WorldWideScience

Sample records for included voice output

  1. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  2. A voice-input voice-output communication aid for people with severe speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Mark S; Cunningham, Stuart P; Green, Phil D; Enderby, Pam; Palmer, Rebecca; Sehgal, Siddharth; O'Neill, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A new form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device for people with severe speech impairment-the voice-input voice-output communication aid (VIVOCA)-is described. The VIVOCA recognizes the disordered speech of the user and builds messages, which are converted into synthetic speech. System development was carried out employing user-centered design and development methods, which identified and refined key requirements for the device. A novel methodology for building small vocabulary, speaker-dependent automatic speech recognizers with reduced amounts of training data, was applied. Experiments showed that this method is successful in generating good recognition performance (mean accuracy 96%) on highly disordered speech, even when recognition perplexity is increased. The selected message-building technique traded off various factors including speed of message construction and range of available message outputs. The VIVOCA was evaluated in a field trial by individuals with moderate to severe dysarthria and confirmed that they can make use of the device to produce intelligible speech output from disordered speech input. The trial highlighted some issues which limit the performance and usability of the device when applied in real usage situations, with mean recognition accuracy of 67% in these circumstances. These limitations will be addressed in future work.

  3. Blindness and Selective Mutism: One Student's Response to Voice-Output Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Mary; Johnson, Ashli; Herzberg, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This case study was designed to measure the response of one student with blindness and selective mutism to the intervention of voice-output devices across two years and two different teachers in two instructional settings. Before the introduction of the voice output devices, the student did not choose to communicate using spoken language or…

  4. Evaluation of Voice-Output Calculators for Visually Handicapped Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Sue; Goodrich, Gregory L.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of five voice calculators now on the market--the Canon SP-1260-D, Panasonic JE-165OU and JE-72OU, Sharp EL-620, and Speech Plus--by 20 legally blind adults indicated that most can easily by used by visually handicapped people. Descriptive information is given. (Author/MC)

  5. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based Digital Compass With Voice Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Fardiyan Arief

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of digital compass with voice output is described, so that the blind can also use it. The digital compass is designed based on up-graded conventional compass. In the axis direction of conventional compass be added a disc as source of wind direction information, and phototransistor as sensor. The digital compass system is designed, based on AT89S52 microcontroller, as control of all interfaces and read sensor. The LCD component is used as display and ISD 2590 IC as voice recorder. The IC can record with maximum capacity 90 seconds. The voices output of compass is divided into 8 direction from the north, southwest, west and the next. The result showed that the design of digital compass work as like conventional compass completely by voice feature.

  6. How Do We Include Underrepresented Voices in the Sustainability Conversation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virajita Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.  

  7. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  8. Including Voices from the World through Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Elizabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Linking to voices from the world is exciting for both students and teachers, but everyone needs to understand that global education is a form of citizenship education. The activities of the nation have a great effect on people in the rest of the world, whether in the realm of economics, diplomacy, the media, or the environment. Some states, like…

  9. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  10. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables, and in ...

  11. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...... traditionally used in finance, to bound the risk on constraint violation. We propose a reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) algorithm to solve the underlying optimization problem. This algorithm exploits the structure of the coherent risk measures, thus a large set of constraints are solved within...... sub-problems. Moreover, a variable elimination procedure allows solving the optimization problem in a reduced space and an iterative active-set method helps to handle a large set of inequality constraints. Finally, we demonstrate the application of constraints to bound the risk of water production...

  12. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  13. The Voice and Voice Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshita Chakraborty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Voice may be regarded as the first instrument of man because mankind was endowed with voice even before the invention of instruments. It is a universal instrument of music. It is the only musical instrument common to all musical systems in the world. Voice is the medium of communication and expression. Voice is responsible for abstract creativity. A sweet, melodious, loud enough, energetic, smooth, steady, effective and flexible voice is always appreciable. Good voice helps to harmonize the head and heart, Inner and Outer, manifested and un-manifested etc. The process of enriching the voice is known as Voice Culture. This study includes traditional as well as scientific methods to improve the quality of voice for better voice modulation. This musical instrument “voice” consists of four parts namely – The vibrator, The resonator, The motor and The articulator. Many musical instruments have the first three parts in some form of or other. But the articulation is the uniqueness of humanvoice.

  14. Voice impairment and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; van Trotsenburg, Michael; Hanke, Gunda; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Huber, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Menopause rating scales still do not regard voice impairment as a genuine climacteric symptom, although voice changes are frequently reported. The purpose of this study was both to register and differentiate voice alterations and disorders in menopausal women. A total of 107 women between 37 and 71 years of age who were rated as postmenopausal according to their hormonal status answered a questionnaire on voice changes and vocal discomfort. Of this group, 49 women mentioned voices changes, and 35 of those women associated these changes with subjective discomfort, whereas 58 women mentioned neither voice changes nor discomfort. Sixteen of the women who mentioned voice changes and eight who did not participated in a comprehensive investigation, which included completion of the Klimax questionnaire, a head and neck examination, videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation of voice sound, voice range profile measurements, and voice dysfunction index determination. Voice changes during menopause might be a common problem seen in clinical practice. Therefore, an additional systematic registration of voice impairment in future menopause rating scales should be considered if further studies confirm our findings of a high prevalence of voice complaints associated with menopause. Severe menopausal voice impairments, even without other climacteric symptoms, should be regarded as an indication for phoniatric examination.

  15. Intention, Principle, Outputs and Aims of the Experimental Pavilion Research of Building Envelopes Including Windows for Wooden Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štaffenová, Daniela; Rybárik, Ján; Jakubčík, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The aim of experimental research in the area of exterior walls and windows suitable for wooden buildings was to build special pavilion laboratories. These laboratories are ideally isolated from the surrounding environment, airtight and controlled by the constant internal climate. The principle of experimental research is measuring and recording of required physical parameters (e.g. temperature or relative humidity). This is done in layers of experimental fragment sections in the direction from exterior to interior, as well as in critical places by stable interior and real exterior climatic conditions. The outputs are evaluations of experimental structures behaviour during the specified time period, possibly during the whole year by stable interior and real exterior boundary conditions. The main aim of this experimental research is processing of long-term measurements of experimental structures and the subsequent analysis. The next part of the research consists of collecting measurements obtained with assistance of the experimental detached weather station, analysis, evaluation for later setting up of reference data set for the research locality, from the point of view of its comparison to the data sets from Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) and to localities with similar climate conditions. Later on, the data sets could lead to recommendations for design of wooden buildings.

  16. Incorporating Emerging Voices into the Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Ashli A.; Stolzenberg, Ellen Bara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses emerging voices in the assessment process. These emerging voices include a variety of newly assessed aspects of student identity. Emerging voices also include new institutional participants and unique collaborations previously not commonly considered in the assessment process.

  17. Voice restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Tan, I.B.; Remacle, M.; Eckel, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical prosthetic voice restoration is the best possible option for patients to regain oral communication after total laryngectomy. It is considered to be the present "gold standard" for voice rehabilitation of laryngectomized individuals. Surgical prosthetic voice restoration, in essence, is

  18. Harambee : Reinforcing African Voices through Collaboration ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Papers. Harambee : reinforcing African voices through collaborative processes and technologies. Download PDF. Reports. OPA (Online Proposal Appraisal) for Harambee : technical report. Download PDF ...

  19. The Voice and Voice Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Eshita Chakraborty; Debasis Barman

    2014-01-01

    Voice may be regarded as the first instrument of man because mankind was endowed with voice even before the invention of instruments. It is a universal instrument of music. It is the only musical instrument common to all musical systems in the world. Voice is the medium of communication and expression. Voice is responsible for abstract creativity. A sweet, melodious, loud enough, energetic, smooth, steady, effective and flexible voice is always appreciable. Good voice helps to harmonize t...

  20. METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  1. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors and voice symptoms, voice handicap, and respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how the t...... the temporal dynamics of the voice in Asperger's patients enable us to automatically reconstruct the diagnosis, and assess the Autism quotient score. We then generalise the findings to Danish and American children with autism....

  3. Voice in early glottic cancer compared to benign voice pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gogh, C.D.L.; Mahieu, H.F.; Kuik, D.J.; Rinkel, Rico N P M; Langendijk, Johannes A; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M

    The purpose of this study is to compare (Dutch) Voice Handicap Index (VHIvumc) scores from a selected group of patients with voice problems after treatment for early glottic cancer with patients with benign voice disorders and subjects from the normal population. The study included a group of 35

  4. Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice is the sound made by air passing from your lungs through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, ... to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, ...

  5. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  6. Voices in a Preservice Teacher Discussion Group

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Fram-Kulik

    2011-01-01

    This discourse analysis study focuses on the dominant voices in a preservice teacher discussion group in a language variation course included in a teacher education program. The voices in the discussion group have what Bakhtin (1981) considers heteroglossic characteristics and what Kristeva (1986) calls intertextuality and what Fairclough (1992) considers interdiscursivity. The analysis of the voices shows textualized voices, that include appropriated voices from mentors or previous teachers ...

  7. Psychological stress measurement through voice output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Audio tape recordings of selected Skylab communications were processed by a psychological stress evaluator. Strip chart tracings were read blind and scores were assigned based on characteristics reported by the manufacturer to indicate psychological stress. These scores were analyzed for their empirical relationships with operational variables in Skylab judged to represent varying degrees of situational stress. Although some statistically significant relationships were found, the technique was not judged to be sufficiently predictive to warrant its use in assessing the degree of psychological stress of crew members in future space missions.

  8. Voices to reckon with: perceptions of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Johanna C; Chhabra, Saruchi

    2013-01-01

    The current review focuses on the perception of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers. Identity perception in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is grounded in the mechanisms of human (i.e., real, external) voice perception, and shapes the emotional (distress) and behavioral (help-seeking) response to the experience. Yet, the phenomenological assessment of voice identity is often limited, for example to the gender of the voice, and has failed to take advantage of recent models and evidence on human voice perception. In this paper we aim to synthesize the literature on identity in real and hallucinated voices and begin by providing a comprehensive overview of the features used to judge voice identity in healthy individuals and in people with schizophrenia. The findings suggest some subtle, but possibly systematic biases across different levels of voice identity in clinical hallucinators that are associated with higher levels of distress. Next we provide a critical evaluation of voice processing abilities in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers, including recent data collected in our laboratory. Our studies used diverse methods, assessing recognition and binding of words and voices in memory as well as multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgments. The findings overall point to significant difficulties recognizing familiar speakers and discriminating between unfamiliar speakers in people with schizophrenia, both with and without AVH. In contrast, these voice processing abilities appear to be generally intact in non-clinical hallucinators. The review highlights some important avenues for future research and treatment of AVH associated with a need for care, and suggests some novel insights into other symptoms of psychosis.

  9. Using the Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvede Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice. Based on a generic audio feature extraction system, and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used, a 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules. This shape is output to a 3D printer...

  10. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  11. Voiced Excitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzricher, John

    2004-01-01

    To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...

  12. I like my voice better: self-enhancement bias in perceptions of voice attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that the human voice can communicate a wealth of nonsemantic information; preferences for voices can predict health, fertility, and genetic quality of the speaker, and people often use voice attractiveness, in particular, to make these assessments of others. But it is not known what we think of the attractiveness of our own voices as others hear them. In this study eighty men and women rated the attractiveness of an array of voice recordings of different individuals and were not told that their own recorded voices were included in the presentation. Results showed that participants rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others had rated their voices, and participants also rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than they had rated the voices of others. These findings suggest that people may engage in vocal implicit egotism, a form of self-enhancement.

  13. Optical voice encryption based on digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Sudheesh K; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-11-15

    We propose an optical voice encryption scheme based on digital holography (DH). An off-axis DH is employed to acquire voice information by obtaining phase retardation occurring in the object wave due to sound wave propagation. The acquired hologram, including voice information, is encrypted using optical image encryption. The DH reconstruction and decryption with all the correct parameters can retrieve an original voice. The scheme has the capability to record the human voice in holograms and encrypt it directly. These aspects make the scheme suitable for other security applications and help to use the voice as a potential security tool. We present experimental and some part of simulation results.

  14. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2017-05-01

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Experiences of an internal 'anorexic voice' are common in anorexia nervosa. Clinicians should consider the role of the voice when formulating eating pathology in anorexia nervosa, including how individuals perceive and relate to that voice. Addressing the voice may be beneficial, particularly in more severe and enduring forms of anorexia nervosa. When working with the voice, clinicians should aim to address both the content of the voice and how

  15. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of voice related to tremor and vibrato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary Anne

    Modulation of voice is a result of physiologic oscillation within one or more components of the vocal system including the breathing apparatus (i.e., pressure supply), the larynx (i.e. sound source), and the vocal tract (i.e., sound filter). These oscillations may be caused by pathological tremor associated with neurological disorders like essential tremor or by volitional production of vibrato in singers. Because the acoustical characteristics of voice modulation specific to each component of the vocal system and the effect of these characteristics on perception are not well-understood, it is difficult to assess individuals with vocal tremor and to determine the most effective interventions for reducing the perceptual severity of the disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to determine how the acoustical characteristics associated with laryngeal-based vocal tremor affect the perception of the magnitude of voice modulation, and to determine if adjustments could be made to the voice source and vocal tract filter to alter the acoustic output and reduce the perception of modulation. This research was carried out using both a computational model of speech production and trained singers producing vibrato to simulate laryngeal-based vocal tremor with different voice source characteristics (i.e., vocal fold length and degree of vocal fold adduction) and different vocal tract filter characteristics (i.e., vowel shapes). It was expected that, by making adjustments to the voice source and vocal tract filter that reduce the amplitude of the higher harmonics, the perception of magnitude of voice modulation would be reduced. The results of this study revealed that listeners' perception of the magnitude of modulation of voice was affected by the degree of vocal fold adduction and the vocal tract shape with the computational model, but only by the vocal quality (corresponding to the degree of vocal fold adduction) with the female singer. Based on regression analyses

  17. Controle Social: a dinâmica da Teoria da Saída, Voz e Lealdade no Contexto da Administração Pública Brasileira (Social Control: The Dynamics of theTheory of Output, voice and Loyalty in the Contexto of the Brazilian Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Em linhas gerais este artigo objetivou desenvolver uma sistematização conceitual das diferentes contribuições científicas disponíveis sobre “Controle Social”. De modo específico este estudo propôs-se a trazer para o debate da Administração Pública leituras diferenciadas que dialogam com a dinâmica da teoria da Saída, Voz e Lealdade defendida por Hirschman (1973 vivenciada no contexto brasileiro do Controle Social. Com base nos resultados das concepções teóricas aferidas percebe-se que, quando diante das decisões políticas a serem tomadas o Estado ou mesmo a sociedade tornam-se indiferentes, há a predominância do mecanismo da Saída. Quando ocorre o inverso, ou seja, a participação nas decisões políticas, na esfera pública, exercita-se o mecanismo da Voz, nesta pesquisa, denominado como Gestão Social. E quando o Estado exerce uma boa governança e a sociedade desempenha a cidadania crítica e consciente, a Lealdade entra em cena no sistema democrática do país e, consequentemente, efetiva-se o Controle Social. Palavras-chave: Saída. Voz. Lealdade.Abstract: In general, this research aimed to develop a conceptual systematization of the different scientific contributions available on “Social Control”. Specifically, this study aimed to bring to the Public Administration debate differentiated readings that dialogue with the dynamics of the theory of Output, Voice and Loyalty defended by Hirschman (1973 experienced in the Brazilian context of Social Control. According to the results of the theoretical conceptions, it is possible to realize that when the political decisions to be taken the State or even society become indifferent, there is a predominance of the mechanism of Output. When the reverse occurs, that is, participation in political decisions, in the public sphere, the Voice mechanism is exercised, in this research, called Social Management. And when the State exercises good governance and the society

  18. Voice and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You The Voice and Aging The Voice and Aging Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... fit as well—in many cases the more active you stay vocally, the stronger your voice will ...

  19. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  20. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...

  1. How to help teachers' voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatweber, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at high risk of developing occupational dysphonia, and it has been widely accepted that the vocal characteristics of a speaker play an important role in determining the reactions of listeners. The functions of breathing, breathing movement, breathing tonus, voice vibrations and articulation tonus are transmitted to the listener. So we may conclude that listening to the teacher's voice at school influences children's behavior and the perception of spoken language. This paper presents the concept of Schlaffhorst-Andersen including exercises to help teachers improve their voice, breathing, movement and their posture. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Assessment of voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with diagnosed occupational voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Laryngovideostroboscopy is the method most frequently used in the assessment of voice disorders. However, the employment of quantitative methods, such as voice acoustic analysis, is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic activities as well as for objective medical certification of larynx pathologies. The aim of this study was to examine voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with occupational voice diseases. Acoustic analysis (IRIS software) was performed in 66 female teachers, including 35 teachers with occupational voice diseases and 31 with functional dysphonia. The teachers with occupational voice diseases presented the lower average fundamental frequency (193 Hz) compared to the group with functional dysphonia (209 Hz) and to the normative value (236 Hz), whereas other acoustic parameters did not differ significantly in both groups. Voice acoustic analysis, when applied separately from vocal loading, cannot be used as a testing method to verify the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders.

  3. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  4. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  5. Feeling voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ammirante

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated deaf individuals' ability to discriminate between same-sex talkers based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Nineteen participants made same/different judgments on pairs of utterances presented to the lower back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination of stimuli matched for F0, duration, and perceived magnitude was successful for pairs of spoken sentences in Experiment 1 (median percent correct = 83% and pairs of vowel utterances in Experiment 2 (median percent correct = 75%. Greater difference in spectral tilt between "different" pairs strongly predicted their discriminability in both experiments. The current findings support the hypothesis that discrimination of complex vibrotactile stimuli involves the cortical integration of spectral information filtered through frequency-tuned skin receptors.

  6. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    researchers improve our practices and how could digital online video help offer more positive stories about research and higher education? How can academics in higher education be better to tell about our research, thereby reclaiming and leveraging our voice in a post-factual era? As higher education...... continues to engage with digital and networked technologies it becomes increasingly relevant to question why and how academics could (re) position research knowledge in the digital and online media landscape of today and the future. The paper highlights methodological issues that arise in relation...... to the use of digital online video in research communication in particular the researcher's positioning vis a vis the representation of knowledge. A spectrum of positioning possibilities for the researcher on video is proposed – as facilitator, storyteller, and/or dialogist. The spectrum is seen as related...

  7. CCNA Voice Study Guide, Exam 640-460

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate guide to the new CCNA voice network administrator certification exam. The new CCNA Voice exam tests candidates on their ability to implement a Cisco VoIP solution. Network administrators of voice systems will appreciate that the CCNA Voice Study Guide focuses completely on the information required by the exam. Along with hands-on labs and an objective map showing where each objective is covered, this guide includes a CD with the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and entire book in PDF format.: The new CCNA Voice certification will be valuable for administrators of voice network syste

  8. Voice-activated intelligent radiologic image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a computer-based expert computer system called Mammo-Icon, which automatically assists the radiologist's case analysis by reviewing the trigger phrase output of a commercially available voice transcription system in he domain of mammography. A commercially available PC-based voice dictation system is coupled to an expert system implemented on a microcomputer. Software employs the LISP and C computer languages. Mammo-Icon responds to the trigger phrase output of a voice dictation system with a textual discussion of the potential significance of the findings that have been described and a display of reference images that may help the radiologist to confirm a suspected diagnosis or consider additional diagnoses. This results in automatic availability of potentially useful computer-based expert advice, making such systems much more likely to be used in routine clinical practice

  9. Voice problems among Slovenian physicians compared to the teachers: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šereh Bahar

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of voice disorders among outpatients’ physicians in Slovenia is high and is comparable to the incidence of voice problems in Slovenian teachers. URI is the most common cause of these voice problems. GERD, allergies and an age over 40 years were stated as the risk factors for voice disorders. In order to reduce the extent of voice problems, lessons on vocal hygiene, and additional information about diseases causing voice disorders should be included in their postgraduate education.

  10. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  11. The Voiced Oral High-frequency Oscillation Technique's Immediate Effect on Individuals With Dysphonic and Normal Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saters, Thais Lenharo; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Marotti, Beatriz Dantas; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the voiced oral high-frequency oscillation (VOHFO) on voice quality in acoustic voice symptoms and self-reported sensations in individuals with voice complaints and dysphonic voices, and in individuals with normal voices. The participants, which included 60 individuals from 18 to 45 years of age, both genders, were divided into two groups: G1, 30 individuals without voice complaints and normal voices; and G2, 30 individuals with voice complaints and dysphonic voices. We used the following measures: acoustic analysis, voice and larynx symptom investigation, and phonation time before and after 3 minutes of performing the VOHFO technique. The sensations were reported only after the VOHFO technique. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test (P ≤ 0.05), paired t test (P ≤ 0.05), and the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). After the VOHFO, in G1, there was an increased fundamental frequency (both genders), a higher voice turbulence index, and a decrease in dryness symptoms (women); in G2, there was a decrease in the following symptoms: strong voice, dryness and lump in the throat, sensitive throat (women), and roughness and weak voice (men). The phonation measures and sensations did not present differences. The soft phonation index decreased in G1 and increased in G2 (women), in addition to a significant decrease in strong voice and sensitive throat (women) and roughness (men) in G2. The VOHFO technique improves the source-filter relationship and the severity of voice and larynx symptoms in dysphonic and normal individuals. Women improved more in terms of larynx symptoms, whereas men improved more in terms of voice symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of Functional Voice Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature and treatment of functional voice disorders in adolescents. It summarizes physiological and psychological changes that occur in adolescence; types of functional voice disorders common to that period; incidence; and possible causes, including risk factors. Three case studies illustrate the importance of careful…

  13. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  14. Cognitive Attachment Model of Voices: Evidence Base and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Varese, Filippo; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    There is a robust association between hearing voices and exposure to traumatic events. Identifying mediating mechanisms for this relationship is key to theories of voice hearing and the development of therapies for distressing voices. This paper outlines the Cognitive Attachment model of Voices (CAV), a theoretical model to understand the relationship between earlier interpersonal trauma and distressing voice hearing. The model builds on attachment theory and well-established cognitive models of voices and argues that attachment and dissociative processes are key psychological mechanisms that explain how trauma influences voice hearing. Following the presentation of the model, the paper will review the current state of evidence regarding the proposed mechanisms of vulnerability to voice hearing and maintenance of voice-related distress. This review will include evidence from studies supporting associations between dissociation and voices, followed by details of our own research supporting the role of dissociation in mediating the relationship between trauma and voices and evidence supporting the role of adult attachment in influencing beliefs and relationships that voice hearers can develop with voices. The paper concludes by outlining the key questions that future research needs to address to fully test the model and the clinical implications that arise from the work.

  15. Marshall’s Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halper Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most judicial opinions, for a variety of reasons, do not speak with the voice of identifiable judges, but an analysis of several of John Marshall’s best known opinions reveals a distinctive voice, with its characteristic language and style of argumentation. The power of this voice helps to account for the influence of his views.

  16. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  17. Voice disorders in teachers. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Hidalgo, Caio Bosque; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2014-11-01

    Voice disorders are very prevalent among teachers and consequences are serious. Although the literature is extensive, there are differences in the concepts and methodology related to voice problems; most studies are restricted to analyzing the responses of teachers to questionnaires and only a few studies include vocal assessments and videolaryngoscopic examinations to obtain a definitive diagnosis. To review demographic studies related to vocal disorders in teachers to analyze the diverse methodologies, the prevalence rates pointed out by the authors, the main risk factors, the most prevalent laryngeal lesions, and the repercussions of dysphonias on professional activities. The available literature (from 1997 to 2013) was narratively reviewed based on Medline, PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, and Cochrane library databases. Excluded were articles that specifically analyzed treatment modalities and those that did not make their abstracts available in those databases. The keywords included were teacher, dysphonia, voice disorders, professional voice. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.

  19. Managing dysphonia in occupational voice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Zambon, Fabiana; Madazio, Glaucya

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances with regard to occupational voice disorders are highlighted with emphasis on issues warranting consideration when assessing, training, and treating professional voice users. Findings include the many particularities between the various categories of professional voice users, the concept that the environment plays a major role in occupational voice disorders, and that biopsychosocial influences should be analyzed on an individual basis. Assessment via self-evaluation protocols to quantify the impact of these disorders is mandatory as a component of an evaluation and to document treatment outcomes. Discomfort or odynophonia has evolved as a critical symptom in this population. Clinical trials are limited and the complexity of the environment may be a limitation in experiment design. This review reinforced the need for large population studies of professional voice users; new data highlighted important factors specific to each group of voice users. Interventions directed at student teachers are necessities to not only improving the quality of future professionals, but also to avoid the frustration and limitations associated with chronic voice problems. The causative relationship between the work environment and voice disorders has not yet been established. Randomized controlled trials are lacking and must be a focus to enhance treatment paradigms for this population.

  20. Inverter communications using output signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  1. The Influence of Sleep Disorders on Voice Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Behlau, Mara

    2017-09-19

    To verify the influence of sleep quality on the voice. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an online or printed survey divided in three parts: (1) demographic data and vocal health aspects; (2) self-assessment of sleep and vocal quality, and the influence that sleep has on voice; and (3) sleep and voice self-assessment inventories-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Voice Handicap Index reduced version (VHI-10). A total of 862 people were included (493 women, 369 men), with a mean age of 32 years old (maximum age of 79 and minimum age of 18 years old). The perception of the influence that sleep has on voice showed a difference (P influence a voice handicap are vocal self-assessment, ESS total score, and self-assessment of the influence that sleep has on voice. The absence of daytime sleepiness is a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] > 1) against perceived voice handicap; the presence of daytime sleepiness is a damaging factor (OR influences voice. Perceived poor sleep quality is related to perceived poor vocal quality. Individuals with a voice handicap observe a greater influence of sleep on voice than those without. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation and Adaptation of the Singing Voice Handicap Index for Egyptian Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Baz, Hemmat; Afsah, Omayma; Abo-Elsoud, Hend

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the severity of a voice disorder is difficult. This can be achieved by both subjective and objective measures. The Voice Handicap Index is the most known and used self-rating tool for voice disorders. The Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI) is a self-administered questionnaire measuring the impact of vocal deviation on the quality of life of singers. The objective of this study was to develop an Arabic version of the CSHI and to test its validity and reliability in Egyptian singers with different singing styles with normal voice and with voice disorders. The interpreted version was administered to 70 Egyptian singers including artistic singers (classical and popular) and specialized singers (Quran reciters and priests) who were divided into 40 asymptomatic singers (control group) and 30 singers with voice disorders. Participants' responses were statistically analyzed to assess the validity and reliability, and to compare the patient group with the control group. Quran reciters, patients with no previous professional training, and patients with vocal fold lesions demonstrated the highest scores. The Arabic version of CSHI is found to be a reliable, valid, and sensitive self-assessment tool that can be used in the clinical practice for the evaluation of the impact of voice disorders on singing voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Extensive treatment of teacher's voice disorders in health spa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Marszałek, Sławomir; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Minkiewicz, Zofia; Hima, Joanna; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2010-01-01

    Treatment in a health spa with proper infrastructure and professional medical care can provide optimal conditions for intensive voice rehabilitation, especially for people with occupational voice disorders. The most numerous group of people with voice disorders are teachers. In Poland, they have an opportunity to take care of, or regain, their health during a one-year paid leave. The authors describe a multi-specialist model of extensive treatment of voice disorders in a health spa, including holistic and interdisciplinary procedures in occupational dysphonia. Apart from balneotherapy, the spa treatment includes vocal training exercises, relaxation exercises, elements of physiotherapy with the larynx manual therapy and psychological workshops. The voice rehabilitation organized already for two groups of teachers has been received with great satisfaction by this occupational group. The implementation of a model program of extensive treatment of voice disorders in a health spa should become one of the steps aimed at preventing occupational voice diseases.

  4. Voice integrated presentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, N. S.

    1984-06-01

    An audiographic telephone conferencing system between a plurality of parties or users either directly connected or through a piece of apparatus known as a meet me bridge over voice grade telephone lines. Each user has a programmed personal computer which controls a programmable or smart modem, cassette recorder/player, and speakerphone. A protocol is implemented by the software, i.e., the computer program, in each of the computers which puts its respective modem in a listening mode to monitor the phone line at all times. The computer is further programmed and includes a memory for storing and transmitting graphics presently on hand to other user(s) via the modem during a teleconference or alternatively receive graphics from another user, or it can switch to an external graphics program to make new or modify existing graphic images. However, one is unable to speak on the telephone line while a graphic is being transmitted during a teleconference due to the fact that voice alternates with graphic transmissions.

  5. Analysis of failure of voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Torn, M.; van Gogh, C.D.L.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the cause of failing voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis (SPVP). METHODS: The functioning of a prototype SPVP is described in a female laryngectomee before and after its sound-producing mechanism was impeded by tracheal phlegm. This assessment included:

  6. Spirituality and hearing voices: considering the relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597

  7. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  8. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table ... Center First to Study Minimally Verbal Children / Smartphone App for Voice Disorders / Stop the World from Spinning / ...

  9. Voice characteristics of female physical education student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Elizabeth U; Fugowski, Justine

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the subjective and objective voice measures of seven female physical education student teachers during a semester of student teaching were investigated. The participants completed the voice measures at three data collection time points: baseline, middle, and end of the semester. The voice measures included acoustic and aerodynamic data, perceptual rating scales of vocal quality and vocal fatigue, an end-of-semester questionnaire, and the Voice Handicap Index. Results demonstrated that the subjective and objective voice measures changed at the middle and the end of the semester as compared with those at baseline. The change in the voice measures may suggest that the vocal mechanism was adapting to the increased vocal demands of teaching physical education. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salturk, Ziya; Kumral, Tolgar Lutfi; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals compared to non-voice professionals and in both genders. Cross-sectional analysis. Forty-eight 48 voice professionals and 52 non-voice professionals with dysphonia were included in this study. All participants underwent a complete ear, nose, and throat examination and an evaluation for pathologies that might affect vocal quality. Participants were asked to complete the Turkish versions of the Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). HADS scores were evaluated as HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression). Dysphonia status was evaluated by grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale perceptually. The results were compared statistically. Significant differences between the two groups were evident when the VHI-30 and PSS data were compared (P = .00001 and P = .00001, respectively). However, neither HADS score (HADS-A and HADS-D) differed between groups. An analysis of the scores in terms of sex revealed that females had significantly higher PSS scores (P = .006). The GRBAS scale revealed no difference between groups (P = .819, .931, .803, .655, and .803, respectively). No between-sex differences in the VHI-30 or HADS scores were evident We found that voice professionals and females experienced more stress and were more dissatisfied with their voices. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Voice and endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders.

  14. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  15. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  16. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  17. Diagnostic value of voice acoustic analysis in assessment of occupational voice pathologies in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Kotylo, Piotr; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at risk of developing occupational dysphonia, which accounts for over 25% of all occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland. The most frequently used method of diagnosing voice diseases is videostroboscopy. However, to facilitate objective evaluation of voice efficiency as well as medical certification of occupational voice disorders, it is crucial to implement quantitative methods of voice assessment, particularly voice acoustic analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the results of acoustic analysis in 66 female teachers (aged 40-64 years), including 35 subjects with occupational voice pathologies (e.g., vocal nodules) and 31 subjects with functional dysphonia. The acoustic analysis was performed using the IRIS software, before and after a 30-minute vocal loading test. All participants were subjected also to laryngological and videostroboscopic examinations. After the vocal effort, the acoustic parameters displayed statistically significant abnormalities, mostly lowered fundamental frequency (Fo) and incorrect values of shimmer and noise to harmonic ratio. To conclude, quantitative voice acoustic analysis using the IRIS software seems to be an effective complement to voice examinations, which is particularly helpful in diagnosing occupational dysphonia.

  18. Comparison of post menopausal voice changes across professional and non-professional users of the voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Vishwas Sovani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Menopause effects a permanent change in certain body functions, one of them being voice. Moreover, if the voice is used continuously as a part of one’s occupation, this may further impact postmenopausal voice changes. The present study investigated the impact of menopause and professional voice use, and their interaction effect, on the voice. 92 women were classified into reproductive (52 and postmenopausal (40. Each group was divided into Level II (teachers and Level IV (clerks of Koufman and Isaacson’s (1991 classification. Acoustic parameters were analyzed using the VisiPitch III software. Aerodynamic parameters were manually calculated. The VHI (Voice Handicap Index was also included to improve the face validity of the study. Results suggest that Fo, SFo and MPT reduce post menopause while NHR and VTI increase. Some changes are accelerated in teachers as compared to clerks while some are decelerated. VHI scores of teachers are significantly greater than clerks, though not significantly different across menopause. Thus the presence or absence of voice use in one’s profession differentially affects postmenopausal changes. The study has implications in improving the condition of teachers in India, developing norms for menopausal changes and modifying allowable limits for voice recognition systems in future.

  19. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  20. Objective voice analysis of Iranian speakers with normal voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehqan, Ali; Ansari, Hossein; Bakhtiar, Mehdi

    2010-03-01

    Objective measurements in general and acoustic measurements in particular have become a substantial aspect of voice assessment during the last few decades and studies have established that normative data is necessary for acoustic analysis. Voice acoustic analysis including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter, shimmer, harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), and maximum phonation time (MPT) can now be easily recorded and analyzed using a computer. Because these systems are widely used in clinical practice, this study was designed to establish the normal acoustic analysis parameters in normal Iranian adults. A group of 90 unpaid, healthy, randomly selected subjects with normal voices (45 Iranian men and 45 Iranian women), was selected for this study. Data collection was carried out, using the Dr. Speech Software (subprogram: vocal assessment version 4.0 from Tiger Electronics) at the speech therapy clinic under comfortable phonation. Each gender was separated equally into three age subgroups. Then differences between gender and age subgroups were investigated by statistics software SPSS 13.0. The value of (vowels /â/ and /i/) was greater for females (214.64+/-1.16; 228.06+/-1.5 Hz) than for males (112.82+/-0.94; 126.13+/-1.49 Hz). Conversely, the value of MPT was greater for males (26.30+/-1.29 s) than for females (18.56+/-0.88 s). There were no significant differences in average shimmer and jitter between females (1.21+/-0.03%; 0.22+/-0.01%) and males (1.22+/-0.02%; 0.23+/-0.02%). However, the value of HNR was greater for females (18.81+/-0.96 dB) than for males (18.42+/-0.57 dB). The present study developed a body of normal data for various parameters of acoustic analysis in different age groups and genders of normal Iranian adults. It seems that the majority of voice characteristics of adults was relatively stable and did not change with aging between 20 and 50 years. However, the voice characteristics of adults older than 50 years were not recorded in this study and

  1. The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Perception of Breathiness in the Voices of Pediatric Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Lisa M; Skowronski, Mark D; Anand, Supraja; Eddins, David A; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2017-11-18

    The perception of pediatric voice quality has been investigated using clinical protocols developed for adult voices and acoustic analyses designed to identify important physical parameters associated with normal and dysphonic pediatric voices. Laboratory investigations of adult dysphonia have included sophisticated methods, including a psychoacoustic approach that involves a single-variable matching task (SVMT), characterized by high inter- and intra-listener reliability, and analyses that include bio-inspired models of auditory perception that have provided valuable information regarding adult voice quality. To establish the utility of a psychoacoustic approach to the investigation of voice quality perception in the context of pediatric voices? Six listeners judged the breathiness of 20 synthetic vowel stimuli using an SVMT. To support comparisons with previous data, stimuli were modeled after four pediatric speakers and synthesized using Klatt with five parameter settings that influence the perception of breathiness. The population average breathiness judgments were modeled with acoustic measures of loudness ratio, pitch strength, and cepstral peak. Listeners reliably judged the perceived breathiness of pediatric voices, as with previous investigations of breathiness in adult dysphonic voices. Breathiness judgments were accurately modeled by loudness ratio (r 2  = 0.93), pitch strength (r 2  = 0.91), and cepstral peak (r 2  = 0.82). Model accuracy was not affected significantly by including stimulus fundamental frequency and was slightly higher for pediatric than for adult voices. The SVMT proved robust for pediatric voices spanning a wide range of breathiness. The data indicate that this is a promising approach for future investigation of pediatric voice quality. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  4. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  5. The 2016 G. Paul Moore Lecture: Lessons in Voice Rehabilitation: Journal of Voice and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara

    2018-03-19

    This Paul Moore Lecture honors the contributions made by authors to the Journal of Voice during a period of 30 years, from 1987. Fifty articles were selected and included under the following five topics: (1) normalcy of the larynx and voice; (2) the clinical speech-language pathologist's evaluation; (3) the patient's perspective; (4) the core of vocal rehabilitation; and (5) behavioral versus organic dysphonias. The analysis reflects a vivid landscape of the specific area and significant advances in knowledge. It also shows the valuable interdependence between science and clinical practice. The topics highlight the following information: (1) The physical appearance of a healthy larynx varies across individuals with normal voices. (2) The voice is not a binary descriptor (normal versus abnormal) but a variable measure, with many cultural influences on the perceptual auditory analysis of a voice. (3) The clinical speech-language pathologist assessment is multidimensional and multiparametric, with both subjective and objective analyses. The patients' opinion about the impact of a voice problem on his or her quality of life is significant when proposing a treatment. Therefore, it is also included in the initial assessment. (4) Vocal rehabilitation is a nonlinear process that combines direct and indirect approaches. Evidence of the positive effect of voice therapy is now well established. (5) Behavioral dysphonias may be linked to self-regulation of the use of voice and this needs to be taken into consideration. Although organic dysphonias are not necessarily the result of harmful vocal behaviors, they too can benefit from vocal rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  7. Glottal inverse filtering analysis of human voice production—A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GIF is based on the idea of inversion, in which the effects of the vocal tract and lip radiation are cancelled from the output of the voice production mechanism, the speech signal. This article provides a review on GIF research by examining an era spanning five decades during which this topic has been under development.

  8. Voice Activity Detection for Speech Enhancement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Verteletskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of noise-robust voice activity detection (VAD utilizing the periodicity of the signal, full band signal energy and high band to low band signal energy ratio. Conventional VADs are sensitive to a variably noisy environment especially with low SNR, and also result in cutting off unvoiced regions of speech as well as random oscillating of output VAD decisions. To overcome these problems, the proposed algorithm first identifies voiced regions of speech and then differentiates unvoiced regions from silence or background noise using the energy ratio and total signal energy. The performance of the proposed VAD algorithm is tested on real speech signals. Comparisons confirm that the proposed VAD algorithm outperforms the conventional VAD algorithms, especially in the presence of background noise.

  9. Using the Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. This project is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. The project presents...... SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice. Based on a generic audio feature extraction system, and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used, a 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules. This shape is output to a 3D printer...... to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice....

  10. Experiences with Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding ma....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....... material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. SoundShaping is based on a generic audio feature extraction system and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used. Moreover, 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules...

  11. Experiences with voice to design ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding ma....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....... material can be transformed and utilised in the use of digital technologies. SoundShaping is based on a generic audio feature extraction system and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used. Moreover, 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules...

  12. Long-term effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on daily voice use in Parkinson's disease as measured with a portable voice accumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner Gustafsson, Joakim; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten; Schalling, Ellika

    2018-02-15

    This study examines the effects of an intensive voice treatment focusing on increasing voice intensity, LSVT LOUD ® Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, on voice use in daily life in a participant with Parkinson's disease, using a portable voice accumulator, the VoxLog. A secondary aim was to compare voice use between the participant and a matched healthy control. Participants were an individual with Parkinson's disease and his healthy monozygotic twin. Voice use was registered with the VoxLog during 9 weeks for the individual with Parkinson's disease and 2 weeks for the control. This included baseline registrations for both participants, 4 weeks during LSVT LOUD for the individual with Parkinson's disease and 1 week after treatment for both participants. For the participant with Parkinson's disease, follow-up registrations at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment were made. The individual with Parkinson's disease increased voice intensity during registrations in daily life with 4.1 dB post-treatment and 1.4 dB at 1-year follow-up compared to before treatment. When monitored during laboratory recordings an increase of 5.6 dB was seen post-treatment and 3.8 dB at 1-year follow-up. Changes in voice intensity were interpreted as a treatment effect as no significant correlations between changes in voice intensity and background noise were found for the individual with Parkinson's disease. The increase in voice intensity in a laboratory setting was comparable to findings previously reported following LSVT LOUD. The increase registered using ambulatory monitoring in daily life was lower but still reflecting a clinically relevant change.

  13. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  14. The effectiveness of voice therapy for teachers with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Sznurowska-Przygocka, B; Fiszer, M; Kotyło, P; Sinkiewicz, A; Modrzewska, M; Sliwinska-Kowalska, M

    2008-01-01

    An incorrect voice emission is a risk factor for developing occupational voice disorders. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of voice therapy in female teachers with dysphonia. The study comprised 133 subjects with voice disorders, taking part in a vocal training programme. A reference group for the present study included 53 teachers with dysphonia. Questionnaire surveys, phoniatric examination and videostroboscopic evaluation were conducted at initial and control examination. In the study group, an improvement after the vocal training was noted in most of the reported symptoms and also in some quantitative parameters of phoniatric examinations compared to the findings for the reference group. The number of patients who assessed their voice as normal increased significantly after the vocal training (2.3 vs. 46.6%). A significant increase in the mean maximum phonation time, from 13.3 to 16.6 s, was observed. The same applied to voice frequency range (increase from 171 to 226.8 Hz). The outcomes of vocal training, such as a subjective improvement of voice quality and an increase in the quantitative parameters (prolonged maximum phonation time, extended voice range) seem to be important parameters for monitoring the effectiveness of training in correct voice emission. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Speaker comfort and increase of voice level in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, G P

    2008-01-01

    Teachers often suffer health problems or tension related to their voice. These problems may be related to there working environment, including room acoustics of the lecture rooms which forces them to stress their voices. The present paper describes a first effort in finding relationships between...

  16. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, R; Marres, H; de Jong, Felix

    2012-07-01

    Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being. Female patients, aged 18-65 years, who were referred to the outpatient clinic with voice problems were subsequently assessed. Laryngostroboscopic examination and acoustic voice analysis were carried out, and the patients were asked to fill in the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and Symptom Check List-90 questionnaires. Eighty-two patients were included. In 43 patients (52.4%), a vocal fold lesion was observed. The VHI and psychosomatic well-being did not differ significantly between patients with and without a vocal fold lesion. The patients with a vocal fold lesion showed lower scores on the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) compared with those without a vocal fold lesion. However, the DSI was not correlated with voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being, except for the VHI physical subscale. Objective measurement does not necessarily correlate with the subjective appraisal of the patient's voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being. Furthermore, the criterion of the presence of a vocal fold lesion as the base of indemnity that is applied by health insurance institutions should be questioned. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Taking Care of Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as spasmodic dysphonia or vocal fold paralysis ) Psychological trauma. Most voice problems can be reversed by ... the potential to prevent voice disorders in the aging population. Recent results from NIDCD-funded researchers showed ...

  18. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  19. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed or recommended. Illegal drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine, and LSD are a frequent cause of hallucinations. Nonpsychotic psychiatric illnesses Children who hear voices telling them to do bad things often have behavior problems. Voices that refer ...

  20. The IE Middle Voice: A Study in Syntactic Strategy and Syntactic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Elizabeth

    The active/passive system of English grew out of a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) system where the fundamental distinction was between active and middle voices. The middle voice included within its functions the relationship that now would be known as passive. The PIE voice system is preserved in ancient Greek and Sanskrit, and in the former, the…

  1. Teacher Voice in Global Conversations around Education Access, Equity, and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozali, Charlina; Claassen Thrush, Elizabeth; Soto-Peña, Michelle; Whang, Christine; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite public commitments internationally and nationally to include the voices of all stakeholders, the voices of teachers have continued to be marginalized in the literature and in policy-making related to global educational development. The purpose of the current study is to examine the process of invoking teacher voice using a sample of…

  2. Objective and Subjective Voice Examination in Korean Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsang Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a person speaks, voice problems usually include pain or discomfort and/or difficulties in terms of the pitch, the loudness and the quality of the voice. When patients with voice problems induced by stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and systemic diseases involving the voice are examined, generally, of the Four Diagnoses (四診, a Diagnosis of Hearing can be used in current Korean medicine. The effects of acupuncture and herb medicine on voice problems have been reported for over 20 years. However, when it comes to improvements, objective and subjective evaluation methods need to be explained. Methods: Subjective methods for evaluating voice were studied through a literature search of old medicinal books containing Korean medicine diagnostics, and an objective evaluation method using Praat software is presented. Results: Korean medicine doctors analyze the patient’s voice in clinical settings unconsciously on a daily basis. However, most voice diagnoses depend on the doctor’s subjective evaluation. Voice qualities can be evaluated by using the Eight Principles (八綱, including Yin-Yang; the Five Elements (Phases; the Grade, Roughness, Breathy, Asthenic, Strained (GRBAS score, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS as subjective methods, and an acoustic analysis using the Praat program can be used as an objective method. Conclusion: A more complete voice examination can be achieved by using subjective and objective methods at the same time. For an objective explanation and management of patient’s voice problems or systemic disorders, an objective method should be used in Korean medicine, which already has many subjective diagnostic methods. More research needs to be conducted, and more clinical evidence needs to be collected in the future.

  3. Who speaks for extinct nations? The Beothuk and narrative voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leggo

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beothuk of Newfoundland were among the first inhabitants of North America to encounter European explorers and settlers. By the first part of the nineteenth century the Beothuk were extinct, exterminated by the fishers and soldiers and settlers of western Europe. The last Beothuk was a woman named Shanadithit. She was captured and lived with white settlers for a few years before she died in 1829. Today all that remains of the Beothuk nation, which once numbered seven hundred to one thousand people, are some bones, arrowheads, tools, written records of explorers and settlers, and copies of drawings by Shanadithit in the Newfoundland Museum. In recent years several writers (all are white and male have written fiction and poetry and drama about the Beothuk, including Peter Such (Riverrun, 1973, Paul O'Neill (Legends of a Lost Tribe, 1976, Sid Stephen (Beothuk Poems, 1976, Al Pittman ("Shanadithit," 1978, Geoffrey Ursell (The Running of the Deer; A Play, 1981, Donald Gale (Sooshewan: A Child of the Beothuk, 1988, and Kevin Major (Blood Red Ochre, 1990. A recurring theme in all these narratives is the theme of regret and guilt. These narrative accounts of the Beothuk raise significant questions about voice and narrative, including: Who can speak for Native peoples? Who can speak for extinct peoples? Are there peoples without voices? How is voice historically determined? What is the relationship between voice and power? How are the effects of voice generated? What is an authentic voice? How is voice related to the illusion of presence? What is the relation between voice and silence? In examining contemporary narrative accounts of the Beothuk my goal is to reveal the rhetorical ways in which the Beothuk are given voice(s and to interrogate the ethical and pedagogical implications of contemporary authors revisiting and revisioning and re-voicing a nation of people long extinct.

  4. Understanding the mechanisms of familiar voice-identity recognition in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguinness, Corrina; Roswandowitz, Claudia; Von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-03-31

    Humans have a remarkable skill for voice-identity recognition: most of us can remember many voices that surround us as 'unique'. In this review, we explore the computational and neural mechanisms which may support our ability to represent and recognise a unique voice-identity. We examine the functional architecture of voice-sensitive regions in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, and bring together findings on how these regions may interact with each other, and additional face-sensitive regions, to support voice-identity processing. We also contrast findings from studies on neurotypicals and clinical populations which have examined the processing of familiar and unfamiliar voices. Taken together, the findings suggest that representations of familiar and unfamiliar voices might dissociate in the human brain. Such an observation does not fit well with current models for voice-identity processing, which by-and-large assume a common sequential analysis of the incoming voice signal, regardless of voice familiarity. We provide a revised audio-visual integrative model of voice-identity processing which brings together traditional and prototype models of identity processing. This revised model includes a mechanism of how voice-identity representations are established and provides a novel framework for understanding and examining the potential differences in familiar and unfamiliar voice processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of Voice Therapy for Patients With Early Unilateral Adductor Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ya-Chuan; Chen, Shen-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Tsai; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chang, Wan-Zu Diana

    2017-09-01

    Although a variety of therapeutic techniques have been suggested for patients with unilateral adductor vocal fold paralysis (UAVFP), they were not aimed specifically at determining the efficacy of early intervention for these patients. The purposes of this study are to explore a protocol of voice therapy and to investigate its efficacy in voice therapy for patients with early UAVFP. A 12-week planned voice therapy protocol, including vocal function exercise, hard attack, and resonance voice therapy, was given to 10 patients within 6 months of initial diagnosis. Additionally, nine patients diagnosed with UAVFP within 6 months served as controls. Multidimensional evaluations of voice function were obtained for statistical analyses. Compared to a control group, the experimental group receiving voice therapy exhibited significant improvement in the following: (1) glottal closure; (2) voice quality of grade, breathiness, monotone, and resonance; (3) acoustic measurements of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; (4) aerodynamics measurements of maximum phonation time, phonation threshold pressure, and phonation quotient; and (5) Voice Handicap Index of functional subscale. This prospective study established an effective protocol of early intervention of voice therapy in patients with UAVFP and demonstrated its efficacy in data on laryngeal physiology, voice quality, voice stability, voice efficiency, and communication function. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In Search of Students' Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to hear and incorporate students' voices in educational learning and inquiry, explaining the context for and importance of hearing students' voices. Discusses teachers' roles as researchers who would incorporate student voices in their research, forms of research, and necessary skills and materials for becoming teacher-researchers.…

  7. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover......, Pragmatist and Status Seeker. Expedient use of the voices in creating design strategies is discussed, thus contributing directly to the practice of high level design managers. The main academic contribution of this paper is demonstrating how applied anthropology can be used to generate insights...

  8. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  9. Perceived control and voice handicap in patients with voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Patricia; Merians, Addie; Misono, Stephanie

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to replicate and extend previous research on the relation between perceived present control and voice handicap and to further examine the psychometric properties of a present control scale adapted for patients with voice disorders (Misono, Meredith, Peterson, & Frazier, 2016). Sample 1 consisted of 1,129 patients recruited from a voice disorder clinic who completed measures of perceived present control, distress, and voice handicap in the clinic. Sample 2 consisted of 62 patients from the same clinic who completed measures of present control, distress, voice handicap, and general control beliefs online at baseline and measures of present control and voice handicap again 3 weeks later (n = 59). With regard to the psychometric properties of the voice-adapted present control scale, alpha coefficients were above .80 and the 3-week test-reliability coefficient was .69. There was mixed support for the hypothesized 1-factor structure of the scale. In Sample 1, present control was more strongly associated with lower voice handicap than was distress and accounted for significant variance in voice handicap controlling for distress. In Sample 2, present control at baseline predicted later voice handicap, controlling for general control beliefs and distress. Present control appears to be a promising target for adjunctive interventions for patients with voice disorders. An evidence-based online present control intervention (Hintz, Frazier, & Meredith, 2015) is being adapted for this patient population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. [Voice disorders in female teachers assessed by Voice Handicap Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the application of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders in female teachers. The subjective assessment of voice by VHI was performed in fifty subjects with dysphonia diagnosed in laryngovideostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 30 women whose jobs did not involve vocal effort. The results of the total VHI score and each of its subscales: functional, emotional and physical was significantly worse in the study group than in controls (p teachers estimated their own voice problems as a moderate disability, while 12% of them reported severe voice disability. However, all non-teachers assessed their voice problems as slight, their results ranged at the lowest level of VHI score. This study confirmed that VHI as a tool for self-assessment of voice can be a significant contribution to the diagnosis of occupational dysphonia.

  11. Voice processing in dementia: a neuropsychological and neuroanatomical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Goll, Johanna C.; Buckley, Aisling H.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2011-01-01

    Voice processing in neurodegenerative disease is poorly understood. Here we undertook a systematic investigation of voice processing in a cohort of patients with clinical diagnoses representing two canonical dementia syndromes: temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration (n = 14) and Alzheimer’s disease (n = 22). Patient performance was compared with a healthy matched control group (n = 35). All subjects had a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of voice perception (vocal size, gender, speaker discrimination) and voice recognition (familiarity, identification, naming and cross-modal matching) and equivalent measures of face and name processing. Neuroanatomical associations of voice processing performance were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Both disease groups showed deficits on all aspects of voice recognition and impairment was more severe in the temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration group than the Alzheimer’s disease group. Face and name recognition were also impaired in both disease groups and name recognition was significantly more impaired than other modalities in the temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration group. The Alzheimer’s disease group showed additional deficits of vocal gender perception and voice discrimination. The neuroanatomical analysis across both disease groups revealed common grey matter associations of familiarity, identification and cross-modal recognition in all modalities in the right temporal pole and anterior fusiform gyrus; while in the Alzheimer’s disease group, voice discrimination was associated with grey matter in the right inferior parietal lobe. The findings suggest that impairments of voice recognition are significant in both these canonical dementia syndromes but particularly severe in temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration, whereas impairments of voice perception may show relative specificity for Alzheimer’s disease. The right anterior

  12. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  13. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  14. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  15. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal lobe is

  16. Measuring Cardiac Output during Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, Carlo; Cattadori, Gaia

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac output is a key parameter in the assessment of cardiac function, and its measurement is fundamental to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of all heart diseases. Until recently, cardiac output determination during exercise had been only possible through invasive methods, which were not practical in the clinical setting. Because [Formula: see text]o 2 is cardiac output times arteriovenous content difference, evaluation of cardiac output is usually included in its measurement. Because of the difficulty of directly measuring peak exercise cardiac output, indirect surrogate parameters have been proposed, but with only modest clinical usefulness. Direct measurement of cardiac output can now be made by several noninvasive techniques, such as rebreathing inert gases, impedance cardiology, thoracic bioreactance, estimated continuous cardiac output technology, and transthoracic echocardiography coupled to cardiopulmonary exercise testing, which allow more definitive results and better understanding of the underlying physiopathology.

  17. Voice application development for Android

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po

  18. Listen to a voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2001-01-01

    Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and her...

  19. Voices from southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bliss; Cassandra Y. Johnson; Mark Fly

    1998-01-01

    The faces and voices of the South have been changing dramatically over the last several decades, just like the rest of the Nation. Population growth, immigration, urbanization, expanding minority proportions, a thriving economy, rising environmental sentiments, and shifts in property ownership, among many other changes, have put forest and wildlife management in a much...

  20. Voices in human agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Fester, Marie-Theres

    2017-01-01

    contrasting cases. First, we discuss imagining a voice on receiving a text. Not only are such reports common but, as described, it marks a change in attitude or, precisely, the trajectory of the texting. Next we defend the claim that presence is grounded in sensorimotor empathy. Accordingly, we appeal...

  1. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted

  2. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...... into disruptive emergence of product service systems, where quantitative user analyses rely on historical continuation....

  3. I Have a Voice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the opportunities she had for putting her cultural and language skills to use. She shares her experiences at the Asian Voices of Organized Youth for Community Empowerment (A-VOYCE) program and at the Participatory Chinatown project. The author never thought that learning about her identity and using what she…

  4. Science for Two Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf-Trujillo, Julie; Straits, William

    2015-01-01

    During inquiry investigations with third graders, the authors urge their students not to just make observations but also to record them. Inspired by Joel Fleishman's "A Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices" (1988), the authors developed an activity that increases students' motivation to record accurate and detailed observations. This…

  5. Voices of courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Abdullah Karim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.

  6. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  7. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  8. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  9. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  10. Voice Disorders: Etiology and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; do Amaral, Henrique Abrantes; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Maira Garcia; Gonçalves, Tatiana Maria; Dias, Norimar Hernandes

    2016-11-01

    Voice disorders affect adults and children and have different causes in different age groups. The aim of the study is to present the etiology and diagnosis dysphonia in a large population of patients with this voice disorder.for dysphonia of a large population of dysphonic patients. We evaluated 2019 patients with dysphonia who attended the Voice Disease ambulatories of a university hospital. Parameters assessed were age, gender, profession, associated symptoms, smoking, and videolaryngoscopy diagnoses. Of the 2019 patients with dysphonia who were included in this study, 786 were male (38.93%) and 1233 were female (61.07). The age groups were as follows: 1-6 years (n = 100); 7-12 years (n = 187); 13-18 years (n = 92); 19-39 years (n = 494); 41-60 years (n = 811); and >60 years (n = 335). Symptoms associated with dysphonia were vocal overuse (n = 677), gastroesophageal symptoms (n = 535), and nasosinusal symptoms (n = 497). The predominant professions of the patients were domestic workers, students, and teachers. Smoking was reported by 13.6% patients. With regard to the etiology of dysphonia, in children (1-18 years old), nodules (n = 225; 59.3%), cysts (n = 39; 10.3%), and acute laryngitis (n = 26; 6.8%) prevailed. In adults (19-60 years old), functional dysphonia (n = 268; 20.5%), acid laryngitis (n = 164; 12.5%), and vocal polyps (n = 156; 12%) predominated. In patients older than 60 years, presbyphonia (n = 89; 26.5%), functional dysphonia (n = 59; 17.6%), and Reinke's edema (n = 48; 14%) predominated. In this population of 2019 patients with dysphonia, adults and women were predominant. Dysphonia had different etiologies in the age groups studied. Nodules and cysts were predominant in children, functional dysphonia and reflux in adults, and presbyphonia and Reinke's edema in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Show with the Voice: An [Au]/-[o]-tophonographic Parody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D.J. Sander Scheidt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available According to my claim that voice as a phenomenon cannot be materialised or located, neither in the (voice organ of the self nor in the (ear of the other, I coined the term [au]/[o]-tophonography for my examination of the possibilities of performing subjectivity in writing and in sound productions. Drawing on the theory of performativity in its deconstructive senses (see BUTLER, 1993, 1997, 1999/1990; DERRIDA, 1988/1972, 1997/1967, 2002/1981; SMITH, 1995 my performative epistemology reaches beyond the theoretical, including the practical and the aesthetical, aiming at questioning notions of "self", "audience", "voice", "writing" and "communication". "The show with the voice" (http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-08/08-2-27_audio.mp3 is an example of this practice. It parodies the medico-scientific approach to the human voice by presenting some of its possible appearances (the "normal", the "disordered", the "homosexual" and the "transsexual" voice in an audio collage that takes the shape of a mock tutorial. Through re-contextualising and re-compiling voice samples from different sources that are usually kept apart (e.g. the lecturer's voice, the researcher's voice, the artist's voice, the autobiographer's voice I open a space for a multidisciplinary and creative perspective to the examination of voice. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802279

  12. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  13. Effects of Voice Harmonic Complexity on ERP Responses to Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the neural mechanisms of voice pitch control for different levels of harmonic complexity in the auditory feedback. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch perturbations in the auditory feedback of self-produced natural human vocalizations, complex and pure tone stimuli during active vocalization and passive listening conditions. Results During active vocal production, ERP amplitudes were largest in response to pitch shifts in the natural voice, moderately large for non-voice complex stimuli and smallest for the pure tones. However, during passive listening, neural responses were equally large for pitch shifts in voice and non-voice complex stimuli but still larger than that for pure tones. Conclusions These findings suggest that pitch change detection is facilitated for spectrally rich sounds such as natural human voice and non-voice complex stimuli compared with pure tones. Vocalization-induced increase in neural responses for voice feedback suggests that sensory processing of naturally-produced complex sounds such as human voice is enhanced by means of motor-driven mechanisms (e.g. efference copies) during vocal production. Significance This enhancement may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for vocal errors in the feedback of natural human vocalizations to maintain an intended vocal output for speaking. PMID:21719346

  14. Emirati Teachers' Perceptions of Voice Handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natour, Yaser S; Sartawi, Abdealaziz M; Al Muhairy, Ousha; Efthymiou, Effie; Marie, Basem S

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Emirati teachers' perceptions of voice handicap and to analyze their acoustic characteristics to determine whether acoustic measures of teachers' voice would verify their perceptions of voice handicap. Sixty-six Emirati school teachers (33 men and 33 women), with different years of teaching experience and age, and 100 control participants (50 men and 50 women) underwent vocal assessment that included the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-Arab) and acoustic measures (F0, jitter%, shimmer%, signal to noise ratio [SNR]). Significant differences between the teachers' group scores and the control group scores on the following subscales of VHI-Arab: physical (P = 0.006), emotional (P = 0.004), and total score of the test (P = 0.002). No significant differences were found among teachers in the three VHI subscales, and the total score regarding gender (functional P = 0.307; physical P = 0.341; emotional P = 0.126; and total P = 0.184), age (functional P = 0.972; physical P = 0.525; emotional P = 0.772; and total P = 0.848), and years of teaching experience (functional P = 0.319; physical P = 0.619; emotional P = 0.926; and total P = 0.638). The significant differences between the teacher's group and the control group in three acoustic measures: F0 (P = 0.000), shimmer% (P = 0.000), and SNR (P = 0.000) were further investigated. Significant differences were found among female and male teachers in F0 (P = 0.00) and SNR (P = 0.007). As for teachers' age, significant differences were found in SNR (P = 0.028). Teachers' years of experience did not show significant differences in any of the acoustic measures. Teachers have a higher perception of voice handicap. However, they were able to produce better voice quality than control participants were, as expressed in better SNRs. This might have been caused either by manipulation of vocal properties or abusive overloading the vocal system to produce a

  15. Voicing the Museum Artefact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Byrne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Everywhere you look or indeed listen these days, museums from the local to the national are calling on various communities to engage with their collections through the spoken word. This paper reflects on the efficacy and capacity of the human voice in translating, transforming and transposing the museum artefact and considers the voice as its own mode of translation of material culture. It focuses on two very different case studies whereby conversations in and around museum objects were generated – the 'Melanesia Project' at the British Museum and the 'Sense of Place' project in Wapping, East London. Drawing off Dell Hymes’ S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G model, I consider both the significance of these vocal engagement and intellectual challenges they set in motion for the museum. 

  16. Comparison of Post-therapy Dysphonic Voices and Normal Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Natalie; Fuse, Akiko

    2018-02-12

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the voices of post-therapy dysphonic participants with participants who have normal voices to determine how close the corrected voices approached normal vocal levels. The present investigation is a follow-up to the authors' previous research in which dysphonic participants, with voices ranging from moderate-to-severe dysphonia, were evaluated pre- and post therapy using the Dysphonic Severity Percentage scale and the interval scale. In the present study, five raters, three speech-language pathologists experienced in assessing dysphonia, and two trained speech-language pathology college students evaluated 20 participants with normal voices under the same two conditions as those of the corrected participants-when reading a paragraph aloud and during spontaneous speech. While listening to the recordings of the normal voices, the raters tallied any dysphonic syllables produced by the participants to obtain a Dysphonic Severity Percentage for both paragraph reading and spontaneous speech. The raters also evaluated the normal voices on the interval scale. These data were compared with those of the post-therapy participants, who were evaluated under the same conditions and methods pre- and post therapy. The dysphonic participants' voices improved significantly post therapy in comparison with their pretherapy result; their improvement, however, was not commensurate with the voices of the normal participants, and the data showed a significant difference between the two groups. Both evaluation scales reflected a high agreement among raters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The eye-voice span during reading aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eLaubrock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS, the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations. For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of single fixation durations during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the eye-voice span is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the eye-voice span gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

  18. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  19. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  20. Overgeneral autobiographical memory bias in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A; Jackson, Mike; Chadwick, Paul

    2018-03-14

    Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions. It may limit access to autobiographical information that could be helpful in re-appraising distressing experiences, including voices. We investigated the possible links between OGM and distressing voices in psychosis by comparing three groups: (1) clinical voice-hearers (N = 39), (2) non-clinical voice-hearers (N = 35) and (3) controls without voices (N = 77) on a standard version of the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers also completed a newly adapted version of the task, designed to assess voices-related memories (vAMT). As hypothesised, the clinical group displayed an OGM bias by retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories on the AMT compared with both the non-clinical and control groups, who did not differ from each other. The clinical group also showed an OGM bias in recall of voice-related memories on the vAMT, compared with the non-clinical group. Clinical voice-hearers display an OGM bias when compared with non-clinical voice-hearers on both general and voices-specific recall tasks. These findings have implications for the refinement and targeting of psychological interventions for psychosis.

  1. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  2. Voice and silence in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaşa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.

  3. Ageing Voices: The Effect of Changes in Voice Parameters on ASR Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichander Vipperla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With ageing, human voices undergo several changes which are typically characterized by increased hoarseness and changes in articulation patterns. In this study, we have examined the effect on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR and found that the Word Error Rates (WER on older voices is 10% absolute higher compared to those of adult voices. Subsequently, we compared several voice source parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, harmonicity, and cepstral peak prominence of adult and older males. Several of these parameters show statistically significant difference for the two groups. However, artificially increasing jitter and shimmer measures do not effect the ASR accuracies significantly. Artificially lowering the fundamental frequency degrades the ASR performance marginally but this drop in performance can be overcome to some extent using Vocal Tract Length Normalisation (VTLN. Overall, we observe that the changes in the voice source parameters do not have a significant impact on ASR performance. Comparison of the likelihood scores of all the phonemes for the two age groups show that there is a systematic mismatch in the acoustic space of the two age groups. Comparison of the phoneme recognition rates show that mid vowels, nasals, and phonemes that depend on the ability to create constrictions with tongue tip for articulation are more affected by ageing than other phonemes.

  4. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  5. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees'…

  6. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  7. CONVERSATIONS -- AND NEGOTIATED INTERACTION -- IN TEXT AND VOICE CHAT ROOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jepson

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the expanded use of the Internet for language learning and practice, little attention if any has been given to the quality of interaction among English L2 speakers in conversational text or voice chat rooms. This study explored the patterns of repair moves in synchronous non-native speaker (NNS text chat rooms in comparison to voice chat rooms on the Internet. The following questions were posed: (a Which types of repair moves occur in text and voice chats; and (b what are the differences, if any, between the repair moves in text chats and voice chats when time is held constant? Repair moves made by anonymous NNSs in 10, 5-minute, synchronous chat room sessions (5 text-chat sessions, 5 voice-chat sessions were counted and analyzed using chi-square with alpha set at .05. Significant differences were found between the higher number of total repair moves made in voice chats and the smaller number in text chats. Qualitative data analysis showed that repair work in voice chats was often pronunciation-related. The study includes discussion that may affect teachers' and learners' considerations of the value of NNS chat room interaction for second language development.

  8. Design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Candidate techniques were investigated for digital voice compression to a transmission rate of 8 kbps. Good voice quality, speaker recognition, and robustness in the presence of error bursts were considered. The technique of delayed-decision adaptive predictive coding is described and compared with conventional adaptive predictive coding. Results include a set of experimental simulations recorded on analog tape. The two FM broadcast segments produced show the delayed-decision technique to be virtually undegraded or minimally degraded at .001 and .01 Viterbi decoder bit error rates. Preliminary estimates of the hardware complexity of this technique indicate potential for implementation in space shuttle orbiters.

  9. Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Blischak, Doreen M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.; Bartley, Clair; Barnett, Nanette

    1998-01-01

    A nonspeaking student (age 10) with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. Results found that the provision of speech output alone and in combination with orthographic feedback resulted in more efficient spelling than the provision of orthographic feedback alone. (Author/CR)

  10. Challenging stereotyping and bias: a voice simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Karen S; Steadman, Sheryl

    2008-02-01

    Stigma is a barrier to mental health care access for patients with schizophrenia and can interfere with developing therapeutic relationships. This study demonstrates success of a voice simulation experience during orientation in changing the biases of nursing students and the effect on the development of the nurse-patient relationship. Ninety-four individuals participated; 52 received a voice simulation experience during orientation, and 42 received orientation with no voice simulation experience. The Medical Condition Regard Scale was administered before and after orientation. Posttest paired t test results show significant differences in attitudes toward patients with voice hearing experiences between the two groups. The themes of personal growth from the focus groups postorientation include Affective Experience, Physical Experience, and Empathy. Findings demonstrate that the orientation process should include methods to challenge stereotyping and bias to decrease stigma, improve service access, and enhance the ability to develop therapeutic relationships.

  11. Criticality alarm output device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device used for detection of a critical accident in facilities which handle nuclear fuels, which especially removes the influences of external noises. Namely, a radiation detector outputs logic signals based on trip signals generated by the change of the radiation dose due to occurrence of a critical accident. The logic signal is sent to a logic judging circuit by way of a transmission path present individually in each of radiation detectors. The radiation detector comprises a first inverting means which sends a signal having a level inverted to a logic signal level to the logic judging circuit passing through a transmission path. The logic judging circuit comprises a second reversing means for inverting the level of the signal from the first inverting means and a signal judging means which outputs a conditional signal when the output sent from the second inverting means and the logic signal sent from the radiation detector arrive simultaneously. With such a constitution, influences of external noises intruded to the transmission path can be removed. (I.S.)

  12. Voice over IP Security

    CERN Document Server

    Keromytis, Angelos D

    2011-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  13. Voice in the Agentic Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Lisa A.; Jackson, Alecia Y.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore how a posthumanist stance has enabled us to work a different consideration of the way in which "voice" is constituted and constituting in educational inquiry; that is, we position voice in a posthuman ontology that is understood as attributable to a complex network of human and nonhuman agents that exceed the…

  14. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  15. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  16. I hear voices in everything

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Møller

    2011-01-01

    I foredraget redegøres der for Bachtins begreber om stemme (voice), polyfoni og tostemmeighed, og begreberne anvendes i analyse af autentisk dnansk talesprog......I foredraget redegøres der for Bachtins begreber om stemme (voice), polyfoni og tostemmeighed, og begreberne anvendes i analyse af autentisk dnansk talesprog...

  17. The Queer Voices of Xavier Dolan’s Mommy

    OpenAIRE

    D’Aoust, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the vocal materialities of Xavier Dolan’s film Mommy (2014). It focuses on the film’s swearing, competing diegetic voices, disruptive soundtrack, as well as its scenes of lip synch, play-back, and karaoke, in order to convey queer vocal identifications. The article’s interdisciplinary methodology includes audiovisual theories of the voice-object, post-Lacanian psychoanalysis, and revisions of the voice’s place in queer theories via critiques of videocentrism.

  18. Effects of Consensus Training on the Reliability of Auditory Perceptual Ratings of Voice Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Petersen, Niels Reinholt

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: This study investigates the effect of consensus training of listeners on intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement of perceptual voice analysis. The use of such training, including a reference voice sample, could be assumed to make the internal standards held...... training, including use of a reference voice sample material, to calibrate, equalize, and stabilize the internal standards held in memory by the listeners....

  19. Minimal output sets for identifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Milena; Karlsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2012-09-01

    Ordinary differential equation models in biology often contain a large number of parameters that must be determined from measurements by parameter estimation. For a parameter estimation procedure to be successful, there must be a unique set of parameters that can have produced the measured data. This is not the case if a model is not uniquely structurally identifiable with the given set of outputs selected as measurements. In designing an experiment for the purpose of parameter estimation, given a set of feasible but resource-consuming measurements, it is useful to know which ones must be included in order to obtain an identifiable system, or whether the system is unidentifiable from the feasible measurement set. We have developed an algorithm that, from a user-provided set of variables and parameters or functions of them assumed to be measurable or known, determines all subsets that when used as outputs give a locally structurally identifiable system and are such that any output set for which the system is structurally identifiable must contain at least one of the calculated subsets. The algorithm has been implemented in Mathematica and shown to be feasible and efficient. We have successfully applied it in the analysis of large signalling pathway models from the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bovo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1 amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2 voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3 classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Materials and Methods: Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Results: Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003. The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005. The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade. Conclusions: In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  1. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Emanuelli, Enzo; Martini, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1) amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2) voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3) classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003). The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005). The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade). In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  2. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  3. [The comparative assessment of the vocal function in the professional voice users and non-occupational voice users in the late adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlikhin, O G; Romanenko, S G; Krasnikova, D I; Lesogorova, E V; Yakovlev, V S

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and functional condition of the voice apparatus in the elderly patients and to elaborate recommendations for the prevention of disturbances of the vocal function in the professional voice users. This comprehensive study involved 95 patients including the active professional voice users (n=48) and 45 non-occupational voice users at the age from 61 to 82 years with the employment history varying from 32 to 51 years. The study was designed to obtain the voice characteristics by means of the subjective auditory assessment, microlaryngoscopy, video laryngostroboscopy, determination of maximum phonation time (MPT), and computer-assisted acoustic analysis of the voice with the use of the MDVP Kay Pentaxy system. The level of anxiety of the patients was estimated based on the results of the HADS questionnaire study. It is concluded that the majority of the disturbances of the vocal function in the professional voice users have the functional nature. It is concluded that the method of neuro-muscular electrophonopedic stimulation (NMEPS) of laryngeal muscles is the method of choice for the diagnostics of the vocal function of the voice users in the late adulthood. It is recommended that the professional vocal load for such subjects should not exceed 12-14 hours per week. Rational psychotherapy must constitute an important component of the system of measures intended to support the working capacity of the voice users belonging to this age group.

  4. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  5. Voice synthesis application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, P. C.; Davidson, W. M.

    1982-04-01

    The military detection assessment laboratory houses an experimental field system which assesses different alarm indicators such as fence disturbance sensors, MILES cables, and microwave Racons. A speech synthesis board which could be interfaced, by means of a computer, to an alarm logger making verbal acknowledgement of alarms possible was purchased. Different products and different types of voice synthesis were analyzed before a linear predictive code device produced by Telesensory Speech Systems of Palo Alto, California was chosen. This device is called the Speech 1000 Board and has a dedicated 8085 processor. A multiplexer card was designed and the Sp 1000 interfaced through the card into a TMS 990/100M Texas Instrument microcomputer. It was also necessary to design the software with the capability of recognizing and flagging an alarm on any 1 of 32 possible lines. The experimental field system was then packaged with a dc power supply, LED indicators, speakers, and switches, and deployed in the field performing reliably.

  6. Position Dependence of Fractional Derivative Models for Loudspeaker Voice Coils with Lossy Inductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2017-01-01

    Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe...... order derivative approaches a value of 1, corresponding to an ideal inductance, when the voice coil is completely outside the magnetic system. Finally, the developed model reveals details about the effect of conductive voice coil formers...

  7. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaja, Bagus Tris; Farid, Mifta Nur; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-01-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation. (paper)

  8. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Site compare scripts and output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...

  10. Using Voice Boards: pedagogical design, technological implementation, evaluation and reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Yaneske

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study to evaluate the use of a Wimba Voice Board to support asynchronous audio discussion. We discuss the learning strategy and pedagogic rationale when a Voice Board was implemented within an MA module for language learners, enabling students to create learning objects and facilitating peer-to-peer learning. Previously students studying the module had communicated using text-based synchronous and asynchronous discussion only. A common criticism of text-based media is the lack of non-verbal communication. Audio communication is a richer medium where use of pitch, tone, emphasis and inflection can increase personalisation and prevent misinterpretation. Feedback from staff and students on the affordances and constraints of voice communication are presented. Evaluations show that while there were several issues with the usability of the Wimba Voice Board, both staff and students felt the use of voice communication in an online environment had many advantages, including increased personalisation, motivation, and the opportunity to practice speaking and listening skills. However, some students were inhibited by feelings of embarrassment. The case study provides an in-depth study of Voice Boards, which makes an important contribution to the learning technology literature.

  11. Speaking in Character: Voice Communication in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Greg; Gibbs, Martin R.

    This chapter summarizes 5 years of research on the implications of introducing voice communication systems to virtual worlds. Voice introduces both benefits and problems for players of fast-paced team games, from better coordination of groups and greater social presence of fellow players on the positive side, to negative features such as channel congestion, transmission of noise, and an unwillingness by some to use voice with strangers online. Similarly, in non-game worlds like Second Life, issues related to identity and impression management play important roles, as voice may build greater trust that is especially important for business users, yet it erodes the anonymity and ability to conceal social attributes like gender that are important for other users. A very different mixture of problems and opportunities exists when users conduct several simultaneous conversations in multiple text and voice channels. Technical difficulties still exist with current systems, including the challenge of debugging and harmonizing all the participants' voice setups. Different groups use virtual worlds for very different purposes, so a single modality may not suit all.

  12. Shielding voices: The modulation of binding processes between voice features and response features by task representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogon, Johanna; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Landgraf, Steffen; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Vocal events offer not only semantic-linguistic content but also information about the identity and the emotional-motivational state of the speaker. Furthermore, most vocal events have implications for our actions and therefore include action-related features. But the relevance and irrelevance of vocal features varies from task to task. The present study investigates binding processes for perceptual and action-related features of spoken words and their modulation by the task representation of the listener. Participants reacted with two response keys to eight different words spoken by a male or a female voice (Experiment 1) or spoken by an angry or neutral male voice (Experiment 2). There were two instruction conditions: half of participants learned eight stimulus-response mappings by rote (SR), and half of participants applied a binary task rule (TR). In both experiments, SR instructed participants showed clear evidence for binding processes between voice and response features indicated by an interaction between the irrelevant voice feature and the response. By contrast, as indicated by a three-way interaction with instruction, no such binding was found in the TR instructed group. These results are suggestive of binding and shielding as two adaptive mechanisms that ensure successful communication and action in a dynamic social environment.

  13. Surgical procedures for voice restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention. PMID:22073062

  14. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  15. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  16. Teacher Talk and Language Output

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    As an important input and teaching media in foreign language teaching classes, teacher talk (TT) has a great effect on language output. This paper explores the problems related to teacher talk (TT) and language output in practical ELT (English Language Teaching) classroom and presents some suggestions for solving the problems which affect learner' effective language output.

  17. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.

  18. Voice Transmission Over JP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Voice transmission over JP networks (Voice over InternetProtocol represents one of the ways in which voice and datanetworks are integrated. The future development is based onthe explosion of the Internet as the means of communication,with the openness of standards and the readiness of the equipmentmanufacturers to accept such standard and to unify it.The service providers find interest in introducing new servicesthat are not based only on voice transmission, but voice becomesonly one of the applications that are realised over the JPnetworks. Voice transmission over the JP technology is at themoment not at the level of the existing quality of services, butthe coming solutions in the near future will enable Vo!P as thestandard operative solution. The advantages are reflected in theincrease of income keeping the current users and attracting newones, investments into infrastructure will maximize the opportunitiesfor packet service development, strengthen customers'loyalty and reduce operative expenditures, the services will bewidespread - long-distance international services or nationalservices of calling cards can be located at almost any European,African, or Central-Eastern count1y and directed to almost100 percent of the population. With the advantages of lowinitial costs of the new POPs (Points of Presence, the serviceproviders can suddenly expand their presence to many countriesor destinations.

  19. Voice Controlled Stereographic Video Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Georgianna D.; Philips, Michael L.

    1989-09-01

    For several years various companies have been developing voice recognition software. Yet, there are few applications of voice control in the robotics field and virtually no examples of voice controlled three dimensional (3-D) systems. In late 1987 ARD developed a highly specialized, voice controlled 3-D vision system for use in remotely controlled, non-tethered robotic applications. The system was designed as an operator's aid and incorporates features thought to be necessary or helpful in remotely maneuvering a vehicle. Foremost is the three dimensionality of the operator's console display. An image that provides normal depth perception cues over a range of depths greatly increases the ease with which an operator can drive a vehicle and investigate its environment. The availability of both vocal and manual control of all system functions allows the operator to guide the system according to his personal preferences. The camera platform can be panned +/-178 degrees and tilted +/-30 degrees for a full range of view of the vehicle's environment. The cameras can be zoomed and focused for close inspection of distant objects, while retaining substantial stereo effect by increasing the separation between the cameras. There is a ranging and measurement function, implemented through a graphical cursor, which allows the operator to mark objects in a scene to determine their relative positions. This feature will be helpful in plotting a driving path. The image seen on the screen is overlaid with icons and digital readouts which provide information about the position of the camera platform, the range to the graphical cursor and the measurement results. The cursor's "range" is actually the distance from the cameras to the object on which the cursor is resting. Other such features are included in the system and described in subsequent sections of this paper.

  20. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  1. Development of a Voice Activity Controlled Noise Canceller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a variable threshold voice activity detector (VAD is developed to control the operation of a two-sensor adaptive noise canceller (ANC. The VAD prohibits the reference input of the ANC from containing some strength of actual speech signal during adaptation periods. The novelty of this approach resides in using the residual output from the noise canceller to control the decisions made by the VAD. Thresholds of full-band energy and zero-crossing features are adjusted according to the residual output of the adaptive filter. Performance evaluation of the proposed approach is quoted in terms of signal to noise ratio improvements as well mean square error (MSE convergence of the ANC. The new approach showed an improved noise cancellation performance when tested under several types of environmental noise. Furthermore, the computational power of the adaptive process is reduced since the output of the adaptive filter is efficiently calculated only during non-speech periods.

  2. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment

  3. OVERLAP OF HEARING AND VOICING RANGES IN SINGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequency and intensity ranges in voice production by trained and untrained singers were superimposed onto the average normal human hearing range. The vocal output for all subjects was shown both in Voice Range Profiles and Spectral Level Profiles. Trained singers took greater advantage of the dynamic range of the auditory system with harmonic energy (45% of the hearing range compared to 38% for untrained vocalists). This difference seemed to come from the trained singers ablily to exploit the most sensitive part of the hearing range (around 3 to 4 kHz) through the use of the singer’s formant. The trained vocalists’ average maximum third-octave spectral band level was 95 dB SPL, compared to 80 dB SPL for untrained. PMID:19844607

  4. Anti-voice adaptation suggests prototype-based coding of voice identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLatinus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A. In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype.

  5. Anti-Voice Adaptation Suggests Prototype-Based Coding of Voice Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A). In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non-anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype. PMID:21847384

  6. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  7. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  9. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Singing Voice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R; Aithal, Venkataraja U; Ravi, Rohit; Venkatesh, Bhumika T

    2017-03-01

    Research has reported the difference in a woman's voice across the different stages of the menstrual cycle. A review of the studies in singers on the influence of menstruation on the singing voice will enable a better understanding of these changes. A systematic literature search was carried out on PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane, and regional electronic databases. The keywords "menstrual cycle," "voice change," and "singer" were used in different combinations. Only those articles that discussed the effect of menstrual cycle on the singing voice were included in the final review. Six studies in the English language were identified and included in the review. Hormonal variations occur to a great extent during menstrual cycle, and these variations can influence the voice of singers. A great variability was found in the included studies. There are limited studies that have been carried out exploring the relationship between menstrual cycle and the singing voice. Even though the studies included in the review point out toward the changes in the singing voice associated with menstrual cycle, there is a need for more studies to be carried out in diverse singing populations and in different outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ELearning Strategic Planning 2020: The Voice of Future Students as Stakeholders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Glenn; Smart, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Most universities are undertaking information technology (IT) strategic planning. The development of those plans often includes the voices of academics and sometimes engages alumni and current students. However, few engage and acknowledge the voice of future students. This paper is situated within the "Griffith University 2020 Strategic…

  11. A Theoretical Understanding of the Literature on Student Voice in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Background: Incorporating student voice into the science classroom has the potential to positively impact science teaching and learning. However, students are rarely consulted on school and classroom matters. This literature review examines the effects of including student voice in the science classroom. Purpose: The purpose of this literature…

  12. Using Voice-Recorded Reflections to Increase Cognitive Presence in Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Laura McLaughlin; Budhai, Stephanie Smith

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of voice-recorded reflections on cognitive presence in a hybrid course, guided by the research question: How does the use of voice-recorded reflections impact critical thinking and deeper learning for students participating in a service learning experience? Participants of this study included preservice teachers who…

  13. Voice controlled adaptive manipulator and mobility systems for the severely handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, E.; Wiker, G. A.; Karchak, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Efforts by NASA and the VA to apply available teleoperator/robot technology to rehabilitate amputees and spinal cord injured patients having severe loss of motor, manipulative, and sensory capabilities in the lower and/or upper extremities are summarized. Techniques developed include the control of a wheelchair by voice control or tongue chinswitch. The voice recognition computer and its operation are also described.

  14. Profile of voice professionals seen in a tertiary health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Felipe Sartor Guimarães; Imamura, Rui; Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara

    2007-01-01

    Work-related laryngopathy may have negative consequences for voice professionals. To analyze the profile of voice professionals seen in a tertiary level hospital. a longitudinal historical cohort. A retrospective analysis of patient files. Diagnosis was reached using videostroboscopy. 163 patients (119 females and 44 males) were seen. The mean age was 36.5 years. Professionals included spoken voice users (salesman, teachers, telemarketers, receptionists, health professionals) and singers. The most frequent diagnoses were: minor structural changes (33%), nodules (22%), Reinkes edema (10%), and polyps (6%). A correlation was observed between smoking, age and gender; there was an association between smoking and Reinkes edema, leucoplasia and tabagism, females and Reinkes edema, nodules and minor structural changes, and also between patients aged over 40 years and Reinkes edema, and patients under 40 with nodules, laryngitis, and minor structural changes. Symptoms lasted more than 6 months in 74% of patients. The profile of voice professionals seen in a tertiary hospital included spoken voice patients and singers. In our study minor structural changes predominated, followed by nodules, Reinke edema and polyps.

  15. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  16. Unstable resonator with multiple outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, M. J.; Smithers, M. E.

    1983-03-01

    Two or more unstable optical resonators can be coupled together by sharing optical elements. The result is then a single compound resonator with multiple outputs. For identical coupled cavities, the transverse structure of the outputs would be identical. In general, there will be misalignments and other aberrations that will vary from cavity to cavity. The cumulative effects of such aberrations are treated using both analytical and numerical approaches. It is shown that the average output of a multioutput resonator is the same as the output of a single uncoupled resonator with aberrations equal to the average of those contained in the multioutput resonator.

  17. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2015-01-01

    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  18. Introduction: Textual and contextual voices of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne; Alvstad, Cecilia; Taivalkoski-Shilov, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...

  19. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot......, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found...... study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers’ subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times...

  20. Correlation Between Acoustic Measurements and Self-Reported Voice Disorders Among Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Voice Based Elderly Assistance Using Wireless Technology

    OpenAIRE

    K.N.V.Kiran; P.Aswani Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The voice controlled wheel robot system needs to make use of the latest technological components available. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a voice based wheel chair system where communication technologies and Internet have been used. All these techniques are successfully merged in a voice controlled wheel chair system. With this, the fully designed voice controlled system can be designed where it can move from any part of the house or office. The main part of this ...

  2. Telephone Voice Alert :system planning and design

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    The Telephone Voice Alert is divided into six parts: the ring detector, controller, voice memory, synthesizer, speaker, and power supply subsystems. These all interact together to produce a voice signal whenever a ring signal is detected. By beginning from the system function and analyzing the components as we break the system into subsystems, we find that the trade-off between system cost and system "effectiveness" minimizes to prove Configuration A (digital voice reproduction) a...

  3. DolphinAtack: Inaudible Voice Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoming; Yan, Chen; Ji, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Taimin; Zhang, Tianchen; Xu, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition (SR) systems such as Siri or Google Now have become an increasingly popular human-computer interaction method, and have turned various systems into voice controllable systems(VCS). Prior work on attacking VCS shows that the hidden voice commands that are incomprehensible to people can control the systems. Hidden voice commands, though hidden, are nonetheless audible. In this work, we design a completely inaudible attack, DolphinAttack, that modulates voice commands on ultra...

  4. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  5. Collaboration and conquest: MTD as viewed by voice teacher (singing voice specialist) and speech-language pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi-Fynn, Jeanne C; Carroll, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative case study to demonstrate the process of diagnosis and treatment between a voice team to manage a singer diagnosed with muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). Traditionally, literature suggests that MTD is challenging to treat and little in the literature directly addresses singers with MTD. Data collected included initial medical screening with laryngologist, referral to speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializing in voice disorders among singers, and adjunctive voice training with voice teacher trained in vocology (singing voice specialist or SVS). Initial target goals with SLP included reducing extrinsic laryngeal tension, using a relaxed laryngeal posture, and effective abdominal-diaphragmatic support for all phonation events. Balance of respiratory forces, laryngeal coordination, and use of optimum filtering of the source signal through resonance and articulatory awareness was emphasized. Further work with SVS included three main goals including a lowered breathing pattern to aid in decreasing subglottic air pressure, vertical laryngeal position to lower to allow for a relaxed laryngeal position, and a top-down singing approach to encourage an easier, more balanced registration, and better resonance. Initial results also emphasize the retraining of subject toward a sensory rather than auditory mode of monitoring. Other areas of consideration include singers' training and vocal use, the psychological effects of MTD, the personalities potentially associated with it, and its relationship with stress. Finally, the results emphasize that a positive rapport with the subject and collaboration between all professionals involved in a singer's care are essential for recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speaking more broadly: an examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Timothy D; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly interest in employee voice behavior has increased dramatically over the past 15 years. Although this research has produced valuable knowledge, it has focused almost exclusively on voice as a positively intended challenge to the status quo, even though some scholars have argued that it need not challenge the status quo or be well intentioned. Thus, in this paper, we create an expanded view of voice; one that extends beyond voice as a positively intended challenge to the status quo to include voice that supports how things are being done in organizations as well as voice that may not be well intentioned. We construct a framework based on this expanded view that identifies 4 different types of voice behavior (supportive, constructive, defensive, and destructive). We then develop and validate survey measures for each of these. Evidence from 5 studies across 4 samples provides strong support for our new measures in that (a) a 4-factor confirmatory factor analysis model fit the data significantly better than 1-, 2-, or 3-factor models; (b) the voice measures converged with and yet remained distinct from conceptually related comparison constructs; (c) personality predictors exhibited unique patterns of relationships with the different types of voice; (d) variations in actual voice behaviors had a direct causal impact on responses to the survey items; and (e) each type of voice significantly impacted important outcomes for voicing employees (e.g., likelihood of relying on a voicing employee's opinions and evaluations of a voicing employee's overall performance). Implications of our findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  7. THE REPRESENTATION OF EGYPTIAN PEOPLE’S VOICE IN THE JAKARTA GLOBE NEWS PHOTOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fini Fitriani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As a product of mass media, news photograph is an image which provides the viewers with a valuable source of information and news story. All events captured in photographs turn into a news photo. Besides covering the news with fact, news photographs do not only have surface meanings, but also deeper meanings to be interpreted by each viewer. The phenomenon of demonstration, particularly the massive demonstration in Egypt in 2011, offers a good chance to discover how visual messages have been presented to guide interpretation of foreign news events. Principally, demonstration is an expression of the people’s voices, and thus, their voices are related closely with their demands, grievances and wishes related to the new government. Here, the photographs are able to portray and reflect the people’s voices through the compositions and contents (meanings involved in the photos. This study is aimed at discovering the portrayal of the voice of the people (the protesters in the news photographs of the Indonesian online newspaper, The Jakarta Globe. The data consist of 15 news photographs taken from The Jakarta Globe online newspaper published in January – October 2011. The study employs qualitative method framed with semiotic analysis using Roland Barthes’ theory of orders of signification and photographic message. The results of the study show that The Jakarta Globe visually constructs this event (demonstration by focusing on the human action (the protesters. Thus, the voice of the people is portrayed in the photo subjects (the protesters and the included objects of the photo. Meanwhile, the technical aspects of the photos play a meaningful role in emerging the portrayal of the people’s voice. There are four voices revealed by the people in the 15 photographs, namely the voice of freedom, the voice of peace, the voice of justice and the voice of human rights. The photo text including headlines and captions also interact with

  8. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool...... for nonverbal orientation and information both to our selves and others. Focus on training on the voice instrument, the effect and impact of the human voice, and listening perspectives...

  9. AN EXPERIMENT WITH THE VOICE TO DESIGN CERAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2013-01-01

    from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. 3D digital shape is created using simple geometric rules and is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic objects. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice.......This article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical interaction with a responding material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. The article presents an experiment with a 3D interactive and dynamic system to create ceramics...

  10. Controlling An Electric Car Starter System Through Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These days automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability lacking recognition precision and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.

  11. Academic voice: On feminism, presence, and objectivity in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kim M

    2017-10-01

    Academic voice is an oft-discussed, yet variably defined concept, and confusion exists over its meaning, evaluation, and interpretation. This paper will explore perspectives on academic voice and counterarguments to the positivist origins of objectivity in academic writing. While many epistemological and methodological perspectives exist, the feminist literature on voice is explored here as the contrary position. From the feminist perspective, voice is a socially constructed concept that cannot be separated from the experiences, emotions, and identity of the writer and, thus, constitutes a reflection of an author's way of knowing. A case study of how author presence can enhance meaning in text is included. Subjective experience is imperative to a practice involving human interaction. Nursing practice, our intimate involvement in patient's lives, and the nature of our research are not value free. A view is presented that a visible presence of an author in academic writing is relevant to the nursing discipline. The continued valuing of an objective, colorless academic voice has consequences for student writers and the faculty who teach them. Thus, a strategically used multivoiced writing style is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The importance of 'student voice' in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, J; Anderson, V R; Morgaine, K C; Thomson, W M

    2013-02-01

    Although much published school and higher education research have established a strong conceptual foundation for eliciting student feedback, this element is relatively poorly developed in dental education research. This paper examines 'student voice' as a conceptual/theoretical framework and justification for attending to students' perspectives in dental education. The aims of this review paper were: to explore the concept of student voice, including some pragmatic considerations and key critiques of listening to student feedback; to critically analyse key debates about the importance of a research focus on student perceptions using themes from the seminal and contemporary educational literature on student voice from the school, higher and dental educational sectors; to identify gaps in the dental education literature in relation to students' perceptions of their learning, and highlight some practical implications drawn from the 'student voice' literature for dental education; and to assist dental educational researchers in developing a strong rationale for listening to student voice in dental educational institutions. This paper is intended to assist dental educational researchers in justifying future research projects which require eliciting dental student feedback/perceptions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The effects of voice and manual control mode on dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, C. D.; Zenyuh, J.; Culp, V.; Marshak, W.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental principles of human performance, compatibility and resource competition, are combined with two structural dichotomies in the human information processing system, manual versus voice output, and left versus right cerebral hemisphere, in order to predict the optimum combination of voice and manual control with either hand, for time-sharing performance of a dicrete and continuous task. Eight right handed male subjected performed a discrete first-order tracking task, time-shared with an auditorily presented Sternberg Memory Search Task. Each task could be controlled by voice, or by the left or right hand, in all possible combinations except for a dual voice mode. When performance was analyzed in terms of a dual-task decrement from single task control conditions, the following variables influenced time-sharing efficiency in diminishing order of magnitude, (1) the modality of control, (discrete manual control of tracking was superior to discrete voice control of tracking and the converse was true with the memory search task), (2) response competition, (performance was degraded when both tasks were responded manually), (3) hemispheric competition, (performance degraded whenever two tasks were controlled by the left hemisphere) (i.e., voice or right handed control). The results confirm the value of predictive models invoice control implementation.

  14. Vocal effectiveness of speech-language pathology students: Before and after voice use during service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Stephanie; Zieba, Dominique; Van der Linde, Jeannie; Van der Merwe, Anita

    2015-03-26

    As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist's(SLP) vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours,poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors. To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. A quasi-experimental., pre-test-post-test research design was used. Participants included third- and final-year speech-language pathology students at the University of Pretoria(South Africa). Voice parameters were evaluated in a pre-test measurement, after which the participants provided two consecutive hours of therapy. A post-test measurement was then completed. Data analysis consisted of an instrumental analysis in which the multidimensional voice programme (MDVP) and the voice range profile (VRP) were used to measure vocal parameters and then calculate the dysphonia severity index (DSI). The GRBASI scale was used to conduct a perceptual analysis of voice quality. Data were processed using descriptive statistics to determine change in each measured parameter after service delivery. A change of clinical significance was observed in the acoustic and perceptual parameters of voice. Guidelines for SLPs in order to maintain optimal vocal effectiveness were suggested.

  15. Reliability of objective voice measures of normal speaking voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Karen; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Dentchev, Dimiter; Gupta, Reena; Lurie, Deborah; Sataloff, Robert T

    2013-03-01

    To determine the reliability of objective voice measures used commonly in clinical practice. Eighteen healthy volunteers (nine males and nine females). Objective voice measures were performed on 18 healthy volunteers on 10 occasions under similar conditions over a 30-day period. Consistency of measures was analyzed to determine reliability. Using currently accepted normative values, intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate (>0.6) for consistency over the 10 testing sessions for most acoustic measures that do not depend on intensity, measures of laryngeal efficiency, and perturbation measures of fundamental frequency (F0) for both genders. For females, cepstral peak prominence (CPP) had moderate reliability, whereas for males, the smoothed CPP was reliable. Other than F0, none of the perturbation measures are reliable for females. However, jitter, relative average perturbation, and standard deviation of F0 are reliable for males. Noise-to-harmonic ratios (NHRs) had the lowest consistency of all measures over the course of the 10 sessions. Clinicians should be cautious in their use of acoustic voice measures that depend on the intensity and in their use of most perturbation measures. NHR was found to be the least reliable measure. Additionally, the reliability of CPP measure varies by gender. Understanding the degree of within-person variability on some objective voice measures and whether that variation is due to biological differences or measurement error will lead clinicians to consider the need for a more standardized testing protocol. Additional research is needed to investigate what factors within the testing protocol and/or changes to the measurement instruments may lead to more consistent test results. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    The analytical setup of the determinant factors included in this study has benefited from field observations and the various crop output market participation studies. (Pender and Dawit, 2007; Goitom, 2009; Tufa, et. al., 2014) conducted elsewhere in the country. However, it should be noted that other factors related to the ...

  17. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  18. Voice and choice by delegation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.; Vollaard, H.; Trappenburg, M.; Grit, K

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify

  19. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    , designed to accommodate children's participation through graphic illustrations of young children's critique and utopias. The study is informed by a commitment to democratic participation and processes (Reason and Bradbury 2001, Gunnarsson et al. 2016). Ethical guidelines implied dialogues and discussions......, children's voice, critique and utopias, pedagogical work...

  20. The Performing Voice of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    The ongoing international development of opening media archives for researchers as well as for broader audiences calls for a closer discussion of the mediated voice and how to analyse it. Which parameters can be analysed and which parameters are not covered by the analysis? Furthermore, how do we...

  1. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  2. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  3. A voice and nothing more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mebus, Andreas Nozic Lindgren

    2012-01-01

    Andreas Mebus fokuserer herefter på et helt konkret aspekt af talen, nemlig ”stemmen” i sin artikel ”A voice and nothing more – en filosofisk udredning af stemmen”. Gennem Mladen Dolars teori om stemmen, redegør Mebus for de forskellige aspekter ved stemmen; som bærer af mening, som æstetisk...

  4. Input-output maps are strongly biased towards simple outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Kamaludin; Camargo, Chico Q; Louis, Ard A

    2018-02-22

    Many systems in nature can be described using discrete input-output maps. Without knowing details about a map, there may seem to be no a priori reason to expect that a randomly chosen input would be more likely to generate one output over another. Here, by extending fundamental results from algorithmic information theory, we show instead that for many real-world maps, the a priori probability P(x) that randomly sampled inputs generate a particular output x decays exponentially with the approximate Kolmogorov complexity [Formula: see text] of that output. These input-output maps are biased towards simplicity. We derive an upper bound P(x) ≲ [Formula: see text], which is tight for most inputs. The constants a and b, as well as many properties of  P(x), can be predicted with minimal knowledge of the map. We explore this strong bias towards simple outputs in systems ranging from the folding of RNA secondary structures to systems of coupled ordinary differential equations to a stochastic financial trading model.

  5. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  6. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3......A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  7. The effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on measures of vocal function and handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Diviney, Shelby S; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy as a primary physiological treatment for patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders. Prospective case series. Participants with a diagnosis of primary muscle tension dysphonia or phonotraumatic lesions due to hyperfunctional vocal behaviors were included. Participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy structured once weekly for 6 weeks. Outcome variables consisted of two physiologic measures (s/z ratio and maximum phonation time), an acoustic measure (cepstral peak prominence [CPP]), and a measure of vocal handicap (voice handicap index [VHI]). All measures were obtained at baseline before treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment. The s/z ratio, maximum phonation time, sentence CPP, and VHI showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement through therapy. Effect sizes reflecting the magnitude of change were large for s/z ratio and VHI (d = 1.25 and 1.96 respectively), and moderate for maximum phonation time and sentence CPP (d = 0.79 and 0.74, respectively). This study provides supporting evidence for preliminary efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in a small sample of patients. The treatment effect was large or moderate for multiple outcome measures. The data provide justification for larger, controlled clinical trials on the application of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Voice Morphing Using 3D Waveform Interpolation Surfaces and Lossless Tube Area Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavner Yizhar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice morphing is the process of producing intermediate or hybrid voices between the utterances of two speakers. It can also be defined as the process of gradually transforming the voice of one speaker to that of another. The ability to change the speaker's individual characteristics and to produce high-quality voices can be used in many applications. Examples include multimedia and video entertainment, as well as enrichment of speech databases in text-to-speech systems. In this study we present a new technique which enables production of a given number of intermediate voices or of utterances which gradually change from one voice to another. This technique is based on two components: (1 creation of a 3D prototype waveform interpolation (PWI surface from the LPC residual signal, to produce an intermediate excitation signal; (2 a representation of the vocal tract by a lossless tube area function, and an interpolation of the parameters of the two speakers. The resulting synthesized signal sounds like a natural voice lying between the two original voices.

  9. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Voice Therapy for Dysphonia Related to Prematurity of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2017-03-01

    Dysphonia is a potential complication of prematurity. Preterm children may sustain iatrogenic laryngeal damage from medical intervention in the neonatal period, and further, adopt compensatory, maladaptive voicing behaviors. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a voice therapy protocol on voice quality in school-aged, very preterm (VP) children. Twenty-seven VP children with dysphonia were randomized to an immediate intervention group (n = 7) or a delayed-intervention, waiting list control group (n = 14). Following analysis of these data, a secondary analysis was conducted on the pooled intervention data (n = 21). Six participants did not complete the trial. Change to voice quality was measured via pre- and posttreatment assessments using the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. The intervention group did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements in voice quality, whereas this was observed in the control group (P = 0.026). However, when intervention data were pooled including both the immediate and delayed groups following intervention, dysphonia severity was significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the treatment group. Dysphonia in most VP children in this cohort was persistent. These pilot data indicate that some participants experienced acceptable voice outcomes on spontaneous recovery, whereas others demonstrated a response to behavioral intervention. Further research is needed to identify the facilitators of and barriers to intervention success, and to predict those who may experience spontaneous recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations (voices): current status and key directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E; Johns, Louise C; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-07-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  11. Quality of the voice after injection of hyaluronic acid into the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkiełkowska, Agata; Miaśkiewicz, Beata; Remacle, Marc; Krasnodębska, Paulina; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2013-04-17

    Voice disorders resulting from glottic insufficiency are a significant clinical problem in everyday phoniatric practice. One method of treatment is injection laryngoplasty. Our study aimed to assess the voice quality of patients treated with hyaluronic acid injection into the vocal fold. We studied 25 patients suffering from dysphonia, conducting laryngological and phoniatric examination, including videostroboscopy and acoustic voice analysis, before the operation and 1, 3, and 6 months later. In all cases there was complete or almost complete glottic closure after the operation. One month after the procedure, videostroboscopic examination revealed reappearance of vocal fold vibration in 8 cases; after 3 months this had risen to 15 cases. Perceptual voice quality (as assessed by the GRBAS scale) in patients with glottic insufficiency was improved. The most significant improvement was obtained 1 month after surgery (p=0.0002), and within the next months further statistically significant improvements (p=0.000002) were noted. Multidimensional voice analysis showed statistically significant and rapid improvement in frequency parameters, especially vFo. Other parameters were also improved 3 and 6 months after surgery. Injection of hyaluronic acid into the vocal fold improves phonatory functions of the larynx and the quality of voice in patients with glottic insufficiency. It may be a safe and conservative method for treatment of voice disorders. Hyaluronic acid injection to the vocal fold is an easy, effective, and fast method for restoration of good voice quality.

  12. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  13. The vocal aerodynamic change in female patients with muscular tension dysphonia after voice training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Ya; Yang, Jin-Shan; Mei, Xiang-Sheng; Cai, Qian; Guan, Zhong; Zhang, Bi-Ru; Wang, Ya-Jing; Gong, Jian; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Peng, Jie-Ren; Zheng, Yi-Qing

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the changes of vocal aerodynamics indicators after voice training in female patients with muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). Twenty-one female MTD patients (before voice training and 12 weeks after voice training) and 20 female volunteers with normal voices (the control group) received vocal aerodynamic analysis. Parameters included subglottal pressure (SGP), aerodynamic power (AP), mean expiratory airflow (MEA), and maximum phonation time (MPT) were recorded and analyzed by phonatory aerodynamic system. Before voice training, the median SGP and mean AP were higher than control group, whereas median MPT was shorter, and these differences were statistically significant. After 12 weeks of voice training, the median SGP and mean AP were decreased and the median MPT was increased compared with the measurements obtained before training, and these differences were statistically significant. The differences of median SGP, mean AP, mean MEA, and median MPT between MTD after 12 weeks of training and control group were not statistically significant. Voice training is an effective treatment for MTD patients. Aerodynamic analysis can effectively evaluate the vocal functional status of MTD patients before and after training, which is beneficial for the treatment efficacy evaluation. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Some objective measures indicative of perceived voice robustness in student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Rosemary; de Jong, Felix; Cranen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    One of the problems confronted in the teaching profession is the maintenance of a healthy voice. This basic pedagogical tool is subjected to extensive use, and frequently suffers from overload, with some teachers having to give up their profession altogether. In some teacher training schools, it is the current practice to examine the student's voice, and to refer any perceived susceptibility to strain to voice specialists. For this study, a group of vocally healthy students were examined first at the teacher training schools, and then at the ENT clinic at the University Hospital of Nijmegen. The aim was to predict whether the subject's voice might be at risk for occupational dysphonia as a result of the vocal load of the teaching profession. We tried to find objective measures of voice quality in student teachers, used in current clinical practice, which reflect the judgements of the therapists and phoniatricians. We tried to explain such measures physiologically in terms of robustness of, and control over voicing. Objective measures used included video-laryngostroboscopy, phonetography and spectrography. Maximum phonation time, melodic range in conjunction with maximum intensity range, and the production of soft voice are suggested as possible predictive parameters for the risk of occupational voice strain.

  15. The pattern of educator voice in clinical counseling in an educational hospital in Shiraz, Iran: a conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Doctor-patient interaction (DPI) includes different voices, of which the educator voice is of considerable importance. Physicians employ this voice to educate patients and their caregivers by providing them with information in order to change the patients' behavior and improve their health status. The subject has not yet been fully understood, and therefore the present study was conducted to explore the pattern of educator voice. For this purpose, conversation analysis (CA) of 33 recorded clinical consultations was performed in outpatient educational clinics in Shiraz, Iran between April 2014 and September 2014. In this qualitative study, all utterances, repetitions, lexical forms, chuckles and speech particles were considered and interpreted as social actions. Interpretations were based on inductive data-driven analysis with the aim to find recurring patterns of educator voice. The results showed educator voice to have two general features: descriptive and prescriptive. However, the pattern of educator voice comprised characteristics such as superficiality, marginalization of patients, one-dimensional approach, ignoring a healthy lifestyle, and robotic nature. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated a deficiency in the educator voice and inadequacy in patient-centered dialogue. In this setting, the educator voice was related to a distortion of DPI through the physicians' dominance, leading them to ignore their professional obligation to educate patients. Therefore, policies in this regard should take more account of enriching the educator voice through training medical students and faculty members in communication skills.

  16. Voice knowledge acquisition system for the management of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Château, Stefan; Boulanger, Danielle; Mercier-Laurent, Eunika

    This document presents our work on a definition and experimentation of a voice interface for cultural heritage inventory. This hybrid system includes signal processing, natural language techniques and knowledge modeling for future retrieval. We discuss the first results and give some points on future work.

  17. Southern Voice on Post-Millennium Development Goals | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Southern Voice on Post-Millennium Development Goals. As 2015 approaches, the international community is critically assessing the delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were established in 2000. It is also considering the issues and targets that should be included in a future international ...

  18. Cuban Voices: A Case Study of English Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven John

    2016-01-01

    This case study uses qualitative research methods and a postcolonial paradigm to listen to the voices of Cuban teacher educators describing how they educate and prepare English language teachers in Cuba. English language teacher education in Cuba includes features that are considered innovative, contemporary and good practice in the Western world.…

  19. The Human Voice in Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Björn; Sundberg, Johan

    This chapter speech describes various aspects of the human voice as a means of communication in speech and singing. From the point of view of function, vocal sounds can be regarded as the end result of a three stage process: (1) the compression of air in the respiratory system, which produces an exhalatory airstream, (2) the vibrating vocal folds' transformation of this air stream to an intermittent or pulsating air stream, which is a complex tone, referred to as the voice source, and (3) the filtering of this complex tone in the vocal tract resonator. The main function of the respiratory system is to generate an overpressure of air under the glottis, or a subglottal pressure. Section 16.1 describes different aspects of the respiratory system of significance to speech and singing, including lung volume ranges, subglottal pressures, and how this pressure is affected by the ever-varying recoil forces. The complex tone generated when the air stream from the lungs passes the vibrating vocal folds can be varied in at least three dimensions: fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectrum. Section 16.2 describes how these properties of the voice source are affected by the subglottal pressure, the length and stiffness of the vocal folds and how firmly the vocal folds are adducted. Section 16.3 gives an account of the vocal tract filter, how its form determines the frequencies of its resonances, and Sect. 16.4 gives an account for how these resonance frequencies or formants shape the vocal sounds by imposing spectrum peaks separated by spectrum valleys, and how the frequencies of these peaks determine vowel and voice qualities. The remaining sections of the chapter describe various aspects of the acoustic signals used for vocal communication in speech and singing. The syllable structure is discussed in Sect. 16.5, the closely related aspects of rhythmicity and timing in speech and singing is described in Sect. 16.6, and pitch and rhythm aspects in Sect. 16.7. The impressive

  20. Aerodynamic Patterns in Patients With Voice Disorders: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Marina; Petty, Brian; Maira, Carissa; Pethan, Madeleine; Wang, Lijia; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M

    2017-09-01

    A recently published retrospective chart review of aerodynamic profiles of women with primary muscle tension dysphonia by Gillespie et al (2013) identified various relationships between mean airflow rate (MFR) and estimated subglottal pressure (est-Psub). The current retrospective study expanded the diagnostic categories to include all voice disorders referred for voice therapy. Three research questions were proposed: (1) Are there differences in the MFR and the est-Psub compared with the normal control group? (2) Within the disordered population, are there different variations in the pairing of MFR and est-Psub? (3) If these variations exist, are they diagnosis specific? A retrospective chart review of patients seen for acoustic and aerodynamic voice assessment at the Emory Voice Center between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014, were examined for aerodynamic measures of est-Psub and MFR; of these, 192 met the inclusion criteria. Simple t test, two-step cluster analysis, and analysis of variance, as well as Tukey multiple comparisons, were performed using R and SPSS. Mean est-Psub was significantly greater in the group with voice disorder than in the control group (P value < 0.001). However, no statistical significance was found when comparing the MFR with the control group (P value <0.59). Nine possible pairings of MFR and est-Psub were found. Sufficient evidence was not found to detect significant differences in these pairings across diagnostic groups. With regard to the rate and interrelationships of MFR and est-Psub, the findings of this study are similar to those of Gillespie et al, that is, MFR and est-Psub are not determinate of diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foetal response to music and voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Noura H

    2005-10-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to music and voice alters foetal behaviour and whether foetal response to music differs from human voice. A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 normal term pregnant mothers. Ten foetuses were exposed to music and voice for 15 s at different sound pressure levels to find out the optimal setting for the auditory stimulation. Music, voice and sham were played to another 10 foetuses via a headphone on the maternal abdomen. The sound pressure level was 105 db and 94 db for music and voice, respectively. Computerised assessment of foetal heart rate and activity were recorded. 90 actocardiograms were obtained for the whole group. One way anova followed by posthoc (Student-Newman-Keuls method) analysis was used to find if there is significant difference in foetal response to music and voice versus sham. Foetuses responded with heart rate acceleration and motor response to both music and voice. This was statistically significant compared to sham. There was no significant difference between the foetal heart rate acceleration to music and voice. Prenatal exposure to music and voice alters the foetal behaviour. No difference was detected in foetal response to music and voice.

  2. Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området.......Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området....

  3. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P occupational voice demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P Occupational voice demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hearing voices and listening to what they say: the importance of voice content in understanding and working with distressing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavan, Vanessa; Read, John

    2010-03-01

    The content of auditory hallucinations is sometimes dismissed as having little diagnostic/therapeutic importance. There is growing evidence that voice content may be crucial to understanding and working therapeutically with this experience. The aim of the present study is to explore, in a general population sample, the content and impact of voice-hearers' auditory hallucinations. A self-selected sample of 154 participants completed questionnaires about voice-hearing. A subsample of 50 participants completed semi-structured interviews. Participants experienced a range of voice content of high personal relevance, with most experiencing both positive and negative content. Voice content was the only significant predictor of emotional distress and the strongest predictor of contact with mental health services. These findings suggest that content is an important characteristic of auditory hallucinations and should be explored with voice-hearers who find themselves in clinical settings.

  5. Comparison of two methods of voice activity detection in field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ren, Keni; Li, Haibo; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of 2 methods of voice activity detection (neck-attached accelerometer vs. binaural recordings) in field studies in environments where voice activity normally occurs. A group of 11 healthy adults wore recording equipment during their lunch break. We used binary classification to analyze the results from the 2 methods. The output was compared to a gold standard, obtained through listening tests, and the probability for sensitivity (Ps) and false positive (Pf) was rated. The binary classifiers were set for consistent sensitivity of 99%; thus, the lower false positive rate would indicate the method with the better performance. The neck-attached accelerometer (Pf = 0.5%) performed significantly (p voice assessments in environments where people are speaking in close proximity to each other and where the signal-to-noise ratio is moderate to low.

  6. Looking outside the (voice)box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette; Rothblum, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Laura S. Brown, PhD, is a clinical and forensic psychologist in independent practice in Seattle, Washington. The bulk of her scholarly work has been in the fields of feminist therapy theory, trauma treatment, lesbian and gay issues, assessment and diagnosis, ethics and standards of care in psychotherapy, and cultural competence. She has authored or edited ten professional books, including the award-winning Subversive Dialogues: Theory in Feminist Therapy, as well as more than 140 other professional publications. She has also recently published her first book for general audiences, Your turn for care: Surviving the aging and death of the adults who harmed you. Laura has been featured in five psychotherapy training videos produced by the American Psychological Association. She was President of American Psychological Association Divisions 35 (Society for the Psychology of Women), 44 (Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Issues), and 56 (Trauma Psychology). Laura was also President of the Washington State Psychological Association. She is the founder and Director of the Fremont Community Therapy Project, a low-fee psychotherapy training clinic in Seattle. In the fall of 2000, she was the on-site psychologist for the reality show Survivor: The Australian Outback. In 1987, Laura lost her voice and was diagnosed with spasmodic dysphonia. In 1988, she found her voice again.

  7. Predictors of six month change in the voice handicap index in a treatment seeking population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jaime; Greenberg, Caprice

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate predictors of longitudinal change in patient-perceived voice impact as determined by the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Study Design Prospective, survey study. Methods Patients consented to the UW Voice and Swallow Clinics Outcomes Database with voice, breathing and/or cough concerns with a baseline clinic visit from November 2012 to January 2014 were eligible for the study. VHI was sent to patients six months post-clinic visit to determine change in voice handicap from baseline. General health was screened using the SF-12v2 survey, using physical component (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Predictor variables included – treatment (medical and/or behavioral), dysphonia sub-diagnosis, GRBAS rating, age, sex, socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and comorbidity score. Results Two-hundred thirty-seven patients met study criteria and were followed longitudinally. Eighty-two patients returned six month surveys. VHI was significantly correlated with MCS scores. Patients with a higher grade in baseline GRBAS score were more likely to receive voice intervention (p = .04). Six-month improvement in VHI score was associated with both higher initial VHI score and higher education level in both univariate (p < .01, p = .04) and multivariate analyses (p < .01, p = .02). Voice treatment (medical and/or behavioral) was not a significant factor for improvement in VHI. Conclusions Our results suggest it is important to consider baseline self-perceived voice impact measures and education level in setting expectations for voice treatment. Future studies examining the relationship between treatment patterns and voice-related patient outcomes are warranted. PMID:26952321

  8. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.tuomi@vgregion.se [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Andréll, Paulin [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Finizia, Caterina [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  9. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, Lisa; Andréll, Paulin; Finizia, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors

  10. Measuring the Technical Efficiency of Farms Producing Environmental Output: Parametric and Semiparametric Estimation of Multi-output Stochastic Ray Production Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Gerard Czekaj

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical efficiency of Polish dairy farms producing environmental output using the stochastic ray function to model multi-output – multi-input technology. Two general models are considered. One which neglects the provision of environmental output and one which accounts for such output. Three different proxies of environmental output are discussed: the ratio of permanent grassland (including rough grazing) to total agricultural area, the total area of permanent gra...

  11. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  12. Deviant vocal fold vibration as observed during videokymography : the effect on voice quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    Videokymographic images of deviant or irregular vocal fold vibration, including diplophonia, the transition from falsetto to modal voice, irregular vibration onset and offset, and phonation following partial laryngectomy were compared with the synchronously recorded acoustic speech signals. A clear

  13. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  14. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  15. How do teachers with self-reported voice problems differ from their peers with self-reported voice health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders

    2012-07-01

    This randomized case-control study compares teachers with self-reported voice problems to age-, gender-, and school-matched colleagues with self-reported voice health. The self-assessed voice function is related to factors known to influence the voice: laryngeal findings, voice quality, personality, psychosocial and coping aspects, searching for causative factors of voice problems in teachers. Subjects and controls, recruited from a teacher group in an earlier questionnaire study, underwent examinations of the larynx by high-speed imaging and kymograms; voice recordings; voice range profile; audiometry; self-assessment of voice handicap and voice function; teaching and environmental aspects; personality; coping; burnout, and work-related issues. The laryngeal and voice recordings were assessed by experienced phoniatricians and speech pathologists. The subjects with self-assessed voice problems differed from their peers with self-assessed voice health by significantly longer recovery time from voice problems and scored higher on all subscales of the Voice Handicap Index-Throat. The results show that the cause of voice dysfunction in this group of teachers with self-reported voice problems is not found in the vocal apparatus or within the individual. The individual's perception of a voice problem seems to be based on a combination of the number of symptoms and of how often the symptoms occur, along with the recovery time. The results also underline the importance of using self-assessed reports of voice dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Voices in (and around the Museum: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Holt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The voice already plays an important role in contemporary art. This introductory paper summarises a series of four sessions in which speakers explored the place of the voice in the museum context. It became clear that the voice not only offered richness in interpretation of and response to other museum artefacts but was itself an artefact meriting conservation  and interpretation.

  17. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  18. Giving Voice to Emotion: Voice Analysis Technology Uncovering Mental States is Playing a Growing Role in Medicine, Business, and Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer

    2016-01-01

    It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone.

  19. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  20. A framework for the design of a voice-activated, intelligent, and hypermedia-based aircraft maintenance manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Manoj Shashikant

    Federal Aviation Regulations require Aviation Maintenance Technicians (AMTs) to refer to approved maintenance manuals when performing maintenance on airworthy aircraft. Because these manuals are paper-based, larger the size of the aircraft, more cumbersome are the manuals. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recognized the difficulties associated with the use of large manuals and conducted studies on the use of electronic media as an alternative to the traditional paper format. However, these techniques do not employ any artificial intelligence technologies and the user interface is limited to either a keyboard or a stylus pen. The primary emphasis of this research was to design a generic framework that would allow future development of voice-activated, intelligent, and hypermedia-based aircraft maintenance manuals. A prototype (VIHAMS-Voice-activated, Intelligent, and Hypermedia-based Aircraft Maintenance System) was developed, as a secondary emphasis, using the design and development techniques that evolved from this research. An evolutionary software design approach was used to design the proposed framework and the structured rapid prototyping technique was used to produce the VIHAMS prototype. VoiceAssist by Creative Labs was used to provide the voice interface so that the users (AMTs) could keep their hands free to work on the aircraft while maintaining complete control over the computer through discrete voice commands. KnowledgePro for Windows sp{TM}, an expert system shell, provided "intelligence" to the prototype. As a result of this intelligence, the system provided expert guidance to the user. The core information contained in conventional manuals was available in a hypermedia format. The prototype's operating hardware included a notebook computer with a fully functional audio system. An external microphone and the built-in speaker served as the input and output devices (along with the color monitor), respectively. Federal Aviation Administration

  1. Familiarity and Voice Representation: From Acoustic-Based Representation to Voice Averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Fontaine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1, and famous voices (Experiment 2 are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker. In experiment 1, participants learned three voices over several sessions, and performed a three-alternative forced-choice identification task on original voice samples and several “speaker averages,” created by morphing across varying numbers of different vowels (e.g., [a] and [i] produced by the same speaker. In experiment 2, the same participants performed the same task on voice samples produced by familiar speakers. The two experiments showed that for famous voices, but not for trained-to-familiar voices, identification performance increased and response times decreased as a function of the number of utterances in the averages. This study sheds light on the perceptual representation of familiar voices, and demonstrates the power of average in recognizing familiar voices. The speaker average captures the unique characteristics of a speaker, and thus retains the information essential for recognition; it acts as a prototype of the speaker.

  2. Familiarity and Voice Representation: From Acoustic-Based Representation to Voice Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Maureen; Love, Scott A.; Latinus, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1), and famous voices (Experiment 2)) are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker. In experiment 1, participants learned three voices over several sessions, and performed a three-alternative forced-choice identification task on original voice samples and several “speaker averages,” created by morphing across varying numbers of different vowels (e.g., [a] and [i]) produced by the same speaker. In experiment 2, the same participants performed the same task on voice samples produced by familiar speakers. The two experiments showed that for famous voices, but not for trained-to-familiar voices, identification performance increased and response times decreased as a function of the number of utterances in the averages. This study sheds light on the perceptual representation of familiar voices, and demonstrates the power of average in recognizing familiar voices. The speaker average captures the unique characteristics of a speaker, and thus retains the information essential for recognition; it acts as a prototype of the speaker. PMID:28769836

  3. Voice in EFL Education in a Japanese Context: Makiguchi's Perspectives in the Concept of "Voice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kazuma

    2009-01-01

    This theoretical article explores the Bakhtinian concept of voice from the perspective of Makiguchi's philosophy of value in the context of Japanese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) education. Bakhtin conceptualized a dialogic process of multiple voices within an individual or a society. For the conflict between different voices in a particular…

  4. Development of the child's voice: premutation, mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacki, T; Heitmüller, S

    1999-10-05

    Voice range profile (VRP) measurement was used to evaluate the vocal capabilities of 180 children aged between 4 and 12 years without voice pathology. There were 10 boys and 10 girls in each age group. Using an automatic VRP measurement system, F0 and SPL dB (lin) were determined and displayed two-dimensionally in real time. The speaking voice, the shouting voice and the singing voice were investigated. The results show that vocal capabilities grow with advancing age, but not continuously. The lowering of the habitual pitch of the speaking voice as well as of the entire speaking pitch range occurs for girls between the ages of 7 and 8, for boys between 8 and 9. A temporary restriction of the minimum vocal intensity of the speaking voice (the ability to speak softly) as well as of the singing voice occurs for girls and for boys at the age of 7-8. A decrease of the maximum speech intensity is found for girls at the age of between 7 and 8, for boys between 8 and 9. A lowering of the pitch as well as of the intensity of the shouting voice occurs for both sexes from the age of 10. In contrast to earlier general opinion we note for girls a stage of premutation (between the age of 7 and 8) with essentially the same changes seen among boys, but 1 year earlier. The beginning of the mutation can be fixed at the age of 10-11 years.

  5. Voice Onset Time in Azerbaijani Consonants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Voice onset time is known to be cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops and it can be used to describe or categorize a range of developmental, neuromotor and linguistic disorders. The aim of this study is determination of standard values of voice onset time for Azerbaijani language (Tabriz dialect. Materials & Methods: In this description-analytical study, 30 Azeris persons whom were selected conveniently by simple selection, uttered 46 monosyllabic words initiating with 6 Azerbaijani stops twice. Using Praat software, the voice onset time values were analyzed by waveform and wideband spectrogram in milliseconds. Vowel effect, sex differences and the effect of place of articulation on VOT, were evaluated and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: There was no significant difference in voice onset time between male and female Azeris speakers (P<0.05. Vowel and place of articulation had significant correlation with voice onset time (P<0.001. Voice onset time values for /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, and [c], [ɟ] allophones were 10.64, 86.88, 13.35, 87.09, 26.25, 100.62, 131.19, 63.18 mili second, respectively. Conclusion: Voice onset time values are the same for Azerbaijani men and women. However, like many other languages, back and high vowels and back place of articulation lengthen VOT. Also, voiceless stops are aspirated in this language and voiced stops have positive VOT values.

  6. Listeners' attitudes toward children with voice problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Yu, Camille H-Y

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the attitudes of school teachers toward children with voice problems in a Chinese population. Three groups of listeners participated in this study: primary school teachers, speech-language pathology students, and general university students. The participants were required to make attitude judgments on 12 voice samples using a semantic differential scale with 22 bipolar adjective pairs. The voice samples were collected from 6 children with healthy voices and 6 children with dysphonia. The 22 bipolar adjective pairs were intended to cover nonspeech characteristics about the child's personality, social characteristics, and physical appearance. The mean attitude ratings received by children with dysphonic voice were significantly lower (i.e., less favorable) than those received by children with healthy voices in all of the 22 adjective pairs (all ps .05). To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the authors examine listeners' perception toward children with voice problems in the Chinese population. The results suggest that voice problems in children warrant attention, and their effects on the child should not be underestimated. The findings also highlight the importance of early identification and intervention for children with voice problems.

  7. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  8. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    the paralinguistic traits of the synthesized voice. Using a corpus of 13 synthesized voices, constructed from acoustic concatenative speech synthesis, we assessed the response of 23 listeners from differing cultural backgrounds. Evaluating if the perception shifts from the known ground–truths, we asked listeners......Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  9. Advocating Environmentalism: The Voice of Nature in Contemporary Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Lawlor, Jennifer A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that in recent children's literature nature has been given a voice, not a voice for people but its own voice calling out for the reader to join with it in a society to defend natural resources. (TB)

  10. Speak Up! But don't strain your voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Speak Up! But don't strain your voice Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. A clinical trial at the NIDCD Voice Center gave Sherdina Jones tools to limit voice ...

  11. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    is even more challenging. Economic theory simply asserts the concept of defence output without exploring its definition and multi-product nature...It also protects national interests, including independence and ‘appropriate sovereignty’ (e.g. protecting a nation’s interests in a globalised ...of success in delivering protection. “There is no definitive way of knowing what might have happened, but did not happen, because of the activities

  12. Voice Quality Estimation in Combined Radio-VoIP Networks for Dispatching Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality modelling assessment and planning field is deeply and widely theoretically and practically mastered for common voice communication systems, especially for the public fixed and mobile telephone networks including Next Generation Networks (NGN - internet protocol based networks. This article seeks to contribute voice quality modelling assessment and planning for dispatching communication systems based on Internet Protocol (IP and private radio networks. The network plan, correction in E-model calculation and default values for the model are presented and discussed.

  13. Design and realization of intelligent tourism service system based on voice interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei-di; Long, Yi; Qian, Cheng-yang; Zhang, Ling; Lv, Guo-nian

    2008-10-01

    Voice technology is one of the important contents to improve the intelligence and humanization of tourism service system. Combining voice technology, the paper concentrates on application needs and the composition of system to present an overall intelligent tourism service system's framework consisting of presentation layer, Web services layer, and tourism application service layer. On the basis, the paper further elaborated the implementation of the system and its key technologies, including intelligent voice interactive technology, seamless integration technology of multiple data sources, location-perception-based guides' services technology, and tourism safety control technology. Finally, according to the situation of Nanjing tourism, a prototype of Tourism Services System is realized.

  14. Experiences of mental health nursing staff working with voice hearers in an acute setting: An interpretive phenomenological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, E; Gupta, A; Collins, S C

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Community mental health staff and their service users have reported mixed views on the importance of talking about the content of voices. Community staff have reported feeling that they do not have the skills to explore voice content and worry about making things worse. Voice hearers experiencing extreme distress due to the content of their voices can access support through acute inpatient mental health services. No previous studies have focused on the experiences of staff who nurse voice hearers at a time of acute distress. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: MHNs and HSWs working with voice hearers in acute distress report feeling powerless and helpless, as they feel that they cannot lessen the distress experienced by the voice hearer. Despite these difficult feelings, staff report finding ways of coping, including using structured tools to help make sense of their service users' voice-hearing experiences and accessing reflective practice forums. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the current context of increased acuity and limited resources in acute services, there may be a need to further protect time for staff to access reflective practice groups and supervision forums to help them manage the difficult feelings arising from their work with voice hearers. Introduction Mental health nursing (MHN) staff in acute settings work with voice hearers at times of crises when they experience high levels of distress. Previous research has focused on community mental health staff's experiences and their service users views on exploring the content of voices. No studies have explored this from an acute mental health service perspective. Aim This study therefore sought to explore the experiences of staff working with voice hearers in an acute mental health service. Method Due to the exploratory nature of the research, a qualitative design was chosen. Three MHNs and five healthcare support workers (HSWs) were

  15. Giving voice to the voiceless through deliberative democratic school governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mabovula

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I focus on the role of learners in the governance of secondary schools. I seek to promote a voice for learner expression as guaranteed in the national Department of Education's guidelines for Representative Council of Learners as part of promoting democratic governance. The potential, limitations, constraints, conse­quen­ces, and challenges facing learners in the school governance structure need to be revealed and debated. The views of school principals were solicited by means of unstructured open-ended questionnaires. Six problem areas emerged from the data. The irony is that although the democratisation of school governance has given all stakeholders a powerful voice in school affairs, learners' voices are, seemingly, being silenced. In attempting to resolve the problem, a new model of democratic school governance to be known as 'deliberative democratic school governance' (DDSG is suggested. There are several DDSG approaches that can be employed in creating elements for stakeholder empowerment and in driving deliberative democratic school governance forward. These include inclusion, motivational communication, consensus, deliberation/ dialogue, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Some school governance stake­holders and schools may use only one or a few of these strategies to create spaces for learner voices in their respective schools.

  16. Using deflation in the pole assignment problem with output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miminis, George

    1989-01-01

    A direct algorithm is suggested for the computation of a linear output feedback for a multi input, multi output system such that the resultant closed-loop matrix has eigenvalues that include a specified set of eigenvalues. The algorithm uses deflation based on unitary similarity transformations. Thus researchers hope the algorithm is numerically stable; however, this has not been proven as yet.

  17. Temperate climate - Innovative outputs nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.

    2014-01-01

    Technological change is a vital human activity that interacts with geographic factors and environment. The purpose of the study here is to analyse the relationship between geo-climate zones of the globe and technological outputs in order to detect favourable areas that spur higher technological

  18. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  19. Kilder til output-legitimitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2016-01-01

    Diskussioner om legitimitet i den Europæiske Union bygger ofte på det teoretiske skel mellem output-legitimitet og andre former for legitimitet. Dette skyldes ikke mindst, at netop Unionens evne til at levere reale løsninger på reale problemer er en væsentlig – hvis ikke den væsentligste – kilde ...

  20. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  1. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Teachers of Singing and Voice Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Mitchell J; McBroom, Deanna H; Nguyen, Shaun A; Halstead, Lucinda A

    2017-05-01

    Singers and voice teachers are exposed to a range of noise levels during a normal working day. This study aimed to assess the hearing thresholds in a large sample of generally healthy professional voice teachers and voice students to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in this population. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Voice teachers and vocal students had the option to volunteer for a hearing screening of six standard frequencies in a quiet room with the Shoebox audiometer (Clearwater Clinical Limited) and to fill out a brief survey. Data were analyzed for the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in teachers and students based on several parameters assessed in the surveys. All data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp.) and SPSS Statistics Software (IBM Corp.). A total of 158 participants were included: 58 self-identified as voice teachers, 106 as voice students, and 6 as both. The 6 participants who identified as both, were included in both categories for statistical purposes. Of the 158 participants, 36 had some level of hearing loss: 51.7% of voice teachers had hearing loss, and 7.5% of voice students had hearing loss. Several parameters of noise exposure were found to positively correlate with hearing loss and tinnitus (P teacher and age were both predictors of hearing loss (P teachers appears to be more prevalent and severe than previously thought. There is a significant association between years teaching and hearing loss. Raising awareness in this population may prompt teachers and students to adopt strategies to protect their hearing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Letters: In search of a voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochran Fallon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available What follows is a case study of a freshman at Millersville University who shall be referred to under the pseudonym “Root Beer,” who is enrolled in her first semester in the Spring semester of the 2010-2011 academic year. This case study began with an inquiry-based approach which was applied by presenting the student with a survey of questions which would help to identify the student, her background, and the various characteristics of her writing. This inquiry-based approach was utilized throughout the case study to address the puzzles of practice that came up during the course of determining this student’s needs as a writer. As the research process continued, the center of gravity for this student was identified as voice. Utilizing the knowledge gained about the writer, this researcher was able to provide materials that were selected based on the writer’s profile as a unique individual, in order to provide a familiar foundation to the student writer Root Beer as she worked through the difficulty of expressing voice in her writing. This case study with Root Beer was completed over the course of five separate one-on-one meetings with the student outside of class, each of which was at least one hour in length, although at least one meeting with the student ran two hours in length. This case study also included five observations of Root Beer’s English Composition class with Dr. Shea, conducted in Byerly Hall, Room 120, from 9 AM – 10:15 AM, Tuesdays and Thursdays. This case study will include a detailed explanation of the exercises employed to address the center of gravity issue of voice, the reasoning behind the selection of these exercises, an analysis the results, and how these results were employed in the selection of successive exercises. The potential implications and possible future applications of these exercises toward addressing this issue within a classroom of student writers in the future will also be expounded on in the

  3. Recognizing Community Voice and a Youth-Led School-Community Partnership in the School Climate Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…

  4. More than just two sexes: the neural correlates of voice gender perception in gender dysphoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Junger

    Full Text Available Gender dysphoria (also known as "transsexualism" is characterized as a discrepancy between anatomical sex and gender identity. Research points towards neurobiological influences. Due to the sexually dimorphic characteristics of the human voice, voice gender perception provides a biologically relevant function, e.g. in the context of mating selection. There is evidence for a better recognition of voices of the opposite sex and a differentiation of the sexes in its underlying functional cerebral correlates, namely the prefrontal and middle temporal areas. This fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of voice gender perception in 32 male-to-female gender dysphoric individuals (MtFs compared to 20 non-gender dysphoric men and 19 non-gender dysphoric women. Participants indicated the sex of 240 voice stimuli modified in semitone steps in the direction to the other gender. Compared to men and women, MtFs showed differences in a neural network including the medial prefrontal gyrus, the insula, and the precuneus when responding to male vs. female voices. With increased voice morphing men recruited more prefrontal areas compared to women and MtFs, while MtFs revealed a pattern more similar to women. On a behavioral and neuronal level, our results support the feeling of MtFs reporting they cannot identify with their assigned sex.

  5. Voice tuning with new instruments for type II thyroplasty in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Toya, Yutaka; Kumai, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-01

    Adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a rare voice disorder characterized by strained and strangled voice quality with intermittent phonatory breaks and adductory vocal fold spasms. Type II thyroplasty differs from previous treatments in that this surgery does not involve any surgical intervention into the laryngeal muscle, nerve or vocal folds. Type II thyroplasty intervenes in the thyroid cartilage, which is unrelated to the lesion. This procedure, conducted with the aim of achieving lateralization of the vocal folds, requires utmost surgical caution due to the extreme delicacy of the surgical site, critically sensitive adjustment, and difficult procedures to maintain the incised cartilages at a correct position. During surgery, the correct separation of the incised cartilage edges with voice monitoring is the most important factor determining surgical success and patient satisfaction. We designed new surgical instruments: a thyroid cartilage elevator for undermining the thyroid cartilage, and spacer devices to gauge width while performing voice monitoring. These devices were designed to prevent surgical complications, and to aid in selecting the optimal size of titanium bridges while temporally maintaining a separation during voice monitoring. We designed new surgical instruments, including a thyroid cartilage elevator and spacer devices. Precise surgical procedures and performing voice tuning during surgery with the optimal separation width of the thyroid cartilage are key points for surgical success. We introduce the technique of voice tuning using these surgical tools in order to achieve a better outcome with minimal surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Voice change as a new measure of male pubertal timing: a study among Bolivian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gurven, Michael; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2013-05-01

    Age at menarche is often used to measure maturational tempo in girls. Unfortunately, no parallel marker exists for boys. It is suggested that voice change has a number of advantages as a marker of the timing and degree of male pubertal development. Traditional auxological methods are applied to voice change in order to compare differential development both between (males vs females; Tsimane vs North American; better vs worse condition) and within (voice vs height; fundamental frequency vs formant structure) populations. Fundamental and formant frequencies, as well as height and weight, were measured for 172 Tsimane males and females, aged 8-23. Participants were assigned to 'better' or 'worse' condition based on a median split of height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores. Results support dramatic vocal changes in males. Peak voice change among Tsimane male adolescents occurs∼1 year later than in an age-matched North American sample. Achieved adult male voices are also higher in the Tsimane. Tsimane males in worse condition experience voice change more than 1 year later than Tsimane males in better condition. Voice change has a number of attractive features as a marker of male pubertal timing including its methodological and technical simplicity as well as its social salience to group members.

  7. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P voice acoustic characteristics of young adults with early smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. More than Just Two Sexes: The Neural Correlates of Voice Gender Perception in Gender Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junger, Jessica; Habel, Ute; Bröhr, Sabine; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Birkholz, Peter; Kohler, Christian; Schneider, Frank; Derntl, Birgit; Pauly, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (also known as “transsexualism”) is characterized as a discrepancy between anatomical sex and gender identity. Research points towards neurobiological influences. Due to the sexually dimorphic characteristics of the human voice, voice gender perception provides a biologically relevant function, e.g. in the context of mating selection. There is evidence for a better recognition of voices of the opposite sex and a differentiation of the sexes in its underlying functional cerebral correlates, namely the prefrontal and middle temporal areas. This fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of voice gender perception in 32 male-to-female gender dysphoric individuals (MtFs) compared to 20 non-gender dysphoric men and 19 non-gender dysphoric women. Participants indicated the sex of 240 voice stimuli modified in semitone steps in the direction to the other gender. Compared to men and women, MtFs showed differences in a neural network including the medial prefrontal gyrus, the insula, and the precuneus when responding to male vs. female voices. With increased voice morphing men recruited more prefrontal areas compared to women and MtFs, while MtFs revealed a pattern more similar to women. On a behavioral and neuronal level, our results support the feeling of MtFs reporting they cannot identify with their assigned sex. PMID:25375171

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsner-Smith, Mara R; Hunter, Eric J; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal Function Exercises (VFE), an established set of exercises that utilize oral semi-occlusions. Twenty subjects (16 women, 4 men) with dysphonia and/or vocal fatigue were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: (a) immediate FRT therapy, (b) immediate VFE therapy, (c) delayed FRT therapy, or (d) delayed VFE therapy. Subjects receiving delayed therapy served as a no-treatment control group. Voice Handicap Index (Jacobson et al., 1997) scores showed significant improvement for both treatment groups relative to the no-treatment group. Comparison of the effect sizes suggests FRT therapy is noninferior to VFE in terms of reduction in Voice Handicap Index scores. Significant reductions in Roughness on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kraemer, & Hillman, 2009) were found for the FRT subjects, with no other significant voice quality findings. VFE and FRT therapy may improve voice quality of life in some individuals with dysphonia. FRT therapy was noninferior to VFE in improving voice quality of life in this study.

  10. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  11. Sound induced activity in voice sensitive cortex predicts voice memory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eWatson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVAs (Belin et al., 2000 of the human brain show greater neuronal activity in response to human voices than to other categories of nonvocal sounds. However, a direct link between TVA activity and voice perceptionbehaviour has not yet been established. Here we show that a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measure of activity in the TVAs predicts individual performance at a separately administered voice memory test. This relation holds whengeneral sound memory ability is taken into account. These findings provide the first evidence that the TVAs are specifically involved in voice cognition.

  12. Associations between the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQMtF ) and self-report of voice femininity and acoustic voice measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacakis, Georgia; Oates, Jennifer; Douglas, Jacinta

    2017-11-01

    The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) was designed to capture the voice-related perceptions of individuals whose gender identity as female is the opposite of their birth-assigned gender (MtF women). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the TVQ MtF is ongoing. To investigate associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic parameters of voice pitch and voice quality in order to evaluate further the validity of the TVQ MtF . A strong correlation between TVQ MtF scores and self-ratings of voice femininity was predicted, but no association between TVQ MtF scores and acoustic measures of voice pitch and quality was proposed. Participants were 148 MtF women (mean age 48.14 years) recruited from the La Trobe Communication Clinic and the clinics of three doctors specializing in transgender health. All participants completed the TVQ MtF and 34 of these participants also provided a voice sample for acoustic analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to examine the associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic measures of F0, jitter (%), shimmer (dB) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). Strong negative correlations between the participants' perceptions of their voice femininity and the TVQ MtF scores demonstrated that for this group of MtF women a low self-rating of voice femininity was associated with more frequent negative voice-related experiences. This association was strongest with the vocal-functioning component of the TVQ MtF . These strong correlations and high levels of shared variance between the TVQ MtF and a measure of a related construct provides evidence for the convergent validity of the TVQ MtF . The absence of significant correlations between the TVQ MtF and the acoustic data is consistent with the equivocal findings of earlier research. This finding indicates that these two measures assess different aspects of the voice

  13. Beyond the Voice of the Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Varnes, Claus; van der Hoven, Chris

    2012-01-01

    and questionnaires), have significant limitations. Customers often struggle to articulate their needs in interviews, and focus groups often generate incremental ideas rather than breakthroughs. Companies in the service sector face an additional challenge, as their customers need to discuss services, which......Although the importance of integrating the voice of the customer into new product development is almost universally accepted, the techniques used by many organizations to identify customers' needs have stagnated. The most commonly used techniques, focus groups and surveys (including both interviews...... are by their nature intangible. One of the most promising approaches to generating a deeper customer understanding is ethnographic market research, which adopts ideas from ethnography, the set of tools social scientists use to study tribal cultures. These techniques can provide deep customer insights...

  14. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-04-23

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women who appeared relatively disinterested in the listener. These findings show that voice preferences are not determined solely by physical properties of voices and that men integrate information about voice pitch and the degree of social interest expressed by women when forming voice preferences. Women's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices were not modulated by cues of social interest, suggesting that the integration of cues of social interest and voice pitch when men judge the attractiveness of women's voices may reflect adaptations that promote efficient allocation of men's mating effort.

  15. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  16. Voices from around the globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editors

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JSAA has been seeking to provide an opportunity for Student Affairs professionals and higher education scholars from around the globe to share their research and experiences of student services and student affairs programmes from their respective regional and institutional contexts. This has been given a specific platform with the guest-edited issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS, and particularly with the guest editors, Kathleen Callahan and Chinedu Mba.

  17. Voices from Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JSAA has been seeking to provide an opportunity for Student Affairs professionals and higher education scholars from around the globe to share their research and experiences of student services and student affairs programmes from their respective regional and institutional contexts. This has been given a specific platform with the guest-edited issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS, and particularly with the guest editors, Kathleen Callahan and Chinedu Mba.

  18. Comparing Voice Self-Assessment with Auditory Perceptual Analysis in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Disordered voice quality could be a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of MS on voice-related quality of life is still controversial. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the results of voice self-assessment with the results of expert perceptual assessment in patients with MS. Methods The research included 38 patients with relapse-remitting MS (23 women and 15 men; ages 21 to 83, mean = 44. All participants filled out a Voice Handicap Index (VHI, and their voice sample was analyzed by speech and language professionals using the Grade Roughness Breathiness Asthenia Strain scale (GRBAS. Results The patients with MS had significantly higher VHI than control group participants (mean value 16.68 ± 16.2 compared with 5.29 ± 5.5, p = 0.0001. The study established a notable level of dysphonia in 55%, roughness and breathiness in 66%, asthenia in 34%, and strain in 55% of the vocal samples. A significant correlation was established between VHI and GRBAS scores (r = 0.3693, p = 0.0225, and VHI and asthenia and strain components (r = 0.4037 and 0.3775, p = 0.012 and 0.0195, respectively. The female group showed positive and significant correlation between claims for self-assessing one's voice (pVHI and overall GRBAS scores, and between pVHI and grade, roughness, asthenia, and strain components. No significant correlation was found for male patients (p > 0.05. Conclusion A significant number of patients with MS experienced voice problems. The VHI is a good and effective tool to assess patient self-perception of voice quality, but it may not reflect the severity of dysphonia as perceived by voice and speech professionals.

  19. Effects of consensus training on the reliability of auditory perceptual ratings of voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Reinholt Petersen, Niels

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of consensus training of listeners on intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement of perceptual voice analysis. The use of such training, including a reference voice sample, could be assumed to make the internal standards held in memory common and more robust, which is of great importance to reduce the variability of auditory perceptual ratings. A prospective design with testing before and after training. Thirteen students of audiologopedics served as listening subjects. The ratings were made using a multidimensional protocol with four-point equal-appearing interval scales. The stimuli consisted of text reading by authentic dysphonic patients. The consensus training for each perceptual voice parameter included (1) definition, (2) underlying physiology, (3) presentation of carefully selected sound examples representing the parameter in three different grades followed by group discussions of perceived characteristics, and (4) practical exercises including imitation to make use of the listeners' proprioception. Intrarater reliability and agreement showed a marked improvement for intermittent aphonia but not for vocal fry. Interrater reliability was high for most parameters before training with a slight increase after training. Interrater agreement showed marked increases for most voice quality parameters as a result of the training. The results support the recommendation of specific consensus training, including use of a reference voice sample material, to calibrate, equalize, and stabilize the internal standards held in memory by the listeners. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teachers Voices Interpreting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo C. Rigsby

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The State of Virginia has adopted state-mandated testing that aims to raise the standards of performance for children in our schools in a manner that assigns accountability to schools and to teachers. In this paper we argue that the conditions under which the standards were created and the testing implemented undermine the professionalism of teachers. We believe this result has the further consequence of compromising the critical thinking and learning processes of children. We argue this has happened because teachers’ views and experiences have driven neither the setting of standards nor the assessment of their achievement. We use data from essays by teachers in an innovative masters program to compare teachers’ experiences involving the Virginia Standards of Learning with ideal standards for professional development adopted by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. We argue that there are serious negative consequences of the failure to include dialogue with K-12 teachers in setting standards and especially in the creation of assessments to measure performances relative to the standards. We believe the most successful, honest, and morally defensible processes must be built on the experience and wisdom of classroom teachers.

  1. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  2. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  3. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the second of two volumes of essays grown out of a conference on authorial and editorial voices in translation held by the international research group Voice in Translation at the University of Copenhagen in 2011. Using the concept of ‘voice’ to explore contexts where multiple agents inte...

  4. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  6. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  7. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  8. Speaking with the voice of authority

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    GPB Consulting has developed a scientific approach to voice coaching. A digital recording of the voice is sent to a lab in Switzerland and analyzed by a computer programme designed by a doctor of psychology and linguistics and a scientist at CERN (1 page).

  9. Employee voice and engagement : Connections and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, C.; Alfes, K.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between employee voice and employee engagement. Employee perceptions of voice behaviour aimed at improving the functioning of the work group are found to have both a direct impact and an indirect impact on levels of employee engagement. Analysis of data from two

  10. Voice aftereffects of adaptation to speaker identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kawahara, Hideki

    2010-09-01

    While adaptation to complex auditory stimuli has traditionally been reported for linguistic properties of speech, the present study demonstrates non-linguistic high-level aftereffects in the perception of voice identity, following adaptation to voices or faces of personally familiar speakers. In Exp. 1, prolonged exposure to speaker A's voice biased the perception of identity-ambiguous voice morphs between speakers A and B towards speaker B (and vice versa). Significantly biased voice identity perception was also observed in Exp. 2 when adaptors were videos of speakers' silently articulating faces, although effects were reduced in magnitude relative to those seen in Exp. 1. By contrast, adaptation to an unrelated speaker C elicited an intermediate proportion of speaker A identifications in both experiments. While crossmodal aftereffects on auditory identification (Exp. 2) dissipated rapidly, unimodal aftereffects (Exp. 1) were still measurable a few minutes after adaptation. These novel findings suggest contrastive coding of voice identity in long-term memory, with at least two perceptual mechanisms of voice identity adaptation: one related to auditory coding of voice characteristics, and another related to multimodal coding of familiar speaker identity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  12. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  13. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  14. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method...

  15. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  16. Cross-cultural Adaption and Validation of the Danish Voice Handicap Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Printz, Trine; Mehlum, Camilla Slot

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess psychometric properties, including internal consistency, reliability, and clinical validity of the Danish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study was carried out. METHODS: For validation, the existing nonvalidated Dani....... It is suitable for use in daily practice and in research projects as it is able to assess patients' perception of their voice disorder severity....

  17. It doesn't matter what you say: FMRI correlates of voice learning and recognition independent of speech content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Belin, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test. To investigate "pure" voice learning, i.e., independent of sentence meaning, we presented German sentence stimuli to non-German speaking listeners. To disentangle stimulus-invariant and stimulus-dependent learning, during the test phase we contrasted a "same sentence" condition in which listeners heard speakers repeating the sentences from the preceding study phase, with a "different sentence" condition. Voice recognition performance was above chance in both conditions although, as expected, performance was higher for same than for different sentences. During study phases activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was related to subsequent voice recognition performance and same versus different sentence condition, suggesting an involvement of the left IFG in the interactive processing of speaker and speech information during learning. Importantly, at test reduced activation for voices correctly classified as "old" compared to "new" emerged in a network of brain areas including temporal voice areas (TVAs) of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), as well as the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG), the right medial frontal gyrus, and the left caudate. This effect of voice novelty did not interact with sentence condition, suggesting a role of temporal voice-selective areas and extra-temporal areas in the explicit recognition of learned voice identity

  18. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  19. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  20. Multi-model MPC with output feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new formulation is presented for the model predictive control (MPC of a process system that is represented by a finite set of models, each one corresponding to a different operating point. The general case is considered of systems with stable and integrating outputs in closed-loop with output feedback. For this purpose, the controller is based on a non-minimal order model where the state is built with the measured outputs and the manipulated inputs of the control system. Therefore, the state can be considered as perfectly known and, consequently, there is no need to include a state observer in the control loop. This property of the proposed modeling approach is convenient to extend previous stability results of the closed loop system with robust MPC controllers based on state feedback. The controller proposed here is based on the solution of two optimization problems that are solved sequentially at the same time step. The method is illustrated with a simulated example of the process industry. The rigorous simulation of the control of an adiabatic flash of a multi-component hydrocarbon mixture illustrates the application of the robust controller. The dynamic simulation of this process is performed using EMSO - Environment Model Simulation and Optimization. Finally, a comparison with a linear MPC using a single model is presented.

  1. Predictors of Six-month Change in the Voice Handicap Index in a Treatment-seeking Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jaime; Greenberg, Caprice; Thibeault, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of longitudinal change in patient-perceived voice impact as determined by the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Prospective, survey study. Patients consented to the University of Wisconsin Voice and Swallow Clinics Outcomes Database with voice, concerns with a baseline clinic visit from November 2012 to January 2014 were eligible for the study. The VHI was sent to patients 6 months post clinic visit to determine change in voice handicap from baseline. General health was screened using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, using physical component summary and mental component summary scores. Predictor variables included treatment (medical and/or behavioral); dysphonia sub-diagnosis; grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain rating; age; sex; socioeconomic factors; smoking history; and comorbidity score. Two hundred thirty-seven patients met study criteria and were followed longitudinally. Eighty-two patients returned 6-month surveys. The VHI was significantly correlated with mental component summary scores. Patients with a higher grade in baseline grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain score were more likely to receive voice intervention (P = 0.04). Six-month improvement in VHI score was associated with both higher initial VHI score and higher educational level in both univariate (P < 0.01, P = 0.04) and multivariate analyses (P < 0.01, P = 0.02). Voice treatment (medical and/or behavioral) was not a significant factor for improvement in VHI score. Our results suggest that it is important to consider baseline self-perceived voice impact measures and educational level in setting expectations for voice treatment. Future studies examining the relationship between treatment patterns and voice-related patient outcomes are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stock assessment model outputs for ICCAT (International) managed species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Includes outputs from the various models run in the evaluation of stock status for species managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic...

  3. Voice Handicap Index in Persian Speakers with Various Severities of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghadoost, Ozra; Moradi, Negin; Dabirmoghaddam, Payman; Aghadoost, Alireza; Naderifar, Ehsan; Dehbokri, Siavash Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the total score and subscale scores of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in speakers with and without hearing loss. A further aim was to determine if a correlation exists between severities of hearing loss with total scores and VHI subscale scores. In this cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study, 100 participants, divided in 2 groups of participants with and without hearing loss, were studied. Background information was gathered by interview, and VHI questionnaires were filled in by all participants. For all variables, including mean total score and VHI subscale scores, there was a considerable difference in speakers with and without hearing loss (p handicap related to voice in speakers with hearing loss. In addition, increased severity of hearing loss leads to more severe voice handicap. This finding emphasizes the need for a multilateral assessment and treatment of voice disorders in speakers with hearing loss. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [Evaluation of music department students who passed the entrance exam with phonetogram (Voice Range Profile)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Çağıl; Gökdoğan, Ozan; Şahin, Esra; Yılmaz, Metin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate phonetogram data of the students in the department of music who passed the entrance exam. The phonetogram data of 44 individuals with a good voice quality in the department of music and age-matched individuals who were not trained in the field of music or not involved in music amateurish as the control group were compared. The voice of both groups were recorded using the voice range profile within the scope of Kay Elemetrics CSL (Model 4300 B) programmed. There was a significant difference in the voice range profile parameters including max Fo, Fo range, Fo range (St), min dB SPL, and max dB sound pressure level (pmusic is higher than the control group and that plays a major role in their acceptance to the department of music.

  5. Nontraditional tools helpful in the treatment of certain types of voice disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Kate A

    2003-06-01

    Voice therapy has evolved considerably over the past decade. Our field has learned to draw from other disciplines to help facilitate the restoration of vocal function by implementing a more holistic approach and utilizing principles of motor learning to create our therapy programs. Clinicians have learned to recognize that the voice is more than just the larynx. Rather, it is a whole body system, and breakdowns in systems throughout the body can be responsible for vocal disturbances. This review will cover the nontraditional approaches that aid in treating certain voice disorders that often are not discussed in textbooks or classrooms. Facilitating techniques include principles from singing and acting voice production, Feldenkrais, Alexander technique, Qigong, and circumlaryngeal massage.

  6. Your Cheatin' Voice Will Tell on You: Detection of Past Infidelity from Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures. We found that participants indeed rated the voices of those who had a history of cheating as more likely to cheat. Male speakers were given higher ratings for cheating, while female raters were more likely to ascribe the likelihood to cheat to speakers. Additionally, we manipulated the pitch of the voice samples, and for both sexes, the lower pitched versions were consistently rated to be from those who were more likely to have cheated. Regardless of the pitch manipulation, speakers were able to assess actual history of infidelity; the one exception was that men's accuracy decreased when judging women whose voices were lowered. These findings expand upon the idea that the human voice may be of value as a cheater detection tool and very thin slices of vocal information are all that is needed to make certain assessments about others.

  7. Voice Blog: An Exploratory Study of Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chih Sun

    2009-01-01

    This study uses voice blogs as a platform for an extensive study of language learners’ speaking skills. To triangulate the findings, the study collected data by surveying the learners’ blogging processes, investigating learning strategies, and conducting retrospective interviews. The results revealed that students (a) developed a series of blogging stages, including conceptualizing, brainstorming, articulation, monitoring, and evaluating, and used a wide variety of strategies to cope with blo...

  8. Voicing the Technological Body. Some Musicological Reflections on Combinations of Voice and Technology in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heesch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with interrelations of voice, body and technology in popular music from a musicological perspective. It is an attempt to outline a systematic approach to the history of music technology with regard to aesthetic aspects, taking the identity of the singing subject as a main point of departure for a hermeneutic reading of popular song. Although the argumentation is based largely on musicological research, it is also inspired by the notion of presentness as developed by theologian and media scholar Walter Ong. The variety of the relationships between voice, body, and technology with regard to musical representations of identity, in particular gender and race, is systematized alongside the following cagories: (1 the “absence of the body,” that starts with the establishment of phonography; (2 “amplified presence,” as a signifier for uses of the microphone to enhance low sounds in certain manners; and (3 “hybridity,” including vocal identities that blend human body sounds and technological processing, whereby special focus is laid on uses of the vocoder and similar technologies.

  9. Quantitative analysis of professionally trained versus untrained voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare healthy trained and untrained voices as well as healthy and dysphonic trained voices in adults using combined voice range profile and aerodynamic tests, to define the normal range limiting values of quantitative voice parameters and to select the most informative quantitative voice parameters for separation between healthy and dysphonic trained voices. Three groups of persons were evaluated. One hundred eighty six healthy volunteers were divided into two groups according to voice training: non-professional speakers group consisted of 106 untrained voices persons (36 males and 70 females) and professional speakers group--of 80 trained voices persons (21 males and 59 females). Clinical group consisted of 103 dysphonic professional speakers (23 males and 80 females) with various voice disorders. Eighteen quantitative voice parameters from combined voice range profile (VRP) test were analyzed: 8 of voice range profile, 8 of speaking voice, overall vocal dysfunction degree and coefficient of sound, and aerodynamic maximum phonation time. Analysis showed that healthy professional speakers demonstrated expanded vocal abilities in comparison to healthy non-professional speakers. Quantitative voice range profile parameters- pitch range, high frequency limit, area of high frequencies and coefficient of sound differed significantly between healthy professional and non-professional voices, and were more informative than speaking voice or aerodynamic parameters in showing the voice training. Logistic stepwise regression revealed that VRP area in high frequencies was sufficient to discriminate between healthy and dysphonic professional speakers for male subjects (overall discrimination accuracy--81.8%) and combination of three quantitative parameters (VRP high frequency limit, maximum voice intensity and slope of speaking curve) for female subjects (overall model discrimination accuracy--75.4%). We concluded that quantitative voice assessment

  10. Using quality function deployment to capture the voice of the customer and translate it into the voice of the provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, E; Bailey, M; Crosby, R; Gorman, D; Holland, X; Hippe, C; Hoff, T; Nawrocki, D; Pichette, S; Thota, N

    1999-06-01

    Health care has a number of historical barriers to capturing the voice of the customer and to incorporating customer wants into health care services, whether the customer is a patient, an insurer, or a community. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a set of tools and practices that can help overcome these barriers to form a process for the planning and design or redesign of products and services. The goal of the project was to increase referral volume and to improve a rehabilitation hospital's capacity to provide comprehensive medical and/or legal evaluations for people with complex and catastrophic injuries or illnesses. HIGH-LEVEL VIEW OF QFD AS A PROCESS: The steps in QFD are as follows: capture of the voice of the customer, quality deployment, functions deployment, failure mode deployment, new process deployment, and task deployment. The output of each step becomes the input to a matrix tool or table of the next step of the process. In 3 1/2 months a nine-person project team at Continental Rehabilitation Hospital (San Diego) used QFD tools to capture the voice of the customer, use these data as the basis for a questionnaire on important qualities of service from the customer's perspective, obtain competitive data on how the organization was perceived to be meeting the demanded qualities, identify measurable dimensions and targets of these qualities, and incorporate the functions and tasks into the delivery of service which are necessary to meet the demanded qualities. The future of providing health care services will belong to organizations that can adapt to a rapidly changing environment and to demands for new products and services that are produced and delivered in new ways.

  11. Muted 'voice': The writing of two groups of postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate and account for the weak emergence of 'voice' in the writing of students embarking upon their postgraduate studies in Geosciences. The two elements of 'voice' that are emphasised are 'voice' as style of expression and 'voice' as the ability to write distinctly, yet building upon ...

  12. Sonorous Voice and Feminist Teaching: Lessons from Cavarero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I claim that Adriana Cavarero's concept of sonorous voice is significant in feminist teaching because, as she argues, dominant concepts of voice refer to voice in semantic terms thereby discounting voice in sonorous terms. This process of "devocalization", spanning the history of Western philosophy, devalues the uniqueness embodied in…

  13. Biomechanical models of damage and healing processes for voice health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados Corsellas, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    In voice-loading occupations employees are required to use their voice for continuous and large periods of time, which might lead to voice problems. In this work anomalous vocal-fold vibrations due to long-time high voice-load are investigated. Laryngeal endoscopic high-speed images within the vo...

  14. Effect of classic uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on voice acoustics and speech nasalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud Y Abu El-ella

    2010-01-01

    Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is a commonly used surgical technique for oropharyngeal reconstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This procedure can be done either through the classic or the laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (LAUP) technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of classic UPPP and LAUP on acoustics of voice and speech nasalance, and to compare the effect of each operation on these two domains. Patients and The study included 27 patients with a mean age of 46 years. All patients were diagnosed with OSA based on polysomnographic examination. Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of surgical procedure. Fifteen patients underwent classic UPPP, whereas 12 patients were subjected to LAUP. A full assessment was done for all patients preoperatively and postoperatively, including auditory perceptual assessment (APA) of voice and speech, objective assessment using acoustic voice analysis and nasometry. Auditory perceptual assessment of speech and voice, acoustic analysis of voice and nasometric analysis of speech did not show statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative evaluations in either group (P>.05).The results of this study demonstrated that in patients with OSA, the surgical technique, whether classic UPPP or LAUP, does not have significant effects on the patients' voice quality or their speech outcomes (Author).

  15. ‘Inner voices’: the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different ‘modes’ of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating ‘voice’ sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a ‘voice’-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex. PMID:24396008

  16. [The impact of vibratory stimulation therapy on voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Rogowski, Marek; Moskal, Diana; Dakowicz, Agnieszka; Falkowski, Dawid; Kasperuk, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfunctional dysphonia is the most frequent type of occupational functional dysphonia. Pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of occupational dysphonia. Vibratory massages of the regions of the larynx relax the external muscles of neck, which have an indirect impact on the tension of the vocal folds. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of vibratory stimulation therapy on voice quality in patients with hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia treated pharmacologically. Forty patients with hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia treated phoniatrically in the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 20 patients treated pharmacologically. In group II, including 20 patients, apart from pharmacotherapy the vibratory stimulation therapy by the device of VR type (CyberBioMed LLC) was used. In the analysis of voice quality the evaluation of the vocal folds vibration using videolaryngostroboscopy and acoustic assessment of voice were conducted. The perceptual assessment of voice, the visualization of the vocal folds vibration in stroboscopic examination of the larynx and the acoustic assessment of voice enable the appropriate diagnostics of the clinical type and voice quality in hyperfunctional dysphonia. The tension of superficial and deep muscles of neck has the impact on the phonatory function of the larynx. Pharmacological treatment improves the voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia. Pharmacological treatment combines with the relaxation of muscles of neck using the device of VR type significantly improve voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia. Copyright © 2012 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural correlates of adaptation to voice identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Walther, Christian; Zäske, Romi; Kovács, Gyula

    2011-11-01

    Apart from speech content, the human voice also carries paralinguistic information about speaker identity. Voice identification and its neural correlates have received little scientific attention up to now. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) in an adaptation paradigm, in order to investigate the neural representation and the time course of vocal identity processing. Participants adapted to repeated utterances of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) of one personally familiar speaker (either A or B), before classifying a subsequent test voice varying on an identity continuum between these two speakers. Following adaptation to speaker A, test voices were more likely perceived as speaker B and vice versa, and these contrastive voice identity aftereffects (VIAEs) were much more pronounced when the same syllable, rather than a different syllable, was used as adaptor. Adaptation induced amplitude reductions of the frontocentral N1-P2 complex and a prominent reduction of the parietal P3 component, for test voices preceded by identity-corresponding adaptors. Importantly, only the P3 modulation remained clear for across-syllable combinations of adaptor and test stimuli. Our results suggest that voice identity is contrastively processed by specialized neurons in auditory cortex within ∼250 ms after stimulus onset, with identity processing becoming less dependent on speech content after ∼300 ms. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Correlation between Voice and Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Janine Santos; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Gielow, Ingrid; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves

    2017-09-26

    To compare and to correlate the performance of women with behavioral dysphonia and without voice disorders in auditory processing tests and in the Voice Tone Reproduction Test (VTRT). Forty women aged from 18 to 44 years participated and were divided in two groups: dysphonic (DG) and non-dysphonic (NDG). The participants underwent interview, hearing, otorhinolaryngology and voice assessments (voice record, VTRT through phonetography), and auditory processing assessment-using the Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) test and the Duration Pattern Sequence (DPS) test. The statistical analysis compared both groups, and there was a correlation test (P auditory processing skills, revealing an important relation between vocal production and impairment of some central auditory functions. There was a positive correlation between the performance in the auditory processing assessment and the performance in voice tone reproduction in both groups. The VTRT may assist speech therapists and voice trainers in verifying difficulties of auditory perception of dysphonic women when the cause is due to behavioral tdysphonia. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks in unoccupied classrooms and, likewise, the noise caused by pupils' activity during lessons. Voice samples were recorded before and after a working day. Voice variables measured were sound pressure level (voice SPL), fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and the tilt of the sound spectrum slope (alpha ratio). The ambient noise correlated most often with the fundamental frequency of men and voice SPL, whereas activity noise correlated with the alpha ratio and perturbation values. Teachers working in louder ambient noise spoke more loudly before work than those working in lower noise levels. Voice variables generally changed less during work among teachers working in loud activity noise than among those working in lower noise levels. Ambient and activity noises affect teachers' voice use. Under loud ambient noise teachers seem to speak habitually loudly, and under loud activity noise teachers' ability to react to loading deteriorates.

  20. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  1. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  2. Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series...... of questions about how these new calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices are influencing and informing the way participatory communication is conceptualized and practiced by governments, civil society, or other social actors. What underlying notions of participation, civic...... action, and social change inform the agents of change, be they the new generation of social movements on the one hand, or the established and institutionalized field of communication for social change on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter....

  3. Giving the Customer a Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Hoven, Christopher; Michea, Adela; Varnes, Claus

    There is a widely held view that a lack of, “…customer understanding,” is one of the main reasons for product failure (Eliashberg et al., 1997, p. 219). This is despite the fact that new product development (NPD) is a crucial business process for many companies. The importance of integrating...... the voice of the customer (VoC) through market research is well documented (Davis, 1993; Mullins and Sutherland, 1998; Cooper et al., 2002; Flint, 2002; Davilla et al., 2006; Cooper and Edgett, 2008; Cooper and Dreher, 2010; Goffin and Mitchell, 2010). However, not all research methods are well received......: they highlighted the attributes of market research methods which made them effective at identifying customers’ needs and they showed how different methods were perceived against these attributes. This article starts with a review of the literature on different methods for conducting market research to identify...

  4. His Master’s Voice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörbom, Adrienne; Garsten, Christina

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. Many global business leaders today do much more than engage narrowly in their own corporation and its search for profit. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation...... as political. What is the role of business in the World Economic Forum, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? The results show that corporations find a strategically positioned amplifier for their non-market interests in the WEF. The WEF functions to enhance and gain...... leverage for their ideas and priorities in a highly selective and resourceful environment. In the long run, both the market priorities and the political interests of business may be served by engagement in the WEF. However, the WEF cannot only be conceived as the extended voice of corporations. The WEF...

  5. Voice-related quality of life in the pediatric population: validation of the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality-of Life survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lívia Lima; Paula, Kely Maria Pereira de; Behlau, Mara

    2014-01-01

    To measure the voice-related quality of life in children/adolescents with vocal complaints through the validation of the Brazilian Pediatric Voice-Related Quality-of-Life survey - VR-QOL-P (Qualidade de Vida em Voz Pediátrico - QVV-P), to verify whether the presence of vocal complaints interfere with the quality of life of children/adolescents, and to determine the relationship between the vocal assessment carried out by parents and the VR-QOL-P scores. The participants included 246 parents of children/adolescents of both sexes, aged between 2 years and 18 years (divided into preschoolers, schoolers and adolescents), with and without vocal complaints. All participants signed the informed consent form. Translation, linguistic and cultural adaptation, assessment of cultural equivalence, implementation of the protocol in its final version, voice assessment by parents, demographic and clinical descriptive statistical analysis of the population, individual analysis of the items, verification of psychometric measures of validation, reliability, reproducibility and responsiveness of the instrument to treatment, were carried out. Low scores, especially in the physical domain, were found in subjects with vocal complaints. Among those, adolescents suffered the greatest impact. The social-emotional domain was not sensitive in preschoolers. There was a correlation among the overall, social-emotional and physical scores, and the vocal assessment performed by parents. The VR-QOL-P was reliable, reproducible and responsive to voice problems. Voice change interferes with the quality of life of children/adolescents, and there is a relationship between the assessment of voice quality and VR-QOL-P scores - the older the individual, the worse the quality of life in aspects related to voice, especially in the physical domain, and the better the vocal quality, as perceived by the parents.

  6. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. "Opening the curtains": How do voice hearers make sense of their voices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lucy; Tickle, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The current study sought to explore how, if at all, people construct an understanding of the origin and maintenance of their experience of hearing voices. A social constructionist grounded theory method was adopted throughout the research process. Eight voice hearers, who were distressed by this experience, were recruited and interviewed. Three overarching descriptive categories were constructed regarding participants' understanding of the development and maintenance of hearing voices; search for meaning, view of self, and framework for understanding voices. The "essence" of the developing grounded theory was that individuals actively searched for meaning of their voices through different frameworks, but the relative "success" of this pursuit, and potential usefulness of an understanding, is influenced by the individual's perceptions of agency, stigma, and hope(lessness). This research illustrates how voice hearers actively searched for meaning in relation to their voices and the challenges they encountered during this process. One clinical implication from this study emphasizes the potential role of psychological formulation in generating a shared understanding of the voices. Future research is warranted to explore voice hearers from a wider range of cultural, religious, and spiritual backgrounds. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. [Applicability of Voice Handicap Index to the evaluation of voice therapy effectiveness in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Błoch, Piotr; Domańska, Maja; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the evaluation of effectiveness of functional voice disorders treatment in teachers. The subjects were 45 female teachers with functional dysphonia who evaluated their voice problems according to the subjective VHI scale before and after phoniatric management. Group I (29 patients) were subjected to vocal training, whereas group II (16 patients) received only voice hygiene instructions. The results demonstrated that differences in the mean VHI score before and after phoniatric treatment were significantly higher in group 1 than in group II (p teacher's dysphonia.

  9. Systematic review of the treatment of functional dysphonia and prevention of voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Jani; Sellman, Jaana; Lehto, Laura; Verbeek, Jos

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for treating functional dysphonia or preventing voice disorders in adults. We searched MEDLINE (1950 to 2006), EMBASE (1974 to 2006), CENTRAL (Issue 2 2006), CINAHL (1983 to 2006), PsychINFO (1967 to 2006), Science Citation Index (1986 to 2006), and the Occupational Health databases OSH-ROM (February 2006). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Included studies evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for 1) treating functional/nonorganic dysphonia or 2) preventing voice disorders. We identified six randomized controlled trials about treatment and two about prevention. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. A combination of direct and indirect voice therapy, compared with no intervention, improves self-reported (standardized mean difference -1.07; 95% CI -1.94 to -0.19), observer-rated (weighted mean difference [WMD] -13.00; 95% CI -17.92 to -8.08), and instrumentally assessed vocal functioning (WMD -1.20; 95% CI -2.37 to -0.03) in adults with functional dysphonia. Effects are reported to remain for at least 14 weeks. Effects are similar in patients and in teachers and student teachers screened for voice problems. We found two studies that did not show voice training, compared with no intervention, to have a preventive effective in improving self-reported vocal functioning. Assessment of publication bias showed that the real effect sizes are probably smaller. Comprehensive voice therapy is effective in improving vocal performance in adults with functional dysphonia. There is no evidence of effectiveness of voice training in preventing voice disorders.

  10. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  11. Vocal effectiveness of speech-language pathology students: Before and after voice use during service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Couch

    2015-03-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. Method: A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research design was used. Participants included third- and final-year speech-language pathology students at the University of Pretoria(South Africa. Voice parameters were evaluated in a pre-test measurement, after which the participants provided two consecutive hours of therapy. A post-test measurement was then completed. Data analysis consisted of an instrumental analysis in which the multidimensional voice programme (MDVP and the voice range profile (VRP were used to measure vocal parameters and then calculate the dysphonia severity index (DSI. The GRBASI scale wasused to conduct a perceptual analysis of voice quality. Data were processed using descriptive statistics to determine change in each measured parameter after service delivery. Results: A change of clinical significance was observed in the acoustic and perceptual parameters of voice. Conclusion: Guidelines for SLPs in order to maintain optimal vocal effectiveness were suggested.

  12. Wet voice as a sign of penetration/aspiration in Parkinson's disease: does testing material matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Marília; Argolo, Natalie; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2014-10-01

    Wet voice is a perceptual vocal quality that is commonly used as an indicator of penetration and/or aspiration in clinical swallowing assessments and bedside screening tests. Our aim was to describe the clinimetric characteristics of this clinical sign using various fluid materials and one solid food in the Parkinson's disease (PD) population. Consecutive PD individuals were submitted for simultaneous fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and voice recording. Speech therapists rated the presence or absence of wetness and other voice abnormalities. Two binary endpoints of FEES were selected for comparison with an index test: low penetration (LP) and low penetration and/or aspiration (LP/ASP). The accuracy of wet voice changed according to the testing material in PD patients. Overall, the specificity of this indicator was better than its sensitivity, and the wafer cookie and yogurt drink yielded the best indices. Our data show that wet voice is clearly indicative of LP or LP/ASP in PD patients in case of positive test. However, in the case of a negative result, the wet voice test should be repeated or combined with other clinical tests to include or exclude the risk of LP or LP/ASP.

  13. Assessment practices of Irish speech and language therapists in the evaluation of voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ciarán

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that the evaluation of voice disorders ought to include extensive perceptual, psychometric, and instrumental measurements. This serves to encapsulate the wide-reaching effects of such a disorder, from the physical impairment in voice production to the psycho-social impact of having a dysphonic voice. In spite of this, no international gold standard exists by which voice disorders should be evaluated, and so speech and language therapists (SLTs) are often tasked with developing an assessment battery for use in their own clinics. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the evaluation of voice disorders by Irish SLTs on a national scale is suitably comprehensive, with particular reference to the guidelines published by the European Laryngological Society. A total of 49 SLTs working in a variety of settings responded anonymously to an electronic survey regarding their assessment practices. Results indicate that therapists are comprehensive in non-instrumental evaluation of voice, but lack both access to and training in instrumental assessment techniques.

  14. Effects of singing on voice, respiratory control and quality of life in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Radig, Hollie; Hibbing, Paul; Wingate, Judith; Sapienza, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Interventions focused on singing may provide additional benefits to established voice and respiratory therapies, due to their greater emphasis on the respiratory muscle control system in those with Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses. The purpose of this study was to examine if singing can improve voice, respiratory pressure and quality of life (QOL) in persons with PD. Methods This pilot study measured the effects of a singing intervention in 27 participants with PD. Participants were assigned to a high (met twice weekly) or low (met once weekly) dosage group. Voice, respiratory and QOL measures were recorded before and after an 8-week singing intervention. Sessions were led by board-certified music therapists and included a series of vocal and articulation exercises and group singing. Results Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure, as well as phonation time. While other voice measures improved, they did not reach statistical significance. Voice QOL and whole health QOL also significantly improved. Conclusion These results suggest singing may be a beneficial and engaging treatment choice for improving and maintaining vocal function and respiratory pressure in persons with PD. Implications for Rehabilitation In a small sample, group singing proved beneficial for improving voice and respiratory impairment in persons with Parkinson's disease. Completing group singing one time per week for 8 weeks was as effective as completing group singing two times per week for 8 weeks in persons with Parkinson's disease. Group singing is an effective means of improving overall quality of life in persons with Parkinson's disease.

  15. Secondary Voice Restoration After Laryngotracheal Separation (LTS) for Dysphagia with Intractable Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Katrien; Huvenne, Wouter; De Loof, Marie; Deron, Philippe; Viaene, Annick; Duprez, Fréderic; Vermeersch, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    Intractable aspiration is a serious, often life-threatening condition due to its potential impact on pulmonary function. Aspiration requires therapeutic measures, starting with conservative management but often necessitating surgical treatment. The basic surgical principle is to separate the alimentary and respiratory tracts through a variety of procedures which, unfortunately, nearly all result in the loss of phonation, with the exception of total laryngectomy (TL) which includes the placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. In this study, we present a modified laryngotracheal separation (LTS) technique that, we believe, offers multiple advantages compared to standard TL. After reviewing the medical records of 35 patients with intractable aspiration who have undergone LTS, we describe the surgical technique and present the postoperative result. In a second surgical procedure about two months following LTS, we aimed to achieve voice restoration by placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. Intractable aspiration was successfully treated in all patients. Placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis during a second operation was successful in 15 patients, representing the largest reported cohort thus far. LTS is a reliable surgical technique to treat intractable aspiration, with restoration of oral intake, thereby improving the general condition and quality of life of these unfortunate patients. Furthermore, voice restoration can be achieved in selected patients, by placement of a voice prosthesis.

  16. Development and Validation of the Children's Voice Handicap Index-10 for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Maccarini, Andrea; De Maio, Vincenzo; Murry, Thomas; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Children's Voice Handicap Index-10 (CVHI-10) was introduced as a tool for self-assessment of children's dysphonia. However, in the management of children with voice disorders, both parents' and children's perspectives play an important role. Because a self-tool including both a children's and a parents' version does not exist yet, the aim of the study was to develop and validate an assessment tool which parallels the CVHI-10 for parents to assess the level of voice handicap in their child's voice. Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. To develop a CVHI-10 for parents, called "CVHI-10-P", the CVHI-10 items were adapted to reflect parents' responses about their child. Fifty-five children aged 7-12 years completed the CVHI-10, whereas their parents completed the CVHI-10-P. Each child's voice was also perceptually assessed by an otolaryngologist using the Grade Breathness Roughness (GRB) scale. Fifty-one of the 55 children underwent voice therapy (VT) and were assessed afterward using the GRB, CVHI-10, and CVHI-10-P. CVHI-10-P internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha = .78). Correlation between CVHI-10-P and CVHI-10 was moderate (r = 0.37). CVHI-10-P total scores were lower than CVHI-10 scores in most of the cases. Single-item mean scores were always lower in CVHI-10-P compared with CVHI-10, with the exception of the only one item of the CVHI-10-P that directly involves the parent's experience (item 10). Data gained from one tool are not directly related to the other, suggesting that these two tools appraise the child's voice handicap from different perspectives. The overall perceptual assessment scores of the 51 children after VT significantly improved. There was a statistically significant reduction of the total scores and for each item in CVHI-10 and CVHI-10-P after VT. These data support the adoption of the CVHI-10-P as an assessment tool and an outcome measure for management of children's voice disorders. CVHI-10-P is a valid tool to

  17. Multidimensional effects of voice therapy in patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Camila Barbosa; Silveira, Paula Angélica Lorenzon; Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Gonçalves, Aline Nogueira; Slobodticov, Luciana Dall'Agnol Siqueira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de

    2017-08-24

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may demonstrate different degrees of voice perturbation depending on the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. Understanding the effectiveness of voice therapy in this population may be an important coefficient to define the therapeutic approach. To evaluate the voice therapy effectiveness in the short, medium and long-term in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and determine the risk factors for voice rehabilitation failure. Prospective study with 61 patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis enrolled. Each subject had voice therapy with an experienced speech pathologist twice a week. A multidimensional assessment protocol was used pre-treatment and in three different times after voice treatment initiation: short-term (1-3 months), medium-term (4-6 months) and long-term (12 months); it included videoendoscopy, maximum phonation time, GRBASI scale, acoustic voice analysis and the portuguese version of the voice handicap index. Multiple comparisons for GRBASI scale and VHI revealed statistically significant differences, except between medium and long term (p<0.005). The data suggest that there is vocal improvement over time with stabilization results after 6 months (medium term). From the 28 patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis, 18 (69.2%) reached complete glottal closure following vocal therapy (p=0.001). The logistic regression method indicated that the Jitter entered the final model as a risk factor for partial improvement. For every unit of increased jitter, there was an increase of 0.1% (1.001) of the chance for partial improvement, which means an increase on no full improvement chance during rehabilitation. Vocal rehabilitation improves perceptual and acoustic voice parameters and voice handicap index, besides favor glottal closure in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The results were also permanent during the period of 1 year. The Jitter value, when elevated, is

  18. Using Natural Language And Voice To Control High Level Tasks In A Robotics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Robert G.

    1987-03-01

    RCA's Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has implemented an integrated system which permits control of high level tasks in a robotics environment through voice input in the form of natural language syntax. The paper to be presented will outline the architecture used to integrate voice recognition and synthesis hardware and natural language and intelligent reasoning software with a supervisory processor that controls robotic and vision operations in the robotic testbed. The application is intended to give the human operator of a Puma 782 industrial robot the ability to combine joystick teleoperation with voice input in order to provide a flexible man-machine interface in a hands-busy environment. The system is designed to give the operator a speech interface which is unobtrusive and undemanding in terms of predetermined syntax requirements. The voice recognizer accepts continuous speech and the natural language processor accepts full and partial sentence fragments and can perform a fair amount of disambiguation and context analysis. Output to the operator comes via the parallel channel of speech synthesis so that the operator does not have to consult the computer's CRT for messages. The messages are generated from the software and offer warnings about unacceptable situations, confirmations of actions completed, and feedback of system data.

  19. DOOp: DAOSPEC Output Optimizer pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Pancino, Elena; Bragaglia, Angela; Vallenari, Antonella; Friel, Eileen D.; Sordo, Rosanna; Jacobson, Heather R.; Magrini, Laura

    2017-09-01

    The DAOSPEC Output Optimizer pipeline (DOOp) runs efficient and convenient equivalent widths measurements in batches of hundreds of spectra. It uses a series of BASH scripts to work as a wrapper for the FORTRAN code DAOSPEC (ascl:1011.002) and uses IRAF (ascl:9911.002) to automatically fix some of the parameters that are usually set by hand when using DAOSPEC. This allows batch-processing of quantities of spectra that would be impossible to deal with by hand. DOOp was originally built for the large quantity of UVES and GIRAFFE spectra produced by the Gaia-ESO Survey, but just like DAOSPEC, it can be used on any high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum binned on a linear wavelength scale.

  20. Former Auctioneer Finds Voice After Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aphasia Follow us Former Auctioneer Finds Voice After Aphasia Speech impairment changed his life One unremarkable September ... 10 Tips for Communicating with Someone who has Aphasia Talk to them in a quiet, calm, relaxed ...

  1. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Employment Opportunities Renting Space Advocacy Medicare Advocacy Legislative & Political Affairs ENT PAC foundation Guidelines Patient Health Quality Reimbursement More Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENTDoctor near you Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Common Problems ...

  2. Voice Based City Panic Button System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriansyah; Zainuddin, Zahir; Bachtiar Nappu, M.

    2018-03-01

    The development of voice activated panic button application aims to design faster early notification of hazardous condition in community to the nearest police by using speech as the detector where the current application still applies touch-combination on screen and use coordination of orders from control center then the early notification still takes longer time. The method used in this research was by using voice recognition as the user voice detection and haversine formula for the comparison of closest distance between the user and the police. This research was equipped with auto sms, which sent notification to the victim’s relatives, that was also integrated with Google Maps application (GMaps) as the map to the victim’s location. The results show that voice registration on the application reaches 100%, incident detection using speech recognition while the application is running is 94.67% in average, and the auto sms to the victim relatives reaches 100%.

  3. Voice disorders in Nigerian primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, R; Lam, K B H; Ayres, J G; Sadhra, S

    2014-07-01

    The prolonged use or abuse of voice may lead to vocal fatigue and vocal fold tissue damage. School teachers routinely use their voices intensively at work and are therefore at a higher risk of dysphonia. To determine the prevalence of voice disorders among primary school teachers in Lagos, Nigeria, and to explore associated risk factors. Teaching and non-teaching staff from 19 public and private primary schools completed a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on personal lifestyles, work experience and environment, and voice disorder symptoms. Dysphonia was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: hoarseness, repetitive throat clearing, tired voice or straining to speak. A total of 341 teaching and 155 non-teaching staff participated. The prevalence of dysphonia in teachers was 42% compared with 18% in non-teaching staff. A significantly higher proportion of the teachers reported that voice symptoms had affected their ability to communicate effectively. School type (public/private) did not predict the presence of dysphonia. Statistically significant associations were found for regular caffeinated drink intake (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-6.62), frequent upper respiratory tract infection (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.39-9.33) and raised voice while teaching (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.07-20.2). Nigerian primary school teachers were at risk for dysphonia. Important environment and personal factors were upper respiratory infection, the need to frequently raise the voice when teaching and regular intake of caffeinated drinks. Dysphonia was not associated with age or years of teaching. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Classification System of Pathological Voices Using Correntropy

    OpenAIRE

    Aluisio I. R. Fontes; Pedro T. V. Souza; Adrião D. D. Neto; Allan de M. Martins; Luiz F. Q. Silveira

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of a similarity measure based on information theory called correntropy for the automatic classification of pathological voices. By using correntropy, it is possible to obtain descriptors that aggregate distinct spectral characteristics for healthy and pathological voices. Experiments using computational simulation demonstrate that such descriptors are very efficient in the characterization of vocal dysfunctions, leading to a success rate of 97% in the classificatio...

  5. Negative voice-content as a full mediator of a relation between childhood adversity and distress ensuing from hearing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Cherise; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Jones, Nev; Chase, Kayla A; Sharma, Rajiv P

    2018-03-23

    A key predictor of whether or not an individual who hears voices (auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) meets criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis is the level of negative content of the voices (e.g., threats, criticism, abuse). Yet the factors that contribute to negative voice-content are still not well understood. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that levels of childhood adversity would predict levels of negative voice-content, and that negative voice-content would partially mediate a relation between childhood adversity and voice-related distress. These hypotheses were tested in a clinical sample of 61 patients with formally diagnosed psychotic disorders (48 schizophrenia, 13 bipolar). We found evidence consistent with negative voice-content fully (not partially) mediating the relation between childhood adversity and voice-related distress. Although bivariate analyses found depression to be associated with both negative voice-content and voice-related distress, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of childhood adversity on either negative voice-content or voice-related distress via depression. Alternative study designs are now needed to test if our findings are replicable and causal. Should they be, it will be necessary for psychological therapies to devise ways to reduce negative voice-content itself, rather than just changing beliefs about voices. A number of techniques are discussed (Avatar Therapy, Compassion Focused Therapy, voice-dialogue) that already show promise for this. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of voice acoustic parameters related to the vocal-loading test in professionally active teachers with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are at risk of developing voice disorders. A clinical battery of vocal function tests should include non-invasive and accurate measurements. The quantitative methods (e.g., voice acoustic analysis) make it possible to objectively evaluate voice efficiency and outcomes of dysphonia treatment. To identify possible signs of vocal fatigue, acoustic waveform perturbations during sustained phonation were measured before and after the vocal-loading test in 51 professionally active female teachers with functional voice disorders, using IRIS software. All the participants were also subjected to laryngological/phoniatric examination involving videostroboscopy combined with self-estimation by voice handicap index (VHI)-based scale. The phoniatric examination revealed glottal insufficiency with bowed vocal folds in 35.2%, soft vocal nodules in 31.4%, and hyperfunctional dysphonia with a tendency towards vestibular phonation in 19.6% of the patients. In the VHI scale, 66% of the female teachers estimated their own voice problems as moderate disability. An acoustic analysis performed after the vocal-loading test showed an increased rate of abnormal frequency perturbation parameters (pitch perturbation quotient (Jitter), relative average perturbation (RAP), and pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ)) compared to the pre-test outcomes. The same was true of pitch-intensity contour of vowel /a:/, an indication of voice instability during sustained phonation. The recorded impairments of voice acoustic parameters related to vocal loading provide further evidence of dysphonia. The voice acoustic analysis performed before and after the vocal-loading test can significantly contribute to objective voice examinations useful in diagnosis of dysphonia among teachers.

  7. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. A Training Model for Improving Journalists' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, Emma; Diaz-Rodriguez, Celia; Larrea, Olatz

    2017-06-06

    Voice education is a crucial aspect for professionals (journalists, teachers, politicians, actors, etc.) who use their voices as a working tool. The main concerns about such education are that, first, there is little awareness of the importance of voice education, and second there is little research devoted to it. The consequences of this lack of training are indeed visible in professionals who suffer voice pathologies or work with little effectiveness. This study seeks to overcome this deficiency by proposing a training model tested with a control group and a pilot study. Speech samples from a group of experimental participants-journalism students-were collected before and after a training course designed to improve their main vocal and prosodic features. These samples were contrasted with a control group without training. Results indicated significant differences in all tested voice elements (breathing, articulation, loudness, pitch, jitter, speech rate, pauses, and stress) except for shimmer and harmonics. The participants were able to enhance their main vocal and prosodic elements, and therefore their expressiveness maintaining optimal vocal hygiene. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Voice Use Among Music Theory Teachers: A Voice Dosimetry and Self-Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Isabel S; Morsomme, Dominique; Remacle, Angélique

    2017-07-25

    This study aimed (1) to investigate music theory teachers' professional and extra-professional vocal loading and background noise exposure, (2) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and background noise, and (3) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and self-evaluation data. Using voice dosimetry, 13 music theory teachers were monitored for one workweek. The parameters analyzed were voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), phonation time, vocal loading index (VLI), and noise SPL. Spearman correlation was used to correlate vocal loading parameters (voice SPL, F0, and phonation time) and noise SPL. Each day, the subjects self-assessed their voice using visual analog scales. VLI and self-evaluation data were correlated using Spearman correlation. Vocal loading parameters and noise SPL were significantly higher in the professional than in the extra-professional environment. Voice SPL, phonation time, and female subjects' F0 correlated positively with noise SPL. VLI correlated with self-assessed voice quality, vocal fatigue, and amount of singing and speaking voice produced. Teaching music theory is a profession with high vocal demands. More background noise is associated with increased vocal loading and may indirectly increase the risk for voice disorders. Correlations between VLI and self-assessments suggest that these teachers are well aware of their vocal demands and feel their effect on voice quality and vocal fatigue. Visual analog scales seem to represent a useful tool for subjective vocal loading assessment and associated symptoms in these professional voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Voicing Others’ Voices: Spotlighting the Researcher as Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O’SULLIVAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  12. Does CPAP Affect Patient-Reported Voice Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, Vance; Gillespie, Amanda; Smith, Libby J; Soose, Ryan J

    2018-04-01

    Upper aerodigestive tract symptoms are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It remains unclear whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves or worsens these otolaryngology symptoms. As therapy-related side effects limit CPAP adherence, this study aimed to determine if CPAP negatively affects voice, sinonasal, and reflux symptoms of the upper airway. Case series with planned data collection was performed at an academic otolaryngology sleep center. Newly diagnosed patients with OSA were evaluated before and 6 months after initiating CPAP therapy. Data collected included CPAP data download, Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10), Sino-Nasal Questionnaire (SNQ), and oral dryness visual analog scale (VAS). For the 11 CPAP-adherent participants, the RSI significantly improved with CPAP (mean RSI, 22.0-9.5; P = .002); however, the VAS, VHI-10, and SNQ did not change after 6 months of CPAP therapy. In a small sample size, patient-reported voice outcomes (VHI-10) and other upper aerodigestive tract symptoms did not worsen with CPAP; rather, CPAP therapy was associated with a reduction in reflux symptoms.

  13. Multilingual evaluation of voice disability index using pitch rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Shinohara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of the pitch rate of free-form speech recorded by smartphones as an index of voice disability. This research compares the effectiveness of pitch rate, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR as indices of voice disability in English, German, and Japanese. Normally, the evaluation of these indices is performed using long-vowel sounds; however, this study included the recitation of a set passage, which is more similar to free-form speech. The results showed that for English, the jitter, shimmer, and HNR were very effective indices for long-vowel sounds, but the shimmer and HNR for read speech were considerably worse. Although the effectiveness of jitter as an index was maintained for read speech, the pitch rate was better in distinguishing between healthy individuals and patients with illnesses affecting their voice. The read speech results in German, Japanese, and English were similar, and the pitch rate showed the greatest efficiency for identification. Nevertheless, compared to English, the identification efficiency for the other two languages was lower.

  14. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probabilit...

  15. Preliminary observations on influence of dairy products on biofilm removal from silicone rubber voice prostheses in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; Free, RH; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ; Van der Mei, HC

    We determined oropharyngeal biofilm removal from silicone rubber voice prostheses in an artificial throat after perfusion with different commercially available dairy products, including buttermilk, Lactobacillus casei Shirota fermented milk (Yakult, Yakult Netherlands BV, Almere, The Netherlands),

  16. Bringing the "self" into focus: conceptualising the role of self-experience for understanding and working with distressing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Smith, Sarah F; Hayward, Mark; Strauss, Clara; Fowler, David; Paulik, Georgie; Thomas, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is to reduce distress and disability, not to change the positive symptoms of psychosis, such as hearing voices. Despite demonstrated associations between beliefs about voices and distress, the effects of CBTp on reducing voice distress are disappointing. Research has begun to explore the role that the psychological construct of "self" (which includes numerous facets such as self-reflection, self-schema and self-concept) might play in causing and maintaining distress and disability in voice hearers. However, attempts to clarify and integrate these different perspectives within the voice hearing literature, or to explore their clinical implications, are still in their infancy. This paper outlines how the self has been conceptualised in the psychosis and CBT literatures, followed by a review of the evidence regarding the proposed role of this construct in the etiology of and adaptation to voice hearing experiences. We go on to discuss some of the specific intervention methods that aim to target these aspects of self-experience and end by identifying key research questions in this area. Notably, we suggest that interventions specifically targeting aspects of self-experience, including self-affection, self-reflection, self-schema and self-concept, may be sufficient to reduce distress and disruption in the context of hearing voices, a suggestion that now requires further empirical investigation.

  17. Student Voice as a Contested Practice: Power and Participation in Two Student Voice Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carol; Taylor, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This article applies theoretical understandings of power relations within student voice work to two empirical examples of school-based student voice projects. The article builds on and refines theoretical understandings of power and participation developed in previous articles written by the authors. The first article argued that at the heart of…

  18. The \\"voice of the teacher\\' in curriculum development: a voice crying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The \\"voice of the teacher\\' in curriculum development: a voice crying in the wildernes. Arend Carl. Abstract. No Abstract. South African journal of Education Vol. 25(4) 2005: 223-228. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  19. Optical transducers with frequency output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, Oleksandr V.; Osadchuk, Volodymyr S.; Osadchuk, Iaroslav O.; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Komada, Paweł; Mussabekov, Kanat

    2017-08-01

    In this work the characteristics research of microelectronic transducers of optical radiation with a frequency output signal on the basis of a hybrid integrated circuit consisting of a bipolar and a field-effect transistor with a Schottky barrier is presented. The connection of an external inductance to electrodes a collector - drain allows to implement the auto generating device. The frequency of the device generation depends on power of optical radiation falling on photosensing elements as a photoresistor, photodiode and photosensing transistors switched on in a circuit of the self-excited oscillator. The impedance on electrodes the collector - drain of bipolar and field transistors has capacitive reactive part and negative active resistance, which compensates power losses in a tuning circuit of the device. On the base of a nonlinear equivalent circuit of the transducer on an alternating current the analytical expressions of function of transformation and equation of sensitivity are obtained. The sensitivity of optical transducers lays in a range from 25 kHz/μWt/cm2 up to 150 kHz/μWt/cm2.

  20. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  1. Speech and voice range profiles of adults with untrained normal voices: methodological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Katherine; Oates, Jennifer; Dacakis, Georgia; Holmberg, Eva B

    2014-07-01

    Automatic recordings were made of speech and voice range profiles for 63 vocally healthy Australian men and women without voice training (30 males and 33 females aged 21 to 65 years). Test-retest reliability, evaluated for a subgroup, was high. Speech range profile results were consistent with results reported by others. However, voice range profiles were larger than shown in several previous studies. Nevertheless, voice range profiles were consistent with results reported for a recent study that used a similar elicitation and recording protocol and similar equipment. Results are discussed with reference to methodological issues important for reliable phonetogram recordings. The data may also be clinically useful for comparisons between disordered and healthy voices if similar equipment and elicitation and recording protocols are used.

  2. Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer within a ring optical resonator and its use for absolute optimization of output power. The integration of the ARR interferometer in a folded arm of the ring oscillator provides continuously variable output coupling over broad spectral range and under any operating conditions. We demonstrate the technique using a picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO), where we show continuously adjustable output coupling and optimization of the output power for different pump power conditions, from 3.5 W to 13.5 W. By operating the OPO under an optimized output coupling at 14 W of pump power, we obtain >5 W of extracted signal power, more than 2.6 times that with a ~5% conventional output coupler. We also show that the inclusion of the ARR interferometer has no detrimental effect on the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of OPO output.

  3. Power and perceived expressed emotion of voices: their impact on depression and suicidal thinking in those who hear voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Charlotte; Birchwood, Max

    2013-01-01

    Considerable focus has been given to the interpersonal nature of the voice-hearing relationship and how appraisals about voices may be linked with distress and depression (the 'cognitive model'). Research hitherto has focused on appraisals of voice power, but the supportive and affiliative quality of voices, which may act to mitigate distress, is not understood. We explored appraisals of voices' power and emotional support to determine their significance in predicting depression and suicidal thought. We adapted the concept of expressed emotion (EE) and applied it to measure voice hearers' perception of the relationship with their voice(s). In a sample of 74 voice hearers, 55.4% were moderately depressed. Seventy-eight who rated their voices as high in both power and EE had a large and significant elevation in depression, suggesting that co-occurrence of these appraisals impacts on depression. Analysis of the relationship between power and EE revealed that many voices perceived as low in power were, nevertheless, perceived as high in EE. Those rating their voices as emotionally supportive showed the lowest levels of depression and suicidal thinking. These findings highlight the protective role that the supportive dimension of the voice/voice-hearer relationship may have. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kriegstein

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  5. Correlation of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI), Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V), and Gender in Brazilians With and Without Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; de Souza, Glaucia S; Hachiya, Adriana; Tsuji, Domingos H

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in Brazilians with or without voice disorders and investigate DSI's correlation with gender and auditory-perceptual evaluation data obtained via the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) protocol. A total of 66 Brazilian adults from both genders participated in the study, including 24 patients with dysphonia confirmed on laryngeal examination (dysphonic group [DG]) and 42 volunteers without voice or hearing complaints and without auditory-perceptual voice disorders (nondysphonic group [NDG]). The vocal tasks included in CAPE-V and DSI were performed and recorded. Data were analyzed by means of the independent t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation at the 5% significance level. Differences were found in the mean DSI values between the DG and the NDG. Differences were also found in all DSI items between the groups, except for the highest frequency parameter. In the DG, a moderate negative correlation was detected between overall dysphonia severity (CAPE-V) and DSI value, and between breathiness and DSI value, and a weak negative correlation was detected between DSI value and roughness. In the NDG, the maximum phonation time was higher among males. In both groups, the highest frequency parameter was higher among females. The DSI discriminated among Brazilians with or without voice disorders. A correlation was found between some aspects of the DSI and the CAPE-V but not between DSI and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovering from hallucinations: a qualitative study of coping with voices hearing of people with schizophrenia in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Petrus; Chun, Ricky W K; Tsun, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hallucination is a positive symptom of schizophrenia and has significant impacts on the lives of individuals. People with auditory hallucination require considerable assistance from mental health professionals. Apart from medications, they may apply different lay methods to cope with their voice hearing. Results from qualitative interviews showed that people with schizophrenia in the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong were coping with auditory hallucination in different ways, including (a) changing social contacts, (b) manipulating the voices, and (c) changing perception and meaning towards the voices. Implications for recovery from psychiatric illness of individuals with auditory hallucinations are discussed.

  7. Recovering from Hallucinations: A Qualitative Study of Coping with Voices Hearing of People with Schizophrenia in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Ng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucination is a positive symptom of schizophrenia and has significant impacts on the lives of individuals. People with auditory hallucination require considerable assistance from mental health professionals. Apart from medications, they may apply different lay methods to cope with their voice hearing. Results from qualitative interviews showed that people with schizophrenia in the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong were coping with auditory hallucination in different ways, including (a changing social contacts, (b manipulating the voices, and (c changing perception and meaning towards the voices. Implications for recovery from psychiatric illness of individuals with auditory hallucinations are discussed.

  8. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants' tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21-41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of administration, clinic- versus self

  9. The 'icon' of output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bligh, L.N.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Output efficiency (OE) is a well-validated parameter used in the assessment of hydronephrosis. Current analysis on Microdelta appears to produce few low OE values and occasional inability to produce a result. We sought an OE program which gave a reliable response over the full range of values. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether OE results are comparable between two computer systems; (2) a normal range for OE on an ICON; (3) inter-observer reproducibility; and (4) the correlation between the two programs and the residual cortical activity ratio (RCA), an index which assesses tracer washout from the 20 min cortical activity/peak cortical activity. Accordingly, two blinded medical radiation scientists reviewed 41 kidneys (26 native, 15 transplant) and calculated OE for each kidney on the ICON and Microdelta computers The OE on the Microdelta and the ICON had good correspondence (r = 0.6%, SEE = 6.2). The extrapolated normal range for ICON OE was 69-92% (mean 80.9%). The inter-observer reproducibility on the ICON was excellent with a CV of 8.7%. ICON OE and RCA had a strong correlation (r = - 0.77, SEE = 0.09), compared with a weaker correlation for the Microdelta (r = 0.47, SEE = 0.13). Processing on the ICON was almost half that of the Microdelta at 4 min compared with 7 min. We conclude that OE generated by these computer programs has good correlation, an established normal range, excellent interobserver reproducibility, but differing correlation with RCA. The response of the ICON program to low ranges of OE is being investigated further

  10. Voice Problems in New Zealand Teachers: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Sylvia H de S; Oates, Jennifer M; Purdy, Suzanne C; Scott, David; Morton, Randall P

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the prevalence and nature of voice problems in New Zealand (NZ) teachers using a national self-report questionnaire. Epidemiological cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1879 primary and secondary teachers (72.5% females). Three prevalence timeframes were estimated. Severity of voice problems, recovery time, days away from work, symptoms, health assistance, and voice education were also investigated. Prevalence of self-reported vocal problems was 33.2% during their teaching career, 24.7% over the teaching year, and 13.2% on the day of the survey. Primary teachers (Pteachers reporting voice problems during the year, 47% were moderate or severe; for 30%, voice recovery took more than 1 week. Approximately 28% stayed away from work 1-3 days owing to a vocal problem and 9% for more than 3 days. Women reported longer recovery times and more days away. Symptoms associated with voice problems (Pteachers reporting voice problems, only 22.5% consulted a health practitioner. Only 38% of the teachers with chronic voice problems visited an otolaryngologist. Higher hours of voice training/education were associated with fewer self-reported voice problems. Voice problems are of concern for NZ teachers, as has been reported for teachers in other countries. There is still limited awareness among teachers about vocal health, potential risks, and specialized health services for voice problems. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  12. Auditory brainstem's sensitivity to human voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Skoe, Erika; Nicol, Trent; Kraus, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating between voices is a basic social skill humans acquire early in life. The current study aimed to understand the subcortical mechanisms of voice processing by focusing on the two most important acoustical voice features: the fundamental frequency (F0) and harmonics. We measured frequency following responses in a group of young adults to a naturally produced speech syllable under two linguistic contexts: same-syllable and multiple-syllable. Compared to the same-syllable context, the multiple-syllable context contained more speech cues to aid voice processing. We analyzed the magnitude of the response to the F0 and harmonics between same-talker and multiple-talker conditions within each linguistic context. Results establish that the human auditory brainstem is sensitive to different talkers as shown by enhanced harmonic responses under the multiple-talker compared to the same-talker condition, when the stimulus stream contained multiple syllables. This study thus provides the first electrophysiological evidence of the auditory brainstem's sensitivity to human voices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Probing echoic memory with different voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, D J; Bastian, J

    1977-05-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that some acoustical properties of spoken items are preserved in an "echoic" memory for approximately 2 sec. However, some of this evidence has also shown that changing the voice speaking the stimulus items has a disruptive effect on memory which persists longer than that of other acoustical variables. The present experiment examined the effect of voice changes on response bias as well as on accuracy in a recognition memory task. The task involved judging recognition probes as being present in or absent from sets of dichotically presented digits. Recognition of probes spoken in the same voice as that of the dichotic items was more accurate than recognition of different-voice probes at each of three retention intervals of up to 4 sec. Different-voice probes increased the likelihood of "absent" responses, but only up to a 1.4-sec delay. These shifts in response bias may represent a property of echoic memory which should be investigated further.

  14. Respiratory Tract Infections and Voice Quality in 4-Year-old Children in the STEPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallvik, Emma; Toivonen, Laura; Peltola, Ville; Kaljonen, Anne; Simberg, Susanna

    2018-03-02

    Health-related factors are part of the multifactorial background of dysphonia in children. Respiratory tract infections affect the same systems and structures that are used for voice production. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the number of respiratory tract infections or the viral etiology were significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. The participants were 4-year-old children who participated in the multidisciplinary STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) where they were followed up from pregnancy or birth to 4 years of age. Data were collected through questionnaires and a health diary filled in by the parents. Some of the children were followed up more intensively for respiratory tract infections during the first 2 years of life, and nasal swab samples were taken at the onset of respiratory symptoms. Our participants were 489 of these children who had participated in the follow-up for at least 1 year and for whom data on respiratory tract infections and data on voice quality were available. The number of hospitalizations due to respiratory tract infections was a significant predictor for a more hoarse voice quality. Neither the number of rhinovirus infections nor the number of respiratory syncytial virus infections was statistically significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. Based on our results, we would suggest including questions on the presence of respiratory tract infections that have led to hospitalization in the pediatric voice anamnesis. Whether the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections is of importance or not requires further research. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices in two elementary classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth Rowland

    barriers to integrating multiliteracies and scientific practices into science teaching. The issues include time, increased standards accountability, and lack of comfort with effective integration of technology. The fourth theme revealed that students have the ability to shape and define their learning while supporting other voices through collaborative science experiences.

  16. Voice deviation, dysphonia risk screening and quality of life in individuals with various laryngeal diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Cota, Ariane; Tsuji, Domingos; Simões-Zenari, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the voice quality of individuals with dysphonia and to investigate possible correlations between the degree of voice deviation (D) and scores on the Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol-General (DRSP), the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) measure and the Voice Handicap Index, short version (VHI-10). METHODS: The sample included 200 individuals with dysphonia. Following laryngoscopy, the participants completed the DRSP, the V-RQOL measure, and the VHI-10; subsequently, voice samples were recorded for auditory-perceptual and acoustic analyses. The correlation between the score for each questionnaire and the overall degree of vocal deviation was analyzed, as was the correlation among the scores for the three questionnaires. RESULTS: Most of the participants (62%) were female, and the mean age of the sample was 49 years. The most common laryngeal diagnosis was organic dysphonia (79.5%). The mean D was 59.54, and the predominance of roughness had a mean of 54.74. All the participants exhibited at least one abnormal acoustic aspect. The mean questionnaire scores were DRSP, 44.7; V-RQOL, 57.1; and VHI-10, 16. An inverse correlation was found between the V-RQOL score and D; however, a positive correlation was found between both the VHI-10 and DRSP scores and D. CONCLUSION: A predominance of adult women, organic dysphonia, moderate voice deviation, high dysphonia risk, and low to moderate quality of life impact characterized our sample. There were correlations between the scores of each of the three questionnaires and the degree of voice deviation. It should be noted that the DRSP monitored the degree of dysphonia severity, which reinforces its applicability for patients with different laryngeal diagnoses. PMID:29538494

  17. Voice in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term androgen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Van Borsel, John; Wierckx, Katrien; Dedecker, David; Van de Peer, Fleur; Daelman, Tine; Laenen, Sofie; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to 1) document voice in a large sample of female-to-male transsexual persons (FMT), 2) compare their vocal characteristics with those of heterosexual biological males, and 3) determine hormonal factors with impact on their fundamental frequency. This was a controlled cross-sectional study. It is the largest study to date on voice and voice change in FMT, and the first to include a control group and FMT who were under long-term androgen administration. Thirty-eight FMT, ranging in age between 22 and 54 years, and 38 controls, frequency matched by age and smoking behavior, underwent a voice assessment that comprised the determination of pitch, intonation, and perturbation parameters measured during sustained vowel production, counting, and reading. Hormonal factors explored were hematocrit, total testosterone level, luteinizing hormone level, and biallelic mean length of the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat sequence in the androgen receptor gene. It was found that the FMT as a group did not differ significantly from controls for any of the acoustic voice variables studied. However, in about 10% pitch lowering was not totally unproblematic. The lowest-pitched (i.e., more male) voices were observed in FMT with higher hematocrit and longer CAG repeats. After long-term androgen therapy, FMT generally demonstrate an acceptable male voice. Pitch-lowering difficulties can be expected in about 10% of cases and appear, at least in part, to be associated with diminished androgen sensitivity. 3b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Factors associated with voice disorders among the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, Amanda Cibelly Brito; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2017-12-26

    During the aging process, natural modifications occur in the larynx and the structures involved in phonation which explain the specific characteristics found in the voices of elderly persons. When, at any moment, a voice fails and there is interference with communication, a voice disorder has occurred. This can generate disadvantages in communicative efficiency and have a negative impact on quality of life, compromising mechanisms of socialization, the maintenance of autonomy, and the sense of well-being. Nevertheless, there appears to be little clarity about which factors are associated with voice disorders in this population, especially from an epidemiological perspective. The present study is a literature review to identify factors associated with voice disorders among the elderly described in population-based studies. A systematic review of electronic databases was carried out. The methodological quality of the studies was analyzed with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. The research was conducted independently by two researchers. Although two articles met the eligibility criteria, none fulfilled all the criteria for the evaluation of methodological quality. According to the two studies selected for this review, factors associated with voice disorders among the elderly included both physical and psychosocial aspects. However, the methodological discrepancies between the studies, particularly in relation to sample selection and the instruments used indicate great variability and compromise the reliability of the results. Further prevalence studies and investigations of factors associated with voice disorders in the elderly from an epidemiological perspective, and which involve different cultures, should be carried out. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Voice deviation, dysphonia risk screening and quality of life in individuals with various laryngeal diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize the voice quality of individuals with dysphonia and to investigate possible correlations between the degree of voice deviation (D and scores on the Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol-General (DRSP, the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL measure and the Voice Handicap Index, short version (VHI-10. METHODS: The sample included 200 individuals with dysphonia. Following laryngoscopy, the participants completed the DRSP, the V-RQOL measure, and the VHI-10; subsequently, voice samples were recorded for auditory-perceptual and acoustic analyses. The correlation between the score for each questionnaire and the overall degree of vocal deviation was analyzed, as was the correlation among the scores for the three questionnaires. RESULTS: Most of the participants (62% were female, and the mean age of the sample was 49 years. The most common laryngeal diagnosis was organic dysphonia (79.5%. The mean D was 59.54, and the predominance of roughness had a mean of 54.74. All the participants exhibited at least one abnormal acoustic aspect. The mean questionnaire scores were DRSP, 44.7; V-RQOL, 57.1; and VHI-10, 16. An inverse correlation was found between the V-RQOL score and D; however, a positive correlation was found between both the VHI-10 and DRSP scores and D. CONCLUSION: A predominance of adult women, organic dysphonia, moderate voice deviation, high dysphonia risk, and low to moderate quality of life impact characterized our sample. There were correlations between the scores of each of the three questionnaires and the degree of voice deviation. It should be noted that the DRSP monitored the degree of dysphonia severity, which reinforces its applicability for patients with different laryngeal diagnoses.

  20. Comparing the experience of voices in borderline personality disorder with the experience of voices in a psychotic disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Zalie; Rossell, Susan L; Castle, David J

    2016-07-01

    In clinical settings, there is substantial evidence both clinically and empirically to suggest that approximately 50% of individuals with borderline personality disorder experience auditory verbal hallucinations. However, there is limited research investigating the phenomenology of these voices. The aim of this study was to review and compare our current understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder with auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with a psychotic disorder, to critically analyse existing studies investigating auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder and to identify gaps in current knowledge, which will help direct future research. The literature was searched using the electronic database Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE. Relevant studies were included if they were written in English, were empirical studies specifically addressing auditory verbal hallucinations and borderline personality disorder, were peer reviewed, used only adult humans and sample comprising borderline personality disorder as the primary diagnosis, and included a comparison group with a primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Our search strategy revealed a total of 16 articles investigating the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder. Some studies provided evidence to suggest that the voice experiences in borderline personality disorder are similar to those experienced by people with schizophrenia, for example, occur inside the head, and often involved persecutory voices. Other studies revealed some differences between schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder voice experiences, with the borderline personality disorder voices sounding more derogatory and self-critical in nature and the voice-hearers' response to the voices were more emotionally resistive. Furthermore, in one study, the schizophrenia group's voices resulted in more disruption in daily functioning

  1. Effects on Voice Fundamental Frequency and Satisfaction with Voice in Trans Men during Testosterone Treatment-A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Ulrika; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Arver, Stefan; Södersten, Maria

    2016-11-01

    To investigate effects of testosterone treatment regarding voice virilization, voice problems, and voice satisfaction in transsexual female-to-male individuals, referred to as trans men. Longitudinal. Fifty trans men, diagnosed with transsexualism, 18-64 years, met the inclusion criteria. Voice data before treatment and after 3, 6, or 12 months were available from 49 participants, and for 28 participants also after 18 and/or 24 months of treatment. Digital audio recordings of speech range profiles and voice range profiles were carried out in a sound-treated booth following clinical routines. Acoustic analyses of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level were made. Endocrine data and answers from questionnaires concerning voice function and voice problems were collected from medical records. Mean F0 and mode F0 of the habitual voice decreased significantly after 3 months, 6 months, and up to 12 months, when group data were congruent with reference data for males. Mean F0 was 125 Hz after 12 months with a large interindividual variation. Sound pressure level values did not change significantly. Voice satisfaction correlated with lower F0 values. Twenty-four percent of the participants reported voice symptoms, for example, vocal instability and fatigue, and had received voice therapy. F0 values did not correlate with androgen levels. Most trans men developed a male voice and were satisfied. However, it is important to detect the substantial group of trans men with voice problems and with insufficient voice virilization and who may need voice therapy. Therefore, we recommend systematic voice assessments during testosterone treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language? On this page: Voice Speech Language Where can ... may occur in children who have developmental disabilities. Language Language is the expression of human communication through ...

  3. Teachers’ voice use in teaching environment. Aspects on speakers’ comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    use and prevalence of voice problems in teachers and to explore their ratings of vocally loading aspects of their working environment. Method: A questionnaire-survey in 467 teachers aiming to explore the prevalence of voice problems in teaching staff identified teachers with voice problems and vocally...... in the teaching environment and aspects of the classroom environment were also measured. Results: Teachers with voice problems were more affected by any loading factor in the work-environment and were more perceptive of the room acoustics. Differences between the groups were found during field......-measurements of the voice, while there were no differences in the findings from the clinical examinations of larynx and voice. Conclusion: Teachers suffering from voice problems react stronger to loading factors in the teaching environment. It is in the interplay between the individual and the work environment that voice...

  4. The impact of voice impairment after thyroidectomy on quality of life. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Døssing, Helle; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    Introduction: To assess the impact of voice and vocal fold changes (VVFC) after thyroidectomy on disease specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: Prospective cohort study (inclusion period: 18 months, ending April-2016) with six months follow-up of patients with nodular goiter undergoing...... thyroidectomy without vocal fold disease/impairment. VVFC were defined as objective laryngeal abnormalities and a reduced maximum frequency (> five semitones) three weeks after surgery. The VVFC assessments were conducted before, three weeks, and six months after surgery using videostroboscopy, voice range...... profile, voice handicap index, and other measures. Simultaneously, a disease-specific QoL questionnaire (ThyPRO) was administered, including an additional assessment three months after surgery. Results: Sixty-five patients were included with nine lost to follow-up, leaving 56 patients who completed all...

  5. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  6. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  7. Functional Voice Disorders: The Importance of the Psychologist in Clinical Voice Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Mafalda; Dias, Óscar; Andrea, Mário; Figueira, Maria Luísa

    2017-07-01

    The etiopathogenesis of functional voice disorders (FVDs) is multifactorial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the severity of depression and anxiety, and the incidence of affective and anxiety disorders, in patients who presented different types of FVDs and were followed at the University Clinic of Otolaryngology. This is a cross-sectional study. After ENT observation, 83 women were classified into three groups: psychogenic voice disorder (PVD = 39), primary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD1 = 16), and secondary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD2 = 28). A psychologist assessed the severity of depression and anxiety using the Hamilton rating scales, and screened for affective and anxiety disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Significant differences in the mean values were found between the groups, with the MTVD1 group having higher levels of depression and anxiety. In affective disorders (current major depression and current mood disorder with psychotic symptoms) and in anxiety disorders (lifetime panic disorder, current generalized anxiety, and current panic disorder with agoraphobia), significant differences in association were found between groups. Groups presented with significant differences in depression and anxiety levels, and in some psychiatric diagnoses. Patients with FVDs should be independently assessed regarding their voice disorder classification. The integration of a psychologist in the clinical voice assessment team is essential, as findings have corroborated an important incidence of psychiatric disorders in FVDs patients. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Glasgow Voice Memory Test: Assessing the ability to memorize and recognize unfamiliar voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, Virginia; Watson, Rebecca; Pernet, Cyril; Latinus, Marianne; Garrido, Lúcia; Belin, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of non-vocal stimuli allows the detection of significant dissociations between the two categories (vocal vs. non-vocal stimuli). The distributions of accuracy and sensitivity scores (d') reflected a wide range of individual differences in voice recognition performance in the population. As expected, KH showed a dissociation between the recognition of voices and bell sounds, her performance being significantly poorer than matched controls for voices but not for bells. By providing normative data of a large sample and by testing a developmental phonagnosic subject, we demonstrated that the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, available online and accessible from all over the world, can be a valid screening tool (~5 min) for a preliminary detection of potential cases of phonagnosia and of "super recognizers" for voices.

  9. Muscle tension dysphonia in children: Voice characteristics and outcome of voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Son, Young-Ik

    2005-07-01

    The main object of this study is to elucidate the voice characteristics and the efficacy of voice therapy in children with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). A retrospective file review was undertaken of eight Korean male children diagnosed as having MTD. All subjects received perceptual, acoustical and laryngoscopic evaluation before and after the treatment. Markedly strained and breathy voices were detected in all patients. Pitch breaks and/or inadequately high or low speaking fundamental frequencies were noticed in five subjects. Laryngoscopic evaluation revealed anteroposterior contraction, false vocal fold approximation, decreased vibration of true vocal folds and incomplete glottal closure. Notably, seven out of eight subjects had bilateral vocal nodules. Voice therapy was focused on the awareness, relaxation, respiration and easy-onset phonation to reduce the tension around the laryngeal muscles. A few sessions of voice therapy resulted in dramatic improvement of their voice quality and pitch adjustment. Hyper-contraction of the supraglottic structures was also relieved. These findings suggest that the proper diagnosis of MTD in children warrants prompt and favorable responses to voice therapy regardless of coexistence of vocal nodules.

  10. Clinical Features of Psychogenic Voice Disorder and the Efficiency of Voice Therapy and Psychological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Gökmen, Muhammed Fatih; Yıldırım, Sibel; Dursun, Gürsel

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this study was to define the clinical features of psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and explore the treatment efficiency of voice therapy and psychological evaluation. Fifty-eight patients who received treatment following the PVD diagnosis and had no organic or other functional voice disorders were assessed retrospectively based on laryngoscopic examinations and subjective and objective assessments. Epidemiological characteristics, accompanying organic and psychological disorders, preferred methods of treatment, and previous treatment outcomes were examined for each patient. A comparison was made based on voice disorders and responses to treatment between patients who received psychotherapy and patients who did not. Participants in this study comprised 58 patients, 10 male and 48 female. Voice therapy was applied in all patients, 54 (93.1%) of whom had improvement in their voice. Although all patients were advised to undergo psychological assessment, only 60.3% (35/58) of them underwent psychological assessment. No statistically significant difference was found between patients who did receive psychological support concerning their treatment responses and patients who did not. Relapse occurred in 14.7% (5/34) of the patients who applied for psychological assessment and in 50% (10/20) of those who did not. There was a statistically significant difference in relapse rates, which was higher among patients who did not receive psychological support (P psychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Voice Perceptual Charactheristics between Speech - Language Pathologists', Dysphonic and Normal Voiced Adult's View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In recent years, several tools for assessment of quality of patient life have been designed especially for dysphonics. Nowadays, we have useful assessments in health system that are refered for numerous clinical decisions. In this way, this investigation compares clinician and patient perception in dysphonic and normal voiced for first time.Methods: This study was carried out on 30 dysphonic and 30 subjects with normal voice. Their age, sex and job were same. In two groups, Consensus Auditory – Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V was used for evaluation of clinician perception and Voice Handicap Index - 30 (VHI-30 for assessment of patient perception. After collecting data, they were analyzed by Mann- witney and Wilcoxon tests.Results: The research revealed that mean of total and each section score of VHI-30 have significant difference between dysphonic and control group (p<0.01. Comparison of total and every parameter score of CAPE-V and speed also indicated significant difference between two groups (p<0.01. Study of reliability shows weak reliability (r=0.34 between clinician and patient perception of voice in dysphonics.Conclusion: Dysphonic patients percept their voice problem different and severe rather than clinicians that shows physical, psychological and social affects of dysphonia. This research confirms that patient – based assessment of voice is necessary to be part of common assessments of dysphonia.

  12. Does trade drive global output growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Podkaminer

    2014-01-01

    Conventional econometric analysis suggests that there has been a longer-term relationship between nominal world output and nominal world exports. The analysis says something about the rules governing adjustments in world output and exports. It appears that GDP plays the first fiddle. Rising world output seems to have pushed up world exports. But rising world exports do not seem to have resulted in positive changes in global GDP. The global growth slowdown, observed since the early 1970s, may ...

  13. Four-day Follow-up Study on the Self-reported Voice Condition and Noise Condition of Teachers: Relationship Between Vocal Parameters and Classroom Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Puglisi, Giuseppina Emma; Astolfi, Arianna; Carullo, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the changes in self-reported voice and noise condition over a follow-up of 4 days (equivalent to one working week), to define the relationship between the objective voice parameters and the self-reported voice condition, as well as to characterize the relationship between classroom acoustics and the self-reported noise condition. This is a cohort study. We performed voice monitoring of 27 teachers for four working days using the Voice-Care device, which provides information on the fundamental frequency, vocal sound pressure level, and phonation time percentage. The participants performed a pre-monitoring, which consisted of a brief conversation, before each monitoring session, and filled in a questionnaire after each monitored lesson, in which they indicated their opinions about their voice condition and the classroom noise conditions. The teachers who, during the pre-monitoring, showed a higher standard deviation of the vocal sound pressure level and a greater phonation time percentage difference between the entire monitoring and the pre-monitoring sessions, reported fewer voice complaints. Decay time (DT 40ME ), a reverberation measure from the speakers' perspective, resulted to be associated with the self-reporting of the noise condition. Voice disorders at work prevention programs should include strategies to exercise the respiratory and laryngeal components of voice production, because these elements may influence the variation in the vocal sound pressure level, which was found to be significantly associated with the self-reported voice condition. This study also highlights the importance of including reverberation measures, from the speakers' perspective, in the design of schools. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Voice Processing Technology for Rural Specific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhao, Chunshen

    Durian the promotion and applications of rural information, different geographical dialect voice interaction is a very complex issue. Through in-depth analysis of TTS core technologies, this paper presents the methods of intelligent segmentation, word segmentation algorithm and intelligent voice thesaurus construction in the different dialects context. And then COM based development methodology for specific context voice processing system implementation and programming method. The method has a certain reference value for the rural dialect and voice processing applications.

  15. Eye Movements Reveal Fast, Voice-Specific Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Hout, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    In spoken word perception, voice specificity effects are well-documented: When people hear repeated words in some task, performance is generally better when repeated items are presented in their originally heard voices, relative to changed voices. A key theoretical question about voice specificity effects concerns their time-course: Some studies suggest that episodic traces exert their influence late in lexical processing (the time-course hypothesis; McLennan & Luce, 2005), whereas others sug...

  16. Person Recognition Is Easier from Faces than from Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Barsics

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews a number of recent studies that systematically compared the access to semantic and episodic information from faces and voices. Results have showed that semantic and episodic information is easier to retrieve from faces than from voices. This advantage of faces over voices is a robust phenomenon, which emerges whatever the kind of target persons, might they be famous, personally familiar to the participants, or newly learned. Theoretical accounts of this face advantage over voice are finally discussed.

  17. Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C

    2013-12-01

    Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress...... due to bearing currents, acoustic switching noise. Depending on the specific application, the mitigation of some of these effects (or all) might be necessary. The common solution for mitigating the secondary effects at the output of PWM-VSI is the use of output filters [3],[5],[6]. Several types...

  19. Effects of obstruent voicing on vowel F0:Evidence from "true voicing" languages

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, James; Ladd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates consonant-related F0 perturbations (‘CF0’) in French and Italian by comparing the effects of voiced and voiceless obstruents on F0 to those of voiced sonorants. The voiceless obstruents /p f/ in both languages are found to have F0-raising properties similar to American English voiceless obstruents, while F0 following the (pre)voiced obstruents /b v/ in French and Italian patterns together with /m/, again similar to English [Hanson, H. (2009). Effects of obstruent conso...

  20. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  1. Caffeinated soft drinks reduce bacterial prevalence in voice prosthetic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Free, RH; Elving, GJ; Van der Mei, HC; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ; Busscher, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients use indwelling silicone rubber voice prostheses, placed in a surgically created fistula in between the trachea and the esophagus, for voice and speech rehabilitation. At the esophageal side, these voice prostheses rapidly become colonized by a thick biofilm consisting of a

  2. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Singers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R.; Ravi, Rohit; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Singers are vocal athletes having specific demands from their voice and require special consideration during voice evaluation. Presently, there is a lack of standards for acoustic evaluation in them. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available literature on the acoustic analysis of voice in singers. Method: A…

  3. Young Children about School: Whose Voices Do We Hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; Geldens, Jeannette; van Oers, Bert; Popeijus, Herman

    2017-01-01

    School is one of the important educational practices, in which children are actively involved. When we want to contribute to the development of young children's voices, we need deeper insight into the way children act as they do. Therefore, we have to distinguish how young children's voices are composed, as we proclaim that all voices are…

  4. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  5. Treatment of Voice Hyperfunction in the Pre-adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Preadolescents with hyperfunctional voice disorders may respond readily to behavioral voice therapy based on education, voice conservation strategies, direct vocal function exercises, family and peer support, and relaxation. Treatment should focus on integration of health respiration, phonation, and vocal tract resonance to achieve improved…

  6. Images and Voices of CFHT's Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, L.

    2010-10-01

    Following her celebrated DVD, Gathering the Forgotten Voices, Liz Bryson, Librarian for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope has embarked on new interviews of the men and women whose hard work and ingenuity forged the technological breakthroughs that maintained CFHT's preeminence as a world-class observatory. While Gathering the Forgotten Voices emphasized the personal history of those involved with the first decade of deep-space observing, the new DVD explores the CFHT innovation in instrumentation from vision to design to construction. Bryson will chronicle the breakthroughs of the observatory's staff so that that story may serve as a prototype for qualitative research at other technological centers.

  7. Classification System of Pathological Voices Using Correntropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio I. R. Fontes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of a similarity measure based on information theory called correntropy for the automatic classification of pathological voices. By using correntropy, it is possible to obtain descriptors that aggregate distinct spectral characteristics for healthy and pathological voices. Experiments using computational simulation demonstrate that such descriptors are very efficient in the characterization of vocal dysfunctions, leading to a success rate of 97% in the classification. With this new architecture, the classification process of vocal pathologies becomes much more simple and efficient.

  8. Voice Blog: An Exploratory Study of Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Sun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses voice blogs as a platform for an extensive study of language learners’ speaking skills. To triangulate the findings, the study collected data by surveying the learners’ blogging processes, investigating learning strategies, and conducting retrospective interviews. The results revealed that students (a developed a series of blogging stages, including conceptualizing, brainstorming, articulation, monitoring, and evaluating, and used a wide variety of strategies to cope with blogging-related difficulties, and (b perceived blogging as a means of learning, self-presentation, information exchange, and social networking. Findings suggest that blogs can constitute a dynamic forum that fosters extensive practice, learning motivation, authorship, and development of learning strategies.

  9. The global forum on bioethics in research meeting, "ethics of research in pregnancy": emerging consensus themes and outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Adrienne; Banner, Natalie; Littler, Katherine

    2017-12-14

    Research during pregnancy is affected by multiple ethical challenges which have not received sufficient international attention and consideration from the bioethics, clinical, and policymaking communities working together. Unresolved ethical questions about research in pregnancy have significant detrimental impacts on maternal and newborn health, in part because they inhibit an evidence base being developed on the efficacy and safety of medicines and health interventions for pregnant women. These problems are compounded in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings due to variability in regulatory provisions, the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality, and many social and cultural conventions that impact on pregnant women's ability to participate in research. Research in pregnancy was chosen as a topic for the 2016 Global Forum on Bioethics in Research (GFBR) meeting, and its timeliness was all the more apparent given the 2016 Zika outbreak, which has deeply affected the Latin American region. The meeting's emerging consensus themes and outputs epitomized the core aims of the GFBR-to give voice to LMIC perspectives as a priority in dialogue about global health research ethics and to promote collaboration. In this instance, the GFBR meeting catalyzed a strong, unified drive to push researchers and policymakers to include pregnant women in research by default: given the complex nature of the topic, this is a significant achievement in addressing an important question of social justice.

  10. Inadequate vocal hygiene habits associated with the presence of self-reported voice symptoms in telemarketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-López, Eduardo; Fuente, Adrian; Contreras, Karem V

    2017-12-18

    The aim of this study is to determine possible associations between vocal hygiene habits and self-reported vocal symptoms in telemarketers. A cross-sectional study that included 79 operators from call centres in Chile was carried out. Their vocal hygiene habits and self-reported symptoms were investigated using a validated and reliable questionnaire created for the purposes of this study. Forty-five percent of telemarketers reported having one or more vocal symptoms. Among them, 16.46% reported that their voices tense up when talking and 10.13% needed to clear their throat to make their voices clearer. Five percent mentioned that they always talk without taking a break and 40.51% reported using their voices in noisy environments. The number of working hours per day and inadequate vocal hygiene habits were associated with the presence of self-reported symptoms. Additionally, an interaction between the use of the voice in noisy environments and not taking breaks during the day was observed. Finally, the frequency of inadequate vocal hygiene habits was associated with the number of symptoms reported. Using the voice in noisy environments and talking without taking breaks were both associated with the presence of specific vocal symptoms. This study provides some evidence about the interaction between these two inadequate vocal hygiene habits that potentiates vocal symptoms.

  11. Voice, speech, and laryngeal features of primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Amanda; Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Nissen, Shawn L; Merrill, Ray M; Miller, Karla L; Houtz, Daniel R; Ellerston, Julia; Kendall, Katherine

    2014-11-01

    This study examined voice, speech, and laryngeal characteristics in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Eleven patients (10 female, 1 male; mean [SD] age = 57 [14] years) from The University of Utah Division of Rheumatology provided connected speech and sustained vowel samples. Analyses included the Multi-Dimensional Voice Profile, the Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice, and dysphonia severity, speech clarity, and videolaryngostroboscopy ratings. Shimmer, amplitude perturbation quotient, and average fundamental frequency differed significantly from normative values (P speech (mean [SD] = 20.26 [8.36]) and sustained vowels (mean [SD] = 16.91 [11.08]). Ratings of dysphonia severity and speech clarity using 10-cm visual analog scales suggested mild-to-moderate dysphonia in connected speech (mean [SD] = 2.11 [1.72]) and sustained vowels (mean [SD] = 3.13 [2.20]) and mildly reduced speech clarity (mean [SD] = 1.46 [1.36]). Videolaryngostroboscopic ratings indicated mild-to-moderate dryness and mild reductions in overall laryngeal function. Voice Handicap Index scores indicated mild-to-moderate voice symptoms (mean [SD] = 43 [23]). Individuals with pSS may experience dysphonia and articulatory imprecision, typically in the mild-to-moderate range. These findings have implications for diagnostic and referral practices in pSS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Breathing and voice quality after surgical treatment for bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Wilma; Brosch, Sibylle; Schmidt, Michael; Hagen, Rudolf

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate long-term results of surgical treatment for bilateral vocal cord paralysis using objective and subjective measures of breathing and voice quality. Prospective cross-sectional case series. Tertiary care otolaryngology and speech pathology referral center. Ten patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis who underwent surgical treatment between October 1996 and May 2006 at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Würzburg, were examined at a mean of 27.2 months after surgery. Glottal area, voice range profile, Voice Handicap Index, pulmonary function test results, Göttingen Hoarseness Diagram, microlaryngostroboscopic findings, chronic respiratory disease questionnaire, and European Organization for Research and the Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire, including the head and neck module. Residual recurrent nerve function was seen in 9 of 10 patients. Pulmonary data varied widely and did not correlate with the size of the glottal area. Quality of life, subjective dyspnea, and physical functioning correlated with expiratory airflow measures. Voice range was reduced in all patients. High breathiness and reduced maximum phonation time led to increased Voice Handicap Index scores. Microlaryngostroboscopic findings did not necessarily correlate with subjective dyspnea and vocal complaints. Reduction of inspiratory speaking efforts and acquisition of special breathing techniques improve airflow stability and effectiveness of respiration, leading to enhanced quality of life.

  13. Acute effects of inhaling Oud incense on voice of Saudi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesallam, Tamer A; Farahat, Mohamed; Shoeib, Rasha; Alharethy, Sami; Alshahwan, Abdulaziz; Murry, Thomas; Almalkia, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Like in most of the Arab countries, incense burning, including Oud, is widely used in Saudi Arabia. The widespread effects of the Oud incense on voice have not been examined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of Oud incense on laryngeal symptoms and voice acoustics in normal Saudi adults. A prospective study that has been carried out at King Abdulaziz University Hospital between July 2012 and Jan 2014. Study subjects were recruited on a volunteer basis. A total of 72 adults (44.4% males and 55.6 % females), were exposed to Oud incense smoke for 5 minutes while sitting 1 m away from an electrical sensor in a closed room. Symptom and acoustic voice analyses were performed pre-exposure and immediately post-exposure. A total of 27.8% of the subjects reported throat and voice symptoms after 5 minutes of exposure. Some frequency-related acoustic measures increased in male and female subjects after exposure to Oud incense. However, the difference between the pre- and post-exposure measures was not statistically significant. One third of the study subjects reported voice-related symptoms following exposure to Oud incense. Despite the absence of statistical significant difference, some frequency-based acoustic parameters increased following exposure to Oud incense smoke.

  14. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  15. Voice Range Change After Injection Laryngoplasty for Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Chang, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tzu-Ling; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Fang, Tuan-Jen

    2017-12-13

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) caused by nerve injury manifest with voice changes. This study investigated vocal performance measured by voice range profile (VRP) in patients with UVFP and changes in VRP in response to intracordal hyaluronate injection. Eighty-five patients with UVFP were enrolled prospectively, among whom 68 received intracordal hyaluronate injections. The outcome measurements included VRP, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses, peak turn frequency of thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex (TA-LCA) measured by laryngeal electromyography, and normalized glottal gap area by videolaryngostroboscopy. The peak turn frequency of the paralyzed TA-LCA showed a modest correlation with max fundamental frequency (F0) and F0 range. Closed-phase normalized glottal gap area showed modest negative correlations with max F0 and F0 semitone range. Regarding conventional acoustic and aerodynamic analyses, the paralyzed TA-LCA peak turn frequency was only correlated with maximal phonation time. Intracordal hyaluronate injection improved VRP performance by increasing max F0, decreasing min F0, increasing F0 range, and increasing semitone range (all P <0.01) with small or medium strength of effect size (Cohen d, 0.39-0.76). Change in voice pitch in patients with UVFP can partly predict impairment of neuromuscular functions and glottal gap. VRP provides a more sensitive reflection of the severity of neuromuscular impairment, compared with conventional voice analysis. The validity of VRP is further supported by a robust response to voice improvements following injection laryngoplasty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  17. Classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aid using multiple classifier fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayarani Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speech production and speech phonetic features gradually improve in children by obtaining audio feedback after cochlear implantation or using hearing aids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate automated classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aids. Methods We considered 4 disorder categories in children's voice using the following definitions: Level_1: Children who produce spontaneous phonation and use words spontaneously and imitatively. Level_2: Children, who produce spontaneous phonation, use words spontaneously and make short sentences imitatively. Level_3: Children, who produce spontaneous phonations, use words and arbitrary sentences spontaneously. Level_4: Normal children without any hearing loss background. Thirty Persian children participated in the study, including six children in each level from one to three and 12 children in level four. Voice samples of five isolated Persian words "mashin", "mar", "moosh", "gav" and "mouz" were analyzed. Four levels of the voice quality were considered, the higher the level the less significant the speech disorder. "Frame-based" and "word-based" features were extracted from voice signals. The frame-based features include intensity, fundamental frequency, formants, nasality and approximate entropy and word-based features include phase space features and wavelet coefficients. For frame-based features, hidden Markov models were used as classifiers and for word-based features, neural network was used. Results After Classifiers fusion with three methods: Majority Voting Rule, Linear Combination and Stacked fusion, the best classification rates were obtained using frame-based and word-based features with MVR rule (level 1:100%, level 2: 93.75%, level 3: 100%, level 4: 94%. Conclusions Result of this study may help speech pathologists follow up voice disorder recovery in children with cochlear implantation or hearing aid who are

  18. SMS versus voice messaging to deliver MNCH communication in rural Malawi: assessment of delivery success and user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jessica; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Jezman, Zachariah; Cunningham, Stacey C; Bancroft, Emily

    2014-02-01

    To determine the difference in delivery success of health messages delivered through pushed SMS, pushed voice messages sent to personal phones, and voice messages retrieved from a community phone ("retrieved voice messaging"), as well as the difference in quality of the user experience. We analyzed the project's electronic monitoring data between September 2011 and June 2013, including demographics, enrollment data, and messages sent and successfully delivered. We also collected and analyzed information from quarterly phone-based surveys with users to assess quality of the user experience, including acceptability, comprehension, new information learned, and reported behavior change. More than half of subscribers enrolled in the retrieved voice messaging service while nearly one-third enrolled in the pushed SMS service and less than 10% in pushed voice messaging. Message delivery success was highest among pushed SMS subscribers and lowest among retrieved voice subscribers. Overall, 99% of survey respondents reported trusting messages they received, and about 75% of respondents recalled the last message they received and learned something new. Almost 75% of respondents reported that they had already changed or intended to change their behavior based on received messages. Intended or actual behavior change was significantly higher among pushed SMS enrollees than among pushed or retrieved voice messaging enrollees (P = .01). All message modalities led to high levels of satisfaction, comprehension, and new information learned. Due to lower cost, higher delivery success, and higher levels of intended or actual behavior change, SMS is the preferred delivery modality. However, the majority of users included in this study did not have access to a personal phone, and retrieved voice messages provided an opportunity to access a population that otherwise could not be served. Providing multiple methods by which users could access the service was crucial in extending reach

  19. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; de Jong, F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being.

  20. The voice handicap of student-teachers and risk factors perceived to have a negative influence on the voice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. The objectives of the study were to assess the psychosocial impact of current voice complaints as perceived by student-teachers with voice complaints in comparison with student-teachers without voice complaints, and to observe the pattern of risk

  1. [Evaluation of the results of the prevention program "Protect your voice" implemented by The Greater Poland Center of Occupational Medicine of Poznan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałowska, Magdalena; Wośkowiak, Grażyna; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena

    2017-07-26

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the rationale for training in voice emission and voice prophylaxis among teachers and to assess the effects of voice disorders rehabilitation in the selected group of teachers participating in the program "Protect your voice." An anonymous survey was conducted among 463 teachers participating in the training part of the program. The effectivness of rehabilitation of teachers with occupational voice disorders was evaluated among 51 subjects (average age: 43 years) taking part in diagnostic and rehabilitation part of the program. Phonation voice exercises with speech therapist and physiotherapy (iontophoresis, inhalations and elektrostimulation) were administered. Evaluation of rehabilitation was based on phoniatric examination, including videostroboscopy and statistical calculations. The survey showed that among teachers there is high demand (98%) for training in proper voice emission, hygiene and prevention of voice. The effectiveness of rehabilitation has been confirmed by the observed improvements in phonatory activities of larynx, proper breathing during phonation (p = 0.0000), the voice quality (p = 0.0022), prolonged phonation time (an average of 1.39 s), increased number of people who correctly activated resonators (p = 0.0000) and increased number of people with phonation without excesive muscle tension of the neck. The results indicate that among all the professionally active teachers, there is a need for regular training of proper voice emission and vocal hygiene and then conduct individually phonation and breathing exercises, supported by the physiotherapy. This should be an effective method of voice disorders prevention in teachers. Med Pr 2017;68(5):593-603. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Perceptual Error Analysis of Human and Synthesized Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Marina; Madazio, Glaucya; Gielow, Ingrid; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2017-07-01

    To assess the quality of synthesized voices through listeners' skills in discriminating human and synthesized voices. Prospective study. Eighteen human voices with different types and degrees of deviation (roughness, breathiness, and strain, with three degrees of deviation: mild, moderate, and severe) were selected by three voice specialists. Synthesized samples with the same deviations of human voices were produced by the VoiceSim system. The manipulated parameters were vocal frequency perturbation (roughness), additive noise (breathiness), increasing tension, subglottal pressure, and decreasing vocal folds separation (strain). Two hundred sixty-nine listeners were divided in three groups: voice specialist speech language pathologists (V-SLPs), general clinician SLPs (G-SLPs), and naive listeners (NLs). The SLP listeners also indicated the type and degree of deviation. The listeners misclassified 39.3% of the voices, both synthesized (42.3%) and human (36.4%) samples (P = 0.001). V-SLPs presented the lowest error percentage considering the voice nature (34.6%); G-SLPs and NLs identified almost half of the synthesized samples as human (46.9%, 45.6%). The male voices were more susceptible for misidentification. The synthesized breathy samples generated a greater perceptual confusion. The samples with severe deviation seemed to be more susceptible for errors. The synthesized female deviations were correctly classified. The male breathiness and strain were identified as roughness. VoiceSim produced stimuli very similar to the voices of patients with dysphonia. V-SLPs had a better ability to classify human and synthesized voices. VoiceSim is better to simulate vocal breathiness and female deviations; the male samples need adjustment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  4. Exact nonradial input, output, and productivity measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Chambers

    2002-01-01

    The use of measures originally suggested by Bennet, Bowley, and Hicks in the context of cost of living, welfare, and consumer surplus measurement to measure inputs, outputs, and productivity is examined. Suitably normalized versions of the Bennet-Bowley measures are shown to be exact and superlative measures of input, output, and productivity indicators.

  5. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  6. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  7. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  8. Voice Over Internet Protocol Testbed Design for Non-Intrusive, Objective Voice Quality Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manka, David L

    2007-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an emerging technology with the potential to assist the United States Marine Corps in solving communication challenges stemming from modern operational concepts...

  9. Analysis methods of secretive labeling voice commands for remote voice control to confirm their authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Sergeevich Dvoryankin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the gradual transfer of spheres of human activity in the information field, every day there is a growth of threats associated with their information security. The result of this process leads to a technological race between the development of information security and the development of threats to information security technologies. The article analyzes the benefits of using voice commands in the remote management systems in terms of their security from unauthorized access and further use of the prospects. It is proposed to use the methods of marking a digital voice command as additional protection in applications where it is necessary to establish their authenticity. Also promoted analysis methods secretive marking voice commands in the course of their transmission through a variety of voice communication channels. An example of the use of these methods in the banking sector, for extra protection, and customer verification.

  10. Effects of obstruent voicing on vowel F0: Evidence from "true voicing" languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, James P; Ladd, D Robert

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates consonant-related F0 perturbations ("CF0") in French and Italian by comparing the effects of voiced and voiceless obstruents on F0 to those of voiced sonorants. The voiceless obstruents /p f/ in both languages are found to have F0-raising properties similar to American English voiceless obstruents, while F0 following the (pre)voiced obstruents /b v/ in French and Italian patterns together with /m/, again similar to English [Hanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(1), 425-441]. In both languages, F0 is significantly depressed, relative to sonorants, during the closure for voiced obstruents, but cannot be differentiated from sonorants following the release of oral constriction. These findings are taken as support for a model on which F0 perturbations are fundamentally the result of laryngeal maneuvers initiated to sustain or inhibit phonation, regardless of other language-particular aspects of phonetic realization.

  11. Immediate acoustic effects of straw phonation exercises in subjects with dysphonic voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Higueras, Diego; Fincheira, Catherine; Muñoz, Daniel; Guajardo, Carlos; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This study sought to measure any acoustic changes in the speaking voice immediately after phonation exercises involving plastic straws versus phonation exercises with the open vowel /a/. Forty-one primary school teachers with slightly dysphonic voices were asked to participate in four phonatory tasks. Phonetically balanced text at habitual intensity level and speaking fundamental frequency was recorded. Acoustical analysis with long-term average spectrum was performed. Significant changes after therapy for the experimental group include the alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio and ratio between 1-5 kHz and 5-8 kHz. The results indicate that the use of phonatory tasks with straw exercises can have immediate therapeutic acoustic effects in dysphonic voices. Long-term effects were not assessed in this study.

  12. Climate stories: Why do climate scientists and sceptical voices participate in the climate debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Amelia; Howarth, Candice

    2017-10-01

    Public perceptions of the climate debate predominantly frame the key actors as climate scientists versus sceptical voices; however, it is unclear why climate scientists and sceptical voices choose to participate in this antagonistic and polarised public battle. A narrative interview approach is used to better understand the underlying rationales behind 22 climate scientists' and sceptical voices' engagement in the climate debate, potential commonalities, as well as each actor's ability to be critically self-reflexive. Several overlapping rationales are identified including a sense of duty to publicly engage, agreement that complete certainty about the complex assemblage of climate change is unattainable and that political factors are central to the climate debate. We argue that a focus on potential overlaps in perceptions and rationales as well as the ability to be critically self-reflexive may encourage constructive discussion among actors previously engaged in purposefully antagonistic exchange on climate change.

  13. Speech and voice rehabilitation in selected patients fitted with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1996-01-01

    With the Birmingham osseointegrated implant programme there have been several patients with severe pre-lingual conductive hearing loss. The majority of these have been patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. There are characteristic features of speech and voice in those with long-standing conductive hearing loss. In addition, the associated abnormalities of jaw, teeth and palate may amplify the problem. There may be spontaneous improvement in features such as voice pitch, quality and intensity following the fitting of a BAHA. However, in those with a pre-lingual hearing impairment, speech therapy may be necessary. Patients assessed as suitable for BAHA have a full assessment of communication skills including audio recording of speech and voice. Post-operative training improves auditory discrimination and perception and is followed by training in the production of the newly perceived speech sounds.

  14. Voice amplification versus vocal hygiene instruction for teachers with voice disorders: a treatment outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Weinrich, Barbara; Gray, Steven D; Tanner, Kristine; Toledo, Sue Walker; Dove, Heather; Corbin-Lewis, Kim; Stemple, Joseph C

    2002-08-01

    Voice problems are common among schoolteachers. This prospective, randomized clinical trial used patient-based treatment outcomes measures combined with acoustic analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of two treatment programs. Forty-four voice-disordered teachers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: voice amplification using the ChatterVox portable amplifier (VA, n = 15), vocal hygiene (VH, n = 15), and a nontreatment control group (n = 14). Before and after a 6-week treatment phase, all teachers completed: (a) the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), an instrument designed to appraise the self-perceived psychosocial consequences of voice disorders; (b) a voice severity self-rating scale; and (c) an audiorecording for later acoustic analysis. Based on pre- and posttreatment comparisons, only the amplification group experienced significant reductions on mean VHI scores (p = .045), voice severity self-ratings (p = .012), and the acoustic measures of percent jitter (p = .031) and shimmer (p = .008). The nontreatment control group reported a significant increase in level of vocal handicap as assessed by the VHI (p = .012). Although most pre- to posttreatment changes were in the desired direction, no significant improvements were observed within the VH group on any of the dependent measures. Between-group comparisons involving the three possible pairings of the groups revealed a pattern of results to suggest that: (a) compared to the control group, both treatment groups (i.e., VA and VH) experienced significantly more improvement on specific outcomes measures and (b) there were no significant differences between the VA and VH groups to indicate superiority of one treatment over another. Results, however, from a posttreatment questionnaire regarding the perceived benefits of treatment revealed that, compared to the VH group, the VA group reported more clarity of their speaking and singing voice (p = .061), greater ease of voice production (p = .001), and greater

  15. Finding a VOICE for UK clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2012-06-01

    At a James Black Conference held in Oxford on 20-22 June 2011, a group of senior clinical pharmacologists and their junior colleagues, other medical specialists, and pharmacists discussed an agenda for UK clinical pharmacology for the next 5 years, addressing the following broad questions. How should UK clinical pharmacology be further developed and delivered as a discipline in universities, the NHS, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory authorities? How should teaching and training in UK clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? What topics should be priorities for research in UK academic clinical pharmacology? How should clinical pharmacology contribute to UK drugs policy? How should pharmacology and clinical pharmacology be further integrated, to the benefit of both? Numerous recommendations emerged, under the collective acronym VOICE, standing for Visibility, Outreach, Integration, Coverage and Emissaries. VISIBILITY: The visibility of the discipline needs to be increased. This could be done, for example, by increased activities in acute general medicine/toxicology, through activities of Medicines and Therapeutics Committees, participation in grand rounds, teaching and training, and monitoring therapeutic interventions, and by offering bolt-on training for other specialists (for example, short courses, MSc courses, and training programmes). OUTREACH: Methods of increasing outreach include roadshows in schools/medical schools, national special study modules, public education, press coverage, and social marketing. INTEGRATION: Closer collaborations with pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists, other prescribers, and pharmaceutical companies (e.g. through joint training programmes) are desirable. COVERAGE: Attention to neglected areas, such as general practice, paediatrics, obstetrics, geriatrics, anaesthetics, cancer, and immunology. EMISSARIES: Trainees to spread the word. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

  16. Relating to the Speaker behind the Voice: What Is Changing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Deamer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce therapeutic techniques that encourage voice hearers to view their voices as coming from intentional agents whose behavior may be dependent on how the voice hearer relates to and interacts with them. We suggest that this approach is effective because the communicative aspect of voice hearing might fruitfully be seen as explanatorily primitive, meaning that the agentive aspect, the auditory properties, and the intended meaning (interpretation are all necessary parts of the experience, which contribute to the impact the experience has on the voice hearer. We examine the experiences of a patient who received Relating Therapy, and explore the kinds of changes that can result from this therapeutic approach.

  17. Students' Voices Chime In to Improve Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    Listening to what students have to say is the most essential to changing the culture of schools. This article discusses the growing national movement is putting students' voices--and their work--front and center in the push to raise expectations and results in schools. This article also presents some examples of young people's active roles in…

  18. Homework: Voices from EFL Teachers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have mainly focused on homework in courses such as math and physics with little attention to homework in EFL (English as a foreign language) classes. The main purpose of the study reported in this paper was to give a voice to both EFL teachers and learners with regard to English homework. To this end, 8 EFL teachers and 19 EFL…

  19. Situating asynchronous voice in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bidwell, NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing for oral users in economically poor places has intensified efforts to develop platforms for asynchronous voice. Often these aim to assist users in rural areas where literacy is lowest, but there are few empirical studies and design tends...

  20. Voice Stress Analysis: Use of Telephone Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waln, Ronald F.; Downey, Ronald G.

    The ability to detect lying is an important skill. While the polygraph is the most common mechanical method used for lie detection, other electronic-based methods have also been developed. One such method, the analysis of voice stress patterns, is based on the assumption that lying is a stressful activity which reduces involuntary frequency…

  1. Ventriloquising the Voice: Writing in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I consider one aspect of how student writing is supported in the university. I focus on the use of the "writing frame", questioning its status as a vehicle for facilitating student voice, and in the process questioning how that notion is itself understood. I illustrate this by using examples from the story of the 1944 Hollywood film…

  2. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  3. Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

  4. Vanishing voices from Russia & Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, T.

    2016-01-01

    These recordings were digitised as part of the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) project EAP347: ‘Vanishing voices from the Uralic world: sound recordings for archives in Russia (in particular Udmurtia), Estonia, Finland and Hungary’. The project digitised sound collections from the Uralic

  5. Web life: Voices of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Voices of the Manhattan Project was launched in October 2012 with the aim of preserving the memories and experiences of scientists and other workers who participated in the US-led effort to build an atomic bomb during the Second World War.

  6. Every Voice Matters: The Importance of Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royea, Amber J.; Appl, Dolores J.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years parents, professionals, and politicians have come together to advocate on behalf of children's rights. Advocacy can occur individually, collectively, or a combination of both. Although some advocacy efforts are more successful than others, it is the process of the advocacy and voices behind it that matter most. In this guest…

  7. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran R.; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S.; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia. PMID:25349193

  8. Hearing Women's Voices in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigwood, Laura

    2012-01-01

    "The voice of women needs to be heard" because "when we truly take their lives seriously it changes our whole understanding of who we are and what we are called to become" (Chilcote 10). The revolutionary impact of feminist theory and practice in all areas of contemporary culture illustrates the world-transforming potential of…

  9. Student Voice Initiative: Exploring Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Blaine G.

    2017-01-01

    Student voice is the process of allowing students to work collaboratively with adults to produce a learning culture that is conducive for optimum growth in every student. In a traditional setting, the adults make the decisions and the students are passive observers in the learning process. Data has shown that this traditional culture is not…

  10. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  11. Measures of voiced frication for automatic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philip J. B.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Shadle, Christine H.; Pincas, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    As an approach to understanding the characteristics of the acoustic sources in voiced fricatives, it seems apt to draw on knowledge of vowels and voiceless fricatives, which have been relatively well studied. However, the presence of both phonation and frication in these mixed-source sounds offers the possibility of mutual interaction effects, with variations across place of articulation. This paper examines the acoustic and articulatory consequences of these interactions and explores automatic techniques for finding parametric and statistical descriptions of these phenomena. A reliable and consistent set of such acoustic cues could be used for phonetic classification or speech recognition. Following work on devoicing of European Portuguese voiced fricatives [Jesus and Shadle, in Mamede et al. (eds.) (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 1-8]. and the modulating effect of voicing on frication [Jackson and Shadle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1421-1434 (2000)], the present study focuses on three types of information: (i) sequences and durations of acoustic events in VC transitions, (ii) temporal, spectral and modulation measures from the periodic and aperiodic components of the acoustic signal, and (iii) voicing activity derived from simultaneous EGG data. Analysis of interactions observed in British/American English and European Portuguese speech corpora will be compared, and the principal findings discussed.

  12. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M.; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Method: Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks…

  13. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  14. Perceiving a stranger's voice as being one's own: a 'rubber voice' illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane Z Zheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0 of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.

  15. Estill Voice Training and voice quality control in contemporary commercial singing: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Marco; Fussi, Franco; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Estill Voice Training (EVT) is a widely known programme for developing vocal skills based on partitioning the process of vocal production in order to reach control of specific structures in the vocal mechanism. The present retrospective small-scale exploratory study aims at reporting preliminary data about the efficacy of EVT - in terms of voice quality control on a specific vocal exercise - in contemporary commercial singers with a Certificate of Figure Proficiency (CFP). Thirty-five contemporary commercial singers (professional or semi-professional pop and rock singers) with no vocal complaints were recruited. The experimental group was composed of twenty singers who studied EVT and had a CFP. The control group was composed of fifteen singers who studied in Italian contemporary popular music institutions but were not familiar with EVT. Voice quality control was assessed through acoustic and perceptual analysis on a specific vocal exercise requiring sound pitch, perturbation and spectral energy distribution control. The acoustic analysis showed some significant differences between the two groups of singers both in sound perturbation control and spectral energy distribution control, suggesting a higher voice quality control ability for the experimental group. The perceptual evaluation confirmed a higher ability for the experimental group to produce recognizable voice qualities in this specific task. The reported preliminary results seem to suggest EVT as an effective educational system for developing voice quality control ability in contemporary commercial singers.

  16. Being visible: PhotoVoice as assessment for children in a school-based psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Vanessa; Lambert, Heather Christine; Park, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services empower all clients, including youth and their families, to be actively involved in directing their own care. In order to develop person-driven interventions, clinicians must understand what matters from their perspective. Thus, recovery-oriented assessments need self-report measures that adequately capture the domains and content that matter to a range of particular persons. This study examined if and how PhotoVoice, a participatory research method used to empower and highlight the unique experiences of vulnerable groups, could be used as a recovery-oriented self-report measure for children with a mental health disorder. We used PhotoVoice to engage four children with mental health related disorders at a day hospital program for severe behavioural disorders. The children, as co-researchers in this participatory approach, created life books from photographs and images of what mattered to them across nine sessions. To examine the PhotoVoice process, we used ethnographic methods, including child interviews and participant observations in their classes and at recess before, during and after the weekly sessions. Our overarching narrative-phenomenological theoretical framework focused data collection and analysis on what mattered most to the children. The PhotoVoice method engaged and empowered the children in articulating what mattered in their everyday lives from their perspective that resulted in a novel, child-generated domain of 'mattering to others' for future self-report measures, and facilitated changes that generalized outside of the group. We illustrate these results by drawing a particularly illustrative case example from the study. The PhotoVoice method foregrounded children's perspectives on what matters more explicitly than clinical or parent perspective on function. The participatory philosophy and methods of PhotoVoice provides a viable approach to recovery-oriented self-report measures as well as an occupation

  17. Alexa, Siri, Cortana, and More: An Introduction to Voice Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2018-01-01

    Voice assistants are software agents that can interpret human speech and respond via synthesized voices. Apple's Siri, Amazon's Alexa, Microsoft's Cortana, and Google's Assistant are the most popular voice assistants and are embedded in smartphones or dedicated home speakers. Users can ask their assistants questions, control home automation devices and media playback via voice, and manage other basic tasks such as email, to-do lists, and calendars with verbal commands. This column will explore the basic workings and common features of today's voice assistants. It will also discuss some of the privacy and security issues inherent to voice assistants and some potential future uses for these devices. As voice assistants become more widely used, librarians will want to be familiar with their operation and perhaps consider them as a means to deliver library services and materials.

  18. Passive output feedback and observer based autopilots: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Paulsen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for course-keeping of a ship are studied where no measurements of the yaw rate are available. The two methods are a passive output feedback controller and a controller-observer structure. A comparison with special attention to stability and wave filtering properties, is provided. Finally, a case study of a ship autopilot is included.

  19. 36 CFR 1193.43 - Output, display, and control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the use of the product, through at least one mode in enhanced auditory fashion (i.e., increased... and use the product, including but not limited to, text, static or dynamic images, icons, labels... of audio cutoff. Where a product delivers audio output through an external speaker, provide an...

  20. Voice: challenging the stigma of addiction; a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivinen, Helena; Bade, Sherrie

    2008-06-01

    Voice is a collection of art, poetry and narratives created by women living with a history of substance use and addiction. The intent of this collection is to explore women's understanding of harm reduction, to challenge the effects of stigmatization and to explore the experiences of those who have historically been silenced or devalued. Voice was conceived by a group of Kamloops nurses who came together and used their knowledge of mainstream systems, aesthetic knowing, feminism and substance use to guide the development and implementation of this project. During weekly gatherings, women with histories of substance use and addiction worked alongside a nurse in the co-creation of artistic expressions. Gender sensitivity, trust, equality and respect were vital to the success of this process. A selection of the women's art was presented at several venues, including an International Conference on Drug Related Harm, a Nursing Conference and a local art gallery. The positive community response to the women's work contributed to feelings of great pride and enhanced the women's confidence in their ability to express themselves. Throughout this process, women had the opportunity to develop social networks and to become aware of the value that their creative knowledge has to the community in which they live. Gender sensitive programming that is inclusive, participative and promotes women's health is required to fully understand women's experience of substance use and addiction in relation to harm reduction. Participation in projects such as Voice supports and encourages women to make sense of the world they live in and encourages health-promoting activities. The promising outcomes of this project might well be developed by nurses in other settings to further promote the health of women who have traditionally been stigmatized.

  1. Implementation of the Intelligent Voice System for Kazakh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessenbayev, Zh; Saparkhojayev, N.; Tibeyev, T.

    2014-04-01

    Modern speech technologies are highly advanced and widely used in day-to-day applications. However, this is mostly concerned with the languages of well-developed countries such as English, German, Japan, Russian, etc. As for Kazakh, the situation is less prominent and research in this field is only starting to evolve. In this research and application-oriented project, we introduce an intelligent voice system for the fast deployment of call-centers and information desks supporting Kazakh speech. The demand on such a system is obvious if the country's large size and small population is considered. The landline and cell phones become the only means of communication for the distant villages and suburbs. The system features Kazakh speech recognition and synthesis modules as well as a web-GUI for efficient dialog management. For speech recognition we use CMU Sphinx engine and for speech synthesis- MaryTTS. The web-GUI is implemented in Java enabling operators to quickly create and manage the dialogs in user-friendly graphical environment. The call routines are handled by Asterisk PBX and JBoss Application Server. The system supports such technologies and protocols as VoIP, VoiceXML, FastAGI, Java SpeechAPI and J2EE. For the speech recognition experiments we compiled and used the first Kazakh speech corpus with the utterances from 169 native speakers. The performance of the speech recognizer is 4.1% WER on isolated word recognition and 6.9% WER on clean continuous speech recognition tasks. The speech synthesis experiments include the training of male and female voices.

  2. Kuwaiti Teachers' Perceptions of Voice Handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albustan, Sana A; Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Darawsheh, Wesam B

    2017-05-30

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of age, gender, level of education, experience, and class level taught on the perception of voice handicap by Kuwaiti teachers using the Arabic version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-Arab). The mean VHI scores of Kuwaiti teachers were compared with those of Jordanian and Emirati teachers. The study had a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 460 individuals (100 controls and 360 teachers) participated in this study and completed the paper copy of the VHI-Arab. We recruited 360 teachers, 180 males and 180 females (age range: 20-50 years), from 60 schools in 6 Kuwaiti districts. Teachers' VHI scores were compared with 100 nonteaching voice users (50 males and 50 females, with an age range of 18-42 years). Female teachers scored significantly higher than male teachers in all subscales (ie, physical: P = 0.02; emotional: P = 0.007; total: P = 0.017), except for the functional subscale (P = 0.147). Elementary school teachers scored significantly higher than teachers of other levels (middle and high school) in all VHI subscales (physical: P = 0.047; emotional: P = 0.01; total: P = 0.039), except for the functional subscale (P = 0.47). The mean score of Jordanian teachers was higher than that of Kuwaiti and Emirati teachers in all VHI subscales. Teachers with a more favorable teaching environment scored better on the VHI. Gender differences were found in all the Arabic nationalities studied. Female teachers of the elementary level, in particular, should be the focus of attention of efforts to prevent voice damage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocal projection in actors: the long-term average spectral features that distinguish comfortable acting voice from voicing with maximal projection in male actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinczower, Rachel; Oates, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    This study explored whether acoustic and perceptual features could distinguish comfortable from maximally projected acting voice. Thirteen professional male actors performed a passage from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar twice. The first delivery used their comfortably projected voices, whereas the second used maximal projection. Acoustic measures, expert ratings, and self-ratings of projection and voice quality were investigated. Long-term average spectra (LTAS) and sound pressure level (SPL) analyses were conducted. Perceptual variables included projection, breathiness, roughness, and strain. When comparing the intensity difference between the higher (2-4 kHz) and lower (0-2 kHz) regions of the spectrum in voice samples from the maximal projected condition, LTAS analyses demonstrated increased acoustic energy in the higher part of the spectrum. This LTAS pattern was not as evident in the comfortable projected condition. These findings offered some preliminary support for the existence of an actor's formant (prominent peak in the upper part of the spectrum) during maximal projection.

  4. Implementation of Directional Control System for Autonomous Robot Based on Voice Command Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Han Nilar Htay; Hla Myo Tun

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this research is to process analog voice signal. The paper is implemented for controlling the robot by voice command. The implemented system involves voice recognition unit, digital data processing unit with DC switching section. The proposed system consists of a microcontroller and a voice recognition processor that can recognize a limited number of voice patterns. This is voice based guidance system, which uses the special voice recognition IC HM2007 for speech enhancement....

  5. Comparing Methods for Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeser, Karin; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2018-01-01

    tomography (CT) angiography. Sixty-two patients, scheduled for elective heart surgery, were included; 1 was subsequently excluded for logistic reasons. Inclusion criteria were coronary artery bypass surgery (N = 42) and aortic valve replacement (N = 19). Exclusion criteria were chronic atrial fibrillation...... of the left ventricular outflow tract. METHODS: The primary aim was a systematic comparison of CO with Doppler-derived 3D TEE and CO by thermodilution in a broad population of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A subanalysis was performed comparing cross-sectional area by TEE with cardiac computed......, left ventricular ejection fraction below 0.40 and intracardiac shunts. Nineteen randomly selected patients had a cardiac CT the day before surgery. All images were stored for blinded post hoc analyses, and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between measurement methods, defined as the bias...

  6. Voice dosimetry and monitoring, with emphasis on professional voice diseases: Critical review and framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Claudia; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2016-07-01

    Professional voice has become an important issue in the field of occupational health. Similarly, voice diseases related to occupations gain interest in insurance medicine, particularly within the frame of specific insurance systems for occupational diseases. Technological developments have made possible dosimetry of voice loading in the work-place, as well as long-term monitoring of relevant voice parameters during professional activities. A critical review is given, with focus on the specificity of occupational voice use and on the point of view of insurance medicine. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  7. Voice Quality in Adults Treated for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Long-term Follow-up After 1- or 2-Stage Palate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Staffan; Lindestad, Per Åke; Holmström, Mats; Mani, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess voice quality among adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), after 1- or 2-stage palate closure, and compare it to a noncleft control group. Cross-sectional study in UCLP patients with long-term follow-up and noncleft controls. UCLP patients born 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, were examined (n = 73) at a mean of 35 years after primary surgery. Forty-seven patients (64%) had been treated with 1-stage palate closure and 26 with 2-stage closure (36%). The noncleft control group consisted of 63 age-matched volunteers. Ratings of perceptual voice characteristics from blinded voice recordings with Swedish Voice Evaluation Approach (SVEA) method. Acoustic voice analysis including pitch and spectral measures. Among the patients, the mean values for the 12 evaluated variables on a VAS scale (0 = no abnormality, 100 = maximal abnormality) ranged between 1 and 22 and the mean for all was 6 mm. Voice variables were similar between patients and controls except the total mean of all the perceptual voice variables, as well as "vocal fry"-both slightly lower among patients ( P = .018 and P = .009). There was no difference in any variable between patients treated with 1-stage and 2-stage palate closure. No clear relationship was found between VPI and dysphonia. The voice characteristics among adults treated for UCLP in childhood are not different from those of individuals without cleft.

  8. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  9. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  10. Career stages in wildland firefighting: Implications for voice in risky situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis Lewis; Troy E. Hall; Anne Black

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance of injury and death on the fireline may depend on firefighters voicing their concerns, but often this does not occur. Reasons for employee reticence identified in the literature include a perception of various personal costs or a belief that raising concerns is futile. Additionally, the social context may play a significant role. In a qualitative study using...

  11. How Listening to Student Voices Informs and Strengthens Social Justice Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research article is to illustrate the value of including students' voices in educational leadership and research practices, to more fully understand what students are actually experiencing in transformative learning spaces, and to determine what we might learn from them in terms of how to improve both leadership…

  12. What Do Students Have to Do with Educational Leadership? Making a Case for Centering Student Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Van T.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the value of educational leaders intentionally including students in shaping the policies and practices that affect young people's schooling experiences. First, we share the literature on student voice and introduce Principal Orientations for Critical Youth Educational Leadership as a conceptual model,…

  13. Hybrid System for the Inventory of the Cultural Heritage Using Voice Interface for Knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Château, Stefan Du; Boulanger, Danielle; Mercier-Laurent, Eunika

    This document presents our work on a definition and experimentation of a voice interface for cultural heritage inventory. This hybrid system includes signal processing, natural language techniques and knowledge modeling for future retrieval. We discuss the first results and present some challenges for our future work.

  14. Intensified Voice Therapy: A New Model for the Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Functional Dysphonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J.; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Ptok, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new intervention for chronic dysphonias, consisting of a 2-week outpatient treatment period using intensified voice therapy combined with elements of physical medicine, including physiotherapy (orthotherapy, detonisation and training of the trunk muscles, respiratory therapy and others), manual therapy…

  15. Voices from the Classroom: Results from the 2016 Tennessee Educator Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Isaiah

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee Educator Survey, created in partnership with the Tennessee Education Research Alliance at Vanderbilt University (TERA), aims to take the pulse of teacher perceptions, monitor school climate and culture across the state, and include educators' voices in the policy discussion. The survey offers a snapshot of where Tennessee is--and…

  16. Designing interaction, voice, and inclusion in AAC research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Treviranus, Jutta; Patel, Rupal; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    The ISAAC 2016 Research Symposium included a Design Stream that examined timely issues across augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), framed in terms of designing interaction, designing voice, and designing inclusion. Each is a complex term with multiple meanings; together they represent challenging yet important frontiers of AAC research. The Design Stream was conceived by the four authors, researchers who have been exploring AAC and disability-related design throughout their careers, brought together by a shared conviction that designing for communication implies more than ensuring access to words and utterances. Each of these presenters came to AAC from a different background: interaction design, inclusive design, speech science, and social science. The resulting discussion among 24 symposium participants included controversies about the role of technology, tensions about independence and interdependence, and a provocation about taste. The paper concludes by proposing new directions for AAC research: (a) new interdisciplinary research could combine scientific and design research methods, as distant yet complementary as microanalysis and interaction design, (b) new research tools could seed accessible and engaging contextual research into voice within a social model of disability, and (c) new open research networks could support inclusive, international and interdisciplinary research.

  17. Biofeedback on voice use in call center agents in order to prevent occupational voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Knell, Christina; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Call center agents (CCAs) are at high risk of voice disorders because of high-demanding vocal load and work-related stress factors. Goal of this prospective study was to examine the voice use at work and to introduce biofeedback software into real-life workplace situation to improve vocal performance. Individual fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL) of speaking voice, and syllables per second should be optimized by visualization on-screen. Further, its impact on vocal attrition and vocal constitution should be investigated. Over a period of 6 months, 76 call center advisors voluntarily participated in this study (37 female, 39 male, mean age 29.3 years). At the beginning of the study, all the subjects received voice range profile (VRP) measurements and acoustic voice analyses at the beginning and at the end of shift. Additionally, several questionnaires have been completed. The subjects were classified into either the study group (group 1) or the control group (group 2). Group 1 had open access to results of the biofeedback software program at their workplace, and group 2 did not. The VRP measurements, questionnaires, and acoustic voice analyses were repeated 4 weeks later again at the beginning and at the end of shift. All the subjects confirmed a rather high vocal load. In contrast, almost none of the subjects received any voice training before entering the floor. The percentage of voice-related hoarseness and regular throat clearing was rather high in both groups. The statistical analyses revealed a significant improvement of vocal performance in subjects with vocal fatigue in the study group when compared with the control group after a 4-week biofeedback intervention. All the subjects with vocal hypofunction defined as maximum SPLs lower than 90 dB in VRP measurements improved to normal voice constitution at the end of the study in contrast to the control group. Biofeedback is a suitable method to improve vocal awareness and vocal performance of

  18. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  19. Voice quality after endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: objective measurements emphasizing the Voice Handicap Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero Cueva, Maria Jesús; Señaris González, Blanca; Llorente Pendás, José Luis; Gorriz Gil, Carmen; López Llames, Aurora; Alonso Pantiga, Ramón; Suárez Nieto, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome and self-evaluation of the voice of patients with T1 glottic carcinoma treated with endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy. We performed an objective voice evaluation, as well as a physical, emotional and functional well being assessment of 19 patients treated with laser surgery and 18 patients treated with radiotherapy. Voice quality is affected both by surgery and radiotherapy. Voice parameters only show differences in the maximum phonation time between both treatments. Results in the Voice Handicap Index show that radiotherapy has less effect on patient voice quality perception. There is a reduced impact on the patient’s perception of voice quality after radiotherapy, despite there being no significant differences in vocal quality between radiotherapy and laser cordectomy. PMID:17999074

  20. Speech and Voice Response to a Levodopa Challenge in Late-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Fabbri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundParkinson’s disease (PD patients are affected by hypokinetic dysarthria, characterized by hypophonia and dysprosody, which worsens with disease progression. Levodopa’s (l-dopa effect on quality of speech is inconclusive; no data are currently available for late-stage PD (LSPD.ObjectiveTo assess the modifications of speech and voice in LSPD following an acute l-dopa challenge.MethodLSPD patients [Schwab and England score <50/Hoehn and Yahr stage >3 (MED ON] performed several vocal tasks before and after an acute l-dopa challenge. The following was assessed: respiratory support for speech, voice quality, stability and variability, speech rate, and motor performance (MDS-UPDRS-III. All voice samples were recorded and analyzed by a speech and language therapist blinded to patients’ therapeutic condition using Praat 5.1 software.Results24/27 (14 men LSPD patients succeeded in performing voice tasks. Median age and disease duration of patients were 79 [IQR: 71.5–81.7] and 14.5 [IQR: 11–15.7] years, respectively. In MED OFF, respiratory breath support and pitch break time of LSPD patients were worse than the normative values of non-parkinsonian. A correlation was found between disease duration and voice quality (R = 0.51; p = 0.013 and speech rate (R = −0.55; p = 0.008. l-Dopa significantly improved MDS-UPDRS-III score (20%, with no effect on speech as assessed by clinical rating scales and automated analysis.ConclusionSpeech is severely affected in LSPD. Although l-dopa had some effect on motor performance, including axial signs, speech and voice did not improve. The applicability and efficacy of non-pharmacological treatment for speech impairment should be considered for speech disorder management in PD.