estela Sanches; Giudicissi, Marcela; Romano, Marcelo Munhóes; Saraiva, Luciana
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of different forms of periodontal diseases on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Fifty-two patients with Aggressive Periodontitis (AP) or Chronic Periodontitis (CP) were included: nine patients with Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), thirty-three patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis (GAP) and ten patients with Generalized Chronic Periodontitis (GCP). Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires (OHIP-14) were distributed after a clinical examination that measured the following periodontal parameters: tooth loss, bleeding on probing (BoP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (REC) and clinical attachment level (CAL). The global OHIP-14 score means were 10.6 for LAP, 16.5 for GAP, and 17.5 for GCP. A statistically significant difference (p periodontitis. LAP, GAP and GCP have an impact on patient quality of life when measured using the OHIP-14. Patients with GAP and GCP had poorer OHRQoL than LAP patients.
Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon
Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (Pimpaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763
Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus; Sepúlveda, José; Mora, Marcos; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio
This study aimed to assess the effect of satisfaction with food-related life on life satisfaction among inhabitants of the main municipalities of central Chile. A survey was applied to a sample of 1,277 people, distributed proportionally by municipality. The questionnaire included the following scales: SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the Health-Related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL). Questions were asked regarding eating habits inside and outside the home, time available for meals at home, the assessment of five sources of happiness and the demographic characteristics of those surveyed. An ordered logit model was proposed, in which the dependent variable was satisfaction with life. Satisfaction with life was significantly related to the respondent's socioeconomic status, self-perception of health, degree of satisfaction with food-related life, monthly food expenditure, time available for supper with the family (p health problems, frequency of supper with the family, the degree of agreement with respect to family being an important source of happiness (p food consumption in fast food outlets (p health, family and eating, and the family interaction associated with eating may play an important role in overall satisfaction with life.
Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter
. The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small......Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...
Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Monette, LaVerne; Bacon, Jean; Bhuiyan, Shafi; Rueda, Sergio; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Dunn, James; Hambly, Keith
Although lack of housing is linked with adverse health outcomes, little is known about the impacts of the qualitative aspects of housing on health. This study examined the association between structural elements of housing, housing affordability, housing satisfaction and health-related quality of life over a 1-year period. Participants were 509 individuals living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between housing variables and physical and mental health-related quality of life. We found significant cross-sectional associations between housing and neighborhood variables-including place of residence, housing affordability, housing stability, and satisfaction with material, meaningful and spatial dimensions of housing-and both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Our analyses also revealed longitudinal associations between housing and neighborhood variables and health-related quality of life. Interventions that enhance housing affordability and housing satisfaction may help improve health-related quality of life of people living with HIV.
Choi, Edmond P H; Wong, Janet Y H; Fong, Daniel Y T
The aim of the study is to evaluate the mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Chinese college students who were the victims of dating violence. Six hundred and fifty-two subjects were included in the data analysis. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire containing the Woman Abuse Screening tool, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the 10-item version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). Analysis by independent t test suggested that victims of dating violence had more severe depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms and poorer HRQOL than non-victims. Multiple linear regression models found that more severe dating violence victimization was associated with more severe depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. The mediation analysis found that after simultaneously controlling for the degree of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, the direct effect between dating violence severity and HRQOL, as measured by overall HRQOL and the global health, physical and environment domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, was statistically insignificant, supporting a full-mediation model. The relationship between dating violence severity and the social domain of HRQOL was partially mediated by the degree of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. Victims of dating violence had poorer mental health and HRQOL than non-victims. The study findings affirm the importance of assessing depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms in victims and the need to improve their depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms to diminish the negative effects of dating violence, which are apparent in their HRQOL.
Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Crellin, Nadia E.; Orrell, Martin; McDermott, Orii
Objectives: This review aims to explore the role of self-efficacy (SE) in the health-related quality of life (QoL) of family carers of people with dementia. Methods: A systematic review of literature identified a range of qualitative and quantitative studies. Search terms related to caring, SE......, and dementia. Narrative synthesis was adopted to synthesise the findings. Results: Twenty-two studies met the full inclusion criteria, these included 17 quantitative, four qualitative, and one mixed-method study. A model describing the role of task/domain-specific SE beliefs in family carer health-related Qo...
Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J
It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p life satisfaction (both p life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.
Krupski, Tracey L; Fink, Arlene; Kwan, Lorna; Maliski, Sally; Connor, Sarah E; Clerkin, Barbara; Litwin, Mark S
The objective was to describe health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in low-income men with prostate cancer. Subjects were drawn from a statewide public assistance prostate cancer program. Telephone and mail surveys included the RAND 12-item Health Survey and UCLA Prostate Cancer Index Short Form and were compared with normative age-matched men without cancer from the general population reported on in the literature. Of 286 eligible men, 233 (81%) agreed to participate and completed the necessary items. The sample consisted of 51% Hispanics, 23% non-Hispanic whites, and 17% African Americans. The low-income men had worse scores in every domain of prostate-specific and general HRQOL than had the age-matched general population controls. The degree of disparity indicated substantial clinical differences in almost every domain of physical and emotional functioning between the sample group and the control group. Linear regression modeling determined that among the low-income men, Hispanic race, and income level were predictive of worse physical functioning, whereas only comorbidities predicted mental health. Low-income patients with prostate cancer appear to have quality-of-life profiles that are meaningfully worse than age-matched men from the general population without cancer reported on in the literature.
Park, Myung Sook; Ryu, Se Ang
This study was conducted to investigate the degree of dry mouth and oral health-related quality of life and to identify factors contributing to oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders. A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 156 older adults from two senior welfare centers. Data were collected on February 21, 22 and 29, 30, 2009 using structured questionnaires. Enter type multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing oral health-related quality of life according to general and oral health characteristics. There were significant differences in oral health-related quality of life according to living arrangement, insurance, smoking, number of natural teeth, and denture type. The oral health-related quality of life had significant correlations with the number of chronic disease, number of medications, and dry mouth. Factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling older adults were dry mouth, number of chronic disease, and medical aid, which explained about 47.9% of total variance. These results indicate that in order to promote oral health-related quality of life for older adults, prevention or management of chronic diseases as well as oral health and dry mouth are needed for this population, and especially economically poor elders.
Full Text Available Faridah Md Yusof Aryani,1 Shaun Wen Huey Lee,2 Siew Siang Chua,3 Li Ching Kok,4 Benny Efendie,2 Thomas Paraidathathu5 1Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, 2School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, 3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 4Clinical Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, 5School of Pharmacy, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia Purpose: Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are public health concerns. However, little is known about how these affect patient-level health measures. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a chronic care model (CCM on the participant’s health-related quality of life (QoL. Patients and methods: Participants received either usual care or CCM by a team of health care professionals including pharmacists, nurses, dietitians, and general practitioners. The participants in the intervention group received medication counseling, adherence, and dietary advice from the health care team. The QoL was measured using the EQ-5D (EuroQoL-five dimension, health-related quality of life questionnaire and comparison was made between usual care and intervention groups at the beginning and end of the study at 6 months. Results: Mean (standard deviation EQ-5D index scores improved significantly in the intervention group (0.92±0.10 vs 0.95±0.08; P≤0.01, but not in the usual care group (0.94±0.09 vs 0.95±0.09; P=0.084. Similarly, more participants in the intervention group reported improvements in their QoL compared with the usual care group, especially in the pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression dimensions. Conclusion: The implementation of the CCM resulted in significant improvement in QoL. An interdisciplinary team CCM approach should be encouraged, to ultimately result in behavior changes and improve the QoL of the patients. Keywords: diabetes