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Sample records for included word meaning

  1. Words or meaning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dodds

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - In the following pages, a brief, personal outline of the history of translation is sketched, so as to determine the whys and wherefores of the form/content dichotomy that seems to be plaguing translators and translation theorists incessantly. From the outset, in Classical times, sense rules supreme. In the late middle ages with the advent of Bible translation in Europe, the word – being the word of God – assumes new-found importance, especially as any deviation from it implies heresy. With Neo-Classicism and the Age of Enlightenment, the original tenets of antiquity unsurprisingly make their comeback, though somewhat short-lived this time. With the Romantics and post-Romantics, foreign lands and cultures gain ever greater interest, as indeed do their various forms of expressions. In contemporary Europe, over the last hundred years or so, with its preoccupation for markets and product diversification, the two schools of thought seem to co-habit quite comfortably, notwithstanding modern linguistic theory that renders form and content into indivisible components of language, thus making the dichotomy fatuous. Riassunto - Nelle pagine seguenti si delinea brevemente una traccia personale della storia della traduzione in modo da determinare i motivi della dicotomia forma/contenuto che pare affliggere costantemente i traduttori e teorici della traduzione. Fin dall'inizio dell’epoca classica, il senso regna sovrano. La parola è considerata spesso niente più di un veicolo modesto per la sublimità del pensiero. Soltanto nel tardo medioevo, con l'avvento della traduzione della Bibbia in Europa, la parola,essendo la parola di Dio, assume una nuova importanza, in quanto ogni deviazione da essa significa un’eresia. Con il Neoclassicismo e l’Illuminismo non sorprende che i principi originali dell'antichità facciano ritorno, anche se solo per breve tempo. Con il Romanticismo e il post-Romanticismo, cresce l’interesse per le

  2. Deterioration of word meaning: implications for reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, K; Hodges, J R

    1992-12-01

    We investigated six patients with progressive focal dementia or progressive aphasia, who showed impairments in knowledge of word meaning ranging from moderate to very severe. In all cases, a test of oral word reading demonstrated preserved reading of words with regular spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g. MINT), but impaired reading of words with atypical correspondences (e.g. PINT). The level of success on these "exception" words was significantly related to word frequency, and the most common error was the assignment of a more typical spelling-sound correspondence. Various explanations are considered for this common association between loss of word meaning and a surface alexic pattern of reading performance.

  3. Word Parts and What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/appendixa.html Appendix A: Word Parts and What They Mean To use the ... Good and Bad Procedures, Diagnosis and Surgery General Words Part Definition -ac pertaining to andr-, andro- male ...

  4. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the…

  5. Constraints on the Meanings of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, N.; And Others

    Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…

  6. Overestimation of Knowledge about Word Meanings: The "Misplaced Meaning" Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a "Misplaced Meaning" (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much…

  7. Permutations as a means to encode order in word space

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlgren, Magnus; Holst, Anders; Kanerva, Pentti

    2008-01-01

    We show that sequence information can be encoded into high-dimensional fixed-width vectors using permutations of coordinates. Computational models of language often represent words with high-dimensional semantic vectors compiled from word-use statistics. A word's semantic vector usually encodes the contexts in which the word appears in a large body of text but ignores word order. However, word order often signals a word's grammatical role in a sentence and thus tells of the word's meaning. Jo...

  8. Deafness for the meanings of number words

    OpenAIRE

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words a...

  9. Deafness for the Meanings of Number Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Agnes; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his…

  10. Modulation of motor-meaning congruity effects for valenced words

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Ivry, Richard; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which emotionally valenced words automatically cue spatio-motor representations. Participants made speeded button presses, moving their hand upward or downward while viewing words with positive or negative valence. Only the color of the words was relevant to the response; on target trials, there was no requirement to read the words or process their meaning. In Experiment 1, upward responses were faster for positive words, and downward for negative words. This eff...

  11. Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jennifer S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    Although children take over a year to learn the meanings of the first three number words, they eventually master the logic of counting and the meanings of all the words in their count list. Here, we ask whether children's knowledge applies to number words beyond those they have mastered: Does a child who can only count to 20 infer that number…

  12. Teaching the Meaning of Words to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Loijens, Nancy E. A.; Waller, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    In the report presented here, the authors describe a pilot intervention study that was intended to teach children with visual impairments the meaning of far-away words, and that used their mothers as mediators. The aim was to teach both labels and deep word knowledge, which is the comprehension of the full meaning of words, illustrated through…

  13. PERIPTERY: THE MEANING OF THE WORD

    OpenAIRE

    Churakov Sergey Konstantinovich

    2012-01-01

    The author analyzes the origin and the history of the periptery, examines into the etymology of this word, and traces its roots in Minoan and Mycenaean cultures. The history of classical architecture is full of myths. One of them is related to the origin of periptery, the main type of a classical antique temple. Traditionally, it dates back to the samples of the 7th-4th centuries B.C., although it is obvious that this type of temples has a longer history. The term "periptery" i...

  14. Altruism across disciplines: one word, multiple meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Clavien, C.; Chapuisat, M.

    2013-01-01

    Altruism is a deep and complex phenomenon that is analysed by scholars of various disciplines, including psychology, philosophy, biology, evolutionary anthropology and experimental economics. Much confusion arises in current literature because the term altruism covers variable concepts and processes across disciplines. Here we investigate the sense given to altruism when used in different fields and argumentative contexts. We argue that four distinct but related concepts need to be distinguis...

  15. Can the meaning of multiple words be integrated unconsciously?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaal, S.; Naccache, L.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; van Loon, A.M.; Leighton, A.H.; Cohen, L.; Dehaene, S.

    2014-01-01

    What are the limits of unconscious language processing? Can language circuits process simple grammatical constructions unconsciously and integrate the meaning of several unseen words? Using behavioural priming and electroencephalography (EEG), we studied a specific rule-based linguistic operation

  16. The QWERTY effect: how typing shapes the meanings of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Kyle; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The QWERTY keyboard mediates communication for millions of language users. Here, we investigated whether differences in the way words are typed correspond to differences in their meanings. Some words are spelled with more letters on the right side of the keyboard and others with more letters on the left. In three experiments, we tested whether asymmetries in the way people interact with keys on the right and left of the keyboard influence their evaluations of the emotional valence of the words. We found the predicted relationship between emotional valence and QWERTY key position across three languages (English, Spanish, and Dutch). Words with more right-side letters were rated as more positive in valence, on average, than words with more left-side letters: the QWERTY effect. This effect was strongest in new words coined after QWERTY was invented and was also found in pseudowords. Although these data are correlational, the discovery of a similar pattern across languages, which was strongest in neologisms, suggests that the QWERTY keyboard is shaping the meanings of words as people filter language through their fingers. Widespread typing introduces a new mechanism by which semantic changes in language can arise.

  17. Phonological Activation of Word Meanings in Grade 5 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…

  18. Time-Aware Exploratory Search: Exploring Word Meaning through Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, D.; Santucci, G.; de Rijke, M.; Angelini, M.; Granato, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    With more longitudinal archives becoming digitized and publicly available, new uses emerge. Collections that span centuries call for a time-aware exploration approach, a coordinated environment supporting understanding the development of word usage and meaning through time, with the means to

  19. Can the meaning of multiple words be integrated unconsciously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Naccache, Lionel; Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Leighton, Alexandra H; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2014-05-05

    What are the limits of unconscious language processing? Can language circuits process simple grammatical constructions unconsciously and integrate the meaning of several unseen words? Using behavioural priming and electroencephalography (EEG), we studied a specific rule-based linguistic operation traditionally thought to require conscious cognitive control: the negation of valence. In a masked priming paradigm, two masked words were successively (Experiment 1) or simultaneously presented (Experiment 2), a modifier ('not'/'very') and an adjective (e.g. 'good'/'bad'), followed by a visible target noun (e.g. 'peace'/'murder'). Subjects indicated whether the target noun had a positive or negative valence. The combination of these three words could either be contextually consistent (e.g. 'very bad - murder') or inconsistent (e.g. 'not bad - murder'). EEG recordings revealed that grammatical negations could unfold partly unconsciously, as reflected in similar occipito-parietal N400 effects for conscious and unconscious three-word sequences forming inconsistent combinations. However, only conscious word sequences elicited P600 effects, later in time. Overall, these results suggest that multiple unconscious words can be rapidly integrated and that an unconscious negation can automatically 'flip the sign' of an unconscious adjective. These findings not only extend the limits of subliminal combinatorial language processes, but also highlight how consciousness modulates the grammatical integration of multiple words.

  20. 133 HOW MANY MEANINGS DOES A WORD HAVE? John R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to fully understand what a person says to you, you need to activate many kinds of knowledge and ability. One requirement for comprehension is knowledge of the meanings of the words of which an utterance is composed. Suppose someone asks you to "open the window". Your understanding of the expression.

  1. How many meanings does a word have? | Taylor | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How many meanings does a word have? JR Taylor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.5774/25-0-79 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Accessing and Selecting Word Meaning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…

  3. Guessing the Meanings of Words From Context: Why and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary is an indispensable part of a language. It is vitally needed to express meaning. Teaching English vocabulary, an important field in language teaching, is worthy of effort. In order our students to acquire reading, listening, speaking and writing skills we need to help students with developing their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary learning is essential to the development of language skills. Recently the importance of vocabulary learning and teaching has been considerably emphasized. One of the most effective ways of vocabulary learning is guessing the meanings of words from context. The purpose of this study is to show why guessing the meaning of unknown words from context clues is a very important learning strategy and how it is done efficiently.

  4. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system.

  5. A Law of Word Meaning in Dolphin Whistle Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda McCowan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that dolphin whistle types tend to be used in specific behavioral contexts, which is consistent with the hypothesis that dolphin whistle have some sort of “meaning”. Besides, in some cases, it can be shown that the behavioral context in which a whistle tends to occur or not occur is shared by different individuals, which is consistent with the hypothesis that dolphins are communicating through whistles. Furthermore, we show that the number of behavioral contexts significantly associated with a certain whistle type tends to grow with the frequency of the whistle type, a pattern that is reminiscent of a law of word meanings stating, as a tendency, that the higher the frequency of a word, the higher its number of meanings. Our findings indicate that the presence of Zipf's law in dolphin whistle types cannot be explained with enough detail by a simplistic die rolling experiment.

  6. Accent modulates access to word meaning: Evidence for a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-11-01

    Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identify Web-page Content meaning using Knowledge based System for Dual Meaning Words

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sukanta; Dattagupta, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2012-01-01

    Meaning of Web-page content plays a big role while produced a search result from a search engine. Most of the cases Web-page meaning stored in title or meta-tag area but those meanings do not always match with Web-page content. To overcome this situation we need to go through the Web-page content to identify the Web-page meaning. In such cases, where Webpage content holds dual meaning words that time it is really difficult to identify the meaning of the Web-page. In this paper, we are introdu...

  9. Learning the Language of Locomotion: Do Children Use Biomechanical Structure to Constrain Hypotheses about Word Meaning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Barbara C.; White, Anne; Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Much has been said about children's strategies for mapping elements of meaning to words in toddlerhood. However, children continue to refine word meanings and patterns of word use into middle childhood and beyond, even for common words appearing in early vocabulary. We address where children past toddlerhood diverge from adults and where they more…

  10. Mapping Concrete and Abstract Meanings to New Words Using Verbal Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Münte, Thomas F.; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine the effects of semantic context and word concreteness on the mapping of existing meanings to new words. We developed a new-word-learning paradigm in which participants were required to discover the meaning of a new-word form from a specific verbal context. The stimulus materials were manipulated according to word…

  11. Learning word meanings: Overnight integration and study modality effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, F. van der; Takashima, A.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    According to the complementary learning systems (CLS) account of word learning, novel words are rapidly acquired (learning system 1), but slowly integrated into the mental lexicon (learning system 2). This two-step learning process has been shown to apply to novel word forms. In this study, we

  12. THE LEXICOGRAFIC PRINCIPLES OF WORD MEANINGS IN THE MULTILINGUAL SYNONYMIC DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddikova, I.A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to study of principles of description of the meaning of words in the multilingual synonymic dictionaries. The dictionary of synonyms must have full enough and absolutely explicit description of their semantic similarity and distinctions. The description can be full if it includes all existing features of the words, adequately denote every meaning and help the language learners and speakers in choosing possible meanings of synonyms owing to situation. The synonymic dictionary must include all synonyms, their meanings, lexico-semantic combination, distribution, grammatical constructions and stylistic features showing their usage in certain contexts and situations. In some cases according to their contextual meanings synonyms may be substituted depending on situation. The article is based on examples of English, Uzbek and Russian languages.

  13. 7 CFR 58.405 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following meaning: (a) Cheese. The fresh or matured product obtained by draining after coagulation of milk, cream, skimmed, or partly skimmed milk or a combination of some or all of these products and including...

  14. The Uncertainty of Word Meanings Found in Nursery Rhyme Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Linda C.

    A study examined how many of 11 key words in 4 famous Mother Goose nursery rhymes were understood by parents of first graders. The first questionnaire (designed to determine if context clues were helpful in deciphering what words meant) was returned by 37 parents in an urban school district and by 49 parents in a suburban school district. The…

  15. Evolution of word meanings through metaphorical mapping: Systematicity over the past millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Malt, Barbara C; Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2017-08-01

    One way that languages are able to communicate a potentially infinite set of ideas through a finite lexicon is by compressing emerging meanings into words, such that over time, individual words come to express multiple, related senses of meaning. We propose that overarching communicative and cognitive pressures have created systematic directionality in how new metaphorical senses have developed from existing word senses over the history of English. Given a large set of pairs of semantic domains, we used computational models to test which domains have been more commonly the starting points (source domains) and which the ending points (target domains) of metaphorical mappings over the past millennium. We found that a compact set of variables, including externality, embodiment, and valence, explain directionality in the majority of about 5000 metaphorical mappings recorded over the past 1100years. These results provide the first large-scale historical evidence that metaphorical mapping is systematic, and driven by measurable communicative and cognitive principles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”, when...

  17. A new statistical model for analyzing rating scale data pertaining to word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Rubke, Felipe; Kafadar, Karen; James, Karin H

    2017-04-25

    The concrete-abstract categorization scheme has guided several research programs. A popular way to classify words into one of these categories is to calculate a word's mean value in a Concreteness or Imageability rating scale. However, this procedure has several limitations. For instance, results can be highly distorted by outliers, ascribe differences among words when none may exist, and neglect rating trends in participants. We suggest using an alternative procedure to analyze rating scale data called median polish analysis (MPA). MPA is tolerant to outliers and accounts for information in multiple dimensions, including trends among participants. MPA performance can be readily evaluated using an effect size measure called analog R 2 and be integrated with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals, which can prevent assigning inexistent differences among words. To compare these analysis procedures, we asked 80 participants to rate a set of nouns and verbs using four different rating scales: Action, Concreteness, Imageability, and Multisensory. We analyzed the data using both two-way and three-way MPA models. We also calculated 95% CIs for the two-way models. Categorizing words with the Action scale revealed a continuum of word meaning for both nouns and verbs. The remaining scales produced dichotomous or stratified results for nouns, and continuous results for verbs. While the sample mean analysis generated continua irrespective of the rating scale, MPA differentiated among dichotomies and continua. We conclude that MPA allowed us to better classify words by discarding outliers, focusing on main trends, and considering the differences in rating criteria among participants.

  18. Words vs. Pictures: Perceived Impact and Connotative Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Hugh M.

    1974-01-01

    Results of two studies indicate that word messages carry more impact than pictures and an analysis of variance reveals that iconicity and sensationalism each related positively to both evaluative-ethical and interest-vitality ratings. (RB)

  19. Say it like you mean it: mothers' use of prosody to convey word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Debora S; Nygaard, Lynne C; Namy, Laura L

    2012-09-01

    Prosody plays a variety of roles in infants' communicative development, aiding in attention modulation, speech segmentation, and syntax acquisition. This study investigates the extent to which parents also spontaneously modulate prosodic aspects of infant directed speech in ways that distinguish semantic aspects of language. Fourteen mothers of two-year-old children read a picture book to their children in which they labeled pictures using dimensional adjectives (e.g., big, small, hot, cold). Recordings of the mothers' input to their children were analyzed acoustically and antonyms within each dimension were compared. Mothers modulated aspects of their prosody including amplitude and duration of target words and sentences to distinguish dimensional adjectives. Mothers appear to recruit prosody in the service of word learning.

  20. Patterns and Meanings of English Words through Word Formation Processes of Acronyms, Clipping, Compound and Blending Found in Internet-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Rini Diah Moehkardi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore the word-formation process in English new words found in the internet-based media through acronym, compound,  clipping and blending and their meanings. This study applies Plag’s (2002 framework of acronym and compound; Jamet’s (2009 framework of clipping, and Algeo’s framework (1977 in Hosseinzadeh  (2014 for blending. Despite the  formula established in each respective framework,  there could be occurrences  of novelty and modification on how words are formed and  how meaning developed in  the newly formed words. The research shows that well accepted acronyms can become real words by taking lower case and affixation. Some acronyms initialized non-lexical words, used non initial letters, and used letters and numbers that pronounced the same with the words they represent. Compounding also includes numbers as the element member of the compound. The nominal nouns are likely to have metaphorical and idiomatic meanings. Some compounds evolve to new and more specific meaning. The study also finds that back-clipping is the most dominant clipping. In blending, the sub-category clipping of blending, the study finds out that when clipping takes place, the non-head element is back-clipped and the head is fore-clipped.

  1. Non-Arbitrariness in Mapping Word Form to Meaning: Cross-Linguistic Formal Markers of Word Concreteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Hung, Jinyi; Westbury, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Arbitrary symbolism is a linguistic doctrine that predicts an orthogonal relationship between word forms and their corresponding meanings. Recent corpora analyses have demonstrated violations of arbitrary symbolism with respect to concreteness, a variable characterizing the sensorimotor salience of a word. In addition to qualitative semantic differences, abstract and concrete words are also marked by distinct morphophonological structures such as length and morphological complexity. Native English speakers show sensitivity to these markers in tasks such as auditory word recognition and naming. One unanswered question is whether this violation of arbitrariness reflects an idiosyncratic property of the English lexicon or whether word concreteness is a marked phenomenon across other natural languages. We isolated concrete and abstract English nouns (N = 400), and translated each into Russian, Arabic, Dutch, Mandarin, Hindi, Korean, Hebrew, and American Sign Language. We conducted offline acoustic analyses of abstract and concrete word length discrepancies across languages. In a separate experiment, native English speakers (N = 56) with no prior knowledge of these foreign languages judged concreteness of these nouns (e.g., Can you see, hear, feel, or touch this? Yes/No). Each naïve participant heard pre-recorded words presented in randomized blocks of three foreign languages following a brief listening exposure to a narrative sample from each respective language. Concrete and abstract words differed by length across five of eight languages, and prediction accuracy exceeded chance for four of eight languages. These results suggest that word concreteness is a marked phenomenon across several of the world's most widely spoken languages. We interpret these findings as supportive of an adaptive cognitive heuristic that allows listeners to exploit non-arbitrary mappings of word form to word meaning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Word Meaning Selection in Multiprocess Language Understanding Programs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    powerful knowledge sources use "semantic," "contextual" and " pragmat - ic" features. Surface semantics exploits the constraints which certain words...Report No. 74, Yale Univer- sity, New Haven, Cr. [Nash78] Nash-Webber, B. L., "Syntax beyond the Sentence: Anaphora ," in Spiro, Bruce & Brewer (eds

  3. Revisiting the'Duality of Meaning of some English Words: What's on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previous paper, published by me in 2015, studied the meanings of 12 English words, written by a group of first year students of University of Mines and Technology. The objective was to determine whether the students knew both the technical or scientific/engineering meanings and the normal meanings of the words, ...

  4. A proposed methodology for studying the historical trajectory of words' meaning through Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Cohen, Yochai; Israeli, Navot; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-02-01

    The availability of historical textual corpora has led to the study of words' frequency along the historical time line, as representing the public's focus of attention over time. However, studying of the dynamics of words' meaning is still in its infancy. In this paper, we propose a methodology for studying the historical trajectory of words' meaning through Tsallis entropy. First, we present the idea that the meaning of a word may be studied through the entropy of its embedding. Using two historical case studies, we show that this entropy measure is correlated with the intensity in which a word is used. More importantly, we show that using Tsallis entropy with a superadditive entropy index may provide a better estimation of a word's frequency of use than using Shannon entropy. We explain this finding as resulting from an increasing redundancy between the words that comprise the semantic field of the target word and develop a new measure of redundancy between words. Using this measure, which relies on the Tsallis version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, we show that the evolving meaning of a word involves the dynamics of increasing redundancy between components of its semantic field. The proposed methodology may enrich the toolkit of researchers who study the dynamics of word senses.

  5. Independence of early speech processing from word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E; Leonard, Matthew K; Chan, Alexander M; Torres, Christina; Sizemore, Marisa L; Qu, Zhe; Eskandar, Emad; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric

    2013-10-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ∼60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ∼217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception.

  6. Retuning of Lexical-Semantic Representations: Repetition and Spacing Effects in Word-Meaning Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Hannah N; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Cai, Zhenguang G; Okedara, Zainab B; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-12-28

    Current models of word-meaning access typically assume that lexical-semantic representations of ambiguous words (e.g., 'bark of the dog/tree') reach a relatively stable state in adulthood, with only the relative frequencies of meanings and immediate sentence context determining meaning preference. However, recent experience also affects interpretation: recently encountered word-meanings become more readily available (Rodd et al., 2016, 2013). Here, 3 experiments investigated how multiple encounters with word-meanings influence the subsequent interpretation of these ambiguous words. Participants heard ambiguous words contextually-disambiguated towards a particular meaning and, after a 20- to 30-min delay, interpretations of the words were tested in isolation. We replicate the finding that 1 encounter with an ambiguous word biased the later interpretation of this word towards the primed meaning for both subordinate (Experiments 1, 2, 3) and dominant meanings (Experiment 1). In addition, for the first time, we show cumulative effects of multiple repetitions of both the same and different meanings. The effect of a single subordinate exposure persisted after a subsequent encounter with the dominant meaning, compared to a dominant exposure alone (Experiment 1). Furthermore, 3 subordinate word-meaning repetitions provided an additional boost to priming compared to 1, although only when their presentation was spaced (Experiments 2, 3); massed repetitions provided no such boost (Experiments 1, 3). These findings indicate that comprehension is guided by the collective effect of multiple recently activated meanings and that the spacing of these activations is key to producing lasting updates to the lexical-semantic network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Duality of Meaning of some English Words: What's on the Minds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To overcome the challenges, the students should learn and use the different meanings of English words appropriately; lecturers should explain the shades of meaning whenever such words are met in speech or writing; polysemy and homonymy should be emphasised in the Communication Skills syllabus; and yearly ...

  8. A joint model of word segmentation and meaning acquisition through cross-situational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Okko; Rasilo, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Human infants learn meanings for spoken words in complex interactions with other people, but the exact learning mechanisms are unknown. Among researchers, a widely studied learning mechanism is called cross-situational learning (XSL). In XSL, word meanings are learned when learners accumulate statistical information between spoken words and co-occurring objects or events, allowing the learner to overcome referential uncertainty after having sufficient experience with individually ambiguous scenarios. Existing models in this area have mainly assumed that the learner is capable of segmenting words from speech before grounding them to their referential meaning, while segmentation itself has been treated relatively independently of the meaning acquisition. In this article, we argue that XSL is not just a mechanism for word-to-meaning mapping, but that it provides strong cues for proto-lexical word segmentation. If a learner directly solves the correspondence problem between continuous speech input and the contextual referents being talked about, segmentation of the input into word-like units emerges as a by-product of the learning. We present a theoretical model for joint acquisition of proto-lexical segments and their meanings without assuming a priori knowledge of the language. We also investigate the behavior of the model using a computational implementation, making use of transition probability-based statistical learning. Results from simulations show that the model is not only capable of replicating behavioral data on word learning in artificial languages, but also shows effective learning of word segments and their meanings from continuous speech. Moreover, when augmented with a simple familiarity preference during learning, the model shows a good fit to human behavioral data in XSL tasks. These results support the idea of simultaneous segmentation and meaning acquisition and show that comprehensive models of early word segmentation should take referential word

  9. What do we mean by the word “Shock”?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runnels, Scott Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    From one vantage point, a shock is a continuous but drastic change in state variables that occurs over very small time and length scales. These scales and associated changes in state variables can be measured experimentally. From another vantage point, a shock is a mathematical singularity consisting of instantaneous changes in state variables. This more mathematical view gives rise to analytical solutions to idealized problems. And from a third vantage point, a shock is a structure in a hydrocode prediction. Its width depends on the simulation’s grid resolution and artificial viscosity. These three vantage points can be in conflict when ideas from the associated fields are combined, and yet combining them is an important goal of an integrated modeling program. This presentation explores an example of how models for real materials in the presence of real shocks react to a hydrocode’s numerical shocks of finite width. The presentation will include an introduction to plasticity for the novice, an historical view of plasticity algorithms, a demonstration of how pursuing the meaning of “shock” has resulted in hydrocode improvements, and will conclude by answering some of the questions that arise from that pursuit. After the technical part of the presentation, a few slides advertising LANL’s Computational Physics Student Summer Workshop will be shown.

  10. The Effect of Word Meaning on Speech DysFluency in Adults with Developmental Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Masumi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stuttering is one of the most prevalent speech and language disorders. Symptomology of stuttering has been surveyed from different aspects such as biological, developmental, environmental, emotional, learning and linguistic. Previous researches in English-speaking people have suggested that some linguistic features such as word meanings may play a role in the frequency of speech non-fluency in people who stutter. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of word meanings on the frequency of dysfluency in Persian-speaking adults with developmental stuttering. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was performed on 14 adults who stuttered. Their average age was 25 years. The frequency of non-fluency instances was evaluated upon reading two lists containing 60 words and 60 non-words. The words were selected on the basis of common Persian syllable structures. ‘Kolmogoro-Smirnov one sample test’ and paired t-test was used to analyze data the significance level was set at P<0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the dysfluency in word and non-word lists (P<0.05. Discussion: The findings of this study indicate a significant increase in the frequency of dysfluency on non-words than on real words. It seems that the phonological encodingprocess of non-word reading is much more complex than for word reading, because, in non-word reading, the component of semantic content retrieval (word meaning is missing when compared to word reading.

  11. Spoken Idiom Recognition: Meaning Retrieval and Word Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates recognition of spoken idioms occurring in neutral contexts. Experiment 1 showed that both predictable and non-predictable idiom meanings are available at string offset. Yet, only predictable idiom meanings are active halfway through a string and remain active after the string's literal conclusion. Experiment 2 showed that…

  12. 7 CFR 58.1 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processing. Condition of container means the degree of acceptability of the container with respect to freedom... container for its intended purpose. Condition of product or condition is an expression of the extent to...

  13. Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Reilly

    Full Text Available Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog. Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment" as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate" as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

  14. Give Sorrow Words: The Meaning of Parental Bereavement | Lydall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fundamental tenet of hermeneutic phenomenology is that people seek to create meaning of their experience from the response sited within human consciousness. The focus of this study is on the world of the lived experience as it is interpreted by participants through memory and language as accessed by interviews in ...

  15. How Far do Students Acknowledge the Meaning of Taboo Words?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Burduli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The given work is a short review of a very essential and important aspect of language – Taboo language. The article is provided with a brief, but quite interesting questionnaire, which was carried out on the English language students (80 students entirely. The results of the questionnaire appeared to be very intriguing and surprising. It proved that students really need more adequate knowledge about the taboo language, its real meaning and importance in communication.

  16. Guessing the Meanings of Words From Context: Why and How

    OpenAIRE

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of a language. It is vitally needed to express meaning. Teaching English vocabulary, an important field in language teaching, is worthy of effort. In order our students to acquire reading, listening, speaking and writing skills we need to help students with developing their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary learning is essential to the development of language skills. Recently the importance of vocabulary learning and teaching has been considerably emphasized...

  17. Perception, action, and word meanings in the human brain: the case from action verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    Among other things, humans talk about what they perceive and do, like "glowing,"hopping," and "squeaking." What is the relationship between our sensory-motor experiences and word meanings? Does understanding action-verbs rely on the same neural circuits as seeing and acting? The available evidence indicates that sensory-motor experience and word meanings are represented in distinct, but interacting systems. Understanding action-verbs does not rely on early modality-specific visual or motor circuits. Instead, word comprehension relies on a network of amodal brain regions in the left frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that represent conceptual and grammatical properties of words. Interactions between word meanings and sensory-motor experiences occur in higher-order polymodal brain regions. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Induced lexical categories enhance cross-situational learning of word meanings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alishahi, A.; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we bring together two sources of information that have been proposed as clues used by children acquiring word meanings. One mechanism is cross-situational learning which exploits co-occurrences between words and their referents in perceptual context accompanying utterances. The other

  19. Word and Nonword Processing without Meaning Support in Korean-Speaking Children with and without Hyperlexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to…

  20. Accuracy Feedback Improves Word Learning from Context: Evidence from a Meaning-Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Hodges, Leslie; Crossley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be…

  1. Contributions of Morphological Awareness to Adult L2 Chinese Word Meaning Inferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Sihui Echo; Koda, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of morphological awareness (MA) to second language (L2) word meaning inferencing in English-speaking adult learners of Chinese (N = 50). Three research questions were posed: Are L2 learners sensitive to the morphological structure of unknown multi-character words? Does first language (L1) MA contribute to L2…

  2. Evidence for the use of assembled phonology in accessing the meaning of printed words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, M F; Pollatsek, A

    1998-05-01

    The role of assembled phonology in visual word recognition was investigated using a task in which participants judged whether 2 words (e.g., PILLOW-BEAD) were semantically related. Of primary interest was whether it would be more difficult to respond "no" to "false homophones" (e.g., BEAD) of words (BED) that are semantically related to target words than to orthographic controls (BEND). (BEAD is a false homophone of BED because-EAD can be pronounced /epsilon d/.) In Experiment 1, there was an interference effect in the response time data, but not in the error data. These results were replicated in a 2nd experiment in which a parafoveal preview was provided for the 2nd word of the pair. A 3rd experiment ruled out explanations of the false homophone effect in terms of inconsistency in spelling-to-sound mappings or inadequate spelling knowledge. It is argued that assembled phonological representations activate meaning in visual word recognition.

  3. On the meaning of words and dinosaur bones: Lexical knowledge without a lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words-with primary interest on rules-this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically-specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon.

  4. The meaning of 'life' and other abstract words: Insights from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    There are a number of long-standing theories on how the cognitive processing of abstract words, like 'life', differs from that of concrete words, like 'knife'. This review considers current perspectives on this debate, focusing particularly on insights obtained from patients with language disorders and integrating these with evidence from functional neuroimaging studies. The evidence supports three distinct and mutually compatible hypotheses. (1) Concrete and abstract words differ in their representational substrates, with concrete words depending particularly on sensory experiences and abstract words on linguistic, emotional, and magnitude-based information. Differential dependence on visual versus verbal experience is supported by the evidence for graded specialization in the anterior temporal lobes for concrete versus abstract words. In addition, concrete words have richer representations, in line with better processing of these words in most aphasic patients and, in particular, patients with semantic dementia. (2) Abstract words place greater demands on executive regulation processes because they have variable meanings that change with context. This theory explains abstract word impairments in patients with semantic-executive deficits and is supported by neuroimaging studies showing greater response to abstract words in inferior prefrontal cortex. (3) The relationships between concrete words are governed primarily by conceptual similarity, while those of abstract words depend on association to a greater degree. This theory, based primarily on interference and priming effects in aphasic patients, is the most recent to emerge and the least well understood. I present analyses indicating that patterns of lexical co-occurrence may be important in understanding these effects. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuropsychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  5. Body-specific representations of action word meanings in right and left handers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Casasanto

    2007-01-01

    If understanding action words involves mentally simulating our own actions, then the neurocognitive representation of word meanings must differ for people with different kinds of bodies, who perform actions in systematically different ways. In a test of the _Body-Specificity Hypothesis_, right- and left-handers were compared on two motor-meaning congruity tasks. Double dissociations in both action execution and recognition memory results showed that right and left handers form body-specific r...

  6. Overestimation of Knowledge About Word Meanings: The “Misplaced Meaning” Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a “Misplaced Meaning” (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much they rely on outside sources to determine precise reference. Studies 1 & 2 demonstrate that children and adults show a highly consistent MM effect, and that it ...

  7. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  8. Loser! On the combined impact of emotional and person-descriptive word meanings in communicative situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2018-02-16

    Humans have a unique capacity to induce intense emotional states in others by simple acts of verbal communication, and simple messages such as bad can elicit strong emotions in the addressee. However, up to now, research has mainly focused on general emotional meaning aspects and paradigms of low personal relevance (e.g., word reading), thereby possibly underestimating the impact of verbal emotion. In the present study, we recorded ERPs while presenting emotional words differing in word-inherent person descriptiveness (in that they may or may not refer to or describe a person; e.g., winner vs. sunflower). We predicted stronger emotional responses to person-descriptive words. Additionally, we enhanced the relevance of the words by embedding them in social-communicative contexts. We observed strong parallels in the characteristics of emotion and descriptiveness effects, suggesting a common underlying motivational basis. Furthermore, word-inherent person descriptiveness affected emotion processing at late elaborate stages reflected in the late positive potential, with emotion effects found only for descriptive words. The present findings underline the importance of factors determining the personal relevance of emotional words. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Learning word meanings during reading by children with language learning disability and typically-developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Watkins, Ruth V

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed through oral definition and multiple-choice tasks. Variables were position of informative context, number of exposures, part of speech, and contextual clues. The LLD group scored lower than same-aged peers on oral definition (p < .001) and multiple-choice (p < .001) tasks. For both groups, there was no effect for position of informative context (p = .867) or number of exposures (p = .223). All children benefitted from contextual clues. The findings suggested difficulty inferring and recalling word meanings during reading and pointed to the need for vocabulary intervention in the upper elementary years for children with LLD.

  10. Test-based age-of-acquisition norms for 44 thousand English word meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Biemiller, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) is an important variable in word recognition research. Up to now, nearly all psychology researchers examining the AoA effect have used ratings obtained from adult participants. An alternative basis for determining AoA is directly testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages. In educational research, scholars and teachers have tried to establish the grade at which particular words should be taught by examining the ages at which children know various word meanings. Such a list is available from Dale and O'Rourke's (1981) Living Word Vocabulary for nearly 44 thousand meanings coming from over 31 thousand unique word forms and multiword expressions. The present article relates these test-based AoA estimates to lexical decision times as well as to AoA adult ratings, and reports strong correlations between all of the measures. Therefore, test-based estimates of AoA can be used as an alternative measure.

  11. Duality of Meaning of some English Words: What's on the Minds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... normal or everyday meanings. Knowing both the scientific/engineering sense and the normal sense of words would help the student avoid confusing his/her audience or even himself/herself as he/she sends and receives messages, whether at home or at the workplace. In all communication situations, the.

  12. More than Words: Comics as a Means of Teaching Multiple Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Historically, comics have been viewed as a "debased or simplified word-based literacy," explains Dale Jacobs, who considers comics to be complex, multimodal texts. Examining Ted Naifeh's "Polly and the Pirates," Jacobs shows how comics can engage students in multiple literacies, furthering meaning-making practices in the classroom and beyond.

  13. Mirror Neurons, the Representation of Word meaning, and the Foot of the Third Left Frontal Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Postle, Natasha; McMahon, Katie; Meredith, Matthew; Ashton, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has attempted to demonstrate a preferential involvement of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in the comprehension of effector-related action word (verb) meanings. These studies have assumed that Broca's area (or Brodmann's area 44) is the homologue of a monkey premotor area (F5) containing mouth and hand mirror…

  14. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  15. The brain's dorsal route for speech represents word meaning: evidence from gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Goulven; Joseph, Sabine; Bertasi, Eric; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    The dual-route model of speech processing includes a dorsal stream that maps auditory to motor features at the sublexical level rather than at the lexico-semantic level. However, the literature on gesture is an invitation to revise this model because it suggests that the premotor cortex of the dorsal route is a major site of lexico-semantic interaction. Here we investigated lexico-semantic mapping using word-gesture pairs that were either congruent or incongruent. Using fMRI-adaptation in 28 subjects, we found that temporo-parietal and premotor activity during auditory processing of single action words was modulated by the prior audiovisual context in which the words had been repeated. The BOLD signal was suppressed following repetition of the auditory word alone, and further suppressed following repetition of the word accompanied by a congruent gesture (e.g. ["grasp" + grasping gesture]). Conversely, repetition suppression was not observed when the same action word was accompanied by an incongruent gesture (e.g. ["grasp" + sprinkle]). We propose a simple model to explain these results: auditory and visual information converge onto premotor cortex where it is represented in a comparable format to determine (in)congruence between speech and gesture. This ability of the dorsal route to detect audiovisual semantic (in)congruence suggests that its function is not restricted to the sublexical level.

  16. The brain's dorsal route for speech represents word meaning: evidence from gesture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulven Josse

    Full Text Available The dual-route model of speech processing includes a dorsal stream that maps auditory to motor features at the sublexical level rather than at the lexico-semantic level. However, the literature on gesture is an invitation to revise this model because it suggests that the premotor cortex of the dorsal route is a major site of lexico-semantic interaction. Here we investigated lexico-semantic mapping using word-gesture pairs that were either congruent or incongruent. Using fMRI-adaptation in 28 subjects, we found that temporo-parietal and premotor activity during auditory processing of single action words was modulated by the prior audiovisual context in which the words had been repeated. The BOLD signal was suppressed following repetition of the auditory word alone, and further suppressed following repetition of the word accompanied by a congruent gesture (e.g. ["grasp" + grasping gesture]. Conversely, repetition suppression was not observed when the same action word was accompanied by an incongruent gesture (e.g. ["grasp" + sprinkle]. We propose a simple model to explain these results: auditory and visual information converge onto premotor cortex where it is represented in a comparable format to determine (incongruence between speech and gesture. This ability of the dorsal route to detect audiovisual semantic (incongruence suggests that its function is not restricted to the sublexical level.

  17. Does comprehension of symbolic gestures and corresponding-in-meaning words make use of motor simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gough, Patricia M; Buccino, Giovanni; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether or not the comprehension of symbolic gestures, and corresponding-in-meaning words, makes use of cortical circuits involved in movement execution control. Participants were presented with videos of an actress producing meaningful or meaningless gestures, pronouncing corresponding-in-meaning words or pseudo-words; they were required to judge whether the signal was meaningful or meaningless. Single pulse TMS was applied to forearm primary motor cortex area 150-200 ms after the point when the stimulus meaning could be understood. MEPs were significantly greater when processing meaningless signals as compared to a baseline condition presenting a still-and-silent actress. In contrast, this was not the case for meaningful signals whose motor activation did not differ from that for the baseline stimulus. MEPs were significantly greater for meaningless than meaningful signals and no significant difference was found between gesture and speech. On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that the observation-of/listening-to meaningless signals recruits motor areas. In contrast, this did not occur when the signals were meaningful. Overall, the data suggest that the processes related to comprehension of symbolic gestures and communicative words do not involve primary motor area and probably use brain areas involved in semantics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology: Evidence from eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; O'Donnell, Katrina

    2017-02-01

    We examined whether highly skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology when reading sentences for meaning. A homophone-error paradigm was used. Sentences were written to fit 1 member of a homophone pair, and then 2 other versions were created in which the homophone was replaced by its mate or a spelling-control word. The error words were all high-frequency words, and the correct homophones were either higher-frequency words or low-frequency words-that is, the homophone errors were either the subordinate or dominant member of the pair. Participants read sentences as their eye movements were tracked. When the high-frequency homophone error words were the subordinate member of the homophone pair, participants had shorter immediate eye-fixation latencies on these words than on matched spelling-control words. In contrast, when the high-frequency homophone error words were the dominant member of the homophone pair, a difference between these words and spelling controls was delayed. These findings provide clear evidence that the meanings of high-frequency words are activated by phonological representations when skilled readers read sentences for meaning. Explanations of the differing patterns of results depending on homophone dominance are discussed.

  19. Word identification in reading proceeds from spelling to sound to meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, G C; Johnston, J C; Hale, B L

    1988-07-01

    Van Orden (1987) reported that false positive errors in a categorization task are elevated for homophonic foils (e.g., HARE for A PART OF THE HUMAN BODY). Two new experiments replicate this finding and extend it to nonword homophone foils (e.g., SUTE FOR AN ARTICLE OF CLOTHING). False positive errors to nonword homophone foils substantially exceed false positive errors to nonhomophonic nonword spelling controls, showing that the phonological characteristics of the nonword foils are critical. Because nonwords are not represented in the lexicon, this new result implicates computed phonological codes as a source of the categorization errors. Additionally, in each of two experiments, matched word and nonword homophones produced virtually identical error rates. If stimulus nonword homophones are viewed as extremely unfamiliar words, compared with the relatively familiar stimulus word homophones, then our failure to observe an effect of stimulus familiarity strengthens the case that phonological coding plays a role in the identification of all printed words. The fact that the results are obtained in a categorization task that requires reading for meaning (rather than a lexical decision task) makes it difficult to avoid the conclusion that phonological mediation plays a role in normal reading of text for meaning.

  20. Overestimation of Knowledge About Word Meanings: The “Misplaced Meaning” Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a “Misplaced Meaning” (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much they rely on outside sources to determine precise reference. Studies 1 & 2 demonstrate that children and adults show a highly consistent MM effect, and that it is stronger in young children. Study 3 demonstrates that adults are explicitly aware of the availability of outside knowledge, and that this awareness may be related to the strength of the MM effect. Study 4 rules out general overconfidence effects by examining a metalinguistic task in which adults are well-calibrated. PMID:24890038

  1. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their

  2. What can a string of letters possibly mean when it is not a word? Speech sounds as one answer to the search for meaning in Finnegans Wake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    In his last novel, Finnegans Wake, James Joyce attempted to redirect readers' search for meaning away from traditional paths by using many non-words (combinations, foreign words, neologisms, and onomatopoeic words). Words and non-words in the novel were analyzed in terms of the emotional meanings of their constituent sounds using the model developed by Whissell where motor responses involved in enunciating sounds are associated with their emotional meaning. Significant sound-emotion differences were identified among and within chapters. "Smiling" pleasant long e (as in "tee") was used at higher rates in successive chapters and "sighing" passive AO (as in "Shaun") was used at especially high rates in Chapters 8 ("Anna Livia Plurabelle") and 12 ("Mamalujo"). Sound emotionality is one of the alternative paths to meaning in the novel.

  3. A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: universal ontology and linguistic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Gentner, D

    1997-02-01

    This research concerns how children learn the distinction between substance names and object names. Quine (1969) proposed that children learn the distinction through learning the syntactic distinctions inherent in count/mass grammar. However, Soja et al. (1991) found that English-speaking 2-year-olds, who did not seem to have acquired count/mass grammar, distinguished objects from substances in a word extension task, suggesting a pre-linguistic ontological distinction. To test whether the distinction between object names and substance names is conceptually or linguistically driven, we repeated Soja et al.'s study with English- and Japanese-speaking 2-, 2.5-, and 4-year-olds and adults. Japanese does not make a count-mass grammatical distinction: all inanimate nouns are treated alike. Thus if young Japanese children made the object-substance distinction in word meaning, this would support the early ontology position over the linguistic influence position. We used three types of standards: substances (e.g., sand in an S-shape), simple objects (e.g., a kidney-shaped piece of paraffin) and complex objects (e.g., a wood whisk). The subjects learned novel nouns in neutral syntax denoting each standard entity. They were then asked which of the two alternatives--one matching in shape but not material and the other matching in material but not shape--would also be named by the same label. The results suggest the universal use of ontological knowledge in early word learning. Children in both languages showed differentiation between (complex) objects and substances as early as 2 years of age. However, there were also early cross-linguistic differences. American and Japanese children generalized the simple object instances and the substance instances differently. We speculate that children universally make a distinction between individuals and non-individuals in word learning but that the nature of the categories and the boundary between them is influenced by language.

  4. Heteromodal Cortical Areas Encode Sensory-Motor Features of Word Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-09-21

    The capacity to process information in conceptual form is a fundamental aspect of human cognition, yet little is known about how this type of information is encoded in the brain. Although the role of sensory and motor cortical areas has been a focus of recent debate, neuroimaging studies of concept representation consistently implicate a network of heteromodal areas that seem to support concept retrieval in general rather than knowledge related to any particular sensory-motor content. We used predictive machine learning on fMRI data to investigate the hypothesis that cortical areas in this "general semantic network" (GSN) encode multimodal information derived from basic sensory-motor processes, possibly functioning as convergence-divergence zones for distributed concept representation. An encoding model based on five conceptual attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience (sound, color, shape, manipulability, and visual motion) was used to predict brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts in a semantic decision task. When the analysis was restricted to voxels in the GSN, the model was able to identify the activation patterns corresponding to individual concrete concepts significantly above chance. In contrast, a model based on five perceptual attributes of the word form performed at chance level. This pattern was reversed when the analysis was restricted to areas involved in the perceptual analysis of written word forms. These results indicate that heteromodal areas involved in semantic processing encode information about the relative importance of different sensory-motor attributes of concepts, possibly by storing particular combinations of sensory and motor features. The present study used a predictive encoding model of word semantics to decode conceptual information from neural activity in heteromodal cortical areas. The model is based on five sensory-motor attributes of word meaning (color, shape, sound, visual motion, and

  5. Some considerations on the meaning of the word constitution in the Romanian post-communist context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Schwartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The word constitution stands at the base of the modern political vocabulary. However, it would seem that its carefully derived content might be at odds with what people nowadays commonly understand by it. In this article we will briefly approach this mismatch in Romanian context, in an attempt to characterize the quality of the post-communist democratic transition. We will explore the meaning, the purpose and the mismatch of the Romanian democratic conception from a constitutional perspective, while trying to raise worries on the feeble character of a constitutional experience without conceptual awareness.

  6. The meaning of the diakon word group in John 12:26 applied to the ministry in congregations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Breed

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the meaning of the diakon word group in the Bible with the focus on the use of this word group in the Gospel of John. John 12:26 is considered in depth. The results of this investigation reveal important differences from other recent research on this word group. The results of the research are then applied to the ministry in congregations.

  7. The meaning of the diakon word group in John 12:26 applied to the ministry in congregations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Breed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the meaning of the diakon word group in the Bible with the focus on the use of this word group in the Gospel of John. John 12:26 is considered in depth. The results of this investigation reveal important differences from other recent research on this word group. The results of the research are then applied to the ministry in congregations.

  8. Online PLSA: batch updating techniques including out-of-vocabulary words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiou, Nikoletta K; Kotropoulos, Constantine L

    2014-11-01

    A novel method is proposed for updating an already trained asymmetric and symmetric probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) model within the context of a varying document stream. The proposed method is coined online PLSA (oPLSA). The oPLSA employs a fixed-size moving window over a document stream to incorporate new documents and at the same time to discard old ones (i.e., documents that fall outside the scope of the window). In addition, the oPLSA assimilates new words that had not been previously seen (out-of-vocabulary words), and discards the words that exclusively appear in the documents to be thrown away. To handle the new words, Good-Turing estimates for the probabilities of unseen words are exploited. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority in terms of accuracy of the oPLSA over well known PLSA updating methods, such as the PLSA folding-in (PLSA fold.), the PLSA rerun from the breakpoint, the quasi-Bayes PLSA, and the Incremental PLSA. A comparison with respect to the CPU run time reveals that the oPLSA is the second fastest method after the PLSA fold. However, the better accuracy of the oPLSA than that of the PLSA fold. pays off the longer computation time. The oPLSA and the other PLSA updating methods together with online LDA are tested for document clustering and F1 scores are also reported.

  9. An electrophysiological investigation of the role of orthography in accessing meaning of Chinese single-character words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui

    2011-01-10

    This study reported the role of orthography in semantic activation processes of Chinese single-character words. Eighteen native Chinese speaking adults were recruited to take part in a Stroop experiment consisting of one-character color words and pseudowords which were orthographically similar to these color words. Classic behavioral Stroop effects, namely longer reaction times for incongruent conditions than for congruent conditions, were demonstrated for color words and pseudowords. A clear N450 was also observed in the two incongruent conditions. The participants were also asked to perform a visual judgment task immediately following the Stroop experiment. Results from the visual judgment task showed that participants could distinguish color words and pseudowords well (with a mean accuracy rate over 90 percent). Taken together, these findings support the direct orthography-semantic route in Chinese one-character words. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Daytime Nap Facilitates Generalization of Word Meanings in Young Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Liu, Siying; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    One of the key processes in language development is generalization--the selection and extension of relevant features and information to similar objects and concepts. Little is known about how sleep influences generalization, and studies on the topic are inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate how a nap affects generalization in 16-mo-olds. We hypothesized that a nap is necessary for successful generalization of word meanings. Twenty-eight 16-mo-old, typically developing toddlers were randomly assigned to nap and wake groups. We trained toddlers with two novel object-word pairs and tested their initial ability to generalize. Toddlers took part in an intermodal preferential looking task, in which they were shown different colored versions of the original objects and heard one of the trained labels. If toddlers understand the label, they are expected to increase their looking time to the target. Looking behavior was measured with an automated eye tracker. Afterward, the nap group went to sleep, while the wake group stayed awake for approximately 2 h. We then repeated the test of their performance on the generalization task. A significant interaction of group and session was found in preferential looking. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. Our results suggest that napping improves generalization in toddlers. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of turpentine, shall be deemed to mean a living, growing plant of the genus Pinus, family Pinaceae, unless the...

  12. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  13. From orthography to meaning: an electrophysiological investigation of the role of phonology in accessing meaning of Chinese single-character words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Mecklinger, A; Hofmann, J; Weng, X

    2010-01-13

    Homophone interference effects in Stroop experiments are often taken as evidence for the hypothesis that semantic access in written Chinese language is mediated by activation of phonological processing. We here aim to test this hypothesis with Chinese single-character words by means of event related potential (ERP) recordings. Using color words, homophones of color words and color-word associates as materials in a Stroop task, we found behavioral Stroop interference effects for all stimulus types and an N450 for incongruent color words and color-word associates. Critically, there was no difference in the ERP waveforms elicited by congruent and incongruent homophones in the N450 time window. However, in a later time window (600-800 ms) the incongruent homophones elicited an apparent positivity over left posterior regions. A similar effect was also observed for incongruent color words. These findings thus indicate that phonology does not play an important role in semantic activation of Chinese single-character words, and that the behavioral Stroop effects for homophones possibly arises at later stage of lexical processing.

  14. Cross-Linguistic Activation in Bilingual Sentence Processing: The Role of Word Class Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Kristof; Hofman, Fabrice; Loeys, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how categorial (word class) semantics influences cross-linguistic interactions when reading in L2. Previous homograph studies paid little attention to the possible influence of different word classes in the stimulus material on cross-linguistic activation. The present study examines the word recognition performance of…

  15. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning During Spoken Word Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Barry J; Taylor, Kirsten I; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2016-03-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in (distinctiveness/sharedness) and likelihood of co-occurrence (correlational strength)--determine conceptual activation. To test these claims, we investigated the role of distinctiveness/sharedness and correlational strength in speech-to-meaning mapping, using a lexical decision task and computational simulations. Responses were faster for concepts with higher sharedness, suggesting that shared features are facilitatory in tasks like lexical decision that require access to them. Correlational strength facilitated responses for slower participants, suggesting a time-sensitive co-occurrence-driven settling mechanism. The computational simulation showed similar effects, with early effects of shared features and later effects of correlational strength. These results support a general-to-specific account of conceptual processing, whereby early activation of shared features is followed by the gradual emergence of a specific target representation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Cognitive Science published by Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. When Meaning Is Not Enough: Distributional and Semantic Cues to Word Categorization in Child Directed Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Sara; Muñoz, Carmen; Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important tasks in first language development is assigning words to their grammatical category. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis postulates that, in order to accomplish this task, children are guided by a neat correspondence between semantic and grammatical categories, since nouns typically refer to objects and verbs to actions. It is this correspondence that guides children's initial word categorization. Other approaches, on the other hand, suggest that children might make use of distributional cues and word contexts to accomplish the word categorization task. According to such approaches, the Semantic Bootstrapping assumption offers an important limitation, as it might not be true that all the nouns that children hear refer to specific objects or people. In order to explore that, we carried out two studies based on analyses of children's linguistic input. We analyzed child-directed speech addressed to four children under the age of 2;6, taken from the CHILDES database. The corpora were selected from the Manchester corpus. The corpora from the four selected children contained a total of 10,681 word types and 364,196 word tokens. In our first study, discriminant analyses were performed using semantic cues alone. The results show that many of the nouns found in parents' speech do not relate to specific objects and that semantic information alone might not be sufficient for successful word categorization. Given that there must be an additional source of information which, alongside with semantics, might assist young learners in word categorization, our second study explores the availability of both distributional and semantic cues in child-directed speech. Our results confirm that this combination might yield better results for word categorization. These results are in line with theories that suggest the need for an integration of multiple cues from different sources in language development.

  17. Does routine formulation change meaning? - The impact of genre on word semantics in the legal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The article investigates the influence of the genre on word semantics in the legal domain. The presented example is the use of the notion of evidence in German legal judgements and the consequent semantic specialisation....

  18. Revisiting the'Duality of Meaning of some English Words: What's on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... the workplace. In all communication situations, the engineering student must be able to switch correctly to the appropriate word family each time and operate smoothly for acceptability and communication effectiveness. In the case of written communication, this smooth operation expected of engineering ...

  19. Beyond Word Meaning: Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Exceptional Language Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Tracy G.; Dema, Alexandra A.

    2014-01-01

    A well-developed academic vocabulary is foundational for understanding academic texts used in elementary and secondary classrooms. In-depth word knowledge is critical to understanding the abstract concepts and complex language structures of text. Students with learning disabilities and English language learners both characteristically have limited…

  20. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning during Spoken Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Barry J.; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in ("distinctiveness/sharedness") and likelihood of co-occurrence ("correlational…

  1. Attaching Meaning to the Number Words: Contributions of the Object Tracking and Approximate Number Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanMarle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Mou, Yi; Seok, Jin H.; Rouder, Jeffrey; Geary, David C.

    2018-01-01

    Children's understanding of the quantities represented by number words (i.e., cardinality) is a surprisingly protracted but foundational step in their learning of formal mathematics. The development of cardinal knowledge is related to one or two core, inherent systems--the approximate number system (ANS) and the object tracking system (OTS)--but…

  2. Universal Dimensions of Meaning Derived from Semantic Relations among Words and Senses: Mereological Completeness vs. Ontological Generality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Samsonovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A key to semantic analysis is a precise and practically useful definition of meaning that is general for all domains of knowledge. We previously introduced the notion of weak semantic map: a metric space allocating concepts along their most general (universal semantic characteristics while at the same time ignoring other, domain-specific aspects of their meanings. Here we address questions of the number, quality, and mutual independence of the weak semantic dimensions. Specifically, we employ semantic relationships not previously used for weak semantic mapping, such as holonymy/meronymy (“is-part/member-of”, and we compare maps constructed from word senses to those constructed from words. We show that the “completeness” dimension derived from the holonym/meronym relation is independent of, and practically orthogonal to, the “abstractness” dimension derived from the hypernym-hyponym (“is-a” relation, while both dimensions are orthogonal to the maps derived from synonymy and antonymy. Interestingly, the choice of using relations among words vs. senses implies a non-trivial trade-off between rich and unambiguous information due to homonymy and polysemy. The practical utility of the new and prior dimensions is illustrated by the automated evaluation of different kinds of documents. Residual analysis of available linguistic resources, such as WordNet, suggests that the number of universal semantic dimensions representable in natural language may be finite. Their complete characterization, as well as the extension of results to non-linguistic materials, remains an open challenge.

  3. Attaching meaning to the number words: contributions of the object tracking and approximate number systems

    OpenAIRE

    vanMarle, K; Chu, FW; Mou, Y; Seok, JH; Rouder, J; Geary, DC

    2018-01-01

    Children's understanding of the quantities represented by number words (i.e., cardinality) is a surprisingly protracted but foundational step in their learning of formal mathematics. The development of cardinal knowledge is related to one or two core, inherent systems - the approximate number system (ANS) and the object tracking system (OTS) - but whether these systems act alone, in concert, or antagonistically is debated. Longitudinal assessments of 198 preschool children on OTS, ANS, and ca...

  4. Words with Multiple Meanings in Authentic L2 Texts: An Analysis of "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2017-01-01

    Dictionary studies have suggested that nearly half of the English lexicon have multiple meanings. It is not yet clear, however, if second language learners reading English texts will encounter words with multiple meanings to the same degree. This study investigates the use of words with multiple meanings in an authentic English novel. Two samples…

  5. Learning new vocabulary in German: the effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Sachs, Riebana E; Martin, Beth; Schmidt, Kristian; Looft, Ruxandra

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, introductory-level German students read a simplified story and learned the meanings of new German words by reading English translations in marginal glosses versus trying to infer (i.e., guess) their translations. Students who inferred translations were given feedback in English or in German, or no feedback at all. Although immediate retention of new vocabulary was better for students who used marginal glosses, students who inferred word meanings and then received English feedback forgot fewer translations over time. Plausible but inaccurate inferences (i.e., those that made sense in the context) were more likely to be corrected by students who received English feedback as compared with German feedback, providing support for the beneficial effects of mediating information. Implausible inaccurate inferences, however, were more likely to be corrected on the delayed vocabulary test by students who received German feedback as compared with English feedback, possibly because of the additional contextual support provided by German feedback.

  6. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  7. Functional class (so called “part of speech” assignment as a kind of meaning-bound word syntactic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Wajszczuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional class (so called “part of speech” assignment as a kind of meaning-bound word syntactic information The traditional division of the lexicon into parts of speech which seems to satisfy the requirements of a syntactic description, on the one hand, and a word formation description, on the other hand, cannot be looked upon as a result of a strict classification covering the totality of the lexicon and being based on a coherent set of criteria. Making the criteria more precise or correcting them is an issue of extreme importance and urgency in the work on the theory of language. Such achievements can help solve many other problems, in particular, syntactic ones. The article presents a scheme of several preliminary steps of an amelioration program (a scheme which has been improved compared to the author’s earlier attempts going in the same direction. The program is based on combinability characteristics of words, i.e. on those properties that are responsible for the tasks to be accomplished by a given class of expressions in making up a higher order unit, i.e. a syntagm (the author emphasizes this point: it is syntagm rather than sentence which is the category the recommended approach is focusing on, and that, importantly, determine the limits of syntactic rules, i.e. the ins and outs of the rules (the limits concerning the overall stock of words.

  8. Extrapolating human judgments from skip-gram vector representations of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris; Lefsrud, Lianne

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research in psychology that attempts to extrapolate human lexical judgments from computational models of semantics. This research can be used to help develop comprehensive norm sets for experimental research, it has applications to large-scale statistical modelling of lexical access and has broad value within natural language processing and sentiment analysis. However, the value of extrapolated human judgments has recently been questioned within psychological research. Of primary concern is the fact that extrapolated judgments may not share the same pattern of statistical relationship with lexical and semantic variables as do actual human judgments; often the error component in extrapolated judgments is not psychologically inert, making such judgments problematic to use for psychological research. We present a new methodology for extrapolating human judgments that partially addresses prior concerns of validity. We use this methodology to extrapolate human judgments of valence, arousal, dominance, and concreteness for 78,286 words. We also provide resources for users to extrapolate these human judgments for three million English words and short phrases. Applications for large sets of extrapolated human judgments are demonstrated and discussed.

  9. What do we mean by the word ''Shock''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnels, Scott Robert

    2015-01-01

    From one vantage point, a shock is a continuous but drastic change in state variables that occurs over very small time and length scales. These scales and associated changes in state variables can be measured experimentally. From another vantage point, a shock is a mathematical singularity consisting of instantaneous changes in state variables. This more mathematical view gives rise to analytical solutions to idealized problems. And from a third vantage point, a shock is a structure in a hydrocode prediction. Its width depends on the simulation's grid resolution and artificial viscosity. These three vantage points can be in conflict when ideas from the associated fields are combined, and yet combining them is an important goal of an integrated modeling program. This presentation explores an example of how models for real materials in the presence of real shocks react to a hydrocode's numerical shocks of finite width. The presentation will include an introduction to plasticity for the novice, an historical view of plasticity algorithms, a demonstration of how pursuing the meaning of ''shock'' has resulted in hydrocode improvements, and will conclude by answering some of the questions that arise from that pursuit. After the technical part of the presentation, a few slides advertising LANL's Computational Physics Student Summer Workshop will be shown.

  10. 7 CFR 56.1 - Meaning of words and terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... independent verification of written quality assurance and value added standards for production, processing and... regulations in this part, the class, quality, quantity, or condition of products. Grading or grading service... of excellence. Quality assurance inspector means any designated company employee other than the plant...

  11. Enhanced bag of words using multilevel k-means for human activity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasem Elshourbagy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the bag of features in order to improve the accuracy of human activity recognition. In this paper, human activity recognition process consists of four stages: local space time features detection, feature description, bag of features representation, and SVMs classification. The k-means step in the bag of features is enhanced by applying three levels of clustering: clustering per video, clustering per action class, and clustering for the final code book. The experimental results show that the proposed method of enhancement reduces the time and memory requirements, and enables the use of all training data in the k-means clustering algorithm. The evaluation of accuracy of action classification on two popular datasets (KTH and Weizmann has been performed. In addition, the proposed method improves the human activity recognition accuracy by 5.57% on the KTH dataset using the same detector, descriptor, and classifier.

  12. Heterogeneity of the left temporal lobe in semantic representation and control: priming multiple versus single meanings of ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Kircher, Tilo

    2011-04-01

    Semantic judgments involve both representations of meaning plus executive mechanisms that guide knowledge retrieval in a task-appropriate way. These 2 components of semantic cognition-representation and control-are commonly linked to left temporal and prefrontal cortex, respectively. This simple proposal, however, remains contentious because in most functional neuroimaging studies to date, the number of concepts being activated and the involvement of executive processes during retrieval are confounded. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined a task in which semantic representation and control demands were dissociable. Words with multiple meanings like "bank" served as targets in a double-prime paradigm, in which multiple meaning activation and maximal executive demands loaded onto different priming conditions. Anterior inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) was sensitive to the number of meanings that were retrieved, suggesting a role for this region in semantic representation, while posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and inferior frontal cortex showed greater activation in conditions that maximized executive demands. These results support a functional dissociation between left ITG and pMTG, consistent with a revised neural organization in which left prefrontal and posterior temporal areas work together to underpin aspects of semantic control.

  13. Erotic, Sexual Words and Meanings in Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet” in Albanian translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmir Ramadani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian reading public had to wait for three hundred years to be introduced to the works of one of the greatest writers of English literature, William Shakespeare, in their mother tongue. The translation of Shakespeare’s works into Albanian started in the second decade of the 20th century. We distinguish three periods of the Albanian translation of Shakespeare’s plays. The first phase, from 1915 to 1928, is known for the translation of Bishop Fan Noli, the head of Albanian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in Boston, USA. The second phase from 1955 until 1982, during the totalitarian regime world literature was strictly censored by communist propaganda, with only three official translators of Shakespeare’s works, Skënder Luarasi, Vedat Kokona, and Alqi Kristo. Third period, from 1990 to the present, with an increasing number of translators of Shakespeare’s works, such as Refik Kadija, Perikli Jorgoni, Qezar Kurti, Mihal Hanxhari, Napolon Tasi, Pashko Gjeçi, Kristaq Traja etc. William Shakespeare has made frequent use of erotic and sexual words, meanings and connotations in his tragedy Romeo and Juliet. Most of them are missing in the first Albanian translation. But the second translator has noted all of them in the footnotes of his translation. In this paper I will focus on these sexual and erotic words and references in the “Romeo and Juliet” and their translation in Albanian language by two translators, the first translation of Alqi Kristo some 70 years ago, and the second translation by Refik Kadija in 2014. Political influences, evolution of Albanian language over the last decades, are some of the main reasons to suggest that Refik Kadija’s translation should be used as more complete and better translation of Shakespeare’s tragedy in Albanian language.

  14. Data Mining of Web-Based Documents on Social Networking Sites That Included Suicide-Related Words Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Corporal Punishment of Children in the Family based on the Semantic Reading of Traditional Islamic Narratives including the Word “Dharb” [Hitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیدرضا بصیری

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are various traditional Islamic narratives in relation to treating children. The common understanding of these narratives allows for the corporal punishment of children in the family, although some narratives forbid parents from such behavior. With reference to traditional Islamic texts, the word “hitting” (Arabic: dharb is the main and most frequently used word implying the permissibility of corporal punishment. An investigation of the use of the term “dharb” (Arabic: ضرب in the Quran, traditional Islamic narratives and the Arabic language reveals different instances of a general sense of “occurence” which can denote “doing or carrying out”. On this basis, a wide range of usages for this word in absolute terms (without preposition is conceivable with the meanings of protecting, financially supporting, guiding and nurturing children. It seems that limiting the meaning of dharb to corporal punishment in all traditional Islamic narratives without considering the other meanings has led to incorrect interpretations of such narratives.

  16. What does "disability" mean for medical students? An exploration of the words medical students associate with the term "disability".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Margaret; Cockshott, Zoë; Brownett, Hilary; Ramkalawan, Tina

    2005-02-01

    Disability teaching is a core theme in undergraduate medical education. Medical students bring a range of experiences of disability to their medical training. The principal aim of this study was to explore the words that medical students associate with the term "disability" and to consider how the resulting information could inform teaching. A secondary aim was to see if a short disability course changed the word associations. Students were asked to write down 2 words that came to mind when they heard the word "disability", before and after a 4-day course in disability. Words from 4 cohorts were analysed by frequency and the following word dichotomies: visual icons/personal attributes; loss/enabling, and medical model/social model. A random sample of students took part in focus groups at the beginning and end of the course. A total of 381 students provided 667 before-course words and 189 students provided 336 after-course words. Before the course, words denoting visual icons of disability, and loss were prominent, accounting for 85% of the words, and 74% of the words describing personal attributes were negative. Focus group responses at this stage reflected an eagerness to help but patronising terms were prominent, along with concern about political correctness. Students also expressed nervousness about encountering disabled people. In response, teaching was adapted to make it more learner-focused, to offer a safe environment in which students can test out their language, to build on the positive associations and to develop a range of pre-course creative activities with disabled people. After the course a considerable and significant shift in emphasis was observed, with a reduction in the use of visual icon words, an increase in words denoting enablement, and an increase in words relating to the social model of disability and to positive personal attributes (P Focus group participants at this stage reported greater confidence in approaching disabled people but

  17. A convolution method for predicting mean treatment dose including organ motion at imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, J.T.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The random treatment delivery errors (organ motion and set-up error) can be incorporated into the treatment planning software using a convolution method. Mean treatment dose is computed as the convolution of a static dose distribution with a variation kernel. Typically this variation kernel is Gaussian with variance equal to the sum of the organ motion and set-up error variances. We propose a novel variation kernel for the convolution technique that additionally considers the position of the mobile organ in the planning CT image. The systematic error of organ position in the planning CT image can be considered random for each patient over a population. Thus the variance of the variation kernel will equal the sum of treatment delivery variance and organ motion variance at planning for the population of treatments. The kernel is extended to deal with multiple pre-treatment CT scans to improve tumour localisation for planning. Mean treatment doses calculated with the convolution technique are compared to benchmark Monte Carlo (MC) computations. Calculations of mean treatment dose using the convolution technique agreed with MC results for all cases to better than ± 1 Gy in the planning treatment volume for a prescribed 60 Gy treatment. Convolution provides a quick method of incorporating random organ motion (captured in the planning CT image and during treatment delivery) and random set-up errors directly into the dose distribution. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  19. When a Picture Isn't Worth 1000 Words: Learners Struggle to Find Meaning in Data Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofer, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    The oft-repeated phrase "a picture is worth a thousand words" supposes that an image can replace a profusion of words to more easily express complex ideas. For scientific visualizations that represent profusions of numerical data, however, an untranslated academic visualization suffers the same pitfalls untranslated jargon does. Previous…

  20. Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  1. Should mean arterial pressure be included in the definition of ambulatory hypertension in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suláková, Terezie; Feber, Janusz

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension (HTN)/normotension (NT) on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is usually based on systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The goal of this study was to analyze whether inclusion of mean arterial pressure (MAP) improves the detection of HTN on ABPM. We retrospectively studied ABPM records in 229 children (116 boys, median age = 15.3 years) who were referred for evaluation of HTN. A diagnosis of HTN was made if: (A) MAP or SBP or DBP was ≥ 1.65 SDS (95th percentile); (B) SBP or DBP was ≥ 1.65 SDS (95th percentile), during 24-h or daytime or night-time in both definitions. Using definition A, 46/229 patients had HTN compared to definition B by which only 37/229 patients had HTN (p = 0.001). The level of agreement between the two definitions was very good (kappa = 0.86 ± 0.04), however nine patients (19.5 %) were missed by not using MAP in the definition of HTN. These nine patients had only mild HTN with a median Z score of 1.69. The inclusion of MAP in the definition of ambulatory HTN significantly increased the number of hypertensive patients. MAP may be very helpful in detecting mild HTN in patients with normal/borderline SBP and DBP.

  2. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  3. Solar energy collector including a weightless balloon with sun tracking means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Frederick F.

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector having a weightless balloon, the balloon including a transparent polyvinylfluoride hemisphere reinforced with a mesh of ropes secured to its outside surface, and a laminated reflector hemisphere, the inner layer being clear and aluminized on its outside surface and the outer layer being opaque, the balloon being inflated with lighter-than-air gas. A heat collection probe extends into the balloon along the focus of reflection of the reflective hemisphere for conducting coolant into and out of the balloon. The probe is mounted on apparatus for keeping the probe aligned with the sun's path, the apparatus being founded in the earth for withstanding wind pressure on the balloon. The balloon is lashed to the probe by ropes adhered to the outer surface of the balloon for withstanding wind pressures of 100 miles per hour. Preferably, the coolant is liquid sodium-potassium eutectic alloy which will not normally freeze at night in the temperate zones, and when heated to 4,000.degree. R exerts a pressure of only a few atmospheres.

  4. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  5. The Separability of Morphological Processes from Semantic Meaning and Syntactic Class in Production of Single Words: Evidence from the Hebrew Root Morpheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated to what extent the morphological facilitation effect induced by the derivational root morpheme in Hebrew is independent of semantic meaning and grammatical information of the part of speech involved. Using the picture-word interference paradigm with auditorily presented distractors, Experiment 1 compared the…

  6. On the origin and meaning of the German word Luft and some meteorological terms concerning atmospheric water, especially fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller, Detlev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The English and French word “air” is derived from the Latin aer, which comes from the Greek άήρ. In contrast, the German word “Luft” is a common Proto-Germanic word; in Old English “ lift” and “ lyft”. The word Luft (also Danish, Swedish and Norwegian is associated with brightness; the German Licht (light, an air (in an atmospheric sense without fog or clouds. Air and water were originally “elements” in ancient Greek and were transmutable; they represented two kinds of the “ layer of mist” (atmosphere. Dark or thick air was mist or cloud, hiding the gods (who lived in the upper air or sky; the aether. Different terms are presented that describe fog and clouds in connection with the history of the process of understanding. Finally, the word Luft (air as a term for gaseous chemical compounds (“kinds of gases” is discussed. In addition to the German, all terms are given in Greek, Latin, English and French .

  7. How necessary are the stripes of a tiger? Diagnostic and characteristic features in an fMRI study of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Murray; Troiani, Vanessa; Koenig, Phyllis; Work, Melissa; Moore, Peachie

    2007-03-14

    This study contrasted two approaches to word meaning: the statistically determined role of high-contribution features like striped in the meaning of complex nouns like "tiger" typically used in studies of semantic memory, and the contribution of diagnostic features like parent's brother that play a critical role in the meaning of nominal kinds like "uncle." fMRI monitored regional brain activity while participants read complex noun descriptions consisting of statistically high-contribution and low-contribution features; and nominal kind descriptions consisting of diagnostic and characteristic features. We found different patterns of activation depending on the type of noun and the type of feature contributing to the noun. Complex nouns recruited significantly greater bilateral superior temporal and left prefrontal activation compared to nominal kind nouns, while nominal kind nouns activated bilateral medial parietal and right inferior parietal regions more than complex nouns. Moreover, features making a statistically high contribution to complex noun meaning activated right inferior frontal cortex relative to low-contribution features, while diagnostic features of nominal kinds activated left dorsolateral prefrontal and right parietal regions more than characteristic features. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that at least two different neural mechanisms appear to support word meaning: one driven by a statistically determined approach to feature knowledge, and the other sensitive to the qualitatively critical role that a specific diagnostic feature plays in word meaning.

  8. Children Remember Words from Ignorant Speakers but Do Not Attach Meaning: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangardich, Haykaz; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2018-01-01

    Although we know much about the conditions under which children demonstrate selective social learning, we have a limited understanding of the cognitive mechanisms by which children's selectivity manifests. Here, we report findings from a brain electrophysiological (ERP) study designed to determine the extent to which words presented by ignorant…

  9. Three-to Four-Year-Olds' Recognition That Symbols Have a Stable Meaning: Pictures Are Understood Before Written Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperly, Ian. A.; Williams, Emily; Williams, Joelle

    2004-01-01

    In 4 experiments 120 three-to four-year-old non readers were asked the identity of a symbolic representation as it appeared with different objects. Consistent with Bialystok (2000), many children judged the identity of written words to vary according to the object with which they appeared but few made such errors with recognizable pictures.…

  10. Yes, you can? A speaker's potency to act upon his words orchestrates early neural responses to message-level meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Krauspenhaar, Sylvia; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that, in comprehending language, the human brain rapidly integrates a wealth of information sources-including the reader or hearer's knowledge about the world and even his/her current mood. However, little is known to date about how language processing in the brain is affected by the hearer's knowledge about the speaker. Here, we investigated the impact of social attributions to the speaker by measuring event-related brain potentials while participants watched videos of three speakers uttering true or false statements pertaining to politics or general knowledge: a top political decision maker (the German Federal Minister of Finance at the time of the experiment), a well-known media personality and an unidentifiable control speaker. False versus true statements engendered an N400 - late positivity response, with the N400 (150-450 ms) constituting the earliest observable response to message-level meaning. Crucially, however, the N400 was modulated by the combination of speaker and message: for false versus true political statements, an N400 effect was only observable for the politician, but not for either of the other two speakers; for false versus true general knowledge statements, an N400 was engendered by all three speakers. We interpret this result as demonstrating that the neurophysiological response to message-level meaning is immediately influenced by the social status of the speaker and whether he/she has the power to bring about the state of affairs described.

  11. What's in a Word?

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    Words are all around us to the point that their complexity is lost in familiarity. The term “word” itself can ambiguously refer to different linguistic concepts: orthographic words, phonological words, grammatical words, word-forms, lexemes, and to an extent lexical items. While it is hard to come up with exception-less criteria for wordhood, some typical properties are that words are writeable and spellable, consist of morphemes, are syntactic units, carry meaning, and interrelate with oth...

  12. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  13. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  14. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  15. Grammatical replacements in translation of German advertising texts of utomotive subject including participial constructions with attributive meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Informative capacity of participial construction of source and target languages contributes to a more complex and multi aspect image of an expensive car. Dangling participles and attributive clauses placed after the determined word are being used in translation of extended adjectives with participles I and II. These grammatical transformations connected with reconstruction of semantic structure remain logically rational argumentation of an advertising text of the source language.

  16. WORD-FORMATIVE MEANING OF ACTION SEMELFACTIVENESS IN THE KHANTY LANGUAGE (AS EXEMPLIFIED IN THE KAZYM DIALECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Maksiovna Moldanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Study of verb formation holds a high position in the Finno-Ugric linguistics. In spite of works on the verb formation in other dialects of the Khanty language there are many gaps and uncovered issues in description of the Kazym dialect.Goal and tasks of the research. The main goal of the research is to find suffixes with the meaning of action semelfactiveness in the Kazym dialect of the Khanty language, to specify the list of suffixes and the meanings given to the verb.According to the goal stated the following tasks are completed in the work:1. To collect factual material: verbs with the meaning of semelfactiveness using the sources of literature, colloquial and dialect speech.2. To analyze and specify morphological characteristic of the semelfactive verbs3. To detect productivity of the verb suffixes being studied and compare their semantics with other dialects of the Khanty language.Academic novelty. In this work we have examined considerable layer of semelfactive verbs that allows us to specify the meanings of suffixes, detect their productivity.Topicality of this research is explained by the fact that the issue of action semelfactiveness using the example of the Kazym dialect of the Khanty language has not been specially studied.

  17. Methods of defining ontologies, word disambiguation methods, computer systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA

    2011-10-11

    Methods of defining ontologies, word disambiguation methods, computer systems, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a word disambiguation method includes accessing textual content to be disambiguated, wherein the textual content comprises a plurality of words individually comprising a plurality of word senses, for an individual word of the textual content, identifying one of the word senses of the word as indicative of the meaning of the word in the textual content, for the individual word, selecting one of a plurality of event classes of a lexical database ontology using the identified word sense of the individual word, and for the individual word, associating the selected one of the event classes with the textual content to provide disambiguation of a meaning of the individual word in the textual content.

  18. Morpho-syntactic processing of Arabic plurals after aphasia: dissecting lexical meaning from morpho-syntax within word boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Tariq; Body, Richard; Herbert, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Within the domain of inflectional morpho-syntax, differential processing of regular and irregular forms has been found in healthy speakers and in aphasia. One view assumes that irregular forms are retrieved as full entities, while regular forms are compiled on-line. An alternative view holds that a single mechanism oversees regular and irregular forms. Arabic offers an opportunity to study this phenomenon, as Arabic nouns contain a consonantal root, delivering lexical meaning, and a vocalic pattern, delivering syntactic information, such as gender and number. The aim of this study is to investigate morpho-syntactic processing of regular (sound) and irregular (broken) Arabic plurals in patients with morpho-syntactic impairment. Three participants with acquired agrammatic aphasia produced plural forms in a picture-naming task. We measured overall response accuracy, then analysed lexical errors and morpho-syntactic errors, separately. Error analysis revealed different patterns of morpho-syntactic errors depending on the type of pluralization (sound vs broken). Omissions formed the vast majority of errors in sound plurals, while substitution was the only error mechanism that occurred in broken plurals. The dissociation was statistically significant for retrieval of morpho-syntactic information (vocalic pattern) but not for lexical meaning (consonantal root), suggesting that the participants' selective impairment was an effect of the morpho-syntax of plurals. These results suggest that irregular plurals forms are stored, while regular forms are derived. The current findings support the findings from other languages and provide a new analysis technique for data from languages with non-concatenative morpho-syntax.

  19. Paroles de Soleil Presentation of Words of the Sun. A tentative classification of sundial mottoes according to their intrinsic meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Escuder

    2009-07-01

    νωμων (gnomon meaning the ultimately competent judge. The interpretation of mottoes and other inscriptions on sundials may facilitate the understanding of the notion of the passing of time, its possible conscious and unconscious, individual and collective interpretations, and the relationships that Mankind has established with it. France is privileged to have on its territory some very ancient sundials, consequently an analysis of the available data can reveal how those relations have changed over a period of centuries or even decades. Since 1998, a special committee of the French Society for Astronomy’s Sundial Commission (Paris, France has been analyzing sundials and their mottoes. For the past seven years, the group has worked on a classification system founded on 12 categories based on their intrinsic meaning (for example : religious, philosophical, optimistic mottoes,.... After the analysis of approximately 3,000 mottoes, the system revealed several trends of particular meanings through time, and the results were published under the title Paroles de Soleil – Devises des cadrans solaires de France. This publication is now available to the public. It presents and explains 2,159 mottoes found on French sundials.

  20. The impact of structure on word meaning and fill-in-the-blank tests procedures on short-term and long-term retention of vocabulary items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Fazeli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research described in the current study to investigate the impact of structure knowing on two types of test, i.e. word-meaning test and fill-in-the-blank test, their correlation and procedures on both short-term and long-term retention of vocabulary items. The importance of the present study, to test the condition that learners are not allowed to use guess strategy or randomly answer the tests and they should give reason semantically for their answer, otherwise their answer, even is correct, is not scored. The population for subject recruitment was all undergraduate students from second semester at large university in Iran (both male and female that study English as a compulsory paper. In Iran, English is taught as a foreign language.

  1. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  2. Ciceronas apie vertimą. Ką mums atskleidžia žodžių reikšmės | Cicero about Translation: Exploring the Meaning of Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article reveals Cicero’s attitude towards translation, exploring some passages from his rhetorical and philosophical treatises which deal with translation from Greek to Latin, and paying most attention to the usage of words with the mean­ing “translate, translator”.To conclude, the regular Latin verb for “to trans­late” (convertere in Cicero’s usage implies neither the accuracy or literalism of translation. For a close literal translation he uses interpretari or such ex­pressions as ad verbum (verbum de verbo verbum e verbo, ad verbum exprimere, verbum pro verbo reddere. The verbs exprimere, explicare, reddere are used more or less metaphorically to express various aspects of translation from Greek, which includes also a free interpretation of the original and borrow­ing some elements from the original. According to our observations, Fin. I. 7 is the only case in Cicero’s extant scripts, as well as the first in Latin literature, when the verb transferre, while meaning “to trans­fer, to borrow, to use in context” comes closest to vertere. By contrast, the authors of I–II AD, such as Seneca, Pliny the Elder and the Younger, Quintilian use the word transferre with the meaning of transla­tion quite regularly.We argue that when Cicero calls himself not in­terpres, sed orator, he tries to indicate first of all not the closeness or freedom of translation, but rather the rhetorical power of his text. He is not afraid to use a word in not a very common sense, or two words for one in the original, or to create a new one if necessary, which may seem too bold for the interpretes indiserti not so skilled and well-trained in rhetorics. Cicero approached his work of translation without any pre­conceived rules, and the main standard referred to is his own taste based on the ruling principle of rhetor­ics – decorum, aptum, prepon – i.e. appropriateness. Cicero, as a translator as well as an orator, matches every

  3. Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents, Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    layer the eddy flux is significantly diabatic with a shallow eddy-induced (Lagrangian) circulation cell and down-gradient lateral diapycnal flux. These...3D Schematic representation of the eddy effects on the mean buoyancy field decomposed between adiabatic eddy-induced advection and diabatic ...plane). The diabatic component acts to smooth out surface buoyancy extrema and is shown as sinuous arrows in the top plane. Interior diabatic fluxes

  4. The enigma of number: why children find the meanings of even small number words hard to learn and how we can help them do better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ramscar

    Full Text Available Although number words are common in everyday speech, learning their meanings is an arduous, drawn-out process for most children, and the source of this delay has long been the subject of inquiry. Children begin by identifying the few small numerosities that can be named without counting, and this has prompted further debate over whether there is a specific, capacity-limited system for representing these small sets, or whether smaller and larger sets are both represented by the same system. Here we present a formal, computational analysis of number learning that offers a possible solution to both puzzles. This analysis indicates that once the environment and the representational demands of the task of learning to identify sets are taken into consideration, a continuous system for learning, representing and discriminating set-sizes can give rise to effective discontinuities in processing. At the same time, our simulations illustrate how typical prenominal linguistic constructions ("there are three balls" structure information in a way that is largely unhelpful for discrimination learning, while suggesting that postnominal constructions ("balls, there are three" will facilitate such learning. A training-experiment with three-year olds confirms these predictions, demonstrating that rapid, significant gains in numerical understanding and competence are possible given appropriately structured postnominal input. Our simulations and results reveal how discrimination learning tunes children's systems for representing small sets, and how its capacity-limits result naturally out of a mixture of the learning environment and the increasingly complex task of discriminating and representing ever-larger number sets. They also explain why children benefit so little from the training that parents and educators usually provide. Given the efficacy of our intervention, the ease with which it can be implemented, and the large body of research showing how early

  5. The enigma of number: why children find the meanings of even small number words hard to learn and how we can help them do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Popick, Hanna Muenke; O'Donnell-McCarthy, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Although number words are common in everyday speech, learning their meanings is an arduous, drawn-out process for most children, and the source of this delay has long been the subject of inquiry. Children begin by identifying the few small numerosities that can be named without counting, and this has prompted further debate over whether there is a specific, capacity-limited system for representing these small sets, or whether smaller and larger sets are both represented by the same system. Here we present a formal, computational analysis of number learning that offers a possible solution to both puzzles. This analysis indicates that once the environment and the representational demands of the task of learning to identify sets are taken into consideration, a continuous system for learning, representing and discriminating set-sizes can give rise to effective discontinuities in processing. At the same time, our simulations illustrate how typical prenominal linguistic constructions ("there are three balls") structure information in a way that is largely unhelpful for discrimination learning, while suggesting that postnominal constructions ("balls, there are three") will facilitate such learning. A training-experiment with three-year olds confirms these predictions, demonstrating that rapid, significant gains in numerical understanding and competence are possible given appropriately structured postnominal input. Our simulations and results reveal how discrimination learning tunes children's systems for representing small sets, and how its capacity-limits result naturally out of a mixture of the learning environment and the increasingly complex task of discriminating and representing ever-larger number sets. They also explain why children benefit so little from the training that parents and educators usually provide. Given the efficacy of our intervention, the ease with which it can be implemented, and the large body of research showing how early numerical ability

  6. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Arnold

    Full Text Available Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%, without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  7. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  8. Finding meaning in a noisy world: exploring the effects of referential ambiguity and competition on 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John P; Scott, Rose M

    2017-05-01

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2·5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational evidence were more ambiguous. Children saw four trials in which a novel word occurred with four novel objects; only one object consistently co-occurred with the word across trials. The frequency of distracter objects varied across conditions. When all distracter referents occurred only once (no-competition), children successfully identified the noun's referent. When a high-probability competitor referent occurred on three trials, children identified the target referent if the competitor was absent on the third trial (short-competition) but not if it was present until the fourth trial (long-competition). This suggests that although 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational learning scales up to more ambiguous scenes, it is disrupted by high-probability competitor referents.

  9. A Comparison of Science Word Meaning in the Classrooms of Two Different Countries: Scottish Integrated Science in Scotland and in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, A. M.; Maskill, R.

    1982-01-01

    Investigates the difference between two groups of adolescents learning basic science from the same curriculum (Scottish Integrated Science) but in two different languages and cultural settings. Word association tests distinguished between the groups, with the Malay children producing more associations than the Scottish children. (Author/JJD)

  10. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  11. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Few Evidence-Based Features of Dietary Interventions Included in Photo Diet Tracking Mobile Apps for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah; Dunn, Caroline; Wilcox, Sara; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-11-01

    Apps using digital photos to track dietary intake and provide feedback are common, but currently there has been no research examining what evidence-based strategies are included in these apps. A content analysis of mobile apps for photo diet tracking was conducted, including whether effective techniques for interventions promoting behavior change, including self-regulation, for healthy eating (HE) are targeted. An initial search of app stores yielded 34 apps (n = 8 Android and Apple; n = 11 Android; n = 15 Apple). One app was removed (unable to download), and other apps (n = 4) were unable to be rated (no longer available). Remaining apps (n = 29) were downloaded, reviewed, and coded by 2 independent reviewers to determine the number of known effective self-regulation and other behavior change techniques included. The raters met to compare their coding of the apps, calculate interrater agreement, resolve any discrepancies, and come to a consensus. Six apps (21%) did not utilize any of the behavior change techniques examined. Three apps (10%) provided feedback to users via crowdsourcing or collective feedback from other users and professionals, 7 apps (24%) used crowdsourcing or collective feedback, 1 app (3%) used professionals, and 18 apps (62%) did not provide any dietary feedback to users. Few photo diet-tracking apps include evidence-based strategies to improve dietary intake. Use of photos to self-monitor dietary intake and receive feedback has the potential to reduce user burden for self-monitoring, yet photo diet tracking apps need to incorporate known effective behavior strategies for HE, including self-regulation. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Thematic Journeys. Words that I Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingher, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Children may feel a sense of ownership when they learn a new vocabulary word that genuinely excites them--a dynamic word, a poetic word, a word with a delicious sound or interesting meaning. Right away, they like to try out these words, experiment with them, incorporate them into the speaking and writing, and impress others with their mastery.…

  13. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words denoting number... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender. ...

  14. Yes, You Can? A Speaker’s Potency to Act upon His Words Orchestrates Early Neural Responses to Message-Level Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Krauspenhaar, Sylvia; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that, in comprehending language, the human brain rapidly integrates a wealth of information sources–including the reader or hearer’s knowledge about the world and even his/her current mood. However, little is known to date about how language processing in the brain is affected by the hearer’s knowledge about the speaker. Here, we investigated the impact of social attributions to the speaker by measuring event-related brain potentials while participants watched videos of three speakers uttering true or false statements pertaining to politics or general knowledge: a top political decision maker (the German Federal Minister of Finance at the time of the experiment), a well-known media personality and an unidentifiable control speaker. False versus true statements engendered an N400 - late positivity response, with the N400 (150–450 ms) constituting the earliest observable response to message-level meaning. Crucially, however, the N400 was modulated by the combination of speaker and message: for false versus true political statements, an N400 effect was only observable for the politician, but not for either of the other two speakers; for false versus true general knowledge statements, an N400 was engendered by all three speakers. We interpret this result as demonstrating that the neurophysiological response to message-level meaning is immediately influenced by the social status of the speaker and whether he/she has the power to bring about the state of affairs described. PMID:23894425

  15. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  16. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  17. Analyzing gait variability and dual-task interference in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing by means of the word-color Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Ana Francisca Rozin; Pagnussat, Aline S; Prisco, Giulia di; Vagnini, Alessandro; Stocchi, Fabrizio; De Pandis, Maria Francesca; Galli, Manuela

    2017-12-02

    The ability to carry out two tasks at once is critical to effective functioning in the real world and deficits are termed Dual-task interference or effect-DTE. DTE substantially compromised the gait of subjects with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait (PD + FOG), leading to exaggerated slowing, increasing gait dysrhythmicity, and inducing FOG episodes. This study aimed to investigate the DTE in gait variability of subjects with PD and freezing of gait (PD + FOG). Thirty-three patients with PD + FOG and 14 healthy individuals (REFERENCE) took part at this study. Two gait conditions were analyzed: usual walking (single task) and walking while taking the word-color Stroop test (dual task). The computed variables were as follows: gait velocity, step length, step timing, gait asymmetry, variability measures and DTE of each variable. The PD + FOG group has presented negative DTE values for all analyzed variables, indicating dual task cost. The REFERENCE group has presented dual-task benefits for step length standard deviation and step time. Differences between both groups and conditions were found for all variables, except for step time. Taking the word-color Stroop test while walking led to a larger dual-task cost in subjects with PD + FOG.

  18. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balass, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Nelson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no

  19. Representation Learning of Logic Words by an RNN: From Word Sequences to Robot Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of human language is compositionality. We can efficiently express a wide variety of real-world situations, events, and behaviors by compositionally constructing the meaning of a complex expression from a finite number of elements. Previous studies have analyzed how machine-learning models, particularly neural networks, can learn from experience to represent compositional relationships between language and robot actions with the aim of understanding the symbol grounding structure and achieving intelligent communicative agents. Such studies have mainly dealt with the words (nouns, adjectives, and verbs that directly refer to real-world matters. In addition to these words, the current study deals with logic words, such as “not,” “and,” and “or” simultaneously. These words are not directly referring to the real world, but are logical operators that contribute to the construction of meaning in sentences. In human–robot communication, these words may be used often. The current study builds a recurrent neural network model with long short-term memory units and trains it to learn to translate sentences including logic words into robot actions. We investigate what kind of compositional representations, which mediate sentences and robot actions, emerge as the network's internal states via the learning process. Analysis after learning shows that referential words are merged with visual information and the robot's own current state, and the logical words are represented by the model in accordance with their functions as logical operators. Words such as “true,” “false,” and “not” work as non-linear transformations to encode orthogonal phrases into the same area in a memory cell state space. The word “and,” which required a robot to lift up both its hands, worked as if it was a universal quantifier. The word “or,” which required action generation that looked apparently random, was represented as an

  20. ON THE PECULIARITIES OF TERMINOLOGICAL WORD GROUP WITH MEANING VALUE BASED PRICING / ЦЕНА-СТОИМОСТЬ / CENA-WARTOŚĆ AND THE PROBLEM OF THEIR EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rolak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a semantic analysis of a range of selected terms along with contrastive characteristics of their syntagmatic and paradigmatic peculiarities. “Price”, “cost” and “value” are the basic notions of market economy and, correspondingly, the lexemes denoting them. As a result, the paper focuses on the information these lexemes transmit along with their equivalents in the Polish and Russian languages. Probable variants of their translation are also shown. The problem of evaluation of their linguistic volume refers to the functioning of these words in economic discourse as general notions (hyperonyms that involve a range of particular ones. The author takes into consideration the factors, which have the impact on translation of the Polish and Russian terminological phrases (word groups that are often calques of English terms. An adequate translation is influenced by the following: understanding of terminological and non-terminological nature of a phrase being translated, acquaintance with idiomatic expressions used at translation of English terminological lexis, taking into account the regularities of syntagmatic collocation of a word. On the basis of use of phrases from the Russian and Polish economic discourses, the author shows the characteristics of use for selected terms and gives some adequate variants of their translation. The analysis of relations within the terminological group under study has shown that in the process of translation and choice for synonyms terminological and non-terminological meaning of a word, use of idiomatic expressions in both target languages that are calques from English, a tradition in realization of syntagmatic collocation of a word should be taken into consideration.

  1. An associative account of the development of word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M; Yim, Hyungwook; Yao, Xin; Dennis, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Word learning is a notoriously difficult induction problem because meaning is underdetermined by positive examples. How do children solve this problem? Some have argued that word learning is achieved by means of inference: young word learners rely on a number of assumptions that reduce the overall hypothesis space by favoring some meanings over others. However, these approaches have difficulty explaining how words are learned from conversations or text, without pointing or explicit instruction. In this research, we propose an associative mechanism that can account for such learning. In a series of experiments, 4-year-olds and adults were presented with sets of words that included a single nonsense word (e.g. dax). Some lists were taxonomic (i.,e., all items were members of a given category), some were associative (i.e., all items were associates of a given category, but not members), and some were mixed. Participants were asked to indicate whether the nonsense word was an animal or an artifact. Adults exhibited evidence of learning when lists consisted of either associatively or taxonomically related items. In contrast, children exhibited evidence of word learning only when lists consisted of associatively related items. These results present challenges to several extant models of word learning, and a new model based on the distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic associations is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What Homophones Say about Words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dautriche

    Full Text Available The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as "coherent" do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity "between" A and B. To leverage from it a linguistic constraint, learning algorithms have percolated this constraint from concepts, to word forms: some algorithms rely on the possibility that word forms are associated with convex sets of objects. Yet this does have to be the case: homophones are word forms associated with two separate words and meanings. Two sets of experiments show that when evidence suggests that a novel label is associated with a disjoint (non-convex set of objects, either a because there is a gap in conceptual space between the learning exemplars for a given word or b because of the intervention of other lexical items in that gap, adults prefer to postulate homophony, where a single word form is associated with two separate words and meanings, rather than inferring that the word could have a disjunctive, discontinuous meaning. These results about homophony must be integrated to current word learning algorithms. We conclude by arguing for a weaker specialization of word learning algorithms, which too often could miss important constraints by focusing on a restricted empirical basis (e.g., non-homophonous content words.

  3. What Homophones Say about Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as "coherent") do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity "between" A and B). To leverage from it a linguistic constraint, learning algorithms have percolated this constraint from concepts, to word forms: some algorithms rely on the possibility that word forms are associated with convex sets of objects. Yet this does have to be the case: homophones are word forms associated with two separate words and meanings. Two sets of experiments show that when evidence suggests that a novel label is associated with a disjoint (non-convex) set of objects, either a) because there is a gap in conceptual space between the learning exemplars for a given word or b) because of the intervention of other lexical items in that gap, adults prefer to postulate homophony, where a single word form is associated with two separate words and meanings, rather than inferring that the word could have a disjunctive, discontinuous meaning. These results about homophony must be integrated to current word learning algorithms. We conclude by arguing for a weaker specialization of word learning algorithms, which too often could miss important constraints by focusing on a restricted empirical basis (e.g., non-homophonous content words).

  4. The phenomenological dimension of meaning: words, vowels, phonemes as ways to sing the world, to celebrate the world, and to live it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Daniela

    2009-03-01

    This is commentary on Cornejo's Intersubjectivity as co-phenomenology: from the holism to the being-in-the-world-with-others, co-phenomenology, in which meaning is defined as a construal of phenomenological experience, it is not an individual creation, but rather an intersubjective one. In this paper the basic question is how language expresses the world and things and, consequently, what vision of the world is expressed by language and what relationship it creates with the real. Language is a set of differences between signs and meanings. It lives for and by this constant aspiration to say the inexpressible, to capture the elusive. Language tries to express the driving inner movement of the real through references and interlacing, by multiplying the relational threads of meanings. For example, the phonetic gesture performs for the speaker and his listener a certain structuring of experience, a certain modulation of existence. This is a communicative dimension in which meaning is always a process. It is the situation of co-feeling between subjects, in which understanding is achieved, as defined by Cornejo in his essay.

  5. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  6. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian

    1998-01-01

    between memory scores obtained with the two kinds of tasks. However, there is continuing controversy about the meaning of these dissociations. In recent studies, Ostergaard (1998a, Memory Cognit. 26:40-60; 1998b, J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., in press) showed that simply degrading visual word stimuli can...... dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...

  7. ["Just its Meaning is Hard to Understand … Because of the Words" --A Qualitative Study on the Suitability of Health-Related Information for Socially Disadvantaged People].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, U; Kretzschmann, C; Heil, A M; Menkouo, C; Grande, G

    2015-11-01

    Due to a higher prevalence estimates of risk factors, it is assumed that socially disadvantaged persons have a considerable need for health-related information and prevention. Yet this target group is hardly ever reached. There is a need to examine whether available health-related information is appropriate for the needs of socially disadvantaged people. On behalf of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) a qualitative study was conducted to evaluate published health-related information by socially disadvantaged people. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 28 persons with low income, low occupational status and a very low education level. 7 different types of health information (4 texts and 1 film, quiz and flyer each) were evaluated regarding their suitability. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed according to protocol, and qualitatively analysed in view of the central questions. Respondents evaluate the film format most positively, because of the vividness of the contents. In text-based information, a clear structure of the text and the use of case examples are particularly advantageous. All respondents accept the credibility of the given information. Problems occur regarding the comprehensibility and sentence structures with complex information. Numerous technical terms and foreign words remain misunderstood, even though explanations are given in the text. Compact contents and the description of several alternative therapy options are experienced as overstraining. Furthermore, the recognition of hazard potentials is hindered by misinterpretation of percentages or negated descriptions of frequencies. Some respondents doubt that they would read text-based health information voluntarily in their everyday life, especially when texts are lengthy. The respondents wish clear guidance, which relieves them of an active informed decision-making. They prefer advice they can apply in their everyday life and to recognise their

  8. Word Reading Aloud Skills: Their Positive Redefinition through Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Marianne; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Potvin, Karel; Harvey-Langton, Alexandra; Montembeault, Maxime; Brambati, Simona M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Successful reading can be achieved by means of two different procedures: sub-word processes for the pronunciation of words without semantics or pseudowords (PW) and whole-word processes that recruit word-specific information regarding the pronunciation of words with atypical orthography-to-phonology mappings (exception words, EW).…

  9. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  10. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  11. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, Eva; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  12. The Study of Synonymous Word "Mistake"

    OpenAIRE

    Suwardi, Albertus

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the synonymous word "mistake*.The discussion will also cover the meaning of 'word' itself. Words can be considered as form whether spoken or written, or alternatively as composite expression, which combine and meaning. Synonymous are different phonological words which have the same or very similar meanings. The synonyms of mistake are error, fault, blunder, slip, slipup, gaffe and inaccuracy. The data is taken from a computer program. The procedure of data collection is...

  13. Sarbalap! Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  14. Children's First Word Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Martin D. S.

    1976-01-01

    This monograph presents a descriptive analysis of the syntactic patterns in 16 corpora of word combinations from 11 infants learning either English (six children), Samoan, Finnish, Hebrew, or Swedish. The mean utterance lengths range up to about 1.7 morpehmes. There are both reanalyses of corpora in the literature and new corpora. The data…

  15. The syntax of single words: Evidence from a patient with a selective function word reading deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Froud, Karen

    2002-05-01

    We describe the reading performance of a patient who has selective deficits for reading nonwords, function words, and morphologically complex words in isolation. His reading of highly abstract nouns and verbs, however, is relatively well preserved. He can recognise and comprehend the meaning of written function words, of derivational morphology, and of most inflectional morphology. We suggest that his deficit in reading grammatical morphemes is unrelated to his problems in reading nonwords and cannot be explained by their low semanticity and imageability. The patient's speech is ungrammatical but is not devoid of grammatical morphemes and his reading of functional elements improves when these are presented within the context of sentences. We argue that syntactic information relevant to individual lexical items including information about how the word may potentially be used within a phrase must be accessed during single word reading tasks (e.g., Levelt, 1989). This is particularly difficult for function words due to their linguistic specification, which is different from that of lexical categories (Chomsky, 1995). Both linguistic theory and Garrett's (e.g., 1982) model of sentence processing account for the patient's improved reading of function words in the context of sentences.

  16. ONE MEANING OF A WORD IN THE BOOK OF DEDE KORKUT: KAZAVAT/KARAVAT DEDE KORKUT’TA BİR KELİME BİR ANLAM: KAZAVAT/KARAVAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Mete TAŞLIOVA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dede Korkut Stories are among the important sources of Turkish culture. Poetry and story come together. Many publications have been made about the book in Turkey and abroad. Samples were prepared versions of novels and tales. There are also examples of opera and theater. New experiments are made in the form of television series. Considered the source of the classic Turkish folk storytelling. Turkish culture and literature is the source of the important issues. But musicality aspect is not dealt with yet sufficiently because the music needs to be considered poems. Word structure varies as. Different dialect, a combination of features. But this harmony is a factor that. The oldest written text to be read some words in different ways. This article focuses on a word. There are different readings of the word “kazavat, karavat”. About the different meanings of the word have been suggested. This article will focus on the meanings. In addition, the proposal will be a new meaning. Dede Korkut Hikâyeleri Türk kültürünün önemli kaynakları arasındadır. Şiir ve hikâye bir aradadır. Türkiye'de ve yurt dışında kitap hakkında birçok yayın yapılmıştır. Roman ve masal versiyonları hazırlanmıştır. Opera ve tiyatro örnekleri de bulunmaktadır. Televizyon dizisi biçiminde yeni denemeler de yapılmaktadır. Klasik Türk halk hikâyeciliğinin de kaynağı sayılır. Türk kültürüne ve edebiyatına ait önemli konulara kaynaklık etmektedir. Fakat müzikalite yönüyle henüz yeterince ele alınmamıştır oysa şiiri müzikle düşünmek gerekmektedir. Kelime yapısı olarak da çeşitlilik gösterir. Farklı lehçe özellikleri bir aradadır. Fakat bu ahengi sağlayan bir unsurdur. Arap alfabesi ile yazılmış metin olduğu için bazı kelimeler farklı biçimlerde okunmuştur. Bu makalede bir kelime üzerinde durulmaktadır. Kelimenin “kazavat, karavat” farklı okunuşları bulunmaktadır. Kelime hakkında farklı anlamlar

  17. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  18. Gamification for Word Sense Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuizen, Noortje; Basile, Valerio; Evang, Kilian; Bos, Johan; Erk, Kartin; Koller, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining gold standard data for word sense disambiguation is important but costly. We show how it can be done using a “Game with a Purpose” (GWAP) called Wordrobe. This game consists of a large set of multiple-choice questions on word senses generated from the Groningen Meaning Bank. The players

  19. A Case with Probable Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Characterized by Specific Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Gogi (Word-Meaning Aphasia-Like Syndrome with Neologism and Neologistic Kanji Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jibiki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A right-handed male patient with probable herpes simplex encephalitis is presented because of the rarity of the clinicial picture. Brain X-ray CT scans showed lesions located in the bilateral fronto-temporal regions primarily involving the left lower temporal lobe. The clinical picture following the acute phase of the disease was characterized by specific emotional and behavioral disorders, i.e. oral tendency, hyperactivity, thoughtless talkativeness, random speech and exhilaration, which were partly compatible with the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Furthermore, this case was characterized by Gogi (word-meaning aphasia-like transcortical sensory aphasia and neologism produced saliently when naming objects and peculiar neologistic kanji processing in writing to dictation and oral reading. Both the neologism and neologistic kanji processing varied in quantity in parallel with the specific emotional and behavioral disorders. The relationships of these clinical features to lesional sites demonstrated by X-ray CT are discussed.

  20. Number words, quantifiers, and principles of word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2011-11-01

    How do children learn the meanings of words like many and five? Although much is known about the mechanisms that underlie children's acquisition of nouns and verbs, considerably less is understood of how children begin to learn the meanings of words that refer to sets (e.g., number words and quantifiers). Here we argue that children's acquisition of quantity expressions relies on learning mechanisms typically associated with learning content words. In particular, we argue that the Whole Object Assumption and the Principle of Contrast are special cases of more general principles that guide not just the acquisition of nouns and verbs, but also the acquisition and interpretation of number words and quantifiers. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 639-645 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.140 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  2. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  3. Computing meaning v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry; Pulman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers by leading researchers in computational semantics. It presents a state-of-the-art overview of recent and current research in computational semantics, including descriptions of new methods for constructing and improving resources for semantic computation, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and semantically annotated corpora. It also presents new statistical methods in semantic computation, such as the application of distributional semantics in the compositional calculation of sentence meanings. Computing the meaning of sentences, texts, and spoken or texted dialogue i

  4. Pengembangan Multimedia Tutorial Interaktif Microsoft Office Word

    OpenAIRE

    Istika, Dini; Ngadimun, Ngadimun; Suyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to: 1) produce interactive multimedia products Microsoft Office Word that fulfilled the criteria of a good instructional media, including instructional criteria, material criteria, and presentation criteria; 2) find out the effectiveness of an interactive tutorials of Microsoft Word  on learning the Microsoft Word; 3) determine the efficiency of an interactive tutorials of Microsoft Word on learning the Microsoft Word. The research conducted in SMP Negeri 4 Gedongtataan, SMP...

  5. Getting the Word Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandou, Julian R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests public relations strategies which science educators can adopt to spread the word about the importance of good science teaching. These include preparing a fact sheet summarizing a project/course/organization, tips on creating a newsworthy event (awards, displays at a mall, and others), and what to submit to the news media. (Author/JN)

  6. A Life in Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  7. "Poetry Does Really Educate": An Interview with Spoken Word Poet Luka Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Spoken word poetry is a means of engaging young people with a genre that has often been much maligned in classrooms all over the world. This interview with the Australian spoken word poet Luka Lesson explores issues that are of pressing concern to poetry education. These include the idea that engagement with poetry in schools can be enhanced by…

  8. Characterization of a quadrant diamond transmission X-ray detector including a precise determination of the mean electron-hole pair creation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Jeffrey W; Cibik, Levent; Schreiber, Swenja; Krumrey, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Precise monitoring of the incoming photon flux is crucial for many experiments using synchrotron radiation. For photon energies above a few keV, thin semiconductor photodiodes can be operated in transmission for this purpose. Diamond is a particularly attractive material as a result of its low absorption. The responsivity of a state-of-the art diamond quadrant transmission detector has been determined, with relative uncertainties below 1% by direct calibration against an electrical substitution radiometer. From these data and the measured transmittance, the thickness of the involved layers as well as the mean electron-hole pair creation energy were determined, the latter with an unprecedented relative uncertainty of 1%. The linearity and X-ray scattering properties of the device are also described.

  9. Culture-Bound Words of the Danube Basin Countries: Translation into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetverikova Olena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Any course in linguistic country study or popular text translation is impossible without adequate understanding and presentation of culture-bound elements, which present one of the most difficult topics to deal with, especially in multicultural countries. Our investigation aims to show the problems, which appear when we deal with equivalent-lacking words related to culture. Sometimes equivalent-lacking words are associated with culture-bound words, the Ukrainian equivalent for them is “реалії” (derived from Latin realis, pl. realia. However, the term “culture-bound word” is of narrower meaning than the term “equivalent-lacking word”. A culture-bound word names an object peculiar to this or that ethnic culture. Equivalent-lacking words include, along with culture-bound words, neologisms, i.e. newly coined forms, dialect words, slang, taboo-words, foreign (third language terms, proper names, misspellings, archaisms. Comparison of languages and cultures reveals the various types of culture-bound words. Reasons for using them can be extralinguistic, lexical or stylistic. When translating culture-bound words a translator should be aware of the receptor’s potential problems, take into account his background knowledge and choose the best means of translation.

  10. The Word Frequency Effect on Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    This study examines several linguistic factors as possible contributors to perceived word difficulty in second language learners in an experimental setting. The investigated factors include: (1) frequency of word usage in the first language, (2) word length, (3) number of syllables in a word, and (4) number of consonant clusters in a word. Word…

  11. Accessing the spoken word

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Jerry; Renals, Steve; Bird, Steven; de Jong, Franciska; Federico, Marcello; Fleischhauer, Carl; Kornbluh, Mark; Lamel, Lori; Oard, Douglas W; Stewart, Claire; Wright, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Spoken-word audio collections cover many domains, including radio and television broadcasts, oral narratives, governmental proceedings, lectures, and telephone conversations. The collection, access, and preservation of such data is stimulated by political, economic, cultural, and educational needs. This paper outlines the major issues in the field, reviews the current state of technology, examines the rapidly changing policy issues relating to privacy and copyright, and presents issues relati...

  12. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  13. Word Frequency As a Cue For Identifying Function Words In Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, Jean-Remy; Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    While content words (e.g., 'dog') tend to carry meaning, function words (e.g., 'the') mainly serve syntactic purposes. Here, we ask whether 17-month old infants can use one language-universal cue to identify function word candidates: their high frequency of occurrence. In Experiment 1, infants listened to a series of short, naturally recorded…

  14. Scientific word, Version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen Köksal

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Word is the first fully integrated mathematical word processor in the Windows 3.1 environment, which uses the TEX typesetting language for output. It runs as a Microsoft Windows application program and has two-way interface to TEX. The Scientific Word is an object-oriented WYSIWYG word processor for virtually all users who need typesetting scientific books, manuals and papers. It includes automatic equation numbering, spell checking, and LATEX and DVI previewer.

  15. Learning Word Sense Embeddings from Word Sense Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Li, Tianshi; Chang, Baobao

    2016-01-01

    Word embeddings play a significant role in many modern NLP systems. Since learning one representation per word is problematic for polysemous words and homonymous words, researchers propose to use one embedding per word sense. Their approaches mainly train word sense embeddings on a corpus. In this paper, we propose to use word sense definitions to learn one embedding per word sense. Experimental results on word similarity tasks and a word sense disambiguation task show that word sense embeddi...

  16. Tracking word semantic change in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Zhu, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes. We find that for the selected words in PubMed, overall, meanings are becoming more stable in the 2000s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. At the topic level, the global distance of most topics (19 out of 20 tested) is declining, suggesting that the words used to discuss these topics are stabilizing semantically. Similarly, the local distance of most topics (19 out of 20) is also declining, showing that the meanings of words from these topics are becoming more consistent with those of their semantic neighbors. At the word level, this paper identifies two different trends in word semantics, as measured by the aforementioned distance metrics: on the one hand, words can form clusters with their semantic neighbors, and these words, as a cluster, coevolve semantically; on the other hand, words can drift apart from their semantic neighbors while nonetheless stabilizing in the global context. In relating our work to language laws on semantic change, we find no overwhelming evidence to support either the law of parallel change or the law of conformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Teach yourself visually Word 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

  18. Positive words or negative words: whose valence strength are we more sensitive to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiemin; Zeng, Jing; Meng, Xianxin; Zhu, Liping; Yuan, Jiajin; Li, Hong; Yusoff, Nasir

    2013-10-02

    The present study investigates the human brains' sensitivity to the valence strength of emotionally positive and negative chinese words. Event-Related Potentials were recorded, in two different experimental sessions, for Highly Positive (HP), Mildly Positive (MP) and neutral (NP) words and for Highly Negative (HN), Mildly Negative (MN) and neutral (NN) words, while subjects were required to count the number of words, irrespective of word meanings. The results showed a significant emotion effect in brain potentials for both HP and MP words, and the emotion effect occurred faster for HP words than MP words: HP words elicited more negative deflections than NP words in N2 (250-350 ms) and P3 (350-500 ms) amplitudes, while MP words elicited a significant emotion effect in P3, but not in N2, amplitudes. By contrast, HN words elicited larger amplitudes than NN words in N2 but not in P3 amplitudes, whereas MN words produced no significant emotion effect across N2 and P3 components. Moreover, the size of emotion-neutral differences in P3 amplitudes was significantly larger for MP compared to MN words. Thus, the human brain is reactive to both highly and mildly positive words, and this reactivity increased with the positive valence strength of the words. Conversely, the brain is less reactive to the valence of negative relative to positive words. These results suggest that human brains are equipped with increased sensitivity to the valence strength of positive compared to negative words, a type of emotional stimuli that are well known for reduced arousal. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. What Type of Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Reading Comprehension: Word Meaning Recall or Word Meaning Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Aviad-Levitzky, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how well second language (L2) recall and recognition vocabulary tests correlated with a reading test, how well each vocabulary test discriminated between reading proficiency levels, and how accurate each test was in predicting reading proficiency when compared with corpus studies. A total of 116 college-level learners of…

  1. Cluster analysis of word frequency dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu S.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Belashova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and modelling of word usage frequency time series. During one of previous studies, an assumption was put forward that all word usage frequencies have uniform dynamics approaching the shape of a Gaussian function. This assumption can be checked using the frequency dictionaries of the Google Books Ngram database. This database includes 5.2 million books published between 1500 and 2008. The corpus contains over 500 billion words in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Chinese. We clustered time series of word usage frequencies using a Kohonen neural network. The similarity between input vectors was estimated using several algorithms. As a result of the neural network training procedure, more than ten different forms of time series were found. They describe the dynamics of word usage frequencies from birth to death of individual words. Different groups of word forms were found to have different dynamics of word usage frequency variations.

  2. Cluster analysis of word frequency dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikova, Yu S; Bochkarev, V V; Belashova, I A

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and modelling of word usage frequency time series. During one of previous studies, an assumption was put forward that all word usage frequencies have uniform dynamics approaching the shape of a Gaussian function. This assumption can be checked using the frequency dictionaries of the Google Books Ngram database. This database includes 5.2 million books published between 1500 and 2008. The corpus contains over 500 billion words in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Chinese. We clustered time series of word usage frequencies using a Kohonen neural network. The similarity between input vectors was estimated using several algorithms. As a result of the neural network training procedure, more than ten different forms of time series were found. They describe the dynamics of word usage frequencies from birth to death of individual words. Different groups of word forms were found to have different dynamics of word usage frequency variations

  3. Meaning, Truth and Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Bevir, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This essay approaches Derrida through a consideration of his writings on Saussure and Husserl. Derrida is right to insist, following Saussure, on a relational theory on meaning: words do not have a one to one correspondence with their referents. However, he is wrong to insist on a purely differential theory of meaning: words can refer to reality within the context of a body of knowledge. Similarly, Derrida is right to reject Husserl's idea of presence: no truths are simply given to consciousn...

  4. Semantic effects in single-word naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E; Patterson, K; Seidenberg, M S

    1995-09-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that, for lower frequency words, reading aloud is affected not only by spelling-sound typicality but also by a semantic variable, imageability. Participants were slower and more error prone when naming exception words with abstract meanings (e.g., scarce) than when naming either abstract regular words (e.g., scribe) or imageable exception words (e.g., soot). It is proposed that semantic representations of words have the largest impact on translating orthography to phonology when this translation process is slow or noisy (i.e., for low-frequency exceptions) and that words with rich semantic representations (i.e., high-imageability words) are most likely to benefit from this interaction.

  5. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  6. Semantic Change Type in Old Javanese Word and Sanskrit Loan Word to Modern Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Yuniarto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe type classifier of semantic change and to explain the factors causing semantic change. This research was conducted with a qualitative-descriptive approach. The research method is conducted by comparing the meaning of words from the Old Javanese and Sanskrit loan wordto Modern Javanese. The collection data is done by looking for words that the meaning suspected change in Old Javanese dictionary. Words meaning determined precisely by tracing to the Old Javanese text. Furthermore, words meaning are compared to present time meaning through Modern Javanese dictionary. In addition, searching Modern Javanese meaning are also using Javanese news on the internet pages. The analysis of this research is to classify Old Javanese words and Sanskrit loan words meaning that undergo change to Modern Javanese. It’s also explained why the change in the word meaning can occur. The result shows that, semantic change of Old Javanese words and Sanskrit loan words to Modern Javanese can be classified into seven types, involving widening, narrowing, shifting, metaphor, metonymy, pejoration, and euphemism. In addition, the result shows that semantic change can occur because of some factors. Psychological factor concerning emotive and taboo, and polysemy. religion spreading, the growth of science and technology, the socio-political development, and the needs of a new name.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160101

  7. Smashing WordPress Themes Making WordPress Beautiful

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress Themes - one of the hottest topics on the web today WordPress is so much more than a blogging platform, and Smashing WordPress Themes teaches readers how to make it look any way they like - from a corporate site, to a photography gallery and moreWordPress is one of the hottest tools on the web today and is used by sites including The New York Times, Rolling Stone, flickr, CNN, NASA and of course Smashing MagazineBeautiful full colour throughout - web designers expect nothing lessSmashing Magazine will fully support this book by by promoting it through their webs

  8. Multicolored words: Uncovering the relationship between reading mechanisms and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Laura J; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2016-02-01

    Grapheme-color and lexical-color synesthesia, the association of colors with letters and words, respectively, are some of the most commonly studied forms of synesthesia, yet relatively little is known about how synesthesia arises from and interfaces with the reading process. To date, synesthetic experiences in reading have only been reported in relation to a word's graphemes and meaning. We present a case study of WBL, a 21-year old male who experiences synesthetic colors for letters and words. Over 3 months, we obtained nearly 3000 color judgments for visually presented monomorphemic, prefixed, suffixed, and compound words as well as judgments for pseudocompound words (e.g., carpet), and nonwords. In Experiment 1, we show that word color is nearly always determined by the color of the first letter. Furthermore, WBL reported two separate colors for prefixed and compound words approximately 14% of the time, with the additional color determined by the first letter of the second morpheme. In Experiment 2, we further investigated how various morphological factors influenced WBL's percepts using the compound norms of Juhasz, Lai, and Woodcock (2014). In a logistic regression analysis of color judgments for nearly 400 compounds, we observed that the likelihood that WBL would perceive a compound as bearing 1 lexical color or 2 lexical colors was influenced by a variety of factors including stem frequency, compound frequency, and the relationship between the meaning of the compound and the meaning of its stems. This constitutes the first study reporting an effect of morphological structure in synesthesia and demonstrates that synesthetic colors result from a complex interaction of perceptual, graphemic, morphological, and semantic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  11. Words used by children and their primary caregivers for private body parts and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnik, Dennis; Atkinson, Victoria; Hadi, Maha; Caulfeild, Jon; Young, Nancy L

    2003-12-09

    Effective patient-physician communication requires the use of words that are clearly understood by both parties. We conducted this study to compile a list of words used by children and caregivers to describe "private" anatomical structures and physiological functions, to document the frequency of such usage and to examine the relation between correct word usage and caregiver's level of education. In a large urban pediatric emergency department, a convenience sample of 156 children at least 3 years old were asked to name the body parts (penis, testes, vagina, buttocks, breasts) pointed to in 4 simple, explicit line drawings of an unclothed boy or girl, and to name the bodily functions (vomiting, defecation, urination) depicted in 3 drawings of children. Eighty-seven patients sufficiently fluent in English were included in the study. Their caregivers were asked separately what words they currently use with their child and with other adults for these body parts and functions and what words they remembered using as children. The children used a mean of 1.2 correct anatomical and physiological terms out of a possible 8 to describe the private parts and functions in the drawings. The mean number of correct words used by the caregivers was 2.3 when talking with their children, 3.6 when talking with their peers and 1.5 when they were children. There was no correlation between the caregiver's level of education and the frequency of correct word usage by their children. We identified slang words used by at least 5% of the respondents; however, some used the same slang words to refer to different body parts. Given the variety of slang words used by children and their caregivers to describe private parts and functions, the meaning of the words should be clarified during history taking.

  12. Blending Words Found In Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyatmi Giyatmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many new words from the social media such as Netizen, Trentop, and Delcon. Those words include in blending. Blending is one of word formations combining two clipped words to form a brand new word. The researchers are interested in analyzing blend words used in the social media such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and Blackberry Messenger. This research aims at (1 finding blend words used in the social media (2 describing kinds of blend words used in social media (3 describing the process of blend word formation used in the social media. This research uses some theories dealing with definition of blending and kinds of blending. This research belongs to descriptive qualitative research. Data of the research are English blend words used in social media. Data sources of this research are websites consisting of some English words used in social media and some social media users as the informant. Techniques of data collecting in this research are observation and simak catat. Observation is by observing some websites consisting of some English words used in social media. Simak catat is done by taking some notes on the data and encoding in symbols such as No/Blend words/Kinds of Blending. The researchers use source triangulation to check the data from the researchers with the informant and theory triangulation to determine kinds of blending and blend word formation in social media. There are115 data of blend words. Those data consists of 65 data of Instagram, 47 data of Twitter, 1 datum of Facebook, and 2 data of Blackberry Messenger. There are 2 types of blending used in social media;108 data of blending with clipping and 7 data of blending with overlapping. There are 10 ways of blend word formation found in this research.

  13. Document image retrieval through word shape coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijian; Li, Linlin; Tan, Chew Lim

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a document retrieval technique that is capable of searching document images without OCR (optical character recognition). The proposed technique retrieves document images by a new word shape coding scheme, which captures the document content through annotating each word image by a word shape code. In particular, we annotate word images by using a set of topological shape features including character ascenders/descenders, character holes, and character water reservoirs. With the annotated word shape codes, document images can be retrieved by either query keywords or a query document image. Experimental results show that the proposed document image retrieval technique is fast, efficient, and tolerant to various types of document degradation.

  14. Words in a Cultural Context*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-07-05

    Jul 5, 2000 ... We all know these words, but we may have different images in our minds, different ideas of their meaning ... the names of shops or brand names, are major factors in understanding a newspaper report or ... guage rights, a desire to preserve long-standing cultural and social traditions, and more. Language is ...

  15. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  16. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  17. Focus on Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week......Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words 房,堂,屋, and 厅on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests...... of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning in the classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2...

  18. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  19. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  20. COOPERATIVE EFFECT OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN TEACHING THE LEARNING APPROACH THE WORD MEANING OF TOPIC-İŞBİRLİKLİ ÖĞRENME YAKLAŞIMININ KELİMEDE ANLAM KONUSUNUN ÖĞRETİMİNDE ÖĞRENCİLERİN AKADEMİK BAŞARISINA ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan AKIN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research, the teaching of technical subjects in the Merge-II in the 5th grade word meaning the impact on the academic success of the students is to investigate comparing with the traditional method. Answers to questions prepared for this purpose are required. Research, pretest - posttest control group design was designed in an experimental model. Research, 2016-2017 academic year in the first quarter of Siirt Martyr Ismail ÇELİK Secondary School Teachers in two different branches of the 5th grade was carried out with the participation of 48 students. With a random assignment method 5 / branch of the experimental group, 5 / B branch is designated as the control group.Working as a means of data collection made by the Ministry of Education for grades 5 selected from PYB exam questions consisting of 22 multiple-choice items Meaning of Words Academic Achievement Test (KAABT expert opinion is based. Merge all processes in the group-II teachers try to control the application of the technique is applied based traditional teaching was conducted by researchers of the group. Applications in the experimental and control groups was completed in 5 weeks. Researchers by the application prior to the experimental and control groups Meaning of Words Academic Achievement Test (KAABT was applied as pre- and studies have been initiated. Applications and data obtained from the results were analyzed using SPSS for Windows 22.0 program.As a result, the Merge-In the experimental group, the implementation of the technique, there was no significant difference between pretest scores of the control group, the traditional teaching method, but groups in favor of the experimental group in the post-test achievement scores were observed significant differences. 5. Turkish word meaning issues of class teaching Merge II has reached the conclusion that the technique is more effective than traditional teaching methods.

  1. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e......WOB and generate hypotheses about how consumers influence each other by means of behavior in online social environments. We present a conceptual framework for categorizing eWOB, and propose a novel research design for a randomized controlled field experiment. Specifically, the ongoing experiment aims to analyze...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service....

  2. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a picture-word matching paradigm. ERPs time-locked to pictures elicited a modulation of the negative central (Nc) component, associated with visual attention and recognition. It was attenuated by category repetition as well as by the type-token ratio of picture context. ERPs time-locked to words in the training phase became more negative with repetition (N300-600), but there was no influence of picture type-token ratio, suggesting that infants have identified the concept of each picture before a word was presented. Results from the test phase provided clear support that infants integrated word meanings with (novel) picture context. Here, infants showed different ERP responses for words that did or did not align with the picture context: a phonological mismatch (N200) and a semantic mismatch (N400). Together, results were informative of visual categorization, word recognition and word-to-world-mappings, all three crucial processes for vocabulary construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bivariate Developmental Relations between Calculations and Word Problems: A Latent Change Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2017-10-01

    The relation between 2 forms of mathematical cognition, calculations and word problems, was examined. Across grades 2-3, performance of 328 children (mean starting age 7.63 [ SD =0.43]) was assessed 3 times. Comparison of a priori latent change score models indicated a dual change model, with consistently positive but slowing growth, described development in each domain better than a constant or proportional change model. The bivariate model including change models for both calculations and word problems indicated prior calculation performance and change were not predictors of subsequent word-problem change, and prior word-problem performance and change were not predictors of subsequent calculation change. Results were comparable for boys versus girls. The bivariate model, along with correlations among intercepts and slopes, suggest calculation and word-problem development are related, but through an external set of overlapping factors. Exploratory supplemental analyses corroborate findings and provide direction for future study.

  4. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The WordPress Bible provides a complete and thorough guide to the largest self hosted blogging tool. This guide starts by covering the basics of WordPress such as installing and the principles of blogging, marketing and social media interaction, but then quickly ramps the reader up to more intermediate to advanced level topics such as plugins, WordPress Loop, themes and templates, custom fields, caching, security and more. The WordPress Bible is the only complete resource one needs to learning WordPress from beginning to end.

  5. ROMANCE LOAN WORDS IN HRELJIĆ BEDROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Pliško

    2016-01-01

    pikijera (only in Roverian dialects and kovaltur (in Medulin, the Roverian dialects and Boljun. Six words were not attested in all of the dictionaries we consulted: paljarica/pajarica are not attested in Grobnik and Novalja; koltra can only be found in Kukljica, žveljarin only in Kukljica and some of the dialects of Hvar, komo in Labin and Grobnik, bonagracija in Boljun, Grobnik, Kukljica, Labin and Novalja. In Hreljići the word for ‘clothes hanger’ (‘vješalica’ in standard Croatian is pikerin/pikarin, i.e. the same as in Labin, Medulin and the Roverian dialects. In the dialects of Boljun, in Grobnik and on the island of Brač the word used is pikabit. In the dictionaries of Kukljica, Novalja and Hvar we found no attestations of any of these forms. Two words (kašetin ‘drawer’ and škabelić ‘commode’ have different variants and meanings that differ from those in Hreljići: 1. ‘drawer’ kašetin (Medulin, Roverian dialects, Labin, škafetin (Hvar and škabelin (Grobnik, Boljun, Brač and Roverian dialects and 2. ‘commode’ škabelić (Boljun, Roverian dialects, Medulin, škabel (Novalja, Medulin, škabelin (Kukljica, komodin (Labin, Grobnik, Kukljica, komoncin (Hvar. There are two words for which the Croatian and Venetian variants are used: špegalj : zrcalo (‘mirror’ (Novalja, Kukljica, Grobnik, Brač; bukalin : vrčina/varčina (‘jug’ (Novalja, Grobnik, Kukljica, Medulin, Hvar. In conclusion, what can be stated is that the lexical heritage from the period of the Venetian Republic pertaining to the semantic field of bedroom furniture, bed parts, bed linen, as well as the decorations and various objects fond in the bedroom included here, as a result of cultural and intimate borrowing, has been well preserved and can still be found in the organic idioms from Istria to Hvar, as our research has demonstrated.

  6. Retaining the meaning of the words religiousness and spirituality: a commentary on the WHOQOL SRPB group's "a cross-cultural study of spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs as components of quality of life" (62: 6, 2005, 1486-1497).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Koenig, Harold G

    2006-08-01

    Recent years have seen increasing recognition paid to the relation of religiousness/spirituality (R/S) to health care and research. This has led to the development of more inclusive and trans-culturally validated measurements of R/S. This paper comments on the WHOQOL SRPB Group's "A cross-cultural study of spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs as components of quality of life" (62: 6, 2005, 1486-1497), a recently published paper in Social Science & Medicine, and illustrates a possible problem in the measurement of R/S, especially as related to the study of mental health outcomes. Some scales have included questions about psychological well-being, satisfaction, connectedness with others, hopefulness, meaning and purpose in life, or altruistic values as part of their measure of R/S. These questions are really tapping indicators of mental health, and should not be included in the definition of R/S itself. Otherwise, tautology is the result, and it should not be surprising that such measures of R/S (defined by questions tapping mental health) are related to mental health outcomes.

  7. Niche as a determinant of word fate in online groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Motter, Adilson E

    2011-05-12

    Patterns of word use both reflect and influence a myriad of human activities and interactions. Like other entities that are reproduced and evolve, words rise or decline depending upon a complex interplay between their intrinsic properties and the environments in which they function. Using Internet discussion communities as model systems, we define the concept of a word niche as the relationship between the word and the characteristic features of the environments in which it is used. We develop a method to quantify two important aspects of the size of the word niche: the range of individuals using the word and the range of topics it is used to discuss. Controlling for word frequency, we show that these aspects of the word niche are strong determinants of changes in word frequency. Previous studies have already indicated that word frequency itself is a correlate of word success at historical time scales. Our analysis of changes in word frequencies over time reveals that the relative sizes of word niches are far more important than word frequencies in the dynamics of the entire vocabulary at shorter time scales, as the language adapts to new concepts and social groupings. We also distinguish endogenous versus exogenous factors as additional contributors to the fates of words, and demonstrate the force of this distinction in the rise of novel words. Our results indicate that short-term nonstationarity in word statistics is strongly driven by individual proclivities, including inclinations to provide novel information and to project a distinctive social identity.

  8. Niche as a determinant of word fate in online groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G Altmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of word use both reflect and influence a myriad of human activities and interactions. Like other entities that are reproduced and evolve, words rise or decline depending upon a complex interplay between their intrinsic properties and the environments in which they function. Using Internet discussion communities as model systems, we define the concept of a word niche as the relationship between the word and the characteristic features of the environments in which it is used. We develop a method to quantify two important aspects of the size of the word niche: the range of individuals using the word and the range of topics it is used to discuss. Controlling for word frequency, we show that these aspects of the word niche are strong determinants of changes in word frequency. Previous studies have already indicated that word frequency itself is a correlate of word success at historical time scales. Our analysis of changes in word frequencies over time reveals that the relative sizes of word niches are far more important than word frequencies in the dynamics of the entire vocabulary at shorter time scales, as the language adapts to new concepts and social groupings. We also distinguish endogenous versus exogenous factors as additional contributors to the fates of words, and demonstrate the force of this distinction in the rise of novel words. Our results indicate that short-term nonstationarity in word statistics is strongly driven by individual proclivities, including inclinations to provide novel information and to project a distinctive social identity.

  9. Empowering Students with Word-Learning Strategies: Teach a Child to Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Michael F.; Schneider, Steven; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2018-01-01

    This article on word-learning strategies describes a theory- and research-based set of procedures for teaching students to use word-learning strategies--word parts, context clues, the dictionary, and a combined strategy--to infer the meanings of unknown words. The article begins with a rationale for teaching word-learning strategies, particularly…

  10. The Influence of Concreteness of Concepts on the Integration of Novel Words into the Semantic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jinfeng; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of previous studies revealing a processing advantage of concrete words over abstract words, the current study aimed to further explore the influence of concreteness on the integration of novel words into semantic memory with the event related potential (ERP) technique. In the experiment during the learning phase participants read two-sentence contexts and inferred the meaning of novel words. The novel words were two-character non-words in Chinese language. Their meaning was eithe...

  11. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects.

  12. A matter of meaning: reflections on forty years of JCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    The entry into language via first words and, the acquisition of word meanings is considered from the perspective of publications in the Journal of Child Language over the past forty years. Problems in achieving word meanings include the disparate and sparse concepts available to the child from past prelanguage experience. Variability in beginning word learning and in its progress along a number of dimensions suggests the problems that children may encounter, as well as the strategies and styles they adopt to make progress. Social context and adult practices are vitally involved in the success of this process. Whereas much headway has been made over the past decades, much remains to be revealed through dynamic systems theory and developmental semiotic analyses, as well as laboratory research aimed at social context conditions.

  13. Nonliteral understanding of number words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T; Wu, Jean Y; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D

    2014-08-19

    One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans' interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally.

  14. Combinatorics of compositions and words

    CERN Document Server

    Heubach, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    A One-Stop Source of Known Results, a Bibliography of Papers on the Subject, and Novel Research Directions Focusing on a very active area of research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Compositions and Words provides an introduction to the methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in compositions and words. It also presents various tools and approaches that are applicable to other areas of enumerative combinatorics. After a historical perspective on research in the area, the text introduces techniques to solve recurrence relations, including iteration and generating functions. It then focuses on enumeration of basic statistics for compositions. The text goes on to present results on pattern avoidance for subword, subsequence, and generalized patterns in compositions and then applies these results to words. The authors also cover automata, the ECO method, generating trees, and asymptotic results via random compositions and complex analysis. Highlighting both established a...

  15. Word graphs: The second set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Liu, X

    1998-01-01

    In continuation of the paper of Hoede and Li on word graphs for a set of prepositions, word graphs are given for adjectives, adverbs and Chinese classifier words. It is argued that these three classes of words belong to a general class of words that may be called adwords. These words express the

  16. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

  17. Does language learning disability in school-age children affect semantic word learning when reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C

    2015-04-01

    The study was undertaken to determine how position of informative context, rate of word presentation and part of speech impacted novel word learning during reading in children with language learning disability. Children with language learning disability (LLD; n = 13), age-matched peers (n = 13) and vocabulary-matched peers (n = 13) read four narrative passages containing 10 nouns and 10 verbs. Informative context provided clues to word meanings and was either adjacent or non-adjacent to the target words. Target words occurred either twice (low rate) or 5-times (high rate). Following reading, word learning was assessed using dynamic assessment, including oral definitions, contextual clues and forced choices. Overall, age-matched peers performed better than children with LLD and vocabulary-matched peers, who performed similarly. No effect was found for position of informative context; however, word learning improved with high rate of presentation for children with LLD. Nouns were easier to learn than verbs for all groups. Results indicated that children with LLD show limitations gaining semantic knowledge of novel words during reading, which could negatively impact their overall rate of vocabulary acquisition.

  18. Word 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Herb

    2010-01-01

    In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

  19. Whole Word Measures in Bilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Lauren; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological acquisition traditionally has been measured using constructs that focus on segments rather than the whole words. Findings from recent research have suggested whole-word productions be evaluated using measures such as phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) and the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP). These measures have been…

  20. Slow Mapping: Color Word Learning as a Gradual Inductive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katie; Dobkins, Karen; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Most current accounts of color word acquisition propose that the delay between children's first production of color words and adult-like understanding is due to problems abstracting color as a domain of meaning. Here we present evidence against this hypothesis, and show that, from the time children produce color words in a labeling task they use…

  1. The Influence of Orthographic Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Visual Word Recognition: Insights from RT Distributional Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of orthographic neighborhood density and word frequency in visual word recognition were investigated using distributional analyses of response latencies in visual lexical decision. Main effects of density and frequency were observed in mean latencies. Distributional analyses, in addition, revealed a density x frequency interaction: for low-frequency words, density effects were mediated predominantly by distributional shifting whereas for high-frequency words, density effects were absent except at the slower RTs, implicating distributional skewing. The present findings suggest that density effects in low-frequency words reflect processes involved in early lexical access, while the effects observed in high-frequency words reflect late postlexical checking processes.

  2. Summarization of meetings using word clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hollander, G.; Marx, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study parsimonious language models were used to construct word clouds of the proceedings of the European Parliament. Multiple design choices had to be made and are discussed. Important features are stemming during tokenization, including bigrams into the word cloud and multilingualism. Also,

  3. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...

  4. Die durchsichtigen Worter des Franzosischen: Ein Beitrag zur Wortbildung (The "Transparent" Words of French: A Contribution to Word Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Hans-Martin

    1972-01-01

    Transparent" refers to words formed from other words in such a way that meanings and relationships to the original object or concept are clearly suggested; the author analyzes and classifies the processes according to which these types of words are formed. (RS)

  5. Changing word usage predicts changing word durations in New Zealand English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sóskuthy, Márton; Hay, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the emergence of lexicalized effects of word usage on word duration by looking at parallel changes in usage and duration over 130years in New Zealand English. Previous research has found that frequent words are shorter, informative words are longer, and words in utterance-final position are also longer. It has also been argued that some of these patterns are not simply online adjustments, but are incorporated into lexical representations. While these studies tend to focus on the synchronic aspects of such patterns, our corpus shows that word-usage patterns and word durations are not static over time. Many words change in duration and also change with respect to frequency, informativity and likelihood of occurring utterance-finally. Analysis of changing word durations over this time period shows substantial patterns of co-adaptation between word usage and word durations. Words that are increasing in frequency are becoming shorter. Words that are increasing/decreasing in informativity show a change in the same direction in duration (e.g. increasing informativity is associated with increasing duration). And words that are increasingly appearing utterance-finally are lengthening. These effects exist independently of the local effects of the predictors. For example, words that are increasing utterance-finally lengthen in all positions, including utterance-medially. We show that these results are compatible with a number of different views about lexical representations, but they cannot be explained without reference to a production-perception loop that allows speakers to update their representations dynamically on the basis of their experience. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phonological and Semantic Knowledge Are Causal Influences on Learning to Read Words in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lulin; Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report a training study that assesses whether teaching the pronunciation and meaning of spoken words improves Chinese children's subsequent attempts to learn to read the words. Teaching the pronunciations of words helps children to learn to read those same words, and teaching the pronunciations and meanings improves learning still further.…

  7. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  8. Word Processing for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Pupils with special educational needs are finding that the use of word processors can give them a new confidence and pride in their own abilities. This article describes the use of such devices as the "mouse," on-screen word lists, spell checkers, and overlay keyboards. (JDD)

  9. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  10. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  11. Visual Word Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies automatic image classification by modeling soft assignment in the popular codebook model. The codebook model describes an image as a bag of discrete visual words selected from a vocabulary, where the frequency distributions of visual words in an image allow classification. One

  12. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  13. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  14. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  15. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  16. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  17. THE SPECIAL STATUS OF EXOGENOUS WORD-FORMATION WITHIN THE GERMAN WORD-FORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilyuk Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the properties of exogenous word-formation system taking into account the existence of two word-formation systems in modern German. On the basis of foreign research which reveal modern trends in German word-formation connected with the internationalization and the development of new European Latin language. The author defines key features of exogenous word-formation, i.e. foreign origin of wordformation units, unmotivated units, unmotivated interchange in base and affixes as well as limited distribution rules in combination with German word-formation. The article analyzes various approaches to word-division, as well as motivated and unmotivated interchange of consonants in bases and in affixes. Unmotivated interchange showcases a special status of the exogenous word-formation within German. Another item covered by the article is the issue of confix. The article has opinions of researchers about correctness of its separation and a list of its features. The author presents his definition of confix: a confix is a bound exogenous word-formation unit with a certain lexical and semantic meaning and joining other units directly or indirectly (through linking morpheme -o-, which is able to make a base. Moreover, some confixes are able to participate at word-combination and have unlimited distribution. So far, confix showcases the integration of exogenous word-formation and traditional German word-formation. The research proves the special status of exogenous word-formation in German. Its results can be used as a base for further analysis of co-existing word-formation systems in German and determination of their characteristic features.

  18. Comparing different kinds of words and word-word relations to test an habituation model of priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2017-06-01

    Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer. The predicted effect of prime duration depends both on this assumed representational hierarchy and the assumption that synaptic depression underlies habituation. The current study tested these assumptions by comparing different kinds of words (e.g., words versus non-words) and different kinds of word-word relations (e.g., associative versus repetition). For each experiment, the predictions of the original model were compared to an alternative model with different representational assumptions. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that non-words and inverted words require longer prime durations to eliminate positive repetition priming (i.e., a slower transition from positive to negative priming). Experiment 2 confirmed the prediction that associative priming increases and then decreases with increasing prime duration, but remains positive even with long duration primes. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of repetition and associative priming using a within-subjects design and combined these effects by examining target words that were expected to repeat (e.g., viewing the target word 'BACK' after the prime phrase 'back to'). These results support the originally assumed representational hierarchy and more generally the role of habituation in temporal parsing and priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A question of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Heather

    2003-01-01

    By tracing powerful patriarchal words originally applied to mass production, military manoeuvres, building construction and war, and then ascribing them to birth we can see how Western culture denounces the mother's true role as the central and essential figure in the birth of her own children. Many words for birth imply fear, doubt and opposition. Yet when we consciously select words to describe giving birth as a form of art--a giving of creation--we can not only place the woman at the centre of the birth event, but also grant the respect and honour due her as she brings forth new life.

  20. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, María J; Dasí, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates priming in an implicit word stem completion (WSC) task by analyzing the effect of linguistic stimuli characteristics on said task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test). The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. Analysis revealed that priming (mean = 0.22) was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that they were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. Correlations between priming and familiarity, frequency of use, and baseline completion were significant. The less familiar words, which were less frequent, had higher priming values. At the same time, the stems with lower baseline completion generated more priming. A regression analysis showed that baseline completion was the only significant predictor of priming, suggesting that the previous processing of the stimuli had a greater impact on the stimuli with low baseline performance. At the same time, baseline completion showed significant positive correlations with familiarity and frequency of use, and a negative correlation with length. When baseline completion was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and length. These results were compared with those obtained in a study using word fragment completion (WFC) by Soler et al. (2009), in which the same words and procedure were employed. Analysis showed that the variables that correlated with priming were the same as in the WSC task, and that completion baseline was the variable that showed the greatest predictive power of priming. This coincidence of results obtained with WFC and WSC tasks highlights the importance of controlling the characteristics of the stimuli used when exploring the nature of priming.

  1. Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition: Evidence from Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2017-06-01

    Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.

  2. Words that Pop!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shirley

    1988-01-01

    To excite students' appreciation of language, comic book words--onomatopoeia--are a useful tool. Exercises and books are suggested. A list of books for adults and children is recommended, and a reproducible page is provided. (JL)

  3. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    of computational and mechanical processes towards an anesthetic. Each team received a single word, translating and evolving that word first into a double-curved computational surface, next a ruled computational surface, and then a physically shaped foam mold via a 6-axis robot. The foam molds then operated...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  4. Fast Brain Plasticity during Word Learning in Musically-Trained Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Chobert, Julie; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Besson, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Children learn new words every day and this ability requires auditory perception, phoneme discrimination, attention, associative learning and semantic memory. Based on previous results showing that some of these functions are enhanced by music training, we investigated learning of novel words through picture-word associations in musically-trained and control children (8–12 year-old) to determine whether music training would positively influence word learning. Results showed that musically-trained children outperformed controls in a learning paradigm that included picture-sound matching and semantic associations. Moreover, the differences between unexpected and expected learned words, as reflected by the N200 and N400 effects, were larger in children with music training compared to controls after only 3 min of learning the meaning of novel words. In line with previous results in adults, these findings clearly demonstrate a correlation between music training and better word learning. It is argued that these benefits reflect both bottom-up and top-down influences. The present learning paradigm might provide a useful dynamic diagnostic tool to determine which perceptive and cognitive functions are impaired in children with learning difficulties. PMID:28553213

  5. Fast Brain Plasticity during Word Learning in Musically-Trained Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Chobert, Julie; Ziegler, Johannes C; Besson, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Children learn new words every day and this ability requires auditory perception, phoneme discrimination, attention, associative learning and semantic memory. Based on previous results showing that some of these functions are enhanced by music training, we investigated learning of novel words through picture-word associations in musically-trained and control children (8-12 year-old) to determine whether music training would positively influence word learning. Results showed that musically-trained children outperformed controls in a learning paradigm that included picture-sound matching and semantic associations. Moreover, the differences between unexpected and expected learned words, as reflected by the N200 and N400 effects, were larger in children with music training compared to controls after only 3 min of learning the meaning of novel words. In line with previous results in adults, these findings clearly demonstrate a correlation between music training and better word learning. It is argued that these benefits reflect both bottom-up and top-down influences. The present learning paradigm might provide a useful dynamic diagnostic tool to determine which perceptive and cognitive functions are impaired in children with learning difficulties.

  6. Fast Brain Plasticity during Word Learning in Musically-Trained Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dittinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children learn new words every day and this ability requires auditory perception, phoneme discrimination, attention, associative learning and semantic memory. Based on previous results showing that some of these functions are enhanced by music training, we investigated learning of novel words through picture-word associations in musically-trained and control children (8–12 year-old to determine whether music training would positively influence word learning. Results showed that musically-trained children outperformed controls in a learning paradigm that included picture-sound matching and semantic associations. Moreover, the differences between unexpected and expected learned words, as reflected by the N200 and N400 effects, were larger in children with music training compared to controls after only 3 min of learning the meaning of novel words. In line with previous results in adults, these findings clearly demonstrate a correlation between music training and better word learning. It is argued that these benefits reflect both bottom-up and top-down influences. The present learning paradigm might provide a useful dynamic diagnostic tool to determine which perceptive and cognitive functions are impaired in children with learning difficulties.

  7. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  8. Amyl: A Misunderstood Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonaas, Richard A.

    1996-12-01

    There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. For example, many textbooks draw a structural formula of n-pentyl acetate rather than isopentyl acetate when referring to the chief component of banana oil (amyl acetate). When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl. As is the case with banana oil, if the word amyl is going to be used to refer to just one of the isomeric pentyl groups, it should rightfully be isopentyl. The reason for this dates back to an abundant and important article of commerce called amylic alcohol (also called potato oil) which consisted chiefly of isopentyl alcohol. In fact, one can look in various chemical catalogs and handbooks of today and see such names as amyl benzoate and amyl nitrite used in place of isopentyl benzoate and isopentyl nitrite. Adding to all the confusion is the common practice of using the word amyl along with the singular form of another word when referring to an isomeric mixture; i.e. using amyl acetate rather than amyl acetates when referring to a mixture of pentyl acetates.

  9. Words in a Cultural Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Kavanagh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Successful communication is dependent upon an adequate level of cultural as well as linguistic understanding. Language is itself part of culture and reflects social structures and attitudes. lbis paper examines the case for dictionaries to carry cultural as well as lexical information. It reviews the American tradition and purpose of including cultural material in dictionaries, and considers the nature and scope of cultural information contained in a number of modem American and European dictionaries. Various means of presenting cultural information are also examined. The paper concludes by considering the implications for lexicographers developing dictionaries in multicultural South Africa.

    Keywords: COMMUNICATION, CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION, CULTURAL INFORMATION, CULTURE, CURRICULUM, DICTIONARIES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES, DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY DESIGN, ENCYCLOPEDIA, ENCYCLOPEDIC DICTIONARIES, LANGUAGE, LEXICOGRAPHY, MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY, SOUTH AFRICA

    Opsomming: W oorde binne In kulturele konteks. Suksesvolle kommunikasie berusop 'n voldoende vlak van kulturele sowel as taalkundige begrip. Taal self is deeJ van kuJtuur enweerspieiH sosiale strukture en houdings. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die insluiting van sowel kultureleas leksikale inIigting in woordeboeke. Dit beoordeel die Amerikaanse tradisie en doel daarmeeom kulturele materiaal in woordeboeke in te sluit, en oorweeg die aard en omvang van kultureleinIigting vervat in 'n aantal moderne Amerikaanse en Europese woordeboeke. Verskillendemaniere om kulturele inIigting aan te bied, word ook ondersoek. Die artikel sluit af deur die implikasiesvir leksikograwe te oorweeg wat woordeboeke saamstel in multikulturele Suid-Afrika.

    Sleutelwoorde: KOMMUNIKASIE, INTERKULTURELE KOMMUNIKASIE, KULTURELEINLIGTlNG, KULTUUR, KURRIKULUM, WOORDEBOEKE MET SPESIALE OOGMERKE,WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKONTWERP, ENSIKLOPEDIE, ENSIKLOPEDIESE WOORDEBOEKE,TAAL, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, MULTIKULTURELE

  10. The location-, word-, and arrow-based Simon effects: An ex-Gaussian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunming; Proctor, Robert W

    2017-11-20

    Task-irrelevant spatial information, conveyed by stimulus location, location word, or arrow direction, can influence the response to task-relevant attributes, generating the location-, word-, and arrow-based Simon effects. We examined whether different mechanisms are involved in the generation of these Simon effects by fitting a mathematical ex-Gaussian function to empirical response time (RT) distributions. Specifically, we tested whether which ex-Gaussian parameters (μ, σ, and τ) show Simon effects and whether the location-, word, and arrow-based effects are on different parameters. Results show that the location-based Simon effect occurred on mean RT and μ but not on τ, and a reverse Simon effect occurred on σ. In contrast, a positive word-based Simon effect was obtained on all these measures (including σ), and a positive arrow-based Simon effect was evident on mean RT, σ, and τ but not μ. The arrow-based Simon effect was not different from the word-based Simon effect on τ or σ but was on μ and mean RT. These distinct results on mean RT and ex-Gaussian parameters provide evidence that spatial information conveyed by the various location modes are different in the time-course of activation.

  11. Defining the Medical Intensive Care Unit in the Words of Patients and Their Family Members: A Freelisting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Catherine L; Lyon, Sarah M; Strelec, Lauren E; Kent, Saida; Barg, Frances K; Halpern, Scott D

    2015-07-01

    No validated conceptual framework exists for understanding the outcomes of patient- and family-centered care in critical care. To explore the meaning of intensive care unit among patients and their families by using freelisting. The phrase intensive care unit was used to prompt freelisting among intensive care unit patients and patients' family members. Freelisting is an anthropological technique in which individuals define a domain by listing all words that come to mind in response to a topic. Salience scores, derived from the frequency with which a word was mentioned, the order in which it was mentioned, and the length of each list, were calculated and analyzed. Among the 45 participants, many words were salient to both patients and patients' family members. Words salient solely for patients included consciousness, getting better, noisy, and personal care. Words salient solely for family members included sadness, busy, professional, and hope. The words suffering, busy, and team were salient solely for family members of patients who lived, whereas sadness, professionals, and hope were salient solely for family members of patients who died. The words caring and death were salient for both groups. Intensive care unit patients and their families define intensive care unit by using words to describe sickness, caring, medical staff, emotional states, and physical qualities of the unit. The results validate the importance of these topics among patients and their families in the intensive care unit and illustrate the usefulness of freelisting in critical care research. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. [Use of Freiburg monosyllabic test words in the contemporary German language : Currentness of the test words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, T

    2016-08-01

    The Freiburg monosyllabic test has a word inventory based on the word frequency in written sources from the 19th century, the distribution of which is not even between the test lists. The median distributions of word frequency ranking in contemporary language of nine test lists deviate significantly from the overall median of all 400 monosyllables. Lists 1, 6, 9, 10, and 17 include significantly more very rarely used words; lists 2, 3, 5, and 15, include significantly more very frequently used words. Compared with the word frequency in the contemporary spoken German language, about 45 % of the test words are practically no longer used. Due to this high proportion of extremely rarely or no longer used words, the word inventory is no longer representative of the contemporary German language-neither for the written, nor for the spoken language. Highly educated persons with a large vocabulary are thereby favored. The reference values for normal-hearing persons should therefore be reevaluated.

  13. Aging effects on ERP correlates of emotional word discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molnar, M.; Toth, B.; Boha, R.; Gaal, Z.A.; Kardos, Z.; File, B.; Stam, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore age-, and valence specific ERP-characteristics of word-discrimination processes. Methods: A group of young (mean age: 21.26. yrs) and elderly (mean age: 65.73. yrs) individuals participated. The task was to respond to a word (target) with valence (neutral, negative, positive) and

  14. Empirical Investigation of Word Callers Who Are English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Teague, Kerri; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Knight, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is frequently used in school settings to assess student reading skills, but it is somewhat commonly believed that some students can read words fluently while not comprehending (i.e., word callers). Previous studies examining the prevalence of word callers typically included native English speakers rather than English learners…

  15. Mi Primer Libro de Palabras (My First Book of Words).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This book was written to facilitate the learning and teaching of phonetic and vocabulary skills important for the development of reading. The book uses the manipulative approach to the usage of words. Words are presented with corresponding pictures in order to enhance the child's comprehension. In addition to the words, the book includes a…

  16. Referencias cruzadas de Microsoft Word con Delicious (.NET)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Heras, Iván

    2010-01-01

    Complemento para Microsoft Word 2007 encargado de incluir marcadores de una cuenta Delicious como notas al final de un documento. Complement per a Microsoft Word 2007 encarregat d'incloure marcadors d'un compte Delicious com notes al final d'un document. Microsoft Word 2007 Add-in to include Delicious bookmarks as notes at the end of a document.

  17. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  18. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Soler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates priming in an implicit Word Stem Completion (WSC task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test. The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. After confirming the presence of priming (mean = 0.22, analysis revealed that it was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that the stems were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. The correlations between priming and a set of conceptual (familiarity, frequency of use, number of meanings and non-conceptual (letters/blanks ratio and difficulty of completed variables showed significant relationships between two conceptual variables (familiarity and frequency and priming. Difficulty was also significantly correlated with priming. The most familiar and frequent words were those that produced a greater magnitude of priming. At the same time, the most difficult stems were those generating more priming. A regression analysis showed that the difficulty of completing a stem was the strongest predictor of priming. When difficulty was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and letters-blanks ratio. Finally, a comparison was made between these results and those obtained in a previous study of WFC by Soler et al. (2009 in which the same words and procedure were employed. A comparison of results from these two sets of data suggested that the only relevant difference between the two tasks was the influence of the variable letters-blanks ratio. This perceptual variable had a significant correlation with priming only in the WFC task. These results highlight the importance of controlling the characteristics (conceptual and non-conceptual of stimuli used in WFC and WSC tasks when exploring the nature of priming.

  19. PARAMETRICAL WORDS IN THE SENTIMENT LEXICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Brunova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main features of parametrical words within a sentiment lexicon are determined. The data for the research are client reviews in the Russian language taken from the bank client rating; the domain under study is bank service quality. The lexicon structure and the fragments from the lexicon database are presented. The sentiment lexicon includes two major classes (positive and negative words and three minor classes (increments, polarity modifiers, and polarity anti-modifiers. This lexicon is used as the main tool for the sentiment analysis carried out by two methods: the Naïve Bayes and the REGEX algorithms.Parametrical words are referred to as the words denoting the value of some domain-specific parameter, e.g. a battery life, or time of waiting. To distinguish the main features of parametrical words, the parameters relevant for the bank service quality domain are determined. The results of the research demonstrate that parametrical words can be ranged neither in the positive class, nor in the negative one. The words denoting the increase of a parameter should be ranged in the increment class, as they intensify positive or negative emotions. The words denoting the decrease of a parameter should be ranged in a new class which may be called the decrement class, as they reduce positive or negative emotions. The revised lexicon structure including the decrement class is proposed. The evident progress on the way to the lexicon universalization can be achieved by distinguishing two special classes for lexical increments and decrements. Another helpful idea is to extract bigrams or trigrams which could include parametrical words and the domain attributes they refer to.

  20. When does word frequency influence written production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the central (e.g., lexical processing and peripheral processes (motor preparation and execution underlying word production during typewriting. To do so, we tested non-professional typers in a picture typing task while continuously recording EEG. Participants were instructed to write (by means of a standard keyboard the corresponding name for a given picture. The lexical frequency of the words was manipulated: half of the picture names were of high-frequency while the remaining were of low-frequency. Different measures were obtained: 1 first keystroke latency and 2 keystroke latency of the subsequent letters and duration of the word. Moreover, ERPs locked to the onset of the picture presentation were analysed to explore the temporal course of word frequency in typewriting. The results showed an effect of word frequency for the first keystroke latency but not for the duration of the word or the speed to which letter were typed (interstroke intervals. The electrophysiological results showed the expected ERP frequency effect at posterior sites: amplitudes for low-frequency words were more positive than those for high-frequency words. However, relative to previous evidence in the spoken modality, the frequency effect appeared in a later time-window. These results demonstrate two marked differences in the processing dynamics underpinning typing compared to speaking: First, central processing dynamics between speaking and typing differ already in the manner that words are accessed; second, central processing differences in typing, unlike speaking, do not cascade to peripheral processes involved in response execution.

  1. When does word frequency influence written production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Cristina; Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the central (e.g., lexical processing) and peripheral processes (motor preparation and execution) underlying word production during typewriting. To do so, we tested non-professional typers in a picture typing task while continuously recording EEG. Participants were instructed to write (by means of a standard keyboard) the corresponding name for a given picture. The lexical frequency of the words was manipulated: half of the picture names were of high-frequency while the remaining were of low-frequency. Different measures were obtained: (1) first keystroke latency and (2) keystroke latency of the subsequent letters and duration of the word. Moreover, ERPs locked to the onset of the picture presentation were analyzed to explore the temporal course of word frequency in typewriting. The results showed an effect of word frequency for the first keystroke latency but not for the duration of the word or the speed to which letter were typed (interstroke intervals). The electrophysiological results showed the expected ERP frequency effect at posterior sites: amplitudes for low-frequency words were more positive than those for high-frequency words. However, relative to previous evidence in the spoken modality, the frequency effect appeared in a later time-window. These results demonstrate two marked differences in the processing dynamics underpinning typing compared to speaking: First, central processing dynamics between speaking and typing differ already in the manner that words are accessed; second, central processing differences in typing, unlike speaking, do not cascade to peripheral processes involved in response execution.

  2. Is the motor system necessary for processing action and abstract emotion words? Evidence from focal brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Dreyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. In contrast, a possible role of modality-preferential – including sensorimotor – areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. However, recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g. love. But are these areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded lexical decision task (LDT on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor cortex next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left SMA was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into sensorimotor areas.

  3. Divineness regarding the words of the Holy Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheibani Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the many questions concerning the words of the Holy Qur'an is whether their content and meaning were truly a divine revelation or they were revealed to the Prophet from God and then transferred into the form of words. In this regard, there are two perspectives. First, as all Muslims believe, the words of the Qur'an are the result of a divine revelation, where­as the second viewpoint is that the words of the Qur'an are written by a human and not God. According to this latter perspective, the words of the Qur'an are sayings of the Prophet of which only the contents are based on a divine revelation. The theory of the words of the Qur'an not being a divine revelation has been an abandoned and rejected one throughout the Islamic history. This is the reason it has not been the subject of any pertinent discussions. How can the words of the Qur'an be created by Muhammad or Gabriel even though it is believed that the Qur'an is a miracle? This article first defines the concept of revelation and then analyzes various viewpoints and opinions regarding this topic in order to conclude (with evidence that the Qur'an is the word of God and not the word of the Prophet. If he had composed the words of the Qur'an and expressed the meaning of the revelation in his own words, then the Qur'an would not be the word of God. In this case, the term 'word of God' indicates that the concept of the 'word' should be considered. Thus, it is clear that the words of the Qur'an are divine and they can be referred and attributed to God.

  4. N400 Response Indexes Word Learning from Linguistic Context in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schneider, Julie; Maguire, Mandy J

    2018-01-01

    Word learning from linguistic context is essential for vocabulary growth from grade school onward; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying successful word learning in children. Current methods for studying word learning development require children to identify the meaning of the word after each exposure, a method that interacts…

  5. The assessment of deep word knowledge in young first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Verhallen-van Ling, M.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of so-called depth of word knowledge has been the focus of research for some years now. In this article the construct of deep word knowledge is further specified as the decontextualized knowledge of word meanings and word associations. Most studies so far have involved adolescent and

  6. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  7. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  8. The role of reference in cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2018-01-01

    Word learning involves massive ambiguity, since in a particular encounter with a novel word, there are an unlimited number of potential referents. One proposal for how learners surmount the problem of ambiguity is that learners use cross-situational statistics to constrain the ambiguity: When a word and its referent co-occur across multiple situations, learners will associate the word with the correct referent. Yu and Smith (2007) propose that these co-occurrence statistics are sufficient for word-to-referent mapping. Alternative accounts hold that co-occurrence statistics alone are insufficient to support learning, and that learners are further guided by knowledge that words are referential (e.g., Waxman & Gelman, 2009). However, no behavioral word learning studies we are aware of explicitly manipulate subjects' prior assumptions about the role of the words in the experiments in order to test the influence of these assumptions. In this study, we directly test whether, when faced with referential ambiguity, co-occurrence statistics are sufficient for word-to-referent mappings in adult word-learners. Across a series of cross-situational learning experiments, we varied the degree to which there was support for the notion that the words were referential. At the same time, the statistical information about the words' meanings was held constant. When we overrode support for the notion that words were referential, subjects failed to learn the word-to-referent mappings, but otherwise they succeeded. Thus, cross-situational statistics were useful only when learners had the goal of discovering mappings between words and referents. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of word learning in children's language acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  10. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  11. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in Int J Billing 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in Am J Psychol, in press), and rapid serial visual processing (Knickerbocker and Altarriba in Vis Cogn 21(5):599-627, 2013). Each of these studies has found significant differences in emotion and emotion-laden word processing. The current study investigated this word type distinction using a bilingual sample, to assess emotion and emotion-laden word processing in a bilingual's two languages. Sixty Spanish-English bilinguals performed a masked LDT with positive and negative emotion and emotion-laden word pairs, in either Spanish or English. Overall, the four-way interaction of relatedness, word type, valence, and language was significant. Response times (RTs) to emotion words were significantly faster than RTs to emotion-laden words, but only in English. These results indicate that the emotion/emotion-laden word type distinction may be the most robust in a person's dominant language.

  12. AARP Word 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2011-01-01

    It's a whole new Word - make the most of it! Here's exactly what you need to know to get going with Word 2010. From firing up Word, using the spell checker, and working with templates to formatting documents, adding images, and saving your stuff, you'll get the first and last word on Word 2010 with this fun and easy mini guide. So get ready to channel your inner writer and start creating Word files that wow! Open the book and find:Tips for navigating Word with the keyboard and mouseAdvice on using the RibbonHow to edit text and undo mistakesThings to know

  13. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  14. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  15. Os significados da palavra conforto segundo a perspectiva do paciente com infarto agudo do miocárdio Los significados de la palabra bienestar según la perspectiva del paciente con infarto agudo del miocardio The meaning of the word comfort from the point of view of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    1996-12-01

    dada la multidimensionalidad y consecuente complejidad del bienestar, este posiblemente no depende exclusivamente de los cuidados de una enfermera; b la pluralidad de los indicadores encontrados sugiere que el mismo significado de bienestar puede ser expresado o descrito por los pacientes por medio de formas variadas.This investigation included 25 male adult patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction admitted in a Coronary Disease Unit located in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. It aimed at identifying the meaning those patients give to the word comfort. Data collection was carried using a specific form and manually processed; answers to open questions were treated using the BARDIN'S² content analysis method and the results were basically analyzed in absolute numbers and percentages and organized in tables and figures. Comfort was expressed by several ways, from material and financial conditions, enjoyment of personal interactions, sense of physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being to normal functioning which means recovery expectations, disease-freedom and capacity to perform usual activities. Material and financial conditions (29,4% and personal interactions (21,6% were emphasized. In addition to the conclusions directly related to the objective, the results showed that: (a viewing the multidimensional aspects related to comfort, it should not be exclusively considered as dependent of nursing care; (b various indicators identified suggested that the same meaning for comfort was expressed or described in most varied ways.

  16. Homotopy invariants of Gauss words

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    By defining combinatorial moves, we can define an equivalence relation on Gauss words called homotopy. In this paper we define a homotopy invariant of Gauss words. We use this to show that there exist Gauss words that are not homotopically equivalent to the empty Gauss word, disproving a conjecture by Turaev. In fact, we show that there are an infinite number of equivalence classes of Gauss words under homotopy.

  17. Tracking the time course of word-frequency effects in auditory word recognition with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunellière, Angèle; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2013-04-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to reflect mechanisms involved in word identification, was also examined. The ERP data showed a clear frequency effect as early as 350 ms from word onset on the P350, followed by a later effect at word offset on the late N400. A neighborhood density effect was also found at an early stage of spoken-word processing on the PMN, and at word offset on the late N400. Overall, our ERP differences for word frequency suggest that frequency affects the core processes of word identification starting from the initial phase of lexical activation and including target word selection. They thus rule out any interpretation of the word frequency effect that is limited to a purely decisional locus after word identification has been completed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Comprehension of derivational morphemes in words and pseudo-words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémie Auclair-Ouellet

    2014-04-01

    The results of the word condition alone cannot rule out the possibility that errors in the svPPA group were caused by difficulty in understanding words rather than in processing derivational morphemes. However, the lexical context provided in this condition did not speed-up the performance of svPPA individuals as it did in the control group. Most importantly, results from the pseudo-word condition showed that in the svPPA group, the association between the morpheme and its meaning was not performed as readily and reliably as in the control group. These results support the involvement of semantic memory in morphological processing.

  19. Teaching Accurate Translation at Word Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the key concepts, strategies and methodology that the author has developed to teach introductory Russian to- English and English-to-Russian translation at the level of words in a 45-contact-hour course. The focus of such a course is on differentiating between denotative and connotative components of word senses both when translating and assessing the quality of translations. Denotative meaning is viewed as consisting of a sense core and a sense periphery while connotative meaning is divided into seven components indicating emotion, its intensity, the speaker's attitude toward what is being said, style, dialect, the frequency of occurrence of a word sense, and its pragmatics. Brief excerpts from translations of present-day Russian and American prose fiction are used as illustrative examples.

  20. The problem of polysemy in the first thousand words of the General Service List: A corpus study of secondary chemistry texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Karina

    Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.

  1. Prophetic sensing of Yahweh’s word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm J. Wessels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Jeremiah 23:18, which implies that the prophet stood in the council of Yahweh (sôd to see and hear the word of Yahweh. In this verse, it seems that the senses of the prophet played a role in receiving Yahweh’s words. Verse 18 forms part of 23:16–22 in which Jeremiah warned the people of Judah not to listen to prophets who mislead them with optimistic messages. In this article, attention is given to the question whether standing in the council of Yahweh is a deciding criterion for receiving true words from Yahweh. The motif of the divine council is also investigated. An argument is presented that ‘sensing’ should be understood in the double sense of the word, namely sensory experience as well as the intellectual activity of understanding. It is argued that both meanings of the word sensing are necessary to determine the truth of Yahweh’s word.

  2. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be…

  3. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  4. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N

  5. Have Words, Will Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  6. Basic hue-meaning associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A

    2009-12-01

    Color may not only be pleasing to the eye, but may also carry important associations relevant for psychological functioning. Two experiments were conducted to test for basic hue-meaning associations, controlling for lightness and chroma. Specifically, we used a reaction time paradigm to test for links between red and green, and words that varied in achievement content (failure and success) or valence more generally. Results revealed that red was positively associated with failure and general negative words, and was negatively associated with success and general positive words, whereas green was positively associated with success words only. These findings directly document that hue carries psychologically relevant meaning. Implications both within and beyond the achievement domain are discussed.

  7. Compound word effects differ in reading, on-line naming, and delayed naming tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhoff, A W; Briihl, D; Schwartz, J

    1996-07-01

    Bimorphemic compound words (e.g., blueberry), bimorphemic suffixed words (e.g., ceaseless), and monomorphemic controls (e.g., arthritis) were read in neutral sentence contexts in Experiment 1. The main result revealed longer first fixation durations on compound words than on control and suffixed words. Different effects emerged when naming tasks were used. An on-line naming task revealed substantially shorter naming latencies for compound words than for control and suffixed words. Naming latencies for compound and control words were equivalent in a delayed naming task. These results indicate that on-line naming latencies and word-viewing durations may yield diverging results. They also suggest that activation of constituent words of compound words occurs independently from the specification of conventional word meanings.

  8. EHME: a new word database for research in Basque language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Landa, Josu; Salaburu, Pello

    2014-11-14

    This article presents EHME, the frequency dictionary of Basque structure, an online program that enables researchers in psycholinguistics to extract word and nonword stimuli, based on a broad range of statistics concerning the properties of Basque words. The database consists of 22.7 million tokens, and properties available include morphological structure frequency and word-similarity measures, apart from classical indexes: word frequency, orthographic structure, orthographic similarity, bigram and biphone frequency, and syllable-based measures. Measures are indexed at the lemma, morpheme and word level. We include reliability and validation analysis. The application is freely available, and enables the user to extract words based on concrete statistical criteria 1 , as well as to obtain statistical characteristics from a list of words

  9. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words.

  10. Lexical Processing Strategy Use,Success, and Word Retention

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 千穂

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the lexical processing strategies (LPSs ; ignore, consult, infer) used by Japanese university students to cope with unknown words when reading. It also explored how LPS use relates to success in determining word meaning and its retention. Furthermore, it investigated how vocabulary knowledge affects LPS use and its success. The results indicate that the students consulted a large proportion of words and ignored a small proportion. They were generally capable of us...

  11. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Snell

    Full Text Available A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1. In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms. Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  12. Imageability and age of acquisition effects in disyllabic word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Michael J; Schock, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Imageability and age of acquisition (AoA) effects, as well as key interactions between these variables and frequency and consistency, were examined via multiple regression analyses for 1,936 disyllabic words, using reaction time and accuracy measures from the English Lexicon Project. Both imageability and AoA accounted for unique variance in lexical decision and naming reaction time performance. In addition, across both tasks, AoA and imageability effects were larger for low-frequency words than high-frequency words, and imageability effects were larger for later acquired than earlier acquired words. In reading aloud, consistency effects in reaction time were larger for later acquired words than earlier acquired words, but consistency did not interact with imageability in the reaction time analysis. These results provide further evidence that multisyllabic word recognition is similar to monosyllabic word recognition and indicate that AoA and imageability are valid predictors of word recognition performance. In addition, the results indicate that meaning exerts a larger influence in the reading aloud of multisyllabic words than monosyllabic words. Finally, parallel-distributed-processing approaches provide a useful theoretical framework to explain the main effects and interactions.

  13. Microsoft Word 2013 for law firms

    CERN Document Server

    Group, The Payne

    2014-01-01

    Focusing only on those features of Microsoft Word 2013 that are relevant to the legal community, this updated edition of the Payne Group's market-leading guide to Word provides industry-specific information about the computer program that will help legal professionals operate effectively and efficiently in their environment. A companion website also includes customized legal templates and documents, hands-on exercises, and practice files, among many other services. Whether they are using Word for the first time or simply updating to the most recent version, readers will find all of the information they'll need to increase their productivity and make the most out of Microsoft's word processing program in this expert manual.

  14. Effective Ways to Promote Word Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary often began as a poorly organized, extensive list of new terms presented to students each week. Students recorded a selected list of words and sought their meanings. With time devoted to study and review of the new terms, students were considered prepared for a test on mastery by the final class session of the week. The…

  15. Fascinating Children with Words through Tradebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eileen M.

    Through careful selection of trade books, teachers can promote children's awareness of language. This paper cites numerous trade books that may be used to help children develop appreciation of alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhythm, and rhyme, and it recommends a number of alphabet books, animal stories, and books in which word meanings, interesting…

  16. How Can Syntax Support Number Word Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien; Gelman, Rochel

    2012-01-01

    We expand upon a previous proposal by Bloom and Wynn (1997) that young children learn about the meaning of number words by tracking their occurrence in particular syntactic environments, in combination with the discourse context in which they are used. An analysis of the Childes database (MacWhinney, 2000) reveals that the environments studied by…

  17. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  18. Stroop effects from newly learned color words : effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    OpenAIRE

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words...

  19. Spelling and Meaning of Compounds in the Early School Years through Classroom Games: An Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styliani N. Tsesmeli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention (N = 29 children and a control group (N = 31 children. Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families (N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms.

  20. 7 CFR 58.605 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... reference the increase in volume of the frozen product over the volume of the mix. This increase in volume... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  1. 7 CFR 58.101 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, 481 North Frederick Avenue, Suite 500, Gaithersburg.../temperature relationship equivalent thereto in microbial destruction): Fluid Products Temperature Time 145 °F... American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20005. (w) 3-A Sanitary...

  2. Give Sorrow Words: The Meaning of Parental Bereavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    understand how the various phenomena relating to parental bereavement were reflected by participants in the ... In taking on a hermeneutic stance, the pretence of an acosmic, ahistorical and asocial consciousness must be abandoned as the philosopher confronts his or her ... coherent image of the whole can emerge.

  3. 7 CFR 58.905 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Packaging Evaporated and Condensed Milk Or Ultra-Pasteurized..., plain condensed milk. The product which conforms to the standard of identity for evaporated milk except... Administration for concentrated milk (21 CFR 131.115). (c) Sweetened condensed milk. The liquid or semi-liquid...

  4. 7 CFR 97.2 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Journal. The “Official Journal of the Plant Variety Protection Office.” Owner. A breeder who developed or... in the Federal Seed Act (53 Stat. 1275). Sale for other than seed purposes. The transfer of title to...

  5. 7 CFR 58.805 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION...

  6. 7 CFR 58.305 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION...

  7. 7 CFR 58.705 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION...

  8. 7 CFR 58.505 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... (21 CFR 133.129), “Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods...

  9. 7 CFR 54.1 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... profession. Office of grading. The office of an official grader. Official grader. An employee of the... designation based on those characteristics of meat which predict the palatability characteristics of the lean...

  10. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  11. Word for word: Multiple lexical access in speech production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    It is quite normal for us to produce one or two million word tokens every year. Speaking is a dear occupation and producing words is at the core of it. Still, producing even a single word is a highly complex affair. Recently, Levelt, Roelofs, and Meyer (1999) reviewed their theory of lexical access

  12. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  13. Third-Party Social Interaction and Word Learning from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, very young children have learned words while "overhearing" a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in…

  14. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  15. Why Words Are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. Method: Sixty-nine 18-to 25-year-olds with LI or without (the normal development [ND] group) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings…

  16. Towards a sight word list in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweini, Ahmad; Hazoury, Katia

    2010-10-01

    While the English language boasts a century of research into its most frequently-used words, no such attempt has ever formally been made in the Arab world. This pioneering study presents a list of 500 commonly-used words in the Arabic language based on compilations of words gathered from a number of popular reading series in Lebanon, spanning grades K to 3. This list can serve as a powerful tool for language teachers—who face several challenges posed by the inherent nature of Arabic in terms of diglossia, orthography and morphology—and provide them with a handy list of words for their pupils. The study has its limitations in terms of scope, breadth and the nature of the technology used for counting words. Nonetheless, it makes a number of recommendations for the future, including the development of a readability formula based on this list, the expansion of the scope of this word list and improvement to increase its technical accuracy.

  17. Word encoding during sleep is suggested by correlations between word-evoked up-states and post-sleep semantic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eRuch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To test whether humans can encode words during sleep we played everyday words to men while they were napping and assessed priming from sleep-played words following waking. Words were presented during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Priming was assessed using a semantic and a perceptual priming test. These tests measured differences in the processing of words that had been or had not been played during sleep. Synonyms to sleep-played words were the targets in the semantic priming test that tapped the meaning of sleep-played words. All men responded to sleep-played words by producing up-states in their electroencephalogram. Up-states are NREM sleep-specific phases of briefly increased neuronal excitability. The word-evoked up-states might have promoted word processing during sleep. Yet, the mean performance in the priming tests administered following sleep was at chance level, which suggests that participants as a group failed to show priming following sleep. However, performance in the two priming tests was positively correlated to each other and to the magnitude of the word-evoked up-states. Hence, the larger a participant’s word-evoked up-states, the larger his perceptual and semantic priming. Those participants who scored high on all variables must have encoded words during sleep. We conclude that some humans are able to encode words during sleep, but more research is needed to pin down the factors that modulate this ability.

  18. Affective Norms for 362 Persian Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bagheri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past two decades, a great deal of research has been conducted on developing affective norms for words in various languages, showing that there is an urgent need to create such norms in Persian language, too. The present study intended to develop a set of 362 Persian words rated according to their emotional valence, arousal, imageability, and familiarity so as to prepare the ground for further research on emotional word processing. This was the first attempt to set affective norms for Persian words in the realm of emotion.  Methods: Prior to the study, a multitude of words were selected from Persian dictionary and academic books in Persian literature. Secondly, three independent proficient experts in the Persian literature were asked to extract the suitable words from the list and to choose the best (defined as grammatically correct and most often used. The database normalization process was based on the ratings by a total of 88 participants using a 9-point Likert scale. Each participant evaluated about 120 words on four different scales.  Results: There were significant relationships between affective dimensions and some psycholinguistic variables. Also, further analyses were carried out to investigate the possible relationship between different features of valences (positive, negative, and neutral and other variables included in the dataset.  Conclusion: These affective norms for Persian words create a useful and valid dataset which will provide researchers with applying standard verbal materials as well as materials applied in other languages, e.g. English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, etc.

  19. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  20. Learning verbs more effectively through meaning congruent action animations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Hurk, M.M. van den; Bekkering, H.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of learning words while displaying meaning congruent animations. We explore whether learning words with animation is sensitive to properties known to influence action understanding. We apply an embodied cognition framework and predictions from a

  1. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  2. Dynamics of Semantic and Word-Formation Subsystems of the Russian Language: Historical Dynamics of the Word Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ivanovna Dmitrieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides comprehensive justification of the principles and methods of the synchronic and diachronic research of word-formation subsystems of the Russian language. The authors also study the ways of analyzing historical dynamics of word family as the main macro-unit of word-formation system. In the field of analysis there is a family of words with the stem 'ход-' (the meaning of 'motion', word-formation of which is investigated in different periods of the Russian literary language. Significance of motion-verbs in the process of forming a language picture of the world determined the character and the structure of this word family as one of the biggest in the history of the Russian language. In the article a structural and semantic dynamics of the word family 'ход-' is depicted. The results of the study show that in the ancient period the prefixes of verbal derivatives were formed, which became the apex-branched derivational paradigms existing in modern Russian. The old Russian period of language development is characterized by the appearance of words with connotative meaning (with suffixes -ishk-, -ichn-, as well as the words with possessive semantics (with suffixes –ev-, -sk-. In this period the verbs with the postfix -cz also supplement the analyzed word family. The period of formation of the National Russian language was marked by the loss of a large number of abstract nouns and the appearance of neologisms from some old Russian abstract nouns. The studied family in the modern Russian language is characterized by the following processes: the appearance of terms, the active semantic derivation, the weakening of word-formation variability, the semantic differentiation of duplicate units, the development of subsystem of words with connotative meanings, and the preservation of derivatives in all functional styles.

  3. The Influence of Concreteness of Concepts on the Integration of Novel Words into the Semantic Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinfeng; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of previous studies revealing a processing advantage of concrete words over abstract words, the current study aimed to further explore the influence of concreteness on the integration of novel words into semantic memory with the event related potential (ERP) technique. In the experiment during the learning phase participants read two-sentence contexts and inferred the meaning of novel words. The novel words were two-character non-words in Chinese language. Their meaning was either a concrete or abstract known concept which could be inferred from the contexts. During the testing phase participants performed a lexical decision task in which the learned novel words served as primes for either their corresponding concepts, semantically related or unrelated targets. For the concrete novel words, the semantically related words belonged to the same semantic categories with their corresponding concepts. For the abstract novel words, the semantically related words were synonyms of their corresponding concepts. The unrelated targets were real words which were concrete or abstract for the concrete or abstract novel words respectively. The ERP results showed that the corresponding concepts and the semantically related words elicited smaller N400s than the unrelated words. The N400 effect was not modulated by the concreteness of the concepts. In addition, the concrete corresponding concepts elicited a smaller late positive component (LPC) than the concrete unrelated words. This LPC effect was absent for the abstract words. The results indicate that although both concrete and abstract novel words can be acquired and linked to their related words in the semantic network after a short learning phase, the concrete novel words are learned better. Our findings support the (extended) dual coding theory and broaden our understanding of adult word learning and changes in concept organization.

  4. Manipulating objects and telling words: A study on concrete and abstract words acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments (E1-E2-E3-E4 investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the Words As Tools (WAT proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (training1. In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (training2; labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST2. Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1; even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2. TEST3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2-E3-E4, TEST3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard-microphone responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed.

  5. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  6. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  7. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a transition...

  8. Adapting the Freiburg monosyllabic word test for Slovenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Marvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech audiometry is one of the standard methods used to diagnose the type of hearing loss and to assess the communication function of the patient by determining the level of the patient’s ability to understand and repeat words presented to him or her in a hearing test. For this purpose, the Slovenian adaptation of the German tests developed by Hahlbrock (1953, 1960 – the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test and the Freiburg Number Test – are used in Slovenia (adapted in 1968 by Pompe. In this paper we focus on the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test for Slovenian, which has been criticized by patients as well as in the literature for the unequal difficulty and frequency of the words, with many of these being extremely rare or even obsolete. As part of the patient’s communication function is retrieving the meaning of individual words by guessing, the less frequent and consequently less familiar words do not contribute to reliable testing results. We therefore adapt the test by identifying and removing such words and supplement them with phonetically similar words to preserve the phonetic balance of the list. The words used for replacement are extracted from the written corpus of Slovenian Gigafida and the spoken corpus of Slovenian GOS, while the optimal combinations of words are established by using computational algorithms.

  9. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  10. The Word Superiority Effect in central and peripheral vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The Word Superiority Effect (WSE) is a well-known phenomenon in reading research, where words are reported more accurately than single letters or non-words. We report two experiments that investigate the WSE in the central and peripheral visual field, as well as laterality differences...... in the perception of words and letters, using methods based on the Theory of Visual Attention. The results show a WSE in the central visual field, reflected in mean scores, perception thresholds, and processing speed, whereas the effect is eliminated or reversed in the periphery. This may be caused by crowding......, which prevents lexical analysis of a word in the periphery. We conclude that perception of words and letters differs according to location in the visual field. Linking our results to previous studies of crowding effects in patients with reading impairments, we hypothesize that similar mechanisms may...

  11. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5170738.

  12. Morpho-phonemic analysis boosts word reading for adult struggling readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Susan H; Ehri, Linnea C; Locke, John L

    2018-01-01

    A randomized control trial compared the effects of two kinds of vocabulary instruction on component reading skills of adult struggling readers. Participants seeking alternative high school diplomas received 8 h of scripted tutoring to learn forty academic vocabulary words embedded within a civics curriculum. They were matched for language background and reading levels, then randomly assigned to either morpho-phonemic analysis teaching word origins, morpheme and syllable structures, or traditional whole word study teaching multiple sentence contexts, meaningful connections, and spellings. Both groups made comparable gains in learning the target words, but the morpho-phonemic group showed greater gains in reading unfamiliar words on standardized tests of word reading, including word attack and word recognition. Findings support theories of word learning and literacy that promote explicit instruction in word analysis to increase poor readers' linguistic awareness by revealing connections between morphological, phonological, and orthographic structures within words.

  13. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  14. Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A.; Eden, Annuschka S.; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80–120 ms), P2 (150–190 ms) and EPN component (200–300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an “emotional tagging” of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological. PMID:23940642

  15. Early prefrontal brain responses to the Hedonic quality of emotional words--a simultaneous EEG and MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A; Eden, Annuschka S; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80-120 ms), P2 (150-190 ms) and EPN component (200-300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an "emotional tagging" of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological.

  16. Emotion Words: Adding Face Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-06-12

    Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) is observed when singly presented written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear at which level in visual perception...... multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  18. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  19. Discrete versus multiple word displays: A re-analysis of studies comparing dyslexic and typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi eZoccolotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines whether impairments in reading a text can be explained by a deficit in word decoding or an additional deficit in the processes governing the integration of reading subcomponents (including eye movement programming and pronunciation should also be postulated. We report a re-analysis of data from eleven previous experiments conducted in our lab where the reading performance on single, discrete word displays as well multiple displays (texts, and in few cases also word lists was investigated in groups of dyslexic children and typically developing readers. The analysis focuses on measures of time and not accuracy.Across experiments, dyslexic children are slower and more variable than typically developing readers in reading texts as well as vocal RTs to singly presented words; the dis-homogeneity in variability between groups points to the inappropriateness of standard measures of size effect (such as Cohen’s d, and suggests the use of the ratio between groups’ performance. The mean ratio for text reading is 1.95 across experiments. Mean ratio for vocal RTs for singly presented words is considerably smaller (1.52. Furthermore, this latter value is probably an overestimation as considering total reading times (i.e., a measure including also the pronunciation component considerably reduces the group difference in vocal RTs (1.19 according to Martelli et al., 2014. The ratio difference between single and multiple displays does not depend upon the presence of a semantic context in the case of texts as large ratios are also observed with lists of unrelated words (though studies testing this aspect were few.We conclude that, if care is taken in using appropriate comparisons, the deficit in reading texts or lists of words is appreciably greater than that revealed with discrete word presentations. Thus, reading multiple stimuli present a specific, additional challenge to dyslexic children indicating that models of reading should

  20. Children value informativity over logic in word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Klein, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The question of how children learn the meanings of words has long puzzled philosophers and psychologists. As Quine famously pointed out, simply hearing a word in context reveals next to nothing about its meaning. How then do children learn to understand and use words correctly? Here, we show how learning theory can offer an elegant solution to this seemingly intractable puzzle in language acquisition. From it, we derived formal predictions about word learning in situations of Quinean ambiguity, and subsequently tested our predictions on toddlers, undergraduates, and developmental psychologists. The toddlers' performance was consistent both with our predictions and with the workings of implicit mechanisms that can facilitate the learning of meaningful lexical systems. Adults adopted a markedly different and likely suboptimal strategy. These results suggest one explanation for why early word learning can appear baffling: Adult intuitions may be a poor source of insight into how children learn.

  1. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  2. Computing with Words Principal Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Zadeh, Lotfi A

    2012-01-01

    In essence, Computing with Words (CWW) is a system of computation in which the objects of computation are predominantly words, phrases and propositions drawn from a natural language. CWW is based on fuzzy logic. In science there is a deep-seated tradition of according much more respect to numbers than to words. In a fundamental way, CWW is a challenge to this tradition. What is not widely recognized is that, today, words are used in place of numbers in a wide variety of applications ranging from digital cameras and household appliances to fraud detection systems, biomedical instrumentation and subway trains.  CWW offers a unique capability—the capability to precisiate natural language. Unprecisiated (raw) natural language cannot be computed with. A key concept which underlies precisiation of meaning is that of the meaning postulate: A proposition, p, is a restriction on the values which a variable, X—a variable which is implicit in p—is allowed to take. CWW has an important ramification for mathema...

  3. The semantic origins of word order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouwstra, Marieke; de Swart, Henriëtte

    2014-06-01

    Where do the different sentence orders in the languages of the world come from? Recently, it has been suggested that there is a basic sentence order, SOV (Subject-Object-Verb), which was the starting point for other sentence orders. Backup for this claim was found in newly emerging languages, as well as in experiments where people are asked to convey simple meanings in improvised gesture production. In both cases, researchers found that the predominant word order is SOV. Recent literature has shown that the pragmatic rule 'Agent first' drives the preference for S initial word order, but this rule does not decide between SOV and SVO. This paper presents experimental evidence for grounding the word order that emerges in gesture production in semantic properties of the message to be conveyed. We focus on the role of the verb, and argue that the preference for SOV word order reported in earlier experiments is due to the use of extensional verbs (e.g. throw). With intensional verbs like think, the object is dependent on the agent's thought, and our experiment confirms that such verbs lead to a preference for SVO instead. We conclude that the meaning of the verb plays a crucial role in the sequencing of utterances in emerging language systems. This finding is relevant for the debate on language evolution, because it suggests that semantics underlies the early formation of syntactic rules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymptotic behaviour and optimal word size for exact and approximate word matches between random sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantorovitz Miriam R

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of k-words shared between two sequences is a simple and effcient alignment-free sequence comparison method. This statistic, D2, has been used for the clustering of EST sequences. Sequence comparison based on D2 is extremely fast, its runtime is proportional to the size of the sequences under scrutiny, whereas alignment-based comparisons have a worst-case run time proportional to the square of the size. Recent studies have tackled the rigorous study of the statistical distribution of D2, and asymptotic regimes have been derived. The distribution of approximate k-word matches has also been studied. Results We have computed the D2 optimal word size for various sequence lengths, and for both perfect and approximate word matches. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests show D2 to have a compound Poisson distribution at the optimal word size for small sequence lengths (below 400 letters and a normal distribution at the optimal word size for large sequence lengths (above 1600 letters. We find that the D2 statistic outperforms BLAST in the comparison of artificially evolved sequences, and performs similarly to other methods based on exact word matches. These results obtained with randomly generated sequences are also valid for sequences derived from human genomic DNA. Conclusion We have characterized the distribution of the D2 statistic at optimal word sizes. We find that the best trade-off between computational efficiency and accuracy is obtained with exact word matches. Given that our numerical tests have not included sequence shuffling, transposition or splicing, the improvements over existing methods reported here underestimate that expected in real sequences. Because of the linear run time and of the known normal asymptotic behavior, D2-based methods are most appropriate for large genomic sequences.

  6. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter......Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...... tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...

  7. What Do We Mean by FAIR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Liz

    2011-01-01

    "Fair" is a word people are hearing a lot at the moment if they listen to political discussion. There is much debate about how it means different things to politicians of different hues and can be used to justify seemly contradictory courses of action. In science, "fair" is also a word that is used by children and teachers in different ways.…

  8. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  9. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.

  10. Estimating affective word covariates using word association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert

    2016-12-01

    Word ratings on affective dimensions are an important tool in psycholinguistic research. Traditionally, they are obtained by asking participants to rate words on each dimension, a time-consuming procedure. As such, there has been some interest in computationally generating norms, by extrapolating words' affective ratings using their semantic similarity to words for which these values are already known. So far, most attempts have derived similarity from word co-occurrence in text corpora. In the current paper, we obtain similarity from word association data. We use these similarity ratings to predict the valence, arousal, and dominance of 14,000 Dutch words with the help of two extrapolation methods: Orientation towards Paradigm Words and k-Nearest Neighbors. The resulting estimates show very high correlations with human ratings when using Orientation towards Paradigm Words, and even higher correlations when using k-Nearest Neighbors. We discuss possible theoretical accounts of our results and compare our findings with previous attempts at computationally generating affective norms.

  11. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  12. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832766

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of

  13. Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    data of the corpus and includes more formal audio material (lectures, TV and radio broadcasting). The book begins with a 20-page introduction, which is sometimes quite technical, but ... grounds words that belong to the core vocabulary of the language such as tool-. Lexikos 15 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 15: 2005): 338-339 ...

  14. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

  15. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  16. Estimating valence from the sound of a word: Computational, experimental, and cross-linguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max; Qu, Zhan

    2017-06-01

    It is assumed linguistic symbols must be grounded in perceptual information to attain meaning, because the sound of a word in a language has an arbitrary relation with its referent. This paper demonstrates that a strong arbitrariness claim should be reconsidered. In a computational study, we showed that one phonological feature (nasals in the beginning of a word) predicted negative valence in three European languages (English, Dutch, and German) and positive valence in Chinese. In three experiments, we tested whether participants used this feature in estimating the valence of a word. In Experiment 1, Chinese and Dutch participants rated the valence of written valence-neutral words, with Chinese participants rating the nasal-first neutral-valence words more positive and the Dutch participants rating nasal-first neutral-valence words more negative. In Experiment 2, Chinese (and Dutch) participants rated the valence of Dutch (and Chinese) written valence-neutral words without being able to understand the meaning of these words. The patterns replicated the valence patterns from Experiment 1. When the written words from Experiment 2 were transformed into spoken words, results in Experiment 3 again showed that participants estimated the valence of words on the basis of the sound of the word. The computational study and psycholinguistic experiments indicated that language users can bootstrap meaning from the sound of a word.

  17. Evidence for Morphological Recomposition in Compound Words using MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teon Lamont Brooks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic and electrophysiological studies of lexical processing show convergent evidence for morpheme-based lexical access for morphologically complex words that involves early decomposition into their constituent morphemes followed by some combinatorial operation. Considering that both semantically transparent (e.g., sailboat and semantically opaque (e.g., bootleg compounds undergo morphological decomposition during the earlier stages of lexical processing, subsequent combinatorial operations should account for the difference in the contribution of the constituent morphemes to the meaning of these different word types. In this study we use magnetoencephalography (MEG to pinpoint the neural bases of this combinatorial stage in English compound word recognition. MEG data were acquired while participants performed a word naming task in which three word types, transparent compounds (e.g., roadside, opaque compounds (e.g., butterfly, and morphologically simple words (e.g., brothel were contrasted in a partial-repetition priming paradigm where the word of interest was primed by one of its constituent morphemes. Analysis of onset latency revealed shorter latencies to name compound words than simplex words when primed, further supporting a stage of morphological decomposition in lexical access. An analysis of the associated MEG activity uncovered a region of interest implicated in morphological composition, the Left Anterior Temporal Lobe (LATL. Only transparent compounds showed increased activity in this area from 250 to 470 ms. Previous studies using sentences and phrases have highlighted the role of LATL in performing computations for basic combinatorial operations. Results are in tune with decomposition models for morpheme accessibility early in processing and suggest that semantics play a role in combining the meanings of morphemes when their composition is transparent to the overall word meaning.

  18. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence ( control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  20. MANIPULATING L2 LEARNERS' ONLINE DICTIONARY USE AND ITS EFFECT ON L2 WORD RETENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Peters

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of two enhancement techniques on L2 learners' look-up behaviour during a reading task and word retention afterwards amongst Flemish learners of German: a Vocabulary Test Announcement and Task-induced Word Relevance. Eighty-four participants were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 not forewarned of an upcoming vocabulary test (incidental condition or 2 forewarned of a vocabulary test (intentional condition. Task-induced Word Relevance was operationalized by a reading comprehension task. The relevance factor comprised two levels: plus-relevant and minus-relevant target words. Plus-relevant words needed to be looked up and used receptively in order to answer the comprehension questions. In other words, the reading comprehension task could not be accomplished without knowing the meaning of the plus-relevant words. The minus-relevant target words, on the other hand, were not linked to the reading comprehension questions. Our findings show a significant effect of Test Announcement and Word Relevance on whether a target word is looked up. In addition, Word Relevance also affects the frequency of clicks on target words. Word retention is only influenced by Task-induced Word Relevance. The effect of Word Relevance is durable.

  1. Researching the word order in the classical languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Babič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available If one attempts to deal with word order problems in Latin and Greek, the difficulties that he encounters are considerable. It is hardly possible to formulate a set of rules by means of which one could give a comprehensive analysis of word order phenomena in Latin and Greek as a whole. In descriptive grammar, the word order is treated very extensively, yet the rules that are given are not as complete as one might expect. Grammatical categories of subject, object and predicate serve well as means of identifying the sentence constituents. However, an assumption can be made that the word order is to be explained by means of independent text patterns or general discourse intention of the speaker/writer.

  2. Holistic word processing in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Conway

    Full Text Available People with dyslexia have difficulty learning to read and many lack fluent word recognition as adults. In a novel task that borrows elements of the 'word superiority' and 'word inversion' paradigms, we investigate whether holistic word recognition is impaired in dyslexia. In Experiment 1 students with dyslexia and controls judged the similarity of pairs of 6- and 7-letter words or pairs of words whose letters had been partially jumbled. The stimuli were presented in both upright and inverted form with orthographic regularity and orientation randomized from trial to trial. While both groups showed sensitivity to orthographic regularity, both word inversion and letter jumbling were more detrimental to skilled than dyslexic readers supporting the idea that the latter may read in a more analytic fashion. Experiment 2 employed the same task but using shorter, 4- and 5-letter words and a design where orthographic regularity and stimuli orientation was held constant within experimental blocks to encourage the use of either holistic or analytic processing. While there was no difference in reaction time between the dyslexic and control groups for inverted stimuli, the students with dyslexia were significantly slower than controls for upright stimuli. These findings suggest that holistic word recognition, which is largely based on the detection of orthographic regularity, is impaired in dyslexia.

  3. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  4. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  5. Utilizing 'hot words' in ParaConc to verify lexical simplification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexical simplification strategies investigated are: using a superordinate or more general word, using a general word with extended meaning and using more familiar or common synonyms. The analysis gives the reader an idea about how some general words are used to translate technical language. It also displays that 'hot ...

  6. Examining the Conditions of Using an On-Line Dictionary to Learn Words and Comprehend Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilenschneider, Robert Francis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated three look-up conditions for language learners to learn unknown target words and comprehend a reading passage when their attention is transferred away to an on-line dictionary. The research questions focused on how each look-up condition impacted the recall and recognition of word forms, word meanings, and passage…

  7. Caregivers' Gestures Direct Infant Attention during Early Word Learning: The Importance of Dynamic Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Nancy de Villiers; Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How do young infants discover word meanings? We have theorized that caregivers educate infants' attention (cf. Gibson, J.J., 1966) by synchronizing the saying of a word with a dynamic gesture displaying the object/referent (Zukow-Goldring, 1997). Detecting an amodal invariant across gesture and speech brackets the word and object within the…

  8. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Word Sense Disambiguation Model for Amharic Words using Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to design a WSD (word sense disambiguation) prototype model for Amharic words using semi-supervised learning method to extract training sets which minimizes the amount of the required human intervention and it can produce considerable improvement in learning accuracy.

  10. Paraphrasensuche mittels word2vec und der Word Mover’s Distance im Altgriechischen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Pöckelmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To find receptions of Plato‘s work within the ancient Greek literature, automatic methods would be a useful assistance. Unfortunately, such methods are often knowledge-based and thus restricted to extensively annotated texts, which are not available to a sufficient extent for ancient Greek. In this article, we describe an approach that is based on the distributional hypotheses instead, to overcome the problem of missing annotations. This approach uses word2vec and the related Word Mover‘s Distance to determine phrases with similar meaning. Despite its experimental state, the method produces some meaningful results as shown in three examples.

  11. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  12. Compound Words In Dawan Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out the structure of compound words and the types of compound words in Dawan language. This study belongs to qualitative research as it aimed to describe qualitatively the structure and the types of compound words in Dawan language. The data are taken from language consultants (informants of Dawan language speaker. In collecting the data, the researcher prepares questionnaire and applied interview method. The result of analysis showed that compound words in Dawan language are structured by combining two different words whether the words in the same category or different category. The structure of compound words are built by combining noun (N with noun (N, for instance mais-oni ‘sugar’ which is built by the noun mais ‘salt’ and the noun oni ‘sweet’; noun (N with verb (V, for instnace bife-anaot ‘prostitute’ which is built by the noun bife ‘woman’ and the verb anaot ‘work’; verb (V with noun (N, for instance poni-haano ‘propose’ which is built by the verb poni ‘hang’ and the noun hauno ‘leaf’; verb (V with verb (V, for instance fua-tulu ‘worship’ which is built by the verb fua ‘see’ and the verb tulu ‘give’; and noun (N with adjective (Adj, for instance ume-kbubu ‘kitchen’ which is built by the noun ume ‘house’ and the adjective kbubu ‘circle’. Further analysis on the compound words showed that they can also be classified into noun head word, verb head word, and adjective head word.

  13. 16 CFR 23.19 - Misuse of the word “pearl.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âpearl.â 23.19 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.19 Misuse of the word “pearl.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the unqualified word “pearl” or any other word or phrase of like meaning to describe...

  14. Unsupervised Learning of Word-Sequence Representations from Scratch via Convolutional Tensor Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Furong; Anandkumar, Animashree

    2016-01-01

    Unsupervised text embeddings extraction is crucial for text understanding in machine learning. Word2Vec and its variants have received substantial success in mapping words with similar syntactic or semantic meaning to vectors close to each other. However, extracting context-aware word-sequence embedding remains a challenging task. Training over large corpus is difficult as labels are difficult to get. More importantly, it is challenging for pre-trained models to obtain word-...

  15. Semantic projection: recovering human knowledge of multiple, distinct object features from word embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Grand, Gabriel; Blank, Idan Asher; Pereira, Francisco; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2018-01-01

    The words of a language reflect the structure of the human mind, allowing us to transmit thoughts between individuals. However, language can represent only a subset of our rich and detailed cognitive architecture. Here, we ask what kinds of common knowledge (semantic memory) are captured by word meanings (lexical semantics). We examine a prominent computational model that represents words as vectors in a multidimensional space, such that proximity between word-vectors approximates semantic re...

  16. Automatic Generation and Evaluation of Sentence Graphs out of Word Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Priss, U.; Corbett, D.; Angelova, G.

    This paper reports on the development of a system that automatically constructs representations of the meaning of sentences using rules of grammar and a dictionary of word meanings. The meanings of words and sentences are expressed using an extension of knowledge graphs, a semantic network

  17. Presidents' words - Gianni Deroma

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Gianni Deroma This week we publish the last contributions in the 'Words of presidents' series by giving the floor to Gianni Deroma (2007-2010) and Michel Goossens (2011-2015). "Tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti" This Latin adage has marked my years with the Staff Association (SA). For someone like me, coming from the technical world, the discovery of the importance of the role played by legal matters in the defence of the staff illustrates a new reality and incarnates my years spent with the SA. We, members of personnel, as citizens have as reference the democratic societies in which we live. CERN is not a democracy. The Member States, the Director-General have full powers, or almost. Contrary to citizens of states, we do not elect our leaders. So in that context is it useful to have a Staff Association? Or does it only serve as a necessary alibi for those who have the power? This is where a legal approach makes sense, in counterbalancing the power of our governing ...

  18. Quivers, words and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)094. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  19. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  20. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  1. Peculiarities of Grammatical Properties in Nominal Word Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Klienkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines some peculiarities if grammatical properties of nominal word combinations based on the study of German-speaking Swiss press. The accumulated experience of linguists is analyzed and certain factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in nominal word combinations with quantitative meaning are researched. It has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in such word combinations is determined by functional style, semantics and grammatical features of nouns - first or second components in a word combination. The aforementioned factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in quantitative nominal word combinations are studied on the material of Germanspeaking Swiss press. The research revealed a number of peculiarities. First of all, German-speaking Swiss press uses such syntactic relation as genitive subordination quite often, not only on "special occasion" and unlike its use in Germany does not produce a magniloquent, pompous impression. Secondly, it has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in word combinations of the above-mentioned type of word combinations greatly depends on the semantic meaning of the noun - the first component of the word combination - and does not always coincide with the grammatical properties in nominal combinations in Germany. Thirdly, a clear dependence of syntactic relations choice is observed. Moreover, the article highlights the importance of grammatical features of the second component. These are such features as gender, number, case accompanied by noun declension. All the afore-mentioned features help to define the type of syntactic relations, which nominal quantitative word combinations may be connected by. The results of the comparisons of grammatical properties of quantitative nominal word combinations in German and Swiss press are demonstrated in a table below.

  2. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

  3. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  4. Meaning between, in, and around words, gestures and postures: multimodal meaning making in children's classroom communication

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The view of language from a social semiotic perspective is clear. Language is one of many semiotic resources we employ in our communicative practices. That is to say that while language is at times dominant, it always operates within a multimodal frame and furthermore, at times modes other than language are dominant. The proposed 2014 National Curriculum for the UK, on the other hand, values pupils' face-to-face classroom interaction in terms of standard spoken English (i.e. in terms of the m...

  5. Large-corpus phoneme and word recognition and the generality of lexical context in CVC word perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Jessica T; Christie, Robert E; Gelfand, Stanley A

    2014-02-01

    Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense syllables, j ∼ 3 because all 3 phonemes are needed to identify the syllable, but j ∼ 2.5 for real-word CVCs (revealing ∼2.5 independent perceptual units) because higher level contributions such as lexical knowledge enable word recognition even if less than 3 phonemes are accurately received. These findings were almost exclusively determined with the 120-word corpus of the isophonemic word lists (Boothroyd, 1968a; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988), presented one word at a time. It is therefore possible that its generality or applicability may be limited. This study thus determined j by using a much larger and less restricted corpus of real-word CVCs presented in 3-word groups as well as whether j is influenced by test size. The j-factor for real-word CVCs was derived from the recognition performance of 223 individuals with a broad range of hearing sensitivity by using the Tri-Word Test (Gelfand, 1998), which involves 50 three-word presentations and a corpus of 450 words. The influence of test size was determined from a subsample of 96 participants with separate scores for the first 10, 20, and 25 (and all 50) presentation sets of the full test. The mean value of j was 2.48 with a 95% confidence interval of 2.44-2.53, which is in good agreement with values obtained with isophonemic word lists, although its value varies among individuals. A significant correlation was found between percent-correct scores and j, but it was small and accounted for only 12.4% of the variance in j for phoneme scores ≥60%. Mean j-factors for the 10-, 20-, 25-, and 50-set test sizes were between 2.49 and 2.53 and were not

  6. Dynamic Influence of Emotional States on Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Zou, Tiantian; Peng, Danling

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers realize that it's unrealistic to isolate language learning and processing from emotions. However, few studies on language learning have taken emotions into consideration so far, so that the probable influences of emotions on language learning are unclear. The current study thereby aimed to examine the effects of emotional states on novel word learning and their dynamic changes with learning continuing and task varying. Positive, negative or neutral pictures were employed to induce a given emotional state, and then participants learned the novel words through association with line-drawing pictures in four successive learning phases. At the end of each learning phase, participants were instructed to fulfill a semantic category judgment task (in Experiment 1) or a word-picture semantic consistency judgment task (in Experiment 2) to explore the effects of emotional states on different depths of word learning. Converging results demonstrated that negative emotional state led to worse performance compared with neutral condition; however, how positive emotional state affected learning varied with learning task. Specifically, a facilitative role of positive emotional state in semantic category learning was observed but disappeared in word specific meaning learning. Moreover, the emotional modulation on novel word learning was quite dynamic and changeable with learning continuing, and the final attainment of the learned words tended to be similar under different emotional states. The findings suggest that the impact of emotion can be offset when novel words became more and more familiar and a part of existent lexicon. PMID:29695994

  7. On the Awareness of English Polysemous Words by Arabic-Speaking EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafah Abdul Salam Alnamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study measures the extent to which Arabic-speaking EFL learners are aware of polysemy in English. It also investigates whether the English proficiency level of Arabic-speaking EFL learners plays a role in their ability to distinguish between the various meanings of English polysemous words, and whether they face problems when they encounter these words in unusual contexts (i.e. the contexts that employ the extended meanings of the target polysemous words. To these ends, a translation test in which the participants were asked to give full Arabic translation for fifteen English sentences was designed. The words open, run, and make were the target polysemous words in this study. The Results show that Arabic-speaking EFL learners have little awareness of polysemy in English, and their English proficiency level does play a role in their ability to distinguish between the different meanings of English polysemous words. It was also found that Arabic-speaking EFL learners have no problems guessing the primary meaning of the English polysemous words. However, they face difficulty guessing the extended meanings of polysemous words in unusual contexts. Moreover, some Arabic-speaking EFL learners can guess the extended meanings of the polysemous words they encounter in familiar contexts, or when they understand some cues provided to disambiguate these words. This study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further studies.

  8. Find the Picture of Eight Turtles: A Link between Children's Counting and Their Knowledge of Number Word Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Emily B.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2011-01-01

    An essential part of understanding number words (e.g., "eight") is understanding that all number words refer to the dimension of experience we call numerosity. Knowledge of this general principle may be separable from knowledge of individual number word meanings. That is, children may learn the meanings of at least a few individual number words…

  9. Personality correlates of reporting Chinese words from the Deutsch "high-low" word illusion by Chinese-speaking people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, You; Zhu, Junpeng; Chen, Wanzhen; Chai, Hao; He, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2012-06-01

    When English-speaking people listen to the Deutsch "high-low" word illusion, they report hearing English words. Whether Chinese-speaking people report Chinese words when listening to the illusion, or whether any reported words might be correlated with personality traits as previous investigations have demonstrated for listening to music in other cultures, is open to question. The present study aimed to address this. A total of 308 right-handed, healthy volunteers (177 women and 131 men) were given the illusion test and asked to answer the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ). Their depressive tendency was measured by the Plutchik-van Praag depression inventory (PVP). There was no gender effect regarding either the PVP score or the number of reported Chinese words from the illusion. Women scored higher on ZKPQ neuroticism-anxiety than men. The number of meaningful Chinese words reported was correlated with the ZKPQ impulsive sensation-seeking, aggression-hostility, and activity scores. Some words reported by participants who scored higher on these three traits were related in meaning to those scales. Our preliminary results suggest that when Chinese-speaking people listen to the Deutsch "high-low" word illusion, they might use personality-related, specific cognitive schemata.

  10. Impact of Diglossia on Word and Non-word Repetition among Language Impaired and Typically Developing Arabic Native Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Saiegh-Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study tested the impact of the phonological and lexical distance between a dialect of Palestinian Arabic spoken in the north of Israel (SpA and Modern Standard Arabic (StA or MSA on word and non-word repetition in children with specific language impairment (SLI and in typically developing (TD age-matched controls. Fifty kindergarten children (25 SLI, 25 TD; mean age 5;5 and fifty first grade children (25 SLI, 25 TD; mean age 6:11 were tested with a repetition task for 1–4 syllable long real words and pseudo words; Items varied systematically in whether each encoded a novel StA phoneme or not, namely a phoneme that is only used in StA but not in the spoken dialect targeted. Real words also varied in whether they were lexically novel, meaning whether the word is used only in StA, but not in SpA. SLI children were found to significantly underperform TD children on all repetition tasks indicating a general phonological memory deficit. More interesting for the current investigation is the observed strong and consistent effect of phonological novelty on word and non-word repetition in SLI and TD children, with a stronger effect observed in SLI. In contrast with phonological novelty, the effect of lexical novelty on word repetition was limited and it did not interact with group. The results are argued to reflect the role of linguistic distance in phonological memory for novel linguistic units in Arabic SLI and, hence, to support a specific Linguistic Distance Hypothesis of SLI in a diglossic setting. The implications of the findings for assessment, diagnosis and intervention with Arabic speaking children with SLI are discussed.

  11. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  12. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  13. Enrichment Effects of Gestures and Pictures on Abstract Words in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Claudia; Pedroli, Elisa; Macedonia, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory research has demonstrated that multisensory enrichment promotes verbal learning in a foreign language (L2). Enrichment can be done in various ways, e.g., by adding a picture that illustrates the L2 word's meaning or by the learner performing a gesture to the word (enactment). Most studies have tested enrichment on concrete but not on abstract words. Unlike concrete words, the representation of abstract words is deprived of sensory-motor features. This has been addressed as one of the reasons why abstract words are difficult to remember. Here, we ask whether a brief enrichment training by means of pictures and by self-performed gestures also enhances the memorability of abstract words in L2. Further, we explore which of these two enrichment strategies is more effective. Twenty young adults learned 30 novel abstract words in L2 according to three encoding conditions: (1) reading, (2) reading and pairing the novel word to a picture, and (3) reading and enacting the word by means of a gesture. We measured memory performance in free and cued recall tests, as well as in a visual recognition task. Words encoded with gestures were better remembered in the free recall in the native language (L1). When recognizing the novel words, participants made less errors for words encoded with gestures compared to words encoded with pictures. The reaction times in the recognition task did not differ across conditions. The present findings support, even if only partially, the idea that enactment promotes learning of abstract words and that it is superior to enrichment by means of pictures even after short training.

  14. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  15. BioWord: a sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldi, Laura J; Muñoz-Fernández, Daniel; Erill, Ivan

    2012-06-07

    The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  16. Moved by words: Affective ratings for a set of 2,266 Spanish words in five discrete emotion categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Guasch, Marc; Martínez-García, Natalia; Fraga, Isabel; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The two main theoretical accounts of the human affective space are the dimensional perspective and the discrete-emotion approach. In recent years, several affective norms have been developed from a dimensional perspective, including ratings for valence and arousal. In contrast, the number of published datasets relying on the discrete-emotion approach is much lower. There is a need to fill this gap, considering that discrete emotions have an effect on word processing above and beyond those of valence and arousal. In the present study, we present ratings from 1,380 participants for a set of 2,266 Spanish words in five discrete emotion categories: happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. This will be the largest dataset published to date containing ratings for discrete emotions. We also present, for the first time, a fine-grained analysis of the distribution of words into the five emotion categories. This analysis reveals that happiness words are the most consistently related to a single, discrete emotion category. In contrast, there is a tendency for many negative words to belong to more than one discrete emotion. The only exception is disgust words, which overlap least with the other negative emotions. Normative valence and arousal data already exist for all of the words included in this corpus. Thus, the present database will allow researchers to design studies to contrast the predictions of the two most influential theoretical perspectives in this field. These studies will undoubtedly contribute to a deeper understanding of the effects of emotion on word processing.

  17. The company objects keep: Linking referents together during cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettersten, Martin; Wojcik, Erica; Benitez, Viridiana L; Saffran, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Learning the meanings of words involves not only linking individual words to referents but also building a network of connections among entities in the world, concepts, and words. Previous studies reveal that infants and adults track the statistical co-occurrence of labels and objects across multiple ambiguous training instances to learn words. However, it is less clear whether, given distributional or attentional cues, learners also encode associations amongst the novel objects. We investigated the consequences of two types of cues that highlighted object-object links in a cross-situational word learning task: distributional structure - how frequently the referents of novel words occurred together - and visual context - whether the referents were seen on matching backgrounds. Across three experiments, we found that in addition to learning novel words, adults formed connections between frequently co-occurring objects. These findings indicate that learners exploit statistical regularities to form multiple types of associations during word learning.

  18. Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Auditory and Visual Priming on the Identification of Spoken Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Sumi

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of preceding contextual stimuli, either auditory or visual, on the identification of spoken target words. Fifty-one participants (29% males, 71% females; mean age = 24.5 years, SD = 8.5) were divided into three groups: no context, auditory context, and visual context. All target stimuli were spoken words masked with white noise. The relationships between the context and target stimuli were as follows: identical word, similar word, and unrelated word. Participants presented with context experienced a sequence of six context stimuli in the form of either spoken words or photographs. Auditory and visual context conditions produced similar results, but the auditory context aided word identification more than the visual context in the similar word relationship. We discuss these results in the light of top-down processing, motor theory, and the phonological system of language.

  20. Severity of vision loss interacts with word-specific features to impact out-loud reading in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M; Rubin, Gary S; McCloskey, Michael; Salek, Sherveen; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-03-03

    To assess the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on measures of out-loud reading, including time to say individual words, interval time between consecutive words, lexical errors, skipped words, and repetitions. Glaucoma subjects (n = 63) with bilateral visual field loss and glaucoma suspect controls (n = 57) were recorded while reading a standardized passage out loud. A masked evaluator determined the start and end of each recorded word and identified reading errors. Glaucoma subjects demonstrated longer durations to recite individual words (265 vs. 243 ms, P words (154 vs. 124 ms, P word/post-word interval complexes (the time spanned by the word and the interval following the word; 419 vs. 367 ms, P word/post-interval complex (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.6-20.4; P word length, word frequency, and word location at the end of a line with regards to word/post-word interval complex duration (P words. Glaucoma patients with greater vision loss make more lexical errors, are slower in reciting longer and less frequently used words, and more slowly transition to new lines of text. These problem areas may require special attention when designing methods to rehabilitate reading in patients with glaucoma. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: Effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eGeukes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 hours later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word’s meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

  2. Social interaction facilitates word learning in preverbal infants: Word-object mapping and word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2017-08-01

    In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Forehearing words: Pre-activation of word endings at word onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Söderström, Pelle; Frid, Johan; Mannfolk, Peter; Horne, Merle

    2017-09-29

    Occurring at rates up to 6-7 syllables per second, speech perception and understanding involves rapid identification of speech sounds and pre-activation of morphemes and words. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the time-course and neural sources of pre-activation of word endings as participants heard the beginning of unfolding words. ERPs showed a pre-activation negativity (PrAN) for word beginnings (first two segmental phonemes) with few possible completions. PrAN increased gradually as the number of possible completions of word onsets decreased and the lexical frequency of the completions increased. The early brain potential effect for few possible word completions was associated with a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast increase in Broca's area (pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus) and angular gyrus of the left parietal lobe. We suggest early involvement of the left prefrontal cortex in inhibiting irrelevant left parietal activation during lexical selection. The results further our understanding of the importance of Broca's area in rapid online pre-activation of words. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the roles of distinctiveness and semantic expectancies in episodic encoding of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Siri-Maria; Potts, Geoffrey F; Donchin, Emanuel

    2015-12-01

    We examined the factors that contribute to enhanced recall for emotionally arousing words by analyzing behavioral performance, the P300 as an index of distinctiveness, and the N400 as an index of semantic expectancy violation in a modified Von Restorff paradigm. While their EEG was recorded, participants studied three list types (1) neutral words including one emotionally arousing isolate (either positive or negative), (2) arousing, negative words including one neutral isolate, or (3) arousing, positive words including one neutral isolate. Immediately after each list, free recall was tested. Negative, but not positive, words exhibited enhanced recall when presented as isolates in lists of neutral words and elicited a larger P300 for subsequently recalled than not-recalled words. This suggests that arousing, negative words stand out and that their distinctiveness contributes to their superior recall. Positive valence had an enhancing effect on recall only when the list contained mostly other positive words. Neutral isolates placed in either positive or negative lists elicited an N400, suggesting that semantic expectations developed in emotional word lists regardless of valence. However, semantic relatedness appeared to more strongly contribute to recall for positive than negative words. Our results suggest that distinctiveness and semantic relatedness contribute to episodic encoding of arousing words, but the impact of each factor depends on both a word's valence and its context. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Comparison of Word Intelligibility in Spoken and Sung Phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty listeners were exposed to spoken and sung passages in English produced by three trained vocalists. Passages included representative words extracted from a large database of vocal lyrics, including both popular and classical repertoires. Target words were set within spoken or sung carrier phrases. Sung carrier phrases were selected from classical vocal melodies. Roughly a quarter of all words sung by an unaccompanied soloist were misheard. Sung passages showed a seven-fold decrease in intelligibility compared with their spoken counterparts. The perceptual mistakes occurring with vowels replicate previous studies showing the centralization of vowels. Significant confusions are also evident for consonants, especially voiced stops and nasals.

  6. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...... unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...... performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  7. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Up-to-date entries cover technology terms, and sections on vocabulary and grammar offer helpful tips. Each word is accompanied by a brief definition, a sentence demonstrating proper usage, and a translation.

  8. Word and face recognition deficits following posterior cerebral artery stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...

  9. Transcript for Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Word Roots Word Roots. Let's begin with body parts. The root of a medical word is usually a body ... Arteries are arteri or arterio Here are some roots for parts of your head. Brain is enceph. Nose is ...

  10. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies may become distorted by the social contingencies that maintain verbal behavior. Verbal behavior is an exceedingly efficient way in which one organis...

  11. Clickbait detection using word embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Indurthi, Vijayasaradhi; Oota, Subba Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Clickbait is a pejorative term describing web content that is aimed at generating online advertising revenue, especially at the expense of quality or accuracy, relying on sensationalist headlines or eye-catching thumbnail pictures to attract click-throughs and to encourage forwarding of the material over online social networks. We use distributed word representations of the words in the title as features to identify clickbaits in online news media. We train a machine learning model using line...

  12. The role of partial knowledge in statistical word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Damian C.; Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    A critical question about the nature of human learning is whether it is an all-or-none or a gradual, accumulative process. Associative and statistical theories of word learning rely critically on the later assumption: that the process of learning a word's meaning unfolds over time. That is, learning the correct referent for a word involves the accumulation of partial knowledge across multiple instances. Some theories also make an even stronger claim: Partial knowledge of one word–object mapping can speed up the acquisition of other word–object mappings. We present three experiments that test and verify these claims by exposing learners to two consecutive blocks of cross-situational learning, in which half of the words and objects in the second block were those that participants failed to learn in Block 1. In line with an accumulative account, Re-exposure to these mis-mapped items accelerated the acquisition of both previously experienced mappings and wholly new word–object mappings. But how does partial knowledge of some words speed the acquisition of others? We consider two hypotheses. First, partial knowledge of a word could reduce the amount of information required for it to reach threshold, and the supra-threshold mapping could subsequently aid in the acquisition of new mappings. Alternatively, partial knowledge of a word's meaning could be useful for disambiguating the meanings of other words even before the threshold of learning is reached. We construct and compare computational models embodying each of these hypotheses and show that the latter provides a better explanation of the empirical data. PMID:23702980

  13. Why is number word learning hard? Evidence from bilingual learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katie; Kimura, Katherine; Cheung, Pierina; Barner, David

    2015-12-01

    Young children typically take between 18 months and 2 years to learn the meanings of number words. In the present study, we investigated this developmental trajectory in bilingual preschoolers to examine the relative contributions of two factors in number word learning: (1) the construction of numerical concepts, and (2) the mapping of language specific words onto these concepts. We found that children learn the meanings of small number words (i.e., one, two, and three) independently in each language, indicating that observed delays in learning these words are attributable to difficulties in mapping words to concepts. In contrast, children generally learned to accurately count larger sets (i.e., five or greater) simultaneously in their two languages, suggesting that the difficulty in learning to count is not tied to a specific language. We also replicated previous studies that found that children learn the counting procedure before they learn its logic - i.e., that for any natural number, n, the successor of n in the count list denotes the cardinality n+1. Consistent with past studies, we found that children's knowledge of successors is first acquired incrementally. In bilinguals, we found that this knowledge exhibits item-specific transfer between languages, suggesting that the logic of the positive integers may not be stored in a language-specific format. We conclude that delays in learning the meanings of small number words are mainly due to language-specific processes of mapping words to concepts, whereas the logic and procedures of counting appear to be learned in a format that is independent of a particular language and thus transfers rapidly from one language to the other in development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Stephanie A.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in "Int J Billing" 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in "Am J Psychol", in press), and rapid serial visual processing…

  15. Visual recognition of permuted words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  16. Word diversity can accelerate consensus in naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Fei-Fei; Yang, Miao

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce word diversity that reflects the inhomogeneity of words in a communication into the naming game. Diversity is realized by assigning a weight factor to each word. The weight is determined by three different distributions (uniform, exponential, and power-law distributions). During the communication, the probability that a word is selected from speaker's memory depends on the introduced word diversity. Interestingly, we find that the word diversity following three different distributions can remarkably promote the final convergency, which is of high importance in the self-organized system. In particular, for all the ranges of amplitude of distribution, the power-law distribution enables the fastest consensus, while uniform distribution gives the slowest consensus. We provide an explanation of this effect based on both the number of different names and the number of total names, and find that a wide spread of names induced by the segregation of words is the main promotion factor. Other quantities, including the evolution of the averaging success rate of negotiation and the scaling behavior of consensus time, are also studied. These results are helpful for better understanding the dynamics of the naming game with word diversity.

  17. Task-dependent modulation of word processing mechanisms during modified visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampure, Julien; Benraiss, Abdelrhani; Vibert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    During visual search for words, the impact of the visual and semantic features of words varies as a function of the search task. This event-related potential (ERP) study focused on the way these features of words are used to detect similarities between the distractor words that are glanced at and the target word, as well as to then reject the distractor words. The participants had to search for a target word that was either given literally or defined by a semantic clue among words presented sequentially. The distractor words included words that resembled the target and words that were semantically related to the target. The P2a component was the first component to be modulated by the visual and/or semantic similarity of distractors to the target word, and these modulations varied according to the task. The same held true for the later N300 and N400 components, which confirms that, depending on the task, distinct processing pathways were sensitized through attentional modulation. Hence, the process that matches what is perceived with the target acts during the first 200 ms after word presentation, and both early detection and late rejection processes of words depend on the search task and on the representation of the target stored in memory.

  18. On the number of return words in infinite words with complexity 2n+1

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillon, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    In this article, we count the number of return words in some infinite words with complexity 2n+1. We also consider some infinite words given by codings of rotation and interval exchange transformations on k intervals. We prove that the number of return words over a given word w for these infinite words is exactly k.

  19. Communicating with sentences: A multi-word naming game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Hu, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an object by a single word, in which a population of communicating agents can reach global consensus asymptotically through iteratively pair-wise conversations. We propose an extension of the single-word model to a multi-word naming game (MWNG), simulating the case of describing a complex object by a sentence (multiple words). Words are defined in categories, and then organized as sentences by combining them from different categories. We refer to a formatted combination of several words as a pattern. In such an MWNG, through a pair-wise conversation, it requires the hearer to achieve consensus with the speaker with respect to both every single word in the sentence as well as the sentence pattern, so as to guarantee the correct meaning of the saying; otherwise, they fail reaching consensus in the interaction. We validate the model in three typical topologies as the underlying communication network, and employ both conventional and man-designed patterns in performing the MWNG.

  20. The embodied mind extended: Using words as social tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The extended mind view and the embodied-grounded view of cognition and language are typically considered as rather independent perspectives. In this paper we propose a possible integration of the two views and support it proposing the idea of ''Words As social Tools' (WAT'. In this respect, we will propose that words, also due to their social and public character, can be conceived as quasi-external devices that extend our cognition. Moreover, words function like tools in that they enlarge the bodily space of action thus modifying our sense of body. To support our proposal, we review the relevant literature on tool use and on words as tools and report recent evidence indicating that word use leads to an extension of space close to the body. In addition, we outline a model of the neural processes that may underpin bodily space extension via word use and may reflect possible effects on cognition of the use of words as external means. We also discuss how reconciling the two perspectives can help to overcome the limitations they encounter if considered independently.

  1. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    as a means of physical and spiritual transport is thus consistently embedded in a less idealized context, where its technological machinery is foregrounded. In conclusion, the paper argues that Williams’s thematic treatment of the car in his writings may be read as a modern poet’s meta-poetic gloss on poetry....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...... William Carlos Williams negotiates the relationship between these two kinds of automotive transport in some of his poetic and poetic prose writings from the period when the car was introduced on a more general scale in America. Intense moments of emotional and imaginative transport in Williams are often...

  2. Visual attention shift to printed words during spoken word recognition in Chinese: The role of phonological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Tong, Xiuhong

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which phonological information mediates the visual attention shift to printed Chinese words in spoken word recognition by using an eye-movement technique with a printed-word paradigm. In this paradigm, participants are visually presented with four printed words on a computer screen, which include a target word, a phonological competitor, and two distractors. Participants are then required to select the target word using a computer mouse, and the eye movements are recorded. In Experiment 1, phonological information was manipulated at the full-phonological overlap; in Experiment 2, phonological information at the partial-phonological overlap was manipulated; and in Experiment 3, the phonological competitors were manipulated to share either fulloverlap or partial-overlap with targets directly. Results of the three experiments showed that the phonological competitor effects were observed at both the full-phonological overlap and partial-phonological overlap conditions. That is, phonological competitors attracted more fixations than distractors, which suggested that phonological information mediates the visual attention shift during spoken word recognition. More importantly, we found that the mediating role of phonological information varies as a function of the phonological similarity between target words and phonological competitors.

  3. Emotion Word Comprehension from 4 to 16 Years Old: A Developmental Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Ofer; Wheelwright, Sally; Granader, Yael; Hill, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whilst previous studies have examined comprehension of the emotional lexicon at different ages in typically developing children, no survey has been conducted looking at this across different ages from childhood to adolescence. Purpose: To report how the emotion lexicon grows with age. Method: Comprehension of 336 emotion words was tested in n = 377 children and adolescents, aged 4–16 years old, divided into 6 age-bands. Parents or teachers of children under 12, or adolescents themselves, were asked to indicate which words they knew the meaning of. Results: Between 4 and 11 years old, the size of the emotional lexicon doubled every 2 years, but between 12 and 16 years old, developmental rate of growth of the emotional lexicon leveled off. This survey also allows emotion words to be ordered in terms of difficulty. Conclusions: Studies using emotion terms in English need to be developmentally sensitive, since during childhood there is considerable change. The absence of change after adolescence may be an artifact of the words included in this study. This normative developmental data-set for emotion vocabulary comprehension may be useful when testing for delays in this ability, as might arise for environmental or neurodevelopmental reasons. PMID:21151378

  4. The Spanish word tiempo: its omnipresence and conceptual, logical and lexical versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Budor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common Spanish word tiempo corresponds to three English terms, each of them being a lexical equivalent based on a specific notion: (1 time – physical, astronomical, philosophical reference; (2 weather – geographical, climatological, meteorological reference; (3 tense: linguistic, lexical, grammatical reference. As far as universal and metalinguistic referential distinctions are concerned, all natural languages in fact present a considerable degree of variation ranging from inexistent or very vague to complete differentiation of these terms. In order to express these three types of specific references, some languages have a single word of general usage covering all its lexical acceptations. Therefore in such languages, Spanish included, different references can be distinguished only in part lexically. However, asemantic analysis of the Spanish word tiempo reveals its complexity as well as its conceptual, logical and lexical versatility. This is reflected in its capacity to combine in numerous lexical units, i.e. word compounds and/or phrases, endowed with different or specific semantic meanings. The repertory of these virtual and derived lexical forms appears to be practically unlimited, although their sphere of application and their boundaries are neither always very clear nor precise, which can be illustrated with the examples given in Spanish dictionaries.

  5. Surviving Blind Decomposition: A Distributional Analysis of the Time-Course of Complex Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Kuperman, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The current study addresses a discrepancy in the psycholinguistic literature about the chronology of information processing during the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. "Form-then-meaning" accounts of complex word recognition claim that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings,…

  6. 40 CFR 355.61 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are key words in this part defined... Provisions § 355.61 How are key words in this part defined? Animal waste means manure (feces, urine, and..., and land and all living things. EPCRA means the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of...

  7. Meaning Construction and Integration in Children with Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Faulkner, Heather; Wilkinson, Margaret; Dennis, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    Text comprehension processes were investigated in children with hydrocephalus, a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with good word decoding, but deficient reading comprehension. In Experiment 1, hydrocephalus and control groups were similar in processes related to activating word meanings and using context to enhance meaning. The hydrocephalus…

  8. Word Exchange at the Gates of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Adam

    . Such an asymmetry is supposed to reflect a past relationship between two peoples where one had the upper hand, technically and politically, at the time of borrowing. In this dissertation it is shown that cultures of the Northeast played a surprisingly important role in the shaping of our continent from prehistoric...... for tools, animals and fruits can be shown to derive from Fennic and other languages of the Northeast. Even our word for ‘half ’, Danish halv, can be shown to derive from an old trading term meaning ‘reduced, cheap (of prices)’....

  9. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989) (cited in Tokac, 2005) points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dic...

  10. Japanese Onomatopoeic Expressions with Quantitative Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Vitalievna KUTAFEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical category of quantity is absent in the Japanese language but there are many different grammatical, lexical, derivational and morphological modes of expression of quantity. This paper provides an analysis of the lexical mode of expression of quantitative meanings and their semantics with the help of onomatopoeic (giongo and mimetic (gitaigo words in the Japanese language. Based on the analysis, we have distinguished the following semantic groups: mimetic words A existence of some (large or small quantity (things, phenomena and people, B degree of change of quantity; and onomatopoeic words A single sound, B repetitive sounds.

  11. Defining a Conceptual Topography of Word Concreteness: Clustering Properties of Emotion, Sensation, and Magnitude among 750 English Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Troche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive science has a longstanding interest in the ways that people acquire and use abstract vs. concrete words (e.g., truth vs. piano. One dominant theory holds that abstract and concrete words are subserved by two parallel semantic systems. We recently proposed an alternative account of abstract-concrete word representation premised upon a unitary, high dimensional semantic space wherein word meaning is nested. We hypothesize that a range of cognitive and perceptual dimensions (e.g., emotion, time, space, color, size, visual form bound this space, forming a conceptual topography. Here we report a normative study where we examined the clustering properties of a sample of English words (N = 750 spanning a spectrum of concreteness in a continuous manner from highly abstract to highly concrete. Participants (N = 328 rated each target word on a range of 14 cognitive dimensions (e.g., color, emotion, valence, polarity, motion, space. The dimensions reduced to three factors: Endogenous factor, Exogenous factor, and Magnitude factor. Concepts were plotted in a unified, multimodal space with concrete and abstract concepts along a continuous continuum. We discuss theoretical implications and practical applications of this dataset. These word norms are freely available for download and use at http://www.reilly-coglab.com/data/.

  12. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies of the Processing of Single Words Using Positron Tomographic Measures of Cerebral Blood Flow Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    in dyslexia provide support for a direct route from visual word forms to semantic and articulatory codes. There also seems to be independence in the...experiment. (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974; Rumelhart & McClelland, 1982, 1986). ’-.Exam-es of some of these separate codes include a visual image of the...form of a spoken word ( visual code), pronunciation of the word (phonological code) or the association of related words (semantic codes). Studies of the

  14. The Inhibitory Mechanism in Learning Ambiguous Words in a Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2 learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese–English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence. Inhibitory control was introduced as a subject variable measured by a Stroop task. The semantic representations established for the studied items were probed using a cross-language semantic relatedness judgment task, in which the learned English words served as the prime, and the targets were either semantically related or unrelated to the prime. Results showed that response latencies for the second meaning of ambiguous words were slower than for the first meaning and for unambiguous words, and that performance on only the second meaning of ambiguous words was predicted by inhibitory control ability. These results suggest that, at the initial stage of L2 ambiguous word learning, the representation of the second meaning is weak, probably interfered with by the representation of the prior learned meaning. Moreover, inhibitory control may modulate learning of the new meanings, such that individuals with better inhibitory control may more effectively suppress interference from the first meaning, and thus learn the new meaning more quickly.

  15. The Inhibitory Mechanism in Learning Ambiguous Words in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Wu, Junjie; Dunlap, Susan; Chen, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2) learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese-English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning) and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence). Inhibitory control was introduced as a subject variable measured by a Stroop task. The semantic representations established for the studied items were probed using a cross-language semantic relatedness judgment task, in which the learned English words served as the prime, and the targets were either semantically related or unrelated to the prime. Results showed that response latencies for the second meaning of ambiguous words were slower than for the first meaning and for unambiguous words, and that performance on only the second meaning of ambiguous words was predicted by inhibitory control ability. These results suggest that, at the initial stage of L2 ambiguous word learning, the representation of the second meaning is weak, probably interfered with by the representation of the prior learned meaning. Moreover, inhibitory control may modulate learning of the new meanings, such that individuals with better inhibitory control may more effectively suppress interference from the first meaning, and thus learn the new meaning more quickly.

  16. Teach Yourself VISUALLY Microsoft Word 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Are you a visual learner? Do you prefer instructions that show you how to do something -- and skip the long-winded explanations? If so, then this book is for you. Open it up and you'll find clear, step-by-step screen shots that show you how to tackle more than 125 Word 2003 tasks. Each task-based spread includes these great features to get you up and running on Word 2003 in no time:* Helpful sidebars that offer practical tips and tricks* Succinct explanations that walk you through step by step* Full-color screen shots that demonstrate each task* Two-page lessons that break big topics into bite

  17. Multimodal Lexicography: The Representation of Meaning in Electronic Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: One finding of user studies is that information on meaning tends to be what dictionary users want most from their dictionaries. This is consistent with the traditional image of the dictionary as a repository of meanings of words, and this is also borne out in definitions of the item DICTIONARY itself as given in dictionaries. While this popular view has not changed much, the growing role of electronic dictionaries can change the lexicographers' approach to meaning representation. Traditionally, paper dictionaries have explained words with words, using either a definition or an equivalent, and occasionally a line-drawn picture. However, a prominent feature of the electronic medium is its multimodality, and this offers potential for the description of meaning. While it is much easier to include pictorial content, electronic dictionaries can also hold media objects which paper cannot carry, such as audio, animation or video. Publishers are drawn by the attraction of these new options, but are they always functionally useful for the dictionary users? In this article, the existing evidence is examined, and informed guesses are offered where evidence is not yet available.

    OPSOMMING: Multimodale leksikografie: Die voorstelling van betekenis in elektroniese woordeboeke. Een bevinding van gebruikerstudies is dat inligting oor betekenis dit blyk te wees wat woordeboekgebruikers die meeste van hul woordeboeke verlang. Dit is in ooreenstemming met die tradisionele beeld van die woordeboek as 'n bewaarplek van die betekenisse van woorde, en dit word ook bevestig deur die definisies van die item WOORDEBOEK self soos aangebied in woordeboeke. Terwyl hierdie populêre siening nie veel verander het nie, kan die toenemende rol van elektroniese woordeboeke leksikograwe se benadering tot betekenisvoorstelling verander. Tradisioneel het papierwoordeboeke woorde met woorde verduidelik deur óf 'n definisie, óf 'n ekwivalent te gebruik, en soms 'n

  18. Japanese onomatopoeic expressions with quantitative meaning:

    OpenAIRE

    Kutafeva, Nataliia Vitalievna

    2015-01-01

    Grammatical category of quantity is absent in the Japanese language but there are many different grammatical, lexical, derivational and morphological modes of expression of quantity. This paper provides an analysis of the lexical mode of expression of quantitative meanings and their semantics with the help of onomatopoeic (giongo) and mimetic (gitaigo) words in the Japanese language. Based on the analysis, we have distinguished the following semantic groups: mimetic words A) existence of some...

  19. Neurophysiological evidence for the interplay of speech segmentation and word-referent mapping during novel word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Cunillera, Toni; Garcia, Enara; Laine, Matti; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-04-01

    Learning a new language requires the identification of word units from continuous speech (the speech segmentation problem) and mapping them onto conceptual representation (the word to world mapping problem). Recent behavioral studies have revealed that the statistical properties found within and across modalities can serve as cues for both processes. However, segmentation and mapping have been largely studied separately, and thus it remains unclear whether both processes can be accomplished at the same time and if they share common neurophysiological features. To address this question, we recorded EEG of 20 adult participants during both an audio alone speech segmentation task and an audiovisual word-to-picture association task. The participants were tested for both the implicit detection of online mismatches (structural auditory and visual semantic violations) as well as for the explicit recognition of words and word-to-picture associations. The ERP results from the learning phase revealed a delayed learning-related fronto-central negativity (FN400) in the audiovisual condition compared to the audio alone condition. Interestingly, while online structural auditory violations elicited clear MMN/N200 components in the audio alone condition, visual-semantic violations induced meaning-related N400 modulations in the audiovisual condition. The present results support the idea that speech segmentation and meaning mapping can take place in parallel and act in synergy to enhance novel word learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Humor norms for 4,997 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T

    2017-07-14

    Humor ratings are provided for 4,997 English words collected from 821 participants using an online crowd-sourcing platform. Each participant rated 211 words on a scale from 1 (humorless) to 5 (humorous). To provide for comparisons across norms, words were chosen from a set common to a number of previously collected norms (e.g., arousal, valence, dominance, concreteness, age of acquisition, and reaction time). The complete dataset provides researchers with a list of humor ratings and includes information on gender, age, and educational differences. Results of analyses show that the ratings have reliability on a par with previous ratings and are not well predicted by existing norms.

  1. Identification of vowel length, word stress and compound words and phrases by postlingually-deafened cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Faulkner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: The accurate perception of prosody assists a listener in deriving meaning from natural speech. Few studies have addressed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to perceive the brief duration prosodic cues involved in contrastive vowel length, word stress, and compound word...... participated along with a control group of 10 normal hearing participants. All CI participants were unilaterally implanted adults who had considerable experience with oral language prior to implantation. Data Collection and Analysis: Speech identification testing measured the participants’ ability to identify...... word stress, vowel length, and compound words or phrases all of which were presented with minimal-pair response choices. Tests were performed in quiet and in speech-spectrum shaped noise at a 10 dB signal- to-noise ratio. Also, discrimination thresholds for four acoustic properties of a synthetic vowel...

  2. Unbalanced Bilinguals’ Asymmetric Associations Between L2 Words for Taxonomic Categories of Basic and Superordinate Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The revised hierarchical model seems different from the distributed conceptual feature model in predicting how unbalanced bilinguals would be aware of semantic relations between words for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar words and words for those of superordinate level (category names in L2. We did a series of four experiments to compare unbalanced bilinguals’ awareness of conceptual relations between exemplar words and between exemplar words and category names in their first (L1 and second language (L2. A priming task of semantic categorization was adopted, and the participants were 72 college students, who began to learn L2 in classroom settings at a late age and achieved an L2 proficiency between intermediate and advanced levels. The reaction times indicated that the participants could automatically process not only the exemplar-word but also the category-name primes in L2. Activations of semantic representations for the category names in L2 seemed to spread to those for the exemplar words in L1 and L2, but activations of semantic presentations for the exemplar words in L2 spread only to those for the example words in L1 for the participants. It was concluded that unbalanced bilinguals appear to have developed asymmetric associations between category names and exemplar words in L2. The implication is that L2 learners should learn L2 words mainly by means of using the language and not taking rote memory of isolated words.

  3. Shifting Gears: Consequences of Including Two Negatively Worded Items in the Middle of a Positively Worded Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Soven, Margot

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire used in student evaluations of interdisciplinary courses during six semesters contained two Likert items stated in a direct negative mode which were embedded in a questionnaire (14-18 items) in which the remaining items were phrased in a direct positive mode. In the seventh semester and thereafter, the two negative items were…

  4. Word Learning Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets…

  5. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  6. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  7. Emotion words shape emotion percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-04-01

    People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  9. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. PMID:22309717

  10. Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way. PMID:23883107

  11. Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries | Mafela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not ...

  12. A Personal Reflection on Educating for Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The major premise of this article is inspired by Viktor Frankl's words: "The truth is that as the struggle for survival has subsided, the question has emerged--survival for what? Ever more people today have the "means" to live, but no "meaning" to live for." Thousands of students who have come through the author's college courses during the last…

  13. The Influence of Prosodic Input in the Second Language Classroom: Does It Stimulate Child Acquisition of Word Order and Function Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study with young Polish beginners (mean age: 8 years, 3 months) learning English at school. It seeks to identify whether exposure to rhythmic input improves knowledge of word order and function words. The "prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis", relevant in developmental psycholinguistics, provided the…

  14. Influences of word predictability and type of masker noise on intelligibility of sung text in live concerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah; Hawkins, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Vocal music is often intended to convey meaning, but how effectively this is achieved is poorly understood. This study systematically assessed the influence of three non-phonetic factors on the intelligibility of sung words in six public concerts in different venues: word predictability from sentence context, type of masker noise (spoken babble, sung vowels, [∫(w)]), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Stimuli were sung live by a professional a cappella ensemble with one male singing target sentences and five others (two female) producing the masker sounds. The concert audiences (N = 319) reported the final word of each sentence using a handheld voting device, from four phonetically- and semantically-controlled written alternatives projected onto a screen after the sentence was sung. Although overall accuracy differed between performances, intelligibility patterns were robust across concerts. They included predicted main effects of masker noise type ([∫(w)] masking least disruptive, babble most), SNR (high > low), semantic predictability (high > low), listener age (young > old), and listener language status (native > non-native), and some strong interactions. These results suggest that, despite acoustic differences between sung and spoken words and the unusual and varied experimental venues, key findings from traditional speech research apply to sung words, given appropriate musical composition.

  15. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  16. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  17. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH......Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...

  18. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  19. Principal semantic components of language and the measurement of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonovich, Alexei V; Samsonovic, Alexei V; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2010-06-11

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of "good/bad" (valence), "calm/excited" (arousal), and "open/closed" (freedom), respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number ( approximately 4) of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal) components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet), among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish), and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step toward a

  20. Principal semantic components of language and the measurement of meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V Samsonovich

    Full Text Available Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of "good/bad" (valence, "calm/excited" (arousal, and "open/closed" (freedom, respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number ( approximately 4 of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet, among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish, and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step

  1. Sentiment Classification of Reviews Using SentiWordNet

    OpenAIRE

    Ohana, Bruno; Tierney, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    Sentiment classification concerns the use of automatic methods for predicting the orientation of subjective content on text documents, with applications on a number of areas including recommender and advertising systems, customer intelligence and information retrieval. SentiWordNet is an opinion lexicon derived from the WordNet database where each term is associated with numerical scores indicating positive and negative sentiment information. This research presents the results of applying the...

  2. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  3. The Last Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is an isolated, cooling planet, that obeys the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Interior dynamics is driven from the top, by cold sinking slabs. High-resolution broad-band seismology and geodesy have confirmed that mantle flow is characterized by narrow downwellings and ~20 broad slowly rising updrafts. The low-velocity zone (LVZ) consists of a hot melange of sheared peridotite intruded with aligned melt-rich lamellae that are tapped by intraplate volcanoes. The high temperature is a simple consequence of the thermal overshoot common in large bodies of convecting fluids. The transition zone consists of ancient eclogite layers that are displaced upwards by slabs to become broad, passive, cool ridge-feeding updrafts of ambient mantle. The physics that is overlooked in canonical models of mantle dynamics and geochemistry includes; the 2nd law of thermodynamics, convective overshoots, subadiabaticity, wave-melt interactions, Archimedes principle, and kinetics. Rapid transitions allow stress-waves to interact with melting and phase changes, creating LVZs; sluggish transitions in cold slabs keep eclogite in the transition zone where it warms up by extracting heat from mantle below 650 km, creating the appearance of slab penetration. Canonical chemical geodynamic models are the exact opposite of physics- and thermodynamic-based models and of the real Earth. A model that results from inverting the assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions (hot origin, secular cooling, no external power sources, cooling internal boundaries, broad passive upwellings, adiabaticity and whole-mantle convection not imposed, layering and self-organization allowed) results in a thick refractory-yet-fertile surface layer, with ancient xenoliths and cratons at the top and a hot overshoot at the base. A thin mobile D" layer results, that is an unlikely plume-generation zone. Accounting for the physics that is overlooked or violated (the 2nd law of thermodynamics) in canonical models, plus

  4. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  5. Reader, Word, and Character Attributes Contributing to Chinese Children's Concept of Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Ku, Yu-Min; Zhang, Jie; O'Connell, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Concept of word--the awareness of how words differ from nonwords or other linguistic properties--is important to learning to read Chinese because words in Chinese texts are not separated by space, and most characters can be productively compounded with other characters to form new words. The current study examined the effects of reader, word, and…

  6. The Effects of Word Potency, Frequency, and Graphic Characteristics on Word Recognition in the Parafoveal Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gima, Shinye

    A study investigated the theory that the affective dimension of words can have a significant effect on the process of word recognition. Specifically, the study examined whether word potency (the emotional impact of a word), frequency, and certain graphic characteristics affected word recognition in the parafoveal field under very brief exposure…

  7. The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the roles of word concreteness and word valence in the immediate serial recall task. Emotion words (e.g. happy) were used to investigate these effects. Participants completed study-test trials with seven-item study lists consisting of positive or negative words with either high or low concreteness (Experiments 1 and 2) and neutral (i.e. non-emotion) words with either high or low concreteness (Experiment 2). For neutral words, the typical word concreteness effect (concrete words are better recalled than abstract words) was replicated. For emotion words, the effect occurred for positive words, but not for negative words. While the word concreteness effect was stronger for neutral words than for negative words, it was not different for the neutral words and the positive words. We conclude that both word valence and word concreteness simultaneously contribute to the item and order retention of emotion words and discuss how Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration account can be modified to explain these findings.

  8. Contending with foreign accent in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Rachel; Hollich, George; Seidl, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    By their second birthday, children are beginning to map meaning to form with relative ease. One challenge for these developing abilities is separating information relevant to word identity (i.e. phonemic information) from irrelevant information (e.g. voice and foreign accent). Nevertheless, little is known about toddlers' abilities to ignore irrelevant phonetic detail when faced with the demanding task of word learning. In an experiment with English-learning toddlers, we examined the impact of foreign accent on word learning. Findings revealed that while toddlers aged 2 ; 6 successfully generalized newly learned words spoken by a Spanish-accented speaker and a native English speaker, success of those aged 2 ; 0 was restricted. Specifically, toddlers aged 2 ; 0 failed to generalize words when trained by the native English speaker and tested by the Spanish-accented speaker. Data suggest that exposure to foreign accent in training may promote generalization of newly learned forms. These findings are considered in the context of developmental changes in early word representations.

  9. Words denoting faba bean (Vicia faba in European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L took part in the 'agricultural revolution' of post-glacial Europe along with other grain legumes and cereals. In order to assess the diversity and the origin of the words denoting faba bean in the languages of Europe, a lexicological study was carried out with emphasis upon etymological dictionaries. The words in almost all modern Indo-European languages in Europe owe their origin to the Proto-Indo-European root *bhabh bhabhā, also denoting faba bean. The Proto-Altaic root *bŭkrV, denoting pea nut and cone, through the Proto-Turkic *burčak, denoting both pea and bean is responsible for the words in several modern Altaic languages of Europe while the others are borrowings from Arabic. The origin of the words in modern Caucasian languages is the Proto-Caucasian root *howł[ā], meaning both bean and lentil. The words in Uralic languages are either borrowings, mostly from Slavic, or derived from their own words denoting pea.

  10. Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

  11. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  12. More than a Word Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Word cloud generating applications were originally designed to add visual attractiveness to posters, websites, slide show presentations, and the like. They can also be an effective tool in reading and writing classes in English as a second language (ESL) for all levels of English proficiency. They can reduce reading time and help to improve…

  13. Making sense of polysemous words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, M.H.; Lowie, W.M.

    Although it may be true that most vocabulary is acquired through incidental learning, acquiring words through inferring from context is not necessarily the most effective or efficient method. in instructional settings. The guessing method has been advocated, but this method can be made more

  14. Serious Words for Serious Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbeck, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I create philosophical space for the importance of how we say things as an adjunct to attending to what is said, drawing on Stanley Cavell's discussions of moral perfectionism and passionate utterance. In the light of this, I assess claims made for the contribution drama makes to moral education. In "Cities of Words,"…

  15. Learning Words through Multimedia Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2007-01-01

      This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire...

  16. Abelian properties of Parry words

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 566, FEB (2015), s. 26-38 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Abelian complexity * finite automata * recurrent word * balance function Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2015

  17. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  18. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/12/0061-0068 ...

  19. Learning during processing Word learning doesn’t wait for word recognition to finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed when, during the course of these dynamic recognition processes, learned representations are formed and updated. If learned representations are formed and updated while recognition is ongoing, the result of learning may incorporate spurious, partial information. For example, during word recognition, words take time to be identified, and competing words are often active in parallel. If learning proceeds before this competition resolves, representations may be influenced by the preliminary activations present at the time of learning. In three experiments using word learning as a model domain, we provide evidence that learning reflects the ongoing dynamics of auditory and visual processing during a learning event. These results show that learning can occur before stimulus recognition processes are complete; learning does not wait for ongoing perceptual processing to complete. PMID:27471082

  20. Corticospinal excitability during the processing of handwritten and typed words and non-words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chelsea L; Spivey, Michael J; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-06-09

    A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to measure cortico-spinal excitability during written text perception. We observed a facilitation in MEPs for handwritten stimuli, regardless of whether the stimuli were words or non-words, suggesting potential motor simulation during observation. We did not observe a similar facilitation for the typed stimuli, suggesting that motor simulation was not occurring during observation of typed text. By demonstrating potential simulation of written language text during observation, these findings add to a growing literature suggesting that the motor system plays a strong role in the perception of written language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.