WorldWideScience

Sample records for included visual observation

  1. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  2. Visual observing reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    2016-02-01

    In this overview we summarize reports published by visual observers shortly after the field work has been done and first impressions and memories of the real meteor observing experiences are fresh in mind. Past two months, since end of May the weather deteriorated, June was for about all actively reporting meteor workers the worst month since long. Apparently the Earth atmosphere got perturbed over most of Europe and America; hence rather few reports were submitted for June and July.

  3. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  4. Observing and Measuring Visual Double Stars

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In these days of high-precision astrometric satellites, tremendous contributions to the science of astrometry are being made by amateur astronomers around the globe. This second edition of Observing and Measuring Visual Double Stars contains a significant amount of completely new material inspired by the work done by observers - particularly in the USA - since the first edition was published. Fifteen skilled and experienced astronomers have contributed chapters on their own specialization in the various fields. These include how to use the Internet to carry out precise astronomical measurement, an excellent guide to sketching double stars, and information on how to image double stars of unequal brightness. This new edition is the definitive book for those who are serious about this fascinating aspect of astronomy! Author Bob Argyle has been observing visual double stars for more than 40 years, some with the help of the world's biggest refractors, and has been director of the Webb Society Double Star Se...

  5. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  6. Visualizing Influential Observations in Dependent Data

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the hair-plot to visualize influential observations in dependent data. It consists of all trajectories of the value of an estimator when each observation is modified in turn by an additive perturbation. We define two measures of influence: the local influence which describes the rate of departure from the original estimate due to a small perturbation of each observation; and the asymptotic influence which indicates the influence on the original estimate of the most extreme contamination for each observation. The cases of estimators defined as quadratic forms or ratios of quadratic forms are investigated in detail. Sample autocovariances, covariograms, and variograms belong to the first case. Sample autocorrelations, correlograms, and indices of spatial autocorrelation such as Moran\\'s I belong to the second case.We illustrate our approach on various datasets from time series analysis and spatial statistics. This article has supplementary material online. © 2010 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  7. Telescopic observations - Visual, photographic, polarimetric. [of planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leonard J.; James, Philip B.; Dollfus, Audouin; Iwasaki, Kyosuke; Beish, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper divides the high points of telescopic observations of Mars into three time periods: historical, missions support (recent), and present. Particular attention is given to visual and photographic observations, with brief discussions of spectroscopic and polarization studies. Major topics of Martian phenomena included are albedo features, polar caps, dust storms, and white clouds. The interannual variability of the recessions of seasonal polar caps has been compared to dust storm activity, but this relationship remains uncertain. Only a very limited number of canals can be related to markings on the Viking images. The remainder are argued to be optical illusions created by observers pushing their perceived resolution beyond practical limits.

  8. Observational constraints on unified dark matter including Hubble parameter data

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Kai; Cao, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Gong, Xiaolong; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    We constrain a unified dark matter (UDM) model from the latest observational data. This model assumes that the dark sector is degenerate. Dark energy and dark matter are the same component. It can be described by an affine equation of state $P_X= p_0 +\\alpha \\rho_X$. Our data set contains the newly revised $H(z)$ data, type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from Union2 set, baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) observation from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7 (DR7) galaxy ...

  9. Visual online control processes are acquired during observational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Spencer J; Elliott, Digby; Bennett, Simon J

    2013-07-01

    This experiment examined whether visual online control processes are coded during observational practice. Participants physically practised an aiming sequence while yoked participants either observed (observational practice) or did nothing (control). Two target sizes were used to vary the importance of visual online control processes. Constant error and variable error indicated that participants acquired the timing constraints through physical practice and observational practice. Kinematic data confirmed that the physical practice and observational practice groups executed similar movement control. Physical practice did result in a performance advantage, but only under large target conditions. These findings indicate that visual online control processes can be effectively acquired through observational practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Basic visual observation skills training course. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    This is the third report in a series prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in Observation Skills. The first report (Phase 1) was essentially exploratory. It defined Observation Skills' broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. The second report (Phase 2) provided a more specific basis for the actual design and delivery of Observation Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The present report (Phase 3) documents the design of a Basic Visual Observation Skills course and delivery of the course to safeguards inspectors at IAEA Headquarters Vienna in February and May of 1995. The purpose of the course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The course is basic in the sense that it provides training in skills which are generally applicable to inspections of all types of facilities and activities subject to safeguards. The course is designed for 16 hours of classroom delivery, ideally in four 4-hour sessions over a period of four days. The first 12 hours provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention and attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following the training in each of the five skill areas is an Integrating Exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection

  11. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. The Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV): Visualization, Data Discovery, Strategic Assessment, and Decision Support for Arctic Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Villarreal, S.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    To better assess progress in Arctic Observing made by U.S. SEARCH, NSF AON, SAON, and related initiatives, an updated version of the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org) has been released. This web mapping application and information system conveys the who, what, where, and when of "data collection sites" - the precise locations of monitoring assets, observing platforms, and wherever repeat marine or terrestrial measurements have been taken. Over 13,000 sites across the circumarctic are documented including a range of boreholes, ship tracks, buoys, towers, sampling stations, sensor networks, vegetation plots, stream gauges, ice cores, observatories, and more. Contributing partners are the U.S. NSF, NOAA, the NSF Arctic Data Center, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, CAFF, GINA, IASOA, INTERACT, NASA ABoVE, and USGS, among others. Users can visualize, navigate, select, search, draw, print, view details, and follow links to obtain a comprehensive perspective of environmental monitoring efforts. We continue to develop, populate, and enhance AOV. Recent updates include: a vastly improved Search tool with free text queries, autocomplete, and filters; faster performance; a new clustering visualization; heat maps to highlight concentrated research; and 3-D represented data to more easily identify trends. AOV is founded on principles of interoperability, such that agencies and organizations can use the AOV Viewer and web services for their own purposes. In this way, AOV complements other distributed yet interoperable cyber resources and helps science planners, funding agencies, investigators, data specialists, and others to: assess status, identify overlap, fill gaps, optimize sampling design, refine network performance, clarify directions, access data, coordinate logistics, and collaborate to meet Arctic Observing goals. AOV is a companion application to the Arctic Research Mapping Application (armap.org), which is focused on general project information at a

  13. Observation on postoperative binocular visual function reconstruction in intermittent exotropia children with binocular visual training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy of the binocular vision training on intermittent exotropia children postoperative binocular visual function reconstruction.METHODS:From January 2010 to October 2011, 112 intermittent exotropia children were treated, divided into three groups, the first group used synoptophore for binocular visual training, the second group used the binocular visual training software for binocular visual training, the third group was control group, no binocular visual training. The postoperative far and near stereoacuity and postoperative 1 year eye position orthophoria rate of the three groups were observed and compared. RESULTS: The two groups of children with visual training, the far and near stereoacuity was significantly higher than that of the control group, the difference was significant. In the 1-year follow-up after surgery, the eye position orthophoria rate of the control group was significantly lower than the other two groups.CONCLUSION: Intermittent exotropia postoperative binocular visual training can significantly promote the reconstruction of children with binocular vision, reduce eye rollback rate, improve the success rate of surgery.

  14. An Ideal Observer Analysis of Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R.; Jacobs, Robert A.; Knill, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Limits in visual working memory (VWM) strongly constrain human performance across many tasks. However, the nature of these limits is not well understood. In this article we develop an ideal observer analysis of human VWM by deriving the expected behavior of an optimally performing but limited-capacity memory system. This analysis is framed around…

  15. Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix A. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the course manual and materials.

  16. Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the course manual and materials

  17. Formal art observation training improves medical students' visual diagnostic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Sheila; Hafler, Janet P; Miller, Alexa R; Blanco, Maria A; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Dubroff, Rachel P; Khoshbin, Shahram; Katz, Joel T

    2008-07-01

    Despite evidence of inadequate physical examination skills among medical students, teaching these skills has declined. One method of enhancing inspection skills is teaching "visual literacy," the ability to reason physiology and pathophysiology from careful and unbiased observation. To improve students' visual acumen through structured observation of artworks, understanding of fine arts concepts and applying these skills to patient care. Prospective, partially randomized pre- vs. post-course evaluation using mixed-methods data analysis. Twenty-four pre-clinical student participants were compared to 34 classmates at a similar stage of training. Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis consists of eight paired sessions of art observation exercises with didactics that integrate fine arts concepts with physical diagnosis topics and an elective life drawing session. The frequency of accurate observations on a 1-h visual skills examination was used to evaluate pre- vs. post-course descriptions of patient photographs and art imagery. Content analysis was used to identify thematic categories. All assessments were blinded to study group and pre- vs. post-course evaluation. Following the course, class participants increased their total mean number of observations compared to controls (5.41 +/- 0.63 vs. 0.36 +/- 0.53, p interdisciplinary course improved participants' capacity to make accurate observations of art and physical findings.

  18. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-05-01

    Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

  19. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... feedback of their own TPT performance, Group 3: control group performed the TPT without any conditioning. There was no overall difference between groups but TPT performance increased over time. A significant group x time interaction indicated that the self-observation group performed significantly better...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  20. Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise

  1. Visual observation of a heat pipe working characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuzaki, Noriyoshi; Saito, Takashi; Ishigami, Shinya; Kawada, Michitaka; Konno, Masanobu; Kaminaga, Fumito; Okamoto, Yoshizo.

    1988-10-01

    When the heat pipe is used in a nuclear engineering field, it is indispensable to understand transient characteristics of an accident condition as well as in a steady state at a normal operation. However there have been few informations about the transient characteristics of a heat pipe in case of rapid temperature or heat load change in an evaporator section. The purpose of this study is to examine transient and steady state characteristics of a gravity assisted heat pipe and variable conductance heat pipe(VCHP) which will be used in a neutron irradiation capsule. This report presents results of visual observation of boiling and condensation patterns on steady state or transient condition in a visible heat pipe made of a glass. The response time of the heat pipe is on the order of a few seconds when the temperature of the evaporator part is kept above the operating temperature. (author)

  2. Conveying Clinical Reasoning Based on Visual Observation via Eye-Movement Modelling Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nystrom, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Complex perceptual tasks, like clinical reasoning based on visual observations of patients, require not only conceptual knowledge about diagnostic classes but also the skills to visually search for symptoms and interpret these observations. However, medical education so far has focused very little on how visual observation skills can be…

  3. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  4. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus (PPN Influences Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Human Observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Strumpf

    Full Text Available The parapontine nucleus of the thalamus (PPN is a neuromodulatory midbrain structure with widespread connectivity to cortical and subcortical motor structures, as well as the spinal cord. The PPN also projects to the thalamus, including visual relay nuclei like the LGN and the pulvinar. Moreover, there is intense connectivity with sensory structures of the tegmentum in particular with the superior colliculus (SC. Given the existence and abundance of projections to visual sensory structures, it is likely that activity in the PPN has some modulatory influence on visual sensory selection. Here we address this possibility by measuring the visual discrimination performance (luminance contrast thresholds in a group of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD treated with deep-brain stimulation (DBS of the PPN to control gait and postural motor deficits. In each patient we measured the luminance-contrast threshold of being able to discriminate an orientation-target (Gabor-grating as a function of stimulation frequency (high 60Hz, low 8/10, no stimulation. Thresholds were determined using a standard staircase-protocol that is based on parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST. We observed that under low frequency stimulation thresholds increased relative to no and high frequency stimulation in five out of six patients, suggesting that DBS of the PPN has a frequency-dependent impact on visual selection processes at a rather elementary perceptual level.

  6. How Clean Are Hotel Rooms? Part I: Visual Observations vs. Microbiological Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Kirsch, Katie; Kline, Sheryl Fried; Sirsat, Sujata; Stroia, Olivia; Choi, Jin Kyung; Neal, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence of hotel room cleanliness is based on observation rather than empirically based microbial assessment. The purpose of the study described here was to determine if observation provides an accurate indicator of cleanliness. Results demonstrated that visual assessment did not accurately predict microbial contamination. Although testing standards have not yet been established for hotel rooms and will be evaluated in Part II of the authors' study, potential microbial hazards included the sponge and mop (housekeeping cart), toilet, bathroom floor, bathroom sink, and light switch. Hotel managers should increase cleaning in key areas to reduce guest exposure to harmful bacteria.

  7. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  8. Visual observations of glottic activity during didgeridoo performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Hyde, Lydia; Ward, Ronald R.; Ross, Joel C.

    2012-02-01

    Australian didgeridoo is a reed-less hollow conically shape wooden tubular wind instrument typically measuring up to 150 cm in length, with distal and proximal diameters ranging from 150 to 30 mm. This tube allows a player to produce only a narrow variety of sound and sounds effects because it is coupled directly to the player's vocal tract. The typical frequency of the tube typically called the drone, is approximately within 60 to 100 Hz range. This tone generation modulated by lip vibration is supported by circular breathing, allowing for an uninterrupted (indefinite) length of sound generation. Inhalation introduces sound pulsation, while specific tonal effects can be consciously created by manipulation of the player's lips and/or the vocal tract, including conscious phonation using vocal folds vibration, all used to enrich both the sound and the artistic meaning of the played sequence. Though the results of the research on the acoustics of this instrument are often reported in the literature, physiologic data regarding vocal tract configurations, and especially on the behavior of the vocal folds in regulation of ventilation and in phonation, remain less than underreported. The data presented here comprises (as far as we were able to determine) the first ever physiologic account of vocal fold activity in a didgeridoo player observed with help of trans-nasal endoscopy. Our focus was to reveal the work of t

  9. Visual aids for aerial observers on forest insect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.T. Larsen

    1957-01-01

    Aerial surveys are widely used to detect, appraise, and map damage caused to forest trees by insects. The success of these surveys largely depends upon the ability of observers to distinguish differences in foliage color and tree condition. The observers' ability is influenced by several factors.

  10. Stroboscopic Image Modulation to Reduce the Visual Blur of an Object Being Viewed by an Observer Experiencing Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K. (Inventor); Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); Beutter, Brent R. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J., Jr. (Inventor); McCann, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the visual blur of an object being viewed by an observer experiencing vibration. In various embodiments of the present invention, the visual blur is reduced through stroboscopic image modulation (SIM). A SIM device is operated in an alternating "on/off" temporal pattern according to a SIM drive signal (SDS) derived from the vibration being experienced by the observer. A SIM device (controlled by a SIM control system) operates according to the SDS serves to reduce visual blur by "freezing" (or reducing an image's motion to a slow drift) the visual image of the viewed object. In various embodiments, the SIM device is selected from the group consisting of illuminator(s), shutter(s), display control system(s), and combinations of the foregoing (including the use of multiple illuminators, shutters, and display control systems).

  11. Visual Orbit Solutions from Observing Techniques Old and New

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    baseline and visibility. Combining multiple baseline pairs allows triangulation of the binary through analysis of their separated fringe packets ( SFP ...interferometry, the improved accuracy and precision of SFP observations, plus the capability to resolve at less than 30 mas, have made this pair very attractive...Publication of the SFP solution is expected following the 2011 observing season. The pair µ Ari has a SFP measure in the hitherto unresolved region

  12. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... correction, adversely affects a child's learning. The term includes both blind and partially seeing children... OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR...

  13. Validation of Visually Observed Waves with the Recorded Waves on the Southwest Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, P. K.; James, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    The wave climate, pre-requisite information for planning and design of coastal engineering structures, can be obtained by different methods. Coastal protection works require wave climate in the nearshore region; deployment of wave sensors and visual observation of the waves from the shore are among the methods that can be adopted for collecting the wave data. On the southwest coast of India (Kerala), wave data have been collected by visual observation from the shore, at 18 stations located along the entire coastline since 1973. The pressure type wave sensors were installed in the nearshore region at four stations, almost equally spaced along the coast and data acquired for a period of 4 years. Of the four instrument stations, two were located at the visual observation station itself, the third one was about 7 km from the nearest visual observation station and the fourth station midway between two visual observation stations—the distance between the instrument station and the visual observation stations being about 20 km. Study revealed that the visually observed wave parameters are comparable with the wave parameters acquired by the instrument, particularly with respect to the wave height.

  14. The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Paas, F., Marcus, N., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J. (2009). The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 21-30.

  15. Visual observation of boiling in high power liquid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeples, J. L.; Stokely, M. H.; Poorman, M. C.; Magerl, M.; Wieland, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    A top pressurized, batch style, 3.15 mL total volume (2.5 mL fill volume) water target with transparent viewing windows was operated on an IBA 18/9 cyclotron at 18 MeV proton energy and beam power up to 1.1 kW. Video recordings documented bubble formation and transport, and blue light from de-excitation of water molecules produced images of proton beam stopping geometry including location of the Bragg peak.

  16. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  17. Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, James S.; Honig, David A.; Carterette, Edward; Eigler, Neal L.

    1991-06-01

    An observer's ability to detect low contrast features (signals) within an image is an important measure of image quality. A theory exists for describing the relationship between measurable image parameters and the detectability of simple visual signals such as squares or disks in single images. This signal detection theory has been successfully applied to many practical visual tasks yielding fundamental re'ationships between noise, contrast, and the effect on detectability of intensifying screen/x-ray film combinations in conventional radiology2, and quantization noise,3 image processing,4 and window/level settings5'6 in digital displays. We are aware of no studies examining signal detectability in dynamically displayed medical images, despite the importance of these displays for many imaging modalities. Examples of dynamic displays in medical imaging include x-ray fluoroscopy, cardiac cineangiography, real-time two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-Echo), rapid-sequence nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI), radioisotope ventriculography, and ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT) . The goal of the present study was to quantify the psychophysical parameters which affect observer performance in dynamically displayed sequences of noisy images.

  18. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explores its dimensions—let us say, a stuffed animal, a dog, a salt shaker, or a CD ... tests, treatments, surgery, diseases and conditions, and the anatomy of the eye. The glossary’s online at: http:// ...

  19. Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations, Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations dataset current as of 2008. Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers..

  20. Including refugees in disease elimination: challenges observed from a sleeping sickness programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Robert, Okello; Kansiime, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance. Using ethnographic observations of coordination meetings, review of programme data, interviews with sleeping sickness and refugee authorities and group discussions with health staff and refugees (2013-2016), we nevertheless identified some key challenges to equitably integrating refugees into government sleeping sickness surveillance. Despite fears that refugees were at risk of disease and posed a threat to elimination, six months into the response, programme coordinators progressed to a sentinel surveillance strategy in districts hosting the highest concentrations of refugees. This meant that RDTs, the programme's primary surveillance tool, were removed from most refugee-serving facilities, exacerbating existing inequitable access to surveillance and leading refugees to claim that their access to sleeping sickness tests had been better in South Sudan. This was not intentionally done to exclude refugees from care, rather, four key governance challenges made it difficult for the programme to recognise and correct inequities affecting refugees: (a) perceived donor pressure to reduce the sleeping sickness programme's scope without clear international elimination guidance on surveillance quality; (b) a problematic history of programme relations with refugee-hosting districts which strained supervision of surveillance quality; (c) difficulties that

  1. A multimethod investigation including direct observation of 3751 patient visits to 120 dental offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wotman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Wotman1, Catherine A Demko1, Kristin Victoroff1, Joseph J Sudano2, James A Lalumandier11Department of Community Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Center of Health Care Research and Policy, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: This report defines verbal interactions between practitioners and patients as core activities of dental practice. Trained teams spent four days in 120 Ohio dental practices observing 3751 patient encounters with dentists and hygienists. Direct observation of practice characteristics, procedures performed, and how procedure and nonprocedure time was utilized during patient visits was recorded using a modified Davis Observation Code that classified patient contact time into 24 behavioral categories. Dentist, hygienist, and patient characteristics were gathered by questionnaire. The most common nonprocedure behaviors observed for dentists were chatting, evaluation feedback, history taking, and answering patient questions. Hygienists added preventive counseling. We distinguish between preventive procedures and counseling in actual dental offices that are members of a practice-based research network. Almost a third of the dentist’s and half of the hygienist’s patient contact time is utilized for nonprocedure behaviors during patient encounters. These interactions may be linked to patient and practitioner satisfaction and effectiveness of self-care instruction.Keywords: dental practice, dental practice core activities, direct observation of dental practice, Dental Davis Observation Code, dentist, hygienist patient behaviors

  2. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations During Action Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects

  3. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  4. iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Children Who Are Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…

  5. Accuracy and inter-observer reliability of visual estimation compared to clinical goniometry of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonna, Davide; Zarkadas, Peter C; Fitzsimmons, James S; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that visual estimation by a trained observer is as accurate and reliable as clinical goniometry for measuring elbow range of motion. Instrument validity and inter-observer reliability of visual estimation was evaluated on a consecutive series of 50 elbow contractures. Four observers with different levels of elbow experience first estimated extension and flexion of the contracted elbows and then measured them with a blinded goniometer. Instrument validity for visually-based goniometry was extremely high. ICC scores were 0.97 for both extension and flexion estimations. Systematic error was negligible (1°) with upper limits of agreement being 9° (95% CI: 7°-11°) and 8° (95% CI: 6°-10°), respectively, for extension and flexion. For the expert surgeon, 92% of the visual estimates were within 5° of the value obtained by clinical goniometry. Between experienced observers (elbow surgeon and physician assistant), the ICC's were very high-0.96 for extension and 0.93 for flexion. The systematic errors were low, from -1° to 1° with upper limit of agreement being 11° (95% CI: 8°-14°). However, agreement was poor between an inexperienced study coordinator and the others (ICC's: 0.51-0.38, systematic errors: 8°-18°, upper limit of agreement: 32°-40°). The accuracy of the visual estimations made by the experienced elbow surgeon was as good as the measurements taken with a goniometer by the physician assistant or the clinical fellow and better than those taken by an inexperienced study coordinator. The trained human eye is highly capable of accurately estimating the range of motion of the elbow, compared to conventional clinical goniometry, depending on the experience of the observer. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  6. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  7. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  8. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  9. Visual astronomy under dark skies a new approach to observing deep space

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Modern astronomical telescopes, along with other advances in technology, have brought the deep sky - star clusters, nebulae and the galaxies - within reach of amateur astronomers. And it isn't even necessary to image many of these deep-sky objects in order to see them; they are within reach of visual observers using modern techniques and enhancement technology. The first requirement is truly dark skies; if you are observing from a light-polluted environment you need Tony Cooke's book, Visual Astronomy in the Suburbs. Given a site with clear, dark night skies everything else follows… this book will provide the reader with everything he needs to know about what to observe, and using some of today's state-of-the-art technique and commercial equipment, how to get superb views of faint and distant astronomical objects.

  10. User Driven Data Mining, Visualization and Decision Making for NOAA Observing System and Data Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) observing system enterprise represents a $2.4B annual investment. Earth observations from these systems are foundational to NOAA's mission to describe, understand, and predict the Earth's environment. NOAA's decision makers are charged with managing this complex portfolio of observing systems to serve the national interest effectively and efficiently. The Technology Planning & Integration for Observation (TPIO) Office currently maintains an observing system portfolio for NOAA's validated user observation requirements, observing capabilities, and resulting data products and services. TPIO performs data analytics to provide NOAA leadership business case recommendations for making sound budgetary decisions. Over the last year, TPIO has moved from massive spreadsheets to intuitive dashboards that enable Federal agencies as well as the general public the ability to explore user observation requirements and environmental observing systems that monitor and predict changes in the environment. This change has led to an organizational data management shift to analytics and visualizations by allowing analysts more time to focus on understanding the data, discovering insights, and effectively communicating the information to decision makers. Moving forward, the next step is to facilitate a cultural change toward self-serve data sharing across NOAA, other Federal agencies, and the public using intuitive data visualizations that answer relevant business questions for users of NOAA's Observing System Enterprise. Users and producers of environmental data will become aware of the need for enhancing communication to simplify information exchange to achieve multipurpose goals across a variety of disciplines. NOAA cannot achieve its goal of producing environmental intelligence without data that can be shared by multiple user communities. This presentation will describe where we are on this journey and will provide examples of

  11. Utilizing visual art to enhance the clinical observation skills of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasani, Sona K; Saks, Norma S

    2013-07-01

    Clinical observation is fundamental in practicing medicine, but these skills are rarely taught. Currently no evidence-based exercises/courses exist for medical student training in observation skills. The goal was to develop and teach a visual arts-based exercise for medical students, and to evaluate its usefulness in enhancing observation skills in clinical diagnosis. A pre- and posttest and evaluation survey were developed for a three-hour exercise presented to medical students just before starting clerkships. Students were provided with questions to guide discussion of both representational and non-representational works of art. Quantitative analysis revealed that the mean number of observations between pre- and posttests was not significantly different (n=70: 8.63 vs. 9.13, p=0.22). Qualitative analysis of written responses identified four themes: (1) use of subjective terminology, (2) scope of interpretations, (3) speculative thinking, and (4) use of visual analogies. Evaluative comments indicated that students felt the exercise enhanced both mindfulness and skills. Using visual art images with guided questions can train medical students in observation skills. This exercise can be replicated without specially trained personnel or art museum partnerships.

  12. Observing before Learning: Visual Material for the Learning of English as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Benavides

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a report of the findings of a research project developed in a Colombian school, Academia La Salle San Benildo, as a requirement for the B.A. degree in Modern Languages at La Salle University. The goal of this project is to describe the impact of working with visual material with the students of fifth and third grades. The data collected throughout the process include an interview, a survey, students’ work, and journals kept by the student teachers. The results of the analysis of the research show the importance of the application of visual material in the teaching process.

  13. Practice makes perfect: the neural substrates of tactile discrimination by Mah-Jong experts include the primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda Manabu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has yet to be determined whether visual-tactile cross-modal plasticity due to visual deprivation, particularly in the primary visual cortex (V1, is solely due to visual deprivation or if it is a result of long-term tactile training. Here we conducted an fMRI study with normally-sighted participants who had undergone long-term training on the tactile shape discrimination of the two dimensional (2D shapes on Mah-Jong tiles (Mah-Jong experts. Eight Mah-Jong experts and twelve healthy volunteers who were naïve to Mah-Jong performed a tactile shape matching task using Mah-Jong tiles with no visual input. Furthermore, seven out of eight experts performed a tactile shape matching task with unfamiliar 2D Braille characters. Results When participants performed tactile discrimination of Mah-Jong tiles, the left lateral occipital cortex (LO and V1 were activated in the well-trained subjects. In the naïve subjects, the LO was activated but V1 was not activated. Both the LO and V1 of the well-trained subjects were activated during Braille tactile discrimination tasks. Conclusion The activation of V1 in subjects trained in tactile discrimination may represent altered cross-modal responses as a result of long-term training.

  14. Practice makes perfect: the neural substrates of tactile discrimination by Mah-Jong experts include the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke N; Okada, Tomohisa; Honda, Manabu; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2006-12-05

    It has yet to be determined whether visual-tactile cross-modal plasticity due to visual deprivation, particularly in the primary visual cortex (V1), is solely due to visual deprivation or if it is a result of long-term tactile training. Here we conducted an fMRI study with normally-sighted participants who had undergone long-term training on the tactile shape discrimination of the two dimensional (2D) shapes on Mah-Jong tiles (Mah-Jong experts). Eight Mah-Jong experts and twelve healthy volunteers who were naïve to Mah-Jong performed a tactile shape matching task using Mah-Jong tiles with no visual input. Furthermore, seven out of eight experts performed a tactile shape matching task with unfamiliar 2D Braille characters. When participants performed tactile discrimination of Mah-Jong tiles, the left lateral occipital cortex (LO) and V1 were activated in the well-trained subjects. In the naïve subjects, the LO was activated but V1 was not activated. Both the LO and V1 of the well-trained subjects were activated during Braille tactile discrimination tasks. The activation of V1 in subjects trained in tactile discrimination may represent altered cross-modal responses as a result of long-term training.

  15. Comparison of the development of the communicative competence of the blind and visually impaired in institutions and including schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Forte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is a research, belonging to the domain of practical/usable linguistics. The basis of the presented content is the communicative competence and the issue of its development by blind and visually impaired children. The methodology, used in the research, consists of primary and secondary materials. The secondary ones are theoretical, from: linguistics, psychology, medicine, pedagogies and special pedagogies. The primary materials can be divided in two sections. The first one is a comparison of two educational models for blind and visually impaired children, one from mainstream schools and the other from specialized institutions. The second part consists of four structured interviews, the analysis of which gives us the answer about the difference in the development of the communicative competence of the blind and the visually impaired in consideration of the chosen model of schooling.

  16. Examining wide-arc digital breast tomosynthesis: optimization using a visual-search model observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model observers are expected to assist in preclinical optimization of image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. A clinically realistic and robust model observer platform could help in multiparameter optimizations without requiring frequent human-observer validations. We are developing search-capable visual-search (VS) model observers with this potential. In this work, we present initial results on optimization of DBT scan angle and the number of projection views for low-contrast mass detection. Comparison with human-observer results shows very good agreement. These results point towards the benefits of using relatively wider arcs and low projection angles per arc degree for improved mass detection. These results are particularly interesting considering that the FDA-approved DBT systems like Hologic Selenia Dimensions uses a narrow (15-degree) acquisition arc and one projection per arc degree.

  17. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  18. The National Agenda for the Education of Children and Youths with Visual Impairments, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Anne L.; And Others

    This monograph identifies and discusses eight goals for students with visual impairments, which are intended to be integrated with educational reform efforts called for by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the Goals 2000 program, and the School to Work initiatives. The goals are: (1) students and their families will be referred to…

  19. The USNO 26'' Clark Refractor; From Visual Observations to Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Mason, B. D.; Hartkopf, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Before addressing queries about how and what to preserve among astronomical devices, the question of what constitutes a historic instrument must be considered. Certainly, the lenses are the defining feature of a Clark refractor. Since 1867, when Newcomb inquired about the possibility of obtaining a great glass from Alvan Clark & Sons, the U.S. Naval Observatory 26-in (66-cm) equatorial has evolved in response to improvements in technology and changes in its observing program. After two major overhauls, only the objective remains of the equipment originally installed by the Clarks in 1873 at the old Observatory site in Foggy Bottom. However, the telescope retains its reputation as a historic Clark refractor. The USNO telescope was briefly renowned as the largest refractor in the world; the second of five such achievements by the Clarks. Through it, Hall first detected the moons of Mars in 1877. However, by that time, the Clarks had already refigured the flint glass. Hall and Gardiner had also altered the drive mechanism. When the USNO moved to its present Georgetown Heights location in 1893, the great equatorial was refurbished with its original Clark optics installed on a more robust Warner & Swasey mount. Peters eventually incorporated discarded parts from the original mounting into his photographic telescopes during the first half of the 20th century. The 26'' refractor underwent further modernization in the early 1960s to facilitate the xy-slide of a Hertzsprung-style photographic double star camera. In 1965, the objective was disassembled for cleaning and reassembled with new spacers. The most recent maintenance included re-wiring and replacing several motors and the hand paddles. Originally designed as a visual instrument, the USNO 26'' Clark refractor now hosts a speckle interferometer for its current double star program. Despite continuing modifications, this telescope remains a fine example of the optician's art.

  20. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Angelo G

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.

  1. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo G Solimini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15 were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie. Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. CONCLUSIONS: Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.

  2. Experimental demonstration and visual observation of dust trapping in an electron storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Tanimoto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sudden decreases in the beam lifetime, which are attributed to the dust trappings, sometimes occur at the electron storage ring Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR. Since these dust events cause difficulties in user operations, we have been carefully observing this phenomenon for many years. Our observations indicated that the dust trappings could be caused by electric discharges in vacuum ducts. In order to demonstrate this hypothesis experimentally, we designed a new vacuum device that intentionally generates electric discharges and installed it in PF-AR. Using this device, we could repeatedly induce sudden decreases in the beam lifetime because of the generated electric discharge. We also detected decreases in the beam lifetime caused by mechanical movement of the electrodes in the device. Moreover, we could visually observe the dust trapping phenomenon; the trapped dust particle was observed by two video cameras and appeared as a luminous body that resembled a shooting star. This was the first direct observation of a luminous dust particle trapped by the electron beam.

  3. The Hydrodynamics Studies of Bubbling Phenomena using High Speed Camera: A Visual Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraishah Othman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Ainul Mardhiah Terry

    2011-01-01

    The 2 meter height by 20 cm in diameter of bubble column was designed and fabricated in Nuclear Malaysia and placed under Plant Assessment Technology Group. The new invented bubble column was designed to meet the industry demand especially in chemical process industry in understanding the hydrodynamics of mixing process in the mixing vessel. In this study, the high speed camera has been used as the tools of investigating the parameters that give salient effects to the mixing process. The qualitative results were presented with respect to different number of holes on the sparger as the air distributor plate in order to determine the image and the size of the bubbles, gas hold up and critical superficial velocity. The visual observations presented here provide a very useful characterization of the instantaneous flow regimes and liquid flow patterns. Nevertheless, the visual characterization described above is merely qualitative and it is not conclusive enough to define quantitatively and accurately. Another tools need to be used for the validation such as gamma tomography or radiotracer particle tracking (CARPT). (author)

  4. 3D Visualization of near real-time remote-sensing observation for hurricanes field campaign using Google Earth API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Poulsen, W. L.; Licata, S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is planning a new field experiment, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP), in the summer of 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. The DC-8 aircraft and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) will be deployed loaded with instruments for measurements including lightning, temperature, 3D wind, precipitation, liquid and ice water contents, aerosol and cloud profiles. During the field campaign, both the spaceborne and the airborne observations will be collected in real-time and integrated with the hurricane forecast models. This observation-model integration will help the campaign achieve its science goals by allowing team members to effectively plan the mission with current forecasts. To support the GRIP experiment, JPL developed a website for interactive visualization of all related remote-sensing observations in the GRIP’s geographical domain using the new Google Earth API. All the observations are collected in near real-time (NRT) with 2 to 5 hour latency. The observations include a 1KM blended Sea Surface Temperature (SST) map from GHRSST L2P products; 6-hour composite images of GOES IR; stability indices, temperature and vapor profiles from AIRS and AMSU-B; microwave brightness temperature and rain index maps from AMSR-E, SSMI and TRMM-TMI; ocean surface wind vectors, vorticity and divergence of the wind from QuikSCAT; the 3D precipitation structure from TRMM-PR and vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation from CloudSAT. All the NRT observations are collected from the data centers and science facilities at NASA and NOAA, subsetted, re-projected, and composited into hourly or daily data products depending on the frequency of the observation. The data products are then displayed on the 3D Google Earth plug-in at the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) website. The data products offered by the TCIS in the Google Earth display include image overlays, wind vectors, clickable

  5. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. II. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING WATER MASERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [St. Paul' s School, Concord, NH 03301 (United States); Seojin Kim, Stella, E-mail: ihoffman@sps.edu [Current address: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We present new maser emission from {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v{sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} and -57 km s{sup -1} and several more features extending to -46 km s{sup -1}. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -4 km s{sup -1}, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H{sub 2}O and, now, {sup 14}NH{sub 3} are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -51 km s{sup -1}. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search to date toward any source for emission from the CC{sup 32}S and CC{sup 34}S molecules, indicating an age greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} yr for IRS 1-3. We discuss these findings in the context of embedded stellar cores and recent models of the region.

  6. Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Santiago, Alfonso; Cancela, Jose M.; Zubiaur, Marta; Ayan, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their…

  7. Simultaneous recording of electroretinogram and visual evoked response. Focal stimulation under direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, T; Miyake, Y; Hara, A

    1977-07-01

    A system has been tested that allows simultaneous recording of the retinal response (electroretinogram [ERG]) and the occipital response (visual evoked response [VER]) with focal photic stimulation of the retina under direct observation of the fundus. A helium-neon gas laser is used as a stimulus source. The laser is chopped either by a pen motor or a rotating disc. The laser is attached to a biomicroscope through which the examiner can observe the fundus of the subject during the entire recording session. The optically clear contact lens is made with a flat surface that neutralizes refraction due to the cornea, thereby allowing fundus observation by microscope. Two metal wires mounted inside and outside of the lens serve as the electrode for the ERG. Graticules consisting of concentric circles and radial lines are projected onto the subject's fundus, providing a pattern that the examiner can use to determine the exact location to be stimulated in the fundus. With proper adjustment of stimulus and background illumination, local ERG and VER can be recorded simultaneously by stimulating the macula.

  8. Observation and visualization: reflections on the relationship between science, visual arts, and the evolution of the scientific image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolijn, Eveline

    2013-10-01

    The connections between biological sciences, art and printed images are of great interest to the author. She reflects on the historical relevance of visual representations for science. She argues that the connection between art and science seems to have diminished during the twentieth century. However, this connection is currently growing stronger again through digital media and new imaging methods. Scientific illustrations have fuelled art, while visual modeling tools have assisted scientific research. As a print media artist, she explores the relationship between art and science in her studio practice and will present this historical connection with examples related to evolution, microbiology and her own work. Art and science share a common source, which leads to scrutiny and enquiry. Science sets out to reveal and explain our reality, whereas art comments and makes connections that don't need to be tested by rigorous protocols. Art and science should each be evaluated on their own merit. Allowing room for both in the quest to understand our world will lead to an enriched experience.

  9. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  10. Improving visual observation skills through the arts to aid radiographic interpretation in veterinary practice: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cathy; Gaunt, Heather; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2017-09-01

    Radiographic interpretation is a perceptual and cognitive skill. Recently core veterinary radiology textbooks have focused on the cognitive (i.e., the clinical aspects of radiographic interpretation) rather than the features of visual observation that improve identification of abnormalities. As a result, the skill of visual observation is underemphasized and thus often underdeveloped by trainees. The study of the arts in medical education has been used to train and improve visual observation and empathy. The use of the arts to improve visual observation skills in Veterinary Science has not been previously described. Objectives of this pilot study were to adapt the existing Visual Arts in Health Education Program for medical and dental students at the University of Melbourne, Australia to third year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students and evaluate their perceptions regarding the program's effects on visual observation skills and confidence with respect to radiographic interpretation. This adaptation took the form of a single seminar given to third year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students. Following the seminar, students reported an improved approach to radiographic interpretation and felt they had gained skills which would assist them throughout their career. In the year following the seminar, written reports of the students who attended the seminar were compared with reports from a matched cohort of students who did not attend the seminar. This demonstrated increased identification of abnormalities and greater description of the abnormalities identified. Findings indicated that explicit training in visual observation may be a valuable adjunct to the radiology training of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Observation of Depictive Versus Tracing Gestures Selectively Aids Verbal Versus Visual-Spatial Learning in Primary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, Margot; Fijan, Nathalie; Eielts, Charly; Pouw, Wim T. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has established that gesture observation aids learning in children. The current study examined whether observation of gestures (i.e. depictive and tracing gestures) differentially affected verbal and visual-spatial retention when learning a route and its street names. Specifically,

  12. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  13. Features of Dynamic Visual Acuity and Patterns in Target Tracking Observed in Volleyball Players

    OpenAIRE

    石垣, 尚男

    2002-01-01

    Volleyball players showed superior dynamic visual acuity when tracking a target moving from right to left. Using an eye mark recorder, patterns in target tracking were compared between volleyball players who showed especially high dynamic visual acuity and non-players of sport who showed especially low dynamic visual acuity. It was found that the width of eye movement was broad in the volleyball players while that in the non-players of sport was narrow.

  14. Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron near the η-production threshold including polarization observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Eed M., E-mail: eeddarwish@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, P.O. Box 30002 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Thoyaib, Suleiman S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, P.O. Box 6644 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables is studied in the energy region near the η-production threshold at backward center-of-mass angles of the outgoing pion. This work is motivated by the measurements of the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, where a cusp-like structure in the energy dependence of the differential cross section has been observed at extremely backward pion angles. The present approach is based on the impulse approximation and first-order rescattering diagrams with intermediate production of both π- and η-mesons. Numerical results for unpolarized cross sections, the linear photon asymmetry (Σ), the vector (T{sub 11}) and tensor (T{sub 2M}, M=0, 1, 2) deuteron target asymmetries, and the double polarization E-asymmetry are predicted and compared with available experimental data and other theoretical models. The effect of first-order rescattering is found to be much larger in spin asymmetries than in the unpolarized cross sections. It reaches on average about 40% in the tensor target and E asymmetries. Compared to the experimental data from CLAS Collaboration, sizable discrepancies are found. This is not the case for the linear photon asymmetry, for which a better comparison with the data from YerPhI Collaboration is obtained.

  15. Observer's Mood Manipulates Level of Visual Processing: Evidence from Face and Nonface Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mokhtari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For investigating the effect of observer's mood on level of processing of visual stimuli, happy or sad mood was induced in two groups of participants through asking them to deliberate one of their sad or happy memories while listening to a congruent piece of music. This was followed by a computer-based task that required counting some features (arcs or lines of emotional schematic faces (with either sad or happy expressions for group 1, and counting same features of meaningless combined shapes for group 2. Reaction time analysis indicated there is a significant difference in RTs after listening to the sad music compared with happy music for group 1; participants with sad moods were significantly slower when they worked on local levels of schematic faces with sad expressions. Happy moods did not show any specific effect on reaction time of participants who were working on local details of emotionally expressive faces. Sad moods or happy moods had no significant effect on reaction time of working on parts of meaningless shapes. It seems that sad moods as a contextual factor elevate the ability of sad expression to grab the attention and block fast access to the local parts of the holistic meaningful shapes.

  16. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Observability Analysis of a Matrix Kalman Filter-Based Navigation System Using Visual/Inertial/Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohu Feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A matrix Kalman filter (MKF has been implemented for an integrated navigation system using visual/inertial/magnetic sensors. The MKF rearranges the original nonlinear process model in a pseudo-linear process model. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system is observable. It has been proved that such observability conditions are: (a at least one degree of rotational freedom is excited, and (b at least two linearly independent horizontal lines and one vertical line are observed. Experimental results have validated the correctness of these observability conditions.

  18. Mathematical pointing model establishment of the visual tracking theodolite for satellites in two kinds of observation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuncheng

    The mathematical pointing model is establishment of the visual tracking theodolite for satellites in two kinds of observation methods at Yunnan Observatory, which is related to the digitalisation reform and the optical-electronic technique reform, is introduced respectively in this paper.

  19. Is Serum Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Chronic Widespread Pain Including Fibromyalgia? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a global musculoskeletal disorder leading to disability and a reduced quality of life. Low levels of serum vitamin D has long been proposed to be associated with CWP, but previous research remains inconclusive. To determine whether hypovitaminosis D was independently associated with CWP. Meta-analysis of observational study. Electronic databases were searched for studies published up to November 2014 comparing the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and serum vitamin D levels between participants with and without CWP. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hypovitaminosis D with CWP were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to gender, threshold of hypovitaminosis, and definition of patients was performed, as well as meta-regression to test the linear relationship between crude ORs and the latitude of study locations. Twelve studies were included, comprising 1,854 patients with CWP. The patient group showed a significantly higher risk of hypovitaminosis D than the control group (crude OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.20-2.23). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting confounders, with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00-2.00). There was an increase in ORs of hypovitaminosis D using a lower diagnostic value of serum vitamin D (8 and 10 ng/mL). The subgroup analysis according to gender and definition of CWP did not reveal significant between-group differences. The meta-regression showed no linear relationship between latitude and the crude ORs. There was a positive crude association between hypovitaminosis D and CWP, and the association was likely to remain after adjusting confounding factors. Use of a cut-off value of hypovitaminosis D (8-10 ng/mL) could better define the population with and without CWP. Further prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and CWP.

  20. Software para avaliação da subjetiva vertical visual: um estudo transversal observacional Software for subjective visual vertical assessment: an observational cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Zeferino Pavan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A orientação espacial em relação ao eixo gravitacional é de suma importância para a manu tenção da postura, marcha e para a maioria das atividades motoras realizadas pelo ser humano. A subjetiva vertical visual é um exame que avalia a percepção individual de verticalidade. OBJETIVOS: Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1 desenvolver um sistema virtual para avaliar a subjetiva vertical visual, (2 produzir uma ferramenta simples para a prática clínica e (3 medir os valores da subjetiva vertical visual em indivíduos saudáveis usando a nova ferramenta. Forma de estudo: estudo obser vacional transversal. MÉTODO: Trinta voluntários saudáveis realizaram a subjetiva vertical visual em ambas as condições, estática e dinâmica. O exame consistia em ajustar uma linha virtual na posição vertical usando o mouse do computador. Na condição estática, a linha virtual foi projetada em uma tela branca. Na condição dinâmica, círculos pretos giravam no sentido horário e anti-horário. Seis medidas foram feitas e o desvio médio em relação a vertical real, calculado. RESULTADOS: Os desvios médios da subjetiva vertical visual foram: estática -0,372º ± 1,21; dinâmica sentido horário 1,53º ± 1,80 e dinâmica sentido anti-horário -1,11º ± 2,46. CONCLUSÃO: Este software mostrou ser prático e preciso para ser inserido na rotina de exames clínicos.Spatial orientation in relation to the gravitational axis is significantly important for the maintenance of the posture, gait and for most of the human's motor activities. The subjective visual vertical exam evaluates the individual's perception of vertical orientation. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1 to develop a virtual system to evaluate the subjective visual vertical exam, (2 to provide a simple tool to clinical practice and (3 to assess the subjective visual vertical values of healthy subjects using the new software. Study Design: observational cross-sectional study

  1. Poster: Observing change in crowded data sets in 3D space - Visualizing gene expression in human tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Rogowski, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    We have been confronted with a real-world problem of visualizing and observing change of gene expression between different human tissues. In this paper, we are presenting a universal representation space based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as opposed to force-directed layouts encountered most often in similar problems. We are discussing the methods we devised to make observing change more convenient in a 3D virtual reality environment. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Perceived Direction of Self-Motion from Orthogonally Directed Visual and Vestibular Stimulation in Passive and Active Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Sakurai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving the direction of self-motion is typically a multisensory process. The most effective cue to detect the observer's heading direction is the visual optic-flow pattern. In the initial period of body movement, however, the vestibular sense is another effective cue to detect the direction in which one's body started to move. Here I report our recent research on the perception of self-motion, 1 when observers are passively experiencing their real somatic motion in different body posture, and 2 when observers are actively moving their bodies forward and backward. Previously, we reported that when upright observers passively experience real linear oscillatory somatic motion (leftward/rightward or forward/backward while viewing orthogonal visual optic flow patterns (translating or expanding/contracting, their perceived body motion direction is intermediate to those specified by visual and vestibular information individually (Sakurai et al., 2002, ACV; 2003, ECVP; Sakurai et al., 2010, VSS; Kubodera et al., 2010, APCV. We then generalized those findings exploring other visual/vestibular combinations, investigating when the vertical axis of body coordinates is orthogonal to the gravity axis. Observers lay supinely and reported their perceived direction of self-motion, experiencing real upward/downward or leftward/rightward motion in body coordinates, while viewing orthogonal optic-flow patterns that were phase-locked to the swing motion. The results are very similar to our previous reports, but for combinations of body motion with visual expanding/contracting optic-flow, some observers' judgments were vision-only or vestibular-only, suggesting that multimodal integration in this context is an either-or process for these observers. Compared to our previous reports, one possible reason for this weighted combination failure is the discrepancy between body coordinates and gravity coordinates (Sakurai et al., 2011, ECVP. We recently extended those

  3. A different view on the checkerboard? Alterations in early and late visually evoked EEG potentials in Asperger observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmeier, Juergen; Wörner, Rike; Riedel, Andreas; Bach, Michael; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Asperger Autism is a lifelong psychiatric condition with highly circumscribed interests and routines, problems in social cognition, verbal and nonverbal communication, and also perceptual abnormalities with sensory hypersensitivity. To objectify both lower-level visual and cognitive alterations we looked for differences in visual event-related potentials (EEG) between Asperger observers and matched controls while they observed simple checkerboard stimuli. In a balanced oddball paradigm checkerboards of two checksizes (0.6° and 1.2°) were presented with different frequencies. Participants counted the occurrence times of the rare fine or rare coarse checkerboards in different experimental conditions. We focused on early visual ERP differences as a function of checkerboard size and the classical P3b ERP component as an indicator of cognitive processing. We found an early (100-200 ms after stimulus onset) occipital ERP effect of checkerboard size (dominant spatial frequency). This effect was weaker in the Asperger than in the control observers. Further a typical parietal/central oddball-P3b occurred at 500 ms with the rare checkerboards. The P3b showed a right-hemispheric lateralization, which was more prominent in Asperger than in control observers. The difference in the early occipital ERP effect between the two groups may be a physiological marker of differences in the processing of small visual details in Asperger observers compared to normal controls. The stronger lateralization of the P3b in Asperger observers may indicate a stronger involvement of the right-hemispheric network of bottom-up attention. The lateralization of the P3b signal might be a compensatory consequence of the compromised early checksize effect. Higher-level analytical information processing units may need to compensate for difficulties in low-level signal analysis.

  4. A different view on the checkerboard? Alterations in early and late visually evoked EEG potentials in Asperger observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Kornmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asperger Autism is a lifelong psychiatric condition with highly circumscribed interests and routines, problems in social cognition, verbal and nonverbal communication, and also perceptual abnormalities with sensory hypersensitivity. To objectify both lower-level visual and cognitive alterations we looked for differences in visual event-related potentials (EEG between Asperger observers and matched controls while they observed simple checkerboard stimuli. METHODS: In a balanced oddball paradigm checkerboards of two checksizes (0.6° and 1.2° were presented with different frequencies. Participants counted the occurrence times of the rare fine or rare coarse checkerboards in different experimental conditions. We focused on early visual ERP differences as a function of checkerboard size and the classical P3b ERP component as an indicator of cognitive processing. RESULTS: We found an early (100-200 ms after stimulus onset occipital ERP effect of checkerboard size (dominant spatial frequency. This effect was weaker in the Asperger than in the control observers. Further a typical parietal/central oddball-P3b occurred at 500 ms with the rare checkerboards. The P3b showed a right-hemispheric lateralization, which was more prominent in Asperger than in control observers. DISCUSSION: The difference in the early occipital ERP effect between the two groups may be a physiological marker of differences in the processing of small visual details in Asperger observers compared to normal controls. The stronger lateralization of the P3b in Asperger observers may indicate a stronger involvement of the right-hemispheric network of bottom-up attention. The lateralization of the P3b signal might be a compensatory consequence of the compromised early checksize effect. Higher-level analytical information processing units may need to compensate for difficulties in low-level signal analysis.

  5. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A. [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Vogl, W.D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Computational Imaging Research Lab, Wien (Austria); Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Wien (Austria); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Services, New York City, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Oculomotor Reflexes as a Test of Visual Dysfunctions in Cognitively Impaired Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    oculomotor reflexes. All hardware and software components of the data acquisition and analysis pipeline were finalized and tested in realistic... Gantt chart for the project. As specified in the Statement of Work, the main goal of the first 12 months of the project was to design e↵ective stimuli...be translated to the probabilities of various visual dysfunctions, hence validating the proposed diagnostic method. Figure 1 shows a Gantt chart

  7. Handwriting performance in the absence of visual control in writer's cramp patients: Initial observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losch Florian

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was aimed at investigating the writing parameters of writer's cramp patients and control subjects during handwriting of a test sentence in the absence of visual control. Methods Eight right-handed patients with writer's cramp and eight healthy volunteers as age-matched control subjects participated in the study. The experimental task consisted in writing a test sentence repeatedly for fifty times on a pressure-sensitive digital board. The subject did not have visual control on his handwriting. The writing performance was stored on a PC and analyzed off-line. Results During handwriting all patients developed a typical dystonic limb posture and reported an increase in muscular tension along the experimental session. The patients were significantly slower than the controls, with lower mean vertical pressure of the pen tip on the paper and they could not reach the endmost letter of the sentence in the given time window. No other handwriting parameter differences were found between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that during writing in the absence of visual feedback writer's cramp patients are slower and could not reach the endmost letter of the test sentence, but their level of automatization is not impaired and writer's cramp handwriting parameters are similar to those of the controls except for even lower vertical pressure of the pen tip on the paper, which is probably due to a changed strategy in such experimental conditions.

  8. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  9. A method to visualize 3-dimensional anatomic changes in the cervix during pregnancy: a preliminary observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christopher T; Iams, Jay D; Tangchitnob, Edward; Socrate, Simona; House, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to visualize 3-dimensional (3D) anatomic changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment during the antepartum period. An observational study of patients with both uncomplicated and complicated pregnancies was performed. To visualize 3D anatomic changes, solid models were constructed from 3D sonographic data. Model construction followed a 3-step protocol. First, 3D transvaginal sonographic data of the cervix and lower uterine segment were obtained. Second, sonographic data were exported to a medical image-processing program, which was used to align 3D sonographic data obtained from a single patient at different time points. Last, sonographic data were used to guide construction of solid models using mechanical design software. Anatomic changes were visualized by comparing solid models constructed from sonographic data obtained at different time points. From 16 patients who consented, 5 patients were selected for this study. Two to 4 models were derived from each of the 5 patients at 15 to 38 weeks' gestation. To show anatomic changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment, solid models from different time points in the same patient were superimposed. A total of 16 solid models were constructed. In addition, 3D changes associated with second-trimester cervical failure and successful therapeutic cerclage were shown. A method to visualize 3D cervical changes is presented, revealing complex anatomic changes in the lower uterine segment, cervical stroma, and cervical mucosa as pregnancy progresses.

  10. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  11. Management, Analysis, and Visualization of Experimental and Observational Data -- The Convergence of Data and Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Greenwald, Martin; Kleese van Dam, Kersten; Parashar, Manish; Wild, Stefan, M.; Wiley, H. Steven

    2016-10-27

    Scientific user facilities---particle accelerators, telescopes, colliders, supercomputers, light sources, sequencing facilities, and more---operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) generate ever increasing volumes of data at unprecedented rates from experiments, observations, and simulations. At the same time there is a growing community of experimentalists that require real-time data analysis feedback, to enable them to steer their complex experimental instruments to optimized scientific outcomes and new discoveries. Recent efforts in DOE-SC have focused on articulating the data-centric challenges and opportunities facing these science communities. Key challenges include difficulties coping with data size, rate, and complexity in the context of both real-time and post-experiment data analysis and interpretation. Solutions will require algorithmic and mathematical advances, as well as hardware and software infrastructures that adequately support data-intensive scientific workloads. This paper presents the summary findings of a workshop held by DOE-SC in September 2015, convened to identify the major challenges and the research that is needed to meet those challenges.

  12. Non-Destructive Approaches for the Validation of Visually Observed Spatial Patterns of Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; McKinley, Jennifer; Warke, Patricia; Ruffell, Alastair

    2017-04-01

    Historical structures are regarded as a built legacy that is passed down through the generations and as such the conservation and restoration of these buildings is of great importance to governmental, religious and charitable organisations. As these groups play the role of custodians of this built heritage, they are therefore keen that the approaches employed in these studies of stone condition are non-destructive in nature. Determining sections of facades requiring repair work is often achieved through a visual conditional inspection of the stonework by a specialist. However, these reports focus upon the need to identify blocks requiring restorative action rather than the determination of spatial trends that lead to the identification of causes. This fixation on decay occurring at the block scale results in the spatial distribution of weathering present at the larger 'wall' scale appearing to have developed chaotically. Recent work has shown the importance of adopting a geomorphological focus when undertaking visual inspection of the facades of historical buildings to overcome this issue. Once trends have been ascertained, they can be used to bolster remedial strategies that target the sources of decay rather than just undertaking an aesthetic treatment of symptoms. Visual inspection of the study site, Fitzroy Presbyterian Church in Belfast, using the geomorphologically driven approach revealed three features suggestive of decay extending beyond the block scale. Firstly, the influence of architectural features on the susceptibility of blocks to decay. Secondly, the impact of the fluctuation in groundwater rise over the seasons and the influence of aspect upon this process. And finally, the interconnectivity of blocks, due to deteriorating mortar and poor repointing, providing conduits for the passage of moisture. Once these patterns were identified, it has proven necessary to validate the outcome of the visual inspection using other techniques. In this study

  13. Foreshortened tiles in paths converging on an observer viewing a picture: elevation and visual angle ratio determine perceived size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juricevic, Igor; Kennedy, John M; Abramov, Izabella

    2009-02-01

    Observers were shown wide-angle pictures of tiles on a ground plane and were asked about the aspect ratios of the tiles. The observers viewed the pictures from a fixed center of projection. Some of the tiles were in a path coming straight toward the observer. In one picture, the path came from the center of the picture, and in two others the path came from the left side of the picture (one from 30 degrees and one from 45 degrees to the left of the center, from the observer's point of view). The apparent aspect ratios were a function of the elevations of the tiles and the ratios of visual angles of the sides of the tiles. Judgments were identical for all three paths. The local slant of the picture surface was not a significant factor.

  14. Comparison of the observed and predicted visual effects caused by power plant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Seigneur, Christian; Babson, Betsy L.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Wojcik, Michael A.

    One of the objectives of the June-July and December 1979 E.P.A.-VISTTA field programs was to obtain the data necessary to evaluate the components of the EPA/SAI plume visibility model. The data were obtained through a coordinated set of measurements of specific power plant emissions, meteorological conditions, plume concentrations measured by an aircraft and through telephotometer measurements of the visual effects of the plume. This paper presents a comparison of measurements obtained between 4 and 32 km downwind from the plant with model predictions. The various components of the plume visibility model were evaluated independently and it was found that the greatest uncertainties in the model predictions are in the diffusion module, which has the limitations associated with all Gaussian diffusion models. The chemistry module describes plume chemistry well in a clean background atmosphere; however, the rate of NO-to-NO 2 conversion is slightly overpredicted in the model. Predicted secondary aerosol formation is negligible. The optics module of the visibility model was evaluated by predicting the optical effects of the plume on the basis of the airplane-measured plume concentrations. These calculations were compared with the ground-based telephotometer measurements. The optics module tends to slightly overestimate the plume visual effect; the average absolute relative errors in measurements of the plume/sky intensity ratio are 6.0, 6.4, 3.0 and 4.8% at 405, 450, 550 and 630 nm, respectively. For contrast values below - 0.06, the contrast predicted by the optics module is within a factor of 2 of the measured values. A major uncertainty in the data is found in the degree of alignment between the airplane and telephotometer measurements. The overall evaluation of the plume visibility model was carried out with 20 sets of measurements. It was found that the model tends to overestimate the visual effect of the plume. The average absolute relative errors in the plume

  15. A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study examining how glaucoma affects quality of life and visually-related function over 4 years: design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbourd, Michael; Parker, Samantha; Ekici, Feyzahan; Martinez, Patricia; Murphy, Rachel; Scully, Katie; Wizov, Sheryl S; Hark, Lisa A; Spaeth, George L

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize the design and methodology of a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study to investigate how glaucoma affects patients' quality of life and visually-related function over a 4-year period. One hundred sixty-one (161) subjects were enrolled in this ongoing study. Patients between the ages of 21-85 years with a minimum 2-year diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma, chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma were included. Each patient visited Wills Eye Hospital for a baseline visit. Follow-up is planned for a minimum of 4 years, with annual visits. Each visit includes (1) Clinical evaluation: a slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, visual field examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity test and the Spaeth-Richman Contrast Sensitivity test; (2) a performance based measure: the Compressed Assessment of Ability Related to Vision; and (3) Subjective measures of vision-related quality of life (the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 and the Modified Glaucoma Symptom Scale). The results of this ongoing, prospective, longitudinal study are expected to shed light on the relationships between clinical measures, performance-based measures and subjective measures of well-being, in order to assess changes in the quality of life and the ability to function of patients with glaucoma over time.

  16. Clinical observation of vitamin B12 eye drops for vision fatigue caused by visual display terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical effect of vitamin B12 eye drops for vision fatigue caused by visual display terminals(VDT. METHODS: Totally 50 patients(100 eyeswith vision fatigue caused by VDT were averagely divided into two groups. The control group were treated with normal saline,the treatment group were treated with vitamin B12 eye drops,3 times per day, one drop each time, continuous for 60d. Accommodative parameters and Schirmer Ⅰtest were measured and analyzed before and after treatment. RESULTS:After treatment, the results of Schirmer Ⅰtest, accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility of the treatment group were higher than those of the control group(all PPCONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 eye drops can lessen symptoms of dry eye, improve accommodative function and treat vision fatigue caused by VDT.

  17. The Mirror Neuron System and Observational Learning: Implications for the Effectiveness of Dynamic Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning by observing and imitating others has long been recognized as constituting a powerful learning strategy for humans. Recent findings from neuroscience research, more specifically on the mirror neuron system, begin to provide insight into the neural bases of learning by observation and imitation. These findings are discussed here, along…

  18. Modeling tumor growth and irradiation response in vitro--a combination of high-performance computing and web-based technologies including VRML visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, G S; Zacharaki, E I; Makropoulou, M I; Mouravliansky, N A; Marsh, A; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N K

    2001-12-01

    A simplified three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation model of in vitro tumor growth and response to fractionated radiotherapeutic schemes is presented in this paper. The paper aims at both the optimization of radiotherapy and the provision of insight into the biological mechanisms involved in tumor development. The basics of the modeling philosophy of Duechting have been adopted and substantially extended. The main processes taken into account by the model are the transitions between the cell cycle phases, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and the cell survival probabilities following irradiation. Specific algorithms satisfactorily describing tumor expansion and shrinkage have been applied, whereas a novel approach to the modeling of the tumor response to irradiation has been proposed and implemented. High-performance computing systems in conjunction with Web technologies have coped with the particularly high computer memory and processing demands. A visualization system based on the MATLAB software package and the virtual-reality modeling language has been employed. Its utilization has led to a spectacular representation of both the external surface and the internal structure of the developing tumor. The simulation model has been applied to the special case of small cell lung carcinoma in vitro irradiated according to both the standard and accelerated fractionation schemes. A good qualitative agreement with laboratory experience has been observed in all cases. Accordingly, the hypothesis that advanced simulation models for the in silico testing of tumor irradiation schemes could substantially enhance the radiotherapy optimization process is further strengthened. Currently, our group is investigating extensions of the presented algorithms so that efficient descriptions of the corresponding clinical (in vivo) cases are achieved.

  19. Imitation Learning Errors Are Affected by Visual Cues in Both Performance and Observation Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Takashi; Sugimura, Ryoko; Shimada, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Takehiro

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms of action imitation were examined. Previous studies have suggested that success or failure of imitation is determined at the point of observing an action. In other words, cognitive processing after observation is not related to the success of imitation; 20 university students participated in each of three experiments in which they observed a series of object manipulations consisting of four elements (hands, tools, object, and end points) and then imitated the manipulations. In Experiment 1, a specific intially observed element was color coded, and the specific manipulated object at the imitation stage was identically color coded; participants accurately imitated the color coded element. In Experiment 2, a specific element was color coded at the observation but not at the imitation stage, and there were no effects of color coding on imitation. In Experiment 3, participants were verbally instructed to attend to a specific element at the imitation stage, but the verbal instructions had no effect. Thus, the success of imitation may not be determined at the stage of observing an action and color coding can provide a clue for imitation at the imitation stage.

  20. An observational study comparing the prototype device with the existing device for the effective visualization of invisible veins in elderly patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Keiko; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio; Nakayama, Kazuya; Miyati, Tosiaki; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance on the detection of the invisible veins between our modified prototype device and an existing device in elderly hospitalized patients. A prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study was performed in the invisible veins in elderly patients. The major variables, skin color near the invisible veins, and diameter and depth of the invisible veins were measured. The vein visualization rate was calculated as the ratio of the visualized veins to the invisible veins by the visualization device. We analyzed 53 invisible veins in the cubital fossa and 56 invisible veins in the forearm in a total of 72 patients (median age, 73 years). The visualization rate for our prototype device was higher than that for an existing device in the cubital fossa and the forearm sites. The visualized veins of the prototype device had a higher intensity ratio than that of an existing device. No significant differences were observed in the body mass index, vein depth, and vein diameter of the visualized veins at the cubital fossa and forearm sites. The prototype surpassed the existing device in visualizing the invisible veins. However, the prototype was unable to visualize all the invisible veins. We need to look for ways to reduce noise and to visualize the invisible veins, and the visualization rate of devices needs to be investigated in further association with the percentage of success with actual intravenous access and locating time to vein.

  1. Visual Culture and Visual Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Onursoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently visual literacy gains importance in the context of understanding the rising visual culture products, thinking about them and producing these products. The purpose of this article examines the concept of visual literacy that is the relationship with visual culture depending on the literature. Visual literacy is one of the multiple literatures that emerge from the development of information and information dissemination forms. Visual literacy is an interdisciplinary concept and associated with some areas, such as graphic design, visual arts, architectural engineering, industrial product design, visual communication and media literacy. Visual culture covers every human product, so visual products that we face in everyday life and visual realities with abundant alternatives constitute our daily life itself. Sometimes, this confusing visual understanding creates a gap between contemporary cultural richness and what can be observed.

  2. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, G J; Helbich, T H; Woitek, R; Kapetas, P; Clauser, P; Baltzer, P A; Vogl, W-D; Weber, M; Meyer-Baese, A; Pinker, Katja

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. • Subjective FGT estimation with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement in inexperienced readers. • Inter-observer agreement can be improved by practice and experience. • Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements can provide reliable and standardized assessment of FGT with MRI.

  3. Perceiving Conspecifics is Not Purely Visual: “Body Gestalt” Completion is Influenced by the Body Posture of the Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kessler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When we perceive other people in our everyday encounters their bodies are often partially occluded. High-level visual areas are known to automatically complete partially occluded objects, as revealed by the classic “gestalt” phenomena. However, here we set out to investigate if “body gestalt” completion is “embodied” and not purely visual. Human observers might intuitively map their own body knowledge onto partially occluded others and thereby complete their “body gestalt” by means of posture and/or motor resonance. To this end we developed new stimuli showing a face and two hands that could either form a “body gestalt” or not. Our most important finding across five behavioural experiments was that body gestalt completion was not solely based on visual features like the classic gestalt phenomena. Responses were significantly faster when the observer's posture matched the configuration of face and hands shown on screen then. In this sense body gestalt completion is an embodied process, where humans intuitively use their own body knowledge to ‘fill in the gaps’ in a body stimulus. We further conclude that in our particular paradigm posture resonance was apparently more important for body gestalt completion than motor resonance—with the former being most likely mediated by proprioceptive body schema representations, while the latter by the mirror neuron system. Finally, we will also present preliminary analysis of MEG data. Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of how humans perceive others holistically and how they might implicitly align themselves in everyday social interactions to facilitate an optimal co-representation of each other.

  4. Considerations in relation to some research on the possible neural underpinnings linked to visual artworks observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bartoli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the observations conducted by Freedberg & Gallese (2007 on neural processes implication in organizing the empathetic/aesthetic response, some recent research carried out by neuroscientists and art historians are analyzed, as they demonstrated cortical sensorimotor activation during the observation of abstract artworks (2012, 2013. The role of the “embodied simulation” of artist’s gesture in the empathic perception of artworks is hereby confirmed. These results are commented in light of psychological studies about aesthetic experience, with special regard to those based on a phenomenological methodology. The intention is to further explore possible interactions between neurosciences and phenomenological psychology, in accordance with their respective theoretical and methodological differences.

  5. Task-based model/human observer evaluation of SPIHT wavelet compression with human visual system-based quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yani; Pham, Binh T; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2005-03-01

    The set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) wavelet image compression algorithm with the human visual system (HVS) quantization matrix was investigated using x-ray coronary angiograms. We tested whether the HVS quantization matrix for the SPIHT wavelet compression improved computer model/human observer performance in a detection task with variable signals compared to performance with the default quantization matrix. We also tested the hypothesis of whether evaluating the rank order of the two quantization matrices (HVS versus default) based on performance of computer model observers in a signal known exactly but variable task (SKEV) generalized to model/human performance in the more clinically realistic signal known statistically task (SKS). Nine hundred test images were created using real x-ray coronary angiograms as backgrounds and simulated arteries with filling defects (signals). The task for the model and human observer was to detect which one of the four computer simulated arterial segments contained the signal, four alternative-forced-choice (4 AFC). We obtained performance for four model observers (nonprewhitening matched filter with an eye filter, Hotelling, Channelized Hotelling, and Laguerre Gauss Hotelling model observers) for both the SKEV and SKS tasks with images compressed with and without the HVS quantization matrix. A psychophysical study measured performance from three human observers for the same conditions and tasks as the model observers. Performance for all four model observers improved with the use of the HVS quantization scheme. Improvements ranged from 5% (at compression ratio 7:1) to 50% (at compression ratio 30:1) for both the SKEV and SKS tasks. Human observer performance improvement averaged across observers ranged from 6% (at compression ratio 7:1) to 35% (at compression ratio 30:1) for the SKEV task and from 2% (at compression ratio 7:1) to 38% (at compression ratio 30:1) for the SKS task. Addition of internal noise to the

  6. Particle Filter-based Estimation of Orbital Parameters of Visual Binary Stars with Incomplete Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria, R.; Mendez, R. A.; Orchard, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of orbital estimation from a Bayesian point of view, using the Particle Filter technique to approximate the posterior distribution of orbital parameters. Additionally, we present a multiple imputation scheme as a means to include partial measurements into the analysis.

  7. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  8. The use of radar and visual observations to characterize the surface structure of the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of available topographic profiles and scattering parameters derived from earth-based S- and X-band radar observations of Mercury, in order to determine the nature and origin of regional surface variations and structures that are typical of the planet. Attention is given to the proposal that intercrater plains on Mercury formed from extensive volcanic flooding during bombardment, so that most craters were formed on a partially molten surface and were thus obliterated, together with previously formed tectonic features.

  9. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153–160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493–1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289–2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989–994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400–404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526–2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769–771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. PMID:25995349

  10. Fusion of inertial and visual: a geometrical observer-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnabel, S.; Rouchon, P.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of combination between inertial sensors and CCD cameras is of paramount importance in various applications in robotics and autonomous navigation. In this paper we develop a totally geometric model for analysis of this problem, independently from a camera model and from the structure of the scene (landmarks etc.). This formulation can be used for data fusion in several inertial navigation problems. The estimation is then decoupled from the structure of the scene. We use it in the particular case of the estimation of the gyroscopes bias and we build a nonlinear observer which is easy to compute, provides an estimation of the biais, filters the image, and is by construction very robust to noise.

  11. Comparative study of social skills observation of twin with and without visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Severino Lopes da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The general aim was to describe and characterize the social performances of two identical twins aged ten years old: one blind and one sighted. The data were obtained by filming the children during free situations. According to a protocol for observing the free situations, the films were assessed so that the children’s performances enabled to infer the categories of social skills. The results showed that the sighted child presented a wider and more refined repertoire of social skills in relation to her sister. From the data, it is possible to conclude, in this case, that blind and sighted children have distinct social skills repertories, and the existing differences can be related to the blind variable as well as to the differences in the way the environment stimulates the children.

  12. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Louise Georgia Todd

    Full Text Available A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena, Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus, white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris, common dolphin (Delphinus delphis, minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata, common seal (Phoca vitulina, grey seal (Halichoerus grypus and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus. Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include

  13. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  14. Imagining CO2: development and assessment of interactive visualizations for high resolution greenhouse gas observations collected by BEACO2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, G.; Shusterman, A.; Martin, S.; Shahar, E.; Laughner, J.; Turner, A. J.; Miller, M. K.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) is a high-density network of 28 carbon dioxide sensors distributed around the San Francisco Bay Area that serve to enhance understanding of intra-city variations in CO2 concentrations that are not necessarily captured by sparser networks maintained by local and national air quality management agencies. We partner with designers at the San Francisco Exploratorium to create a suite of interactive exhibits and hands-on activities that creatively visualize data from BEACO2N for general audiences. Museum goers can manipulate a light-up "bar graph" of live CO2 concentrations by exhaling on an in-room sensor, query the current readings of rooftop sensors using a scale model of the Wired Pier observation system, scroll through the data from other BEACO2N sites projected on a 3-D "topographic table" of the Bay Area, and view interpolated CO2 fields driven by research-grade weather models on a nine-screen LCD display. We present lessons learned from these initial installations, from layperson audience feedback to details of the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model coupled to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) weather fields used to generate intuitive concentration maps. We propose that compelling visual demonstrations of elevated CO2 concentrations due to routine small-scale high-emission anthropogenic activities (e.g. rush hour) and/or special events (such as fireworks or factory fires) generate deeper engagement in local environmental issues and interest in undertaking personal actions that can become part of the broader climate solution. While global means and other large-scale aggregate climate metrics can lead to feelings of disconnect and subsequent ambivalence, via such exhibitions, distributed network instruments like BEACO2N can provide the local sensitivity needed to "personalize" greenhouse gas concentrations to a given individual or community and incite the drive toward

  15. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Benítez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  16. AtlantOS WP2, Enhancement of ship-based observing networks - Bathymetric integration and visualization of Europe's data holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Devey, Colin; Augustin, Nico

    2017-04-01

    The European Horizon 2020 research and innovation project AtlantOS - Optimising and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing Systems - aims to improve the present-day ocean observing activities in the Atlantic Ocean by establishing a sustainable, efficient and integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System. 62 partners from 18 countries are working on solutions I) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, II) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, III) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, IV) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, V) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and VI) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. The Work Package 2 of the AtlantOS project focuses on improving, expanding, integrating and innovating ship-based observations. One of the tasks is the provision of Europe's existing and future bathymetric data sets from the Atlantic Ocean in accessible formats enabling easy processing and visualization for stakeholders. Furthermore, a new concept has recently been implemented, where three large German research vessels continuously collect bathymetric data during their transits. All data sets are gathered and processed with the help of national data centers and partner institutions and integrated into existing open access data systems, such as Pangaea in Germany, EMODnet at European level and GMRT (Global Multi-Resolution Topography synthesis) at international level. The processed data will be linked to the original data holdings, that can easily be accessed if required. The overall aim of this task is to make bathymetric data publicly available for specialists and non-specialists both

  17. Traditional and experimental floating fish aggregating devices in the Gulf of Castellammare (NW Sicily: results from catches and visual observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Anna

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Floating fish aggregating devices (FADs have long been used to attract fish in NW Sicily since antiquity. Recently, a number of changes have been made to the type of material employed to construct FADs, with the aim of increasing their effectiveness. In this paper we compare the catches made at eight experimental floating FADs (polypropylene ropes frayed at the ends with those obtained at eight traditional FADs in the Gulf of Castellammare. A total of 672 samples were collected during summer and autumn in 1995 and 1996 at the 16 FADs using a surrounding net. Visual observations of fishes associated with the FADs were also conducted to obtain qualitative information about the spatial distribution of species. A total of 1632 specimens weighing 144 kg and belonging to eight species were caught during the survey. Seriola dumerili, Caranx crysos, C. rhonchus and Coryphaena hippurus were the most frequent and abundant species accounting for 96% of the total catch. Average fish abundance and weight, characterised by high variance, were significantly higher at the sites with experimental FADs than at the sites with traditional FADs. S. dumerili was the only species with higher catches around the experimental FADs. Some spatial and temporal variations in fish abundance and size were also detected. Younger individuals of S. dumerili were observed to show high affinity for the experimental FAD tufts.

  18. Observations in the Saturn system during approach and orbital insertion, with Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Baugh, N.; Griffith, C.A.; Hansen, G.B.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Momary, T.W.; Showalter, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer observed Phoebe, Iapetus, Titan and Saturn's rings during Cassini's approach and orbital insertion. Phoebe's surface contains water ice, CO2, and ferrous iron. lapetus contains CO2 and organic materials. Titan's atmosphere shows methane fluorescence, and night-side atmospheric emission that may be CO2 and CH3D. As determined from cloud motions, the winds at altitude 25-30 km in the south polar region of Titan appear to be moving in a prograde direction at velocity ???1 m s-1. Circular albedo features on Titan's surface, seen at 2.02 ??m, may be palimpsests remaining from the rheological adjustment of ancient impact craters. As such, their long-term persistence is of special interest in view of the expected precipitation of liquids and solids from the atmosphere. Saturn's rings have changed little in their radial structure since the Voyager flybys in the early 1980s. Spectral absorption bands tentatively attributed to Fe2+ suggest that iron-bearing silicates are a source of contamination of the C ring and the Cassini Division. ?? ESO 2006.

  19. Proprioception contributes to the sense of agency during visual observation of hand movements: evidence from temporal judgments of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Cole, Jonathan; Miall, R Chris

    2007-01-01

    The ability to recognize visually one's own movement is important for motor control and, through attribution of agency, for social interactions. Agency of actions may be decided by comparisons of visual feedback, efferent signals, and proprioceptive inputs. Because the ability to identify one's o...

  20. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK)). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  1. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  2. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination ( PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading ( Raz-Kids ( RK )). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  3. Proprioception contributes to the sense of agency during visual observation of hand movements: evidence from temporal judgments of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balslev, Daniela; Cole, Jonathan; Miall, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    The ability to recognize one's own movement visually is important for motor control and, through attribution of agency, for social interactions. Agency of actions may be decided by comparisons of visual feedback, efferent signals and proprioceptive inputs. Because the ability to identify own visual feedback from passive movements is decreased relative to active movements, or in some cases is even absent, the role of proprioception in self-recognition has been questioned. Proprioception during passive and active movements may, however, differ and so to address any role for proprioception in the sense of agency the active movement condition must be examined. Here we tested a chronically deafferented man (IW) and an age-matched group of 6 healthy controls in a task requiring judgement of the timing of action. Subjects performed finger movements and watched a visual cursor that moved either synchronously or asynchronously with a random delay, and reported whether or not they felt they controlled the cursor. Movement accuracy was matched between groups. In the absence of proprioception, IW was less able than the control group to discriminate self-from computer-produced cursor movement based on the timing of movement. In a control visual discrimination task with concurrent similar finger movements but no agency detection, IW was unimpaired, suggesting that this effect was task specific. We conclude that proprioception does contribute to the visual identification of ownership during active movements and thus to the sense of agency. PMID:17714014

  4. The Avian Knowledge Network : A partnership to organize, analyze, and visualize bird observation data for education, conservation, research, and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Iliff; Leo Salas; Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza; Grant Ballard; Denis Lepage; Steve Kelling

    2009-01-01

    The Avian Knowledge Network (AKN) is an international collaboration of academic, nongovernment, and government institutions with the goal of organizing observations of birds into an interoperable format to enhance access, data visualization and exploration, and scientifi c analyses. The AKN uses proven cyberinfrastructure and informatics techniques as the foundation of...

  5. Inter-observer variability of visual analysis of "stress"-only adenosine first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging in relation to clinical experience and reading criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, D. D.; Kuijpers, D.; Bodewes, R.; Kappert, P.; Kerkhof, M.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Oudkerk, M.

    To assess the inter-observer agreement of adenosine "stress"-only visual analysis of perfusion MR images in relation to experience and reading criteria. 106 adenosine perfusion MR examinations out of 350, 46 consecutive positive examinations and 60 randomly selected negative examinations were

  6. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  7. Houdini for Astrophysical Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Borkiewicz, Kalina; Christensen, A. J.

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large data sets. Here, we discuss some newly developed tools used to import and manipulate astrophysical data into the three-dimensional visual effects software, Houdini. This software is widely used by visual effects artists, but a recently implemented Python API now allows astronomers to more easily use Houdini as a visualization tool. This paper includes a description of features, workflow, and various example visualizations. The project website, www.ytini.com, is aimed at a scientific audience and contains Houdini tutorials and links to the Python script Bitbucket repository to simplify the process of importing and rendering astrophysical data.

  8. Magnetic resonance arthrography including ABER view in diagnosing partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff: Accuracy, and inter- and intra-observer agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Chun, Ho Jong; Ahn, Myeong Im (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: whjee@catholic.ac.kr; Kim, Yang-Soo (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Partial-thickness tear of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain. Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has been described as a useful measure to diagnose rotator cuff abnormalities. Purpose: To determine the reliability and accuracy of MR arthrography with abduction and external rotation (ABER) view for the diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Material and Methods: Among patients who underwent MR arthrographies, 22 patients (12 men, 10 women; mean age 45 years) who had either partial-thickness tear or normal tendon on arthroscopy were included. MR images were independently scored by two observers for partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements for detection of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff were calculated by using kappa coefficients. The differences in areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed with a univariate Z-score test. Differences in sensitivity and specificity for interpretations based on different imaging series were tested for significance using the McNemar statistic. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each reader on MR imaging without ABER view were 83%, 90%, and 86%, and 83%, 80%, and 82%, respectively, whereas on overall interpretation including ABER view, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each reader were 92%, 70%, and 82%, and 92%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Including ABER view, interobserver agreement for partial-thickness tear increased from kappa=0.55 to kappa=0.68. Likewise, intraobserver agreements increased from kappa=0.79 and 0.53 to kappa=0.81 and 0.70 for each reader, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves for each reader were 0.96 and 0.90, which were not significantly different. Conclusion: Including ABER view in routine sequences of MR arthrography increases the sensitivity, and inter- and intraobserver agreements for detecting partial-thickness tear of rotator cuff

  9. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  10. FCJ-201 Visual Evidence from Above: Assessing the Value of Earth Observation Satellites for Supporting Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Notley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public access to data collected by remote sensing Earth Observation Satellites has, until recently, been very limited. Now, citizens and rights advocacy groups are increasingly utilising satellite-collected images to interrogate justice issues; to document, prevent and verify rights abuses; and to imagine and propose social change. Yet while other communication technologies have received substantial critical analysis regarding their value as tools of social justice, activism and resistance, satellites have received comparatively scant attention. This article examines the uses of satellite-collected images in human rights contexts including the opportunities, challenges and risks they pose. We conclude this examination by arguing that if satellites are to be used effectively to collect evidence from above by rights advocates, greater attention to and capacity for ensuring accountability from below is required.

  11. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  12. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vicariously touching products through observing others' hand actions increases purchasing intention, and the effect of visual perspective in this process: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zang, Xuelian; Chen, Lihan; Assumpção, Leonardo; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The growth of online shopping increases consumers' dependence on vicarious sensory experiences, such as observing others touching products in commercials. However, empirical evidence on whether observing others' sensory experiences increases purchasing intention is still scarce. In the present study, participants observed others interacting with products in the first- or third-person perspective in video clips, and their neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated (1) whether and how vicariously touching certain products affected purchasing intention, and the neural correlates of this process; and (2) how visual perspective interacts with vicarious tactility. Vicarious tactile experiences were manipulated by hand actions touching or not touching the products, while the visual perspective was manipulated by showing the hand actions either in first- or third-person perspective. During the fMRI scanning, participants watched the video clips and rated their purchasing intention for each product. The results showed that, observing others touching (vs. not touching) the products increased purchasing intention, with vicarious neural responses found in mirror neuron systems (MNS) and lateral occipital complex (LOC). Moreover, the stronger neural activities in MNS was associated with higher purchasing intention. The effects of visual perspectives were found in left superior parietal lobule (SPL), while the interaction of tactility and visual perspective was shown in precuneus and precuneus-LOC connectivity. The present study provides the first evidence that vicariously touching a given product increased purchasing intention and the neural activities in bilateral MNS, LOC, left SPL and precuneus are involved in this process. Hum Brain Mapp 39:332-343, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Observing how others lift light or heavy objects: which visual cues mediate the encoding of muscular force in the primary motor cortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2010-06-01

    Observers are able to judge quite accurately the weights lifted by others. Only recently, neuroscience has focused on the role of the motor system to accomplish this task. In this respect, a previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study showed that the muscular force requirements of an observed action are encoded by the primary motor cortex (M1). Overall, three distinct visual sources may provide information on the applied force of an observed lifting action, namely, (i) the perceived kinematics, (ii) the hand contraction state and finally (iii) intrinsic object properties. The principal aim of the present study was to disentangle these three visual sources and to explore their importance in mediating the encoding of muscular force requirements in the observer's motor system. A series of experiments are reported in which TMS was used to measure 'force-related' responses from the hand representation in left M1 while subjects observed distinct action-stimuli. Overall, results indicated that observation-induced activity in M1 reflects the level of observed force when kinematic cues of the lift (exp. 1) or cues on the hand contraction state (exp. 2) are available. Moreover, when kinematic cues and intrinsic object properties provide distinct information on the force requirements of an observed lifting action, results from experiment 3 indicated a strong preference for the use of kinematic features in mapping the force requirements of the observed action. In general, these findings support the hypothesis that the primary motor cortex contributes to action observation by mapping the muscle-related features of observed actions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure associated with a triple mutant including kelch13 C580Y in Cambodia: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michele D; Lin, Jessica T; Manning, Jessica E; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Somethy, Sok; Bun, Rathvicheth; Se, Youry; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sia-ngam, Piyaporn; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Arsanok, Montri; Buathong, Nillawan; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Ta-aksorn, Winita; Chanarat, Nitima; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Heng, Thay Kheang; Nou, Samon; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Phann, Sut Thang; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Juliano, Jonathan J; Meshnick, Steven R; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L

    2015-06-01

    propeller gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance--a non-synonymous Cys580Tyr substitution in 70 (65%) of 107 participants, an Arg539Thr substitution in 33 (31%), and a wild-type parasite in four (4%). Unlike Arg539Thr, Cys580Tyr was accompanied by two other mutations associated with extended parasite clearance (MAL10:688956 and MAL13:1718319). This combination triple mutation was associated with a 5·4 times greater risk of treatment failure (hazard ratio 5·4 [95% CI 2·4-12]; p<0·0001) and higher piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentration (triple mutant 34 nM [28-41]; non-triple mutant 24 nM [1-27]; p=0·003) than other infections had. The drug was well tolerated, with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most common complaints. The dramatic decline in efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine compared with what was observed in a study at the same location in 2010 was strongly associated with a new triple mutation including the kelch13 Cys580Tyr substitution. 3 days of artemisinin as part of an artemisinin combination therapy regimen might be insufficient. Strict regulation and monitoring of antimalarial use, along with non-pharmacological approaches to malaria resistance containment, must be integral parts of the public health response to rapidly accelerating drug resistance in the region. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center/Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Military Infectious Disease Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene/Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An observational study of agreement between percentage pain reduction calculated from visual analog or numerical rating scales versus that reported by parturients during labor epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratici, E; Nebout, S; Merbai, N; Filippova, J; Hajage, D; Keita, H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction, derived from visual analog or numerical rating scales, and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in patients having labor epidural analgesia. In a prospective observational study, parturients were asked to rate their pain intensity on a visual analog scale and numerical rating scale, before and 30min after initiation of epidural analgesia. The percentage pain reduction 30min after epidural analgesia was calculated by the formula: 100×(score before epidural analgesia-score 30min after epidural analgesia)/score before epidural analgesia. To evaluate agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction, we computed the concordance correlation coefficient and performed Bland-Altman analysis. Ninety-seven women in labor were enrolled in the study, most of whom were nulliparous, with a singleton fetus and in spontaneous labor. The concordance correlation coefficient with patient-reported percentage pain reduction was 0.76 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) for the visual analog and numerical rating scale, respectively. The Bland-Altman mean difference between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction for the visual analog and numerical rating scales was -2.0% (limits of agreement at 29.8%) and 0 (limits of agreement at 28.2%), respectively. The agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction from a visual analog or numerical rating scale and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in the context of labor epidural analgesia was moderate. The difference could range up to 30%. Patient-reported percentage pain reduction has advantages as a measurement tool for assessing pain management for childbirth but differences compared with other assessment methods should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualizing the Impacts of Movement Infrastructures on Social Inclusion: Graph-Based Methods for Observing Community Formations in Contrasting Geographic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe some innovative methods for observing the possible impacts of roads, junctions and pathways (movement infrastructures, on community life in terms of their affordances and hindrances for social connectivity. In seeking to observe these impacts, we combined a range of visualization research methods, based on qualitative points-data mapping, graphic representation and urban morphological analysis at local and global geographic scales. Our overall aim in this study was to develop exploratory methods for combining and visualizing various kinds of data that relate to urban community formations in contrasting urban contexts. We focused our enquiry on the perspectives of adolescents in two urban contexts: Liverpool, UK, and Medellín, Colombia. While they contrast in their geo-political and cultural characteristics, these two cities each present polarized socio-economic inequalities across distinctive spatial patterns. We found that adolescents in these cities offer generally localized, pedestrian perspectives of their local areas, and unique insights into the opportunities and challenges for place-making in their local community spaces. We gathered the communities’ local perspectives through map-making workshops, in which participants used given iconographic symbols to select and weight the social and structural assets that they deemed to be significant features of their community spaces. We then sampled and visualized these selective points data to observe ways in which local community assets relate to infrastructural affordances for movement (in terms of network integration. This analysis was based on the theory and method of Space Syntax, which provides a model of affordances for movement across the urban network over various scales of network configuration. In particular, we sought to determine how city-scale movement infrastructures interact with local-scale infrastructures, and to develop methods for observing ways

  18. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  19. Late subsequent ocular morbidity in retinopathy of prematurity patients, with emphasis on visual loss caused by insidious 'involutive' pathology: an observational series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Jensen, Hanne

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses late complications in eyes of surviving premature infants typically occurring years into the steady state attained after the initial ophthalmic events associated with preterm birth. The study focuses on insidious visual loss, as well as eventual vitreoretinal and anterior segment disorders. We carried out a retrospective uncontrolled study of a case series (n = 31) of late complications to early ocular changes associated with very preterm delivery. The birth years of our subjects extended back to 1941, but only 15 more recent cases fulfilled contemporary criteria for a diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Fourteen cases involved vitreoretinal pathology (median observation time 14 years, range 6-46 years) with late detachment and/or vitreous haemorrhage. Twelve cases primarily involved anterior segment pathology (median observation time 37 years, range 7-58 years). Eyes in the latter category often showed features of early arrested growth and anterior traction, which, in four eyes, eventually led to enucleation or exenteration as a result of a blind and painful terminal state. The last five cases (observation periods 22-38 years) were labelled 'miscellaneous'. Among the 31 patients, we identified a subgroup in which insidious visual loss was a common feature (n = 20). Initially, some of these cases showed evidence of cicatricial ROP and low vision from early in life. Others retained useful vision and did not present obvious ocular incidents related to the actual visual acuity decline. Based on a variety of clinical ophthalmic preterm appearances, we propose the hypothesis that, in addition to increased structural vulnerability, a reduced functional reserve may pave the way for further abiotrophy or involution over time. This may manifest as reduced resistance to later ophthalmic events, such as disease or trauma, or simply the impact of age. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  20. Observables of a Test Mass along an Inclined Orbit in a Post-Newtonian-Approximated Kerr Spacetime Including the Linear and Quadratic Spin Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergt, Steven; Shah, Abhay; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The orbital motion is derived for a nonspinning test mass in the relativistic, gravitational field of a rotationally deformed body not restricted to the equatorial plane or spherical orbit. The gravitational field of the central body is represented by the Kerr metric, expanded to second post-Newtonian order including the linear and quadratic spin terms. The orbital period, the intrinsic periastron advance, and the precession of the orbital plane are derived with the aid of novel canonical variables and action-based methods.

  1. How information visualization novices construct visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne

    2010-01-01

    It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process.

  2. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best…

  4. Naturalistic driving observations of manual and visual-manual interactions with navigation systems and mobile phones while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van & Knapper, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a naturalistic driving study on the use of mobile phones and navigation systems while driving. Manual interactions with these devices while driving can cause distraction from the driving task and reduce traffic safety. In this study 21 subjects were observed for 5 weeks. Their

  5. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites.

  6. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites

  7. Temperature and moisture conditions for life in the extreme arid region of the Atacama desert: four years of observations including the El Nino of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Caceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-01-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5 degrees C and 16.6 degrees C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9 degrees C, and the minimum was -5.7 degrees C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m(-2) in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong fohn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s(-1). During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Nino of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  8. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  9. Fitting and Phenomenology in Type IA Supernova Cosmology: Generalized Likelihood Analyses for Multiple Evolving Populations and Observations of Near-Infrared Lightcurves Including Host Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Kara A.

    In the late 1990s, Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) led to the discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to dark energy. Since then, many different tracers of acceleration have been used to characterize dark energy, but the source of cosmic acceleration has remained a mystery. To better understand dark energy, future surveys such as the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the space-based Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will collect thousands of SNeIa to use as a primary dark energy probe. These large surveys will be systematics limited, which makes it imperative for our insight regarding systematics to dramatically increase over the next decade for SNeIa to continue to contribute to precision cosmology. I approach this problem by improving statistical methods in the likelihood analysis and collecting near infrared (NIR) SNeIa with their host galaxies to improve the nearby data set and search for additional systematics. Using more statistically robust methods to account for systematics within the likelihood function can increase accuracy in cosmological parameters with a minimal precision loss. Though a sample of at least 10,000 SNeIa is necessary to confirm multiple populations of SNeIa, the bias in cosmology is ˜ 2 sigma with only 2,500 SNeIa. This work focused on an example systematic (host galaxy correlations), but it can be generalized for any systematic that can be represented by a distribution of multiple Gaussians. The SweetSpot survey gathered 114 low-redshift, NIR SNeIa that will act as a crucial anchor sample for the future high redshift surveys. NIR observations are not as affected by dust contamination, which may lead to increased understanding of systematics seen in optical wavelengths. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for 32 SweetSpot host galaxies to test for local host galaxy correlations. For the first time, we probe global host galaxy correlations with NIR brightnesses from the current literature

  10. Understanding why cancer patients accept or turn down psycho-oncological support: a prospective observational study including patients' and clinicians' perspectives on communication about distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Tondorf, Theresa; Rothschild, Sacha; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Kiss, Alexander

    2017-05-30

    International standards prioritize introducing routine emotional distress screening in cancer care to accurately identify patients who most need psycho-oncological treatment, and ensure that patients can access appropriate supportive care. However, only a moderate proportion of distressed patients accepts referrals to or uses psycho-oncological support services. Predictors and barriers to psycho-oncological support service utilization are under-studied. We know little about how patients and oncologists perceive the discussions when oncologists assess psychosocial distress with a screening instrument. We aim to 1) assess the barriers and predictors of uptake of in-house psycho-oncological support along the distress screening pathway in cancer patients treated at a University Oncology Outpatient Clinic and, 2) determine how patients and clinicians perceive communication about psychosocial distress after screening with the Distress Thermometer. This is a quantitative prospective observational study with qualitative aspects. We will examine medical and demographic variables, cancer patient self-reports of various psychological measures, and aspects of the patient-clinician communication as variables that potentially predict uptake of psycho-oncological support service. We will also assess the patients' reasons for accepting or refusing psycho-oncological support services. We assess at three points in time, based on paper-and-pencil questionnaires and two patient interviews during the study period. We will monitor outcomes (psycho-oncology service uptake) four months after study entry. The study will improve our understanding of characteristics of patients who accept or refuse psycho-oncological support, and help us understand how patients' and oncologists perceive communication about psychosocial distress, and referral to a psycho-oncologist. We believe this is the first study to focus on factors that affect uptake or rejection of psycho-oncological support services

  11. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  12. Physical and chemical data from bottle casts and visual observations in the North and South Atlantic Ocean as part of the Data Archaeology and Rescue project, from 1970-08-27 to 1976-11-19 (NODC Accession 9900036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts and visual observation from the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT in the North and South Atlantic Ocean from August...

  13. Species identification and other data collected from visual observation and other data from AIRCRAFT in the Puget Sound from 23 May 1978 to 31 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7900174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Species identification and other data were collected using visual observation and other instruments from AIRCRAFT in the Puget Sound. Data were collected from 23 May...

  14. Species identification and other data collected from visual observation and other data from AIRCRAFT in the North Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound from 30 November 1977 to 04 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7800394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Species identification and other data were collected using visual observation and other instruments from AIRCRAFT in the Puget Sound and North Pacific Ocean. Data...

  15. Temperature and other data collected using visual observations and other instruments in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and other Seas from GYRE from 01 August 1985 to 26 May 1990 (NODC Accession 9300074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and other data were collected using visual observations, bottle casts, and other instruments from GYRE and other platforms in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and...

  16. Species identification and other data collected from visual observation and other data from the COMMONWEALTH and other platforms in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1950 to 01 August 1963 (NODC Accession 7200709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Species identification and other data were collected using visual observation, net, and photograph from the COMMONWEALTH and other platforms in the North Pacific...

  17. Experimental observations on the optimal layout of orientation blocks for safe road crossing by the visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Inagaki

    2017-07-01

    For this paper, in order to examine in greater detail the desirable position of orientation blocks relative to TWSI, the authors conducted an experiment using totally blind subjects to evaluate conditions on a 10 m walk that simulated an actual crossing. The results, based on observations of the trajectories walked by participants in the experiment and interviews eliciting their subjective evaluations, showed that separating orientation blocks and blister tactile blocks by about 8–12 cm is effective in constraining lateral deviation at a point 5 m from the start of crossing and that an 8 cm separation was desirable in order to maintain an effective reduction of mental stress while crossing.

  18. Boosting the Motor Outcome of the Untrained Hand by Action Observation: Mirror Visual Feedback, Video Therapy, or Both Combined—What Is More Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bähr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Action observation (AO allows access to a network that processes visuomotor and sensorimotor inputs and is believed to be involved in observational learning of motor skills. We conducted three consecutive experiments to examine the boosting effect of AO on the motor outcome of the untrained hand by either mirror visual feedback (MVF, video therapy (VT, or a combination of both. In the first experiment, healthy participants trained either with MVF or without mirror feedback while in the second experiment, participants either trained with VT or observed animal videos. In the third experiment, participants first observed video clips that were followed by either training with MVF or training without mirror feedback. The outcomes for the untrained hand were quantified by scores from five motor tasks. The results demonstrated that MVF and VT significantly increase the motor performance of the untrained hand by the use of AO. We found that MVF was the most effective approach to increase the performance of the target effector. On the contrary, the combination of MVF and VT turns out to be less effective looking from clinical perspective. The gathered results suggest that action-related motor competence with the untrained hand is acquired by both mirror-based and video-based AO.

  19. Correlação entre a Visual Gait Assessment Scale, Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale e Escala Observacional da Marcha em crianças com paralisia cerebral diparética espástica Correlation among the Visual Gait Assessment Scale, Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale and Observational Gait Scale in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geruza P. Bella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Desordens da marcha são comuns em crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC diparética espástica. Com o intuito de aprimorar a marcha dessas crianças e quantificar os desfechos de tal intervenção, torna-se necessário que se faça uma análise instrumentada pré e pós-intervenção. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar a Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale (EVGS, a Visual Gait Assessment Scale (VGAS e a Escala Observacional de Marcha (EOM. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de análise da marcha por meio das escalas EVGS, VGAS e EOM, envolvendo oito crianças com PC diparética espástica, nível I ou II do Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, avaliadas por três examinadores. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP. Os dados foram analisados pelo índice Kappa ponderado, considerando um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O estudo intra-avaliadores mostrou que a concordância entre os métodos na classificação dos sujeitos foi de moderada a excelente (k=0,41, 1,00, sendo a comparação entre a VGAS e a EVGS a de maior índice de concordância, enquanto a EOM obteve grande discordância em comparação com as outras escalas. A concordância interavaliadores se mostrou predominantemente alta. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados fornecem evidências de que a VGAS e a EVGS são mais adequados para avaliação da marcha de crianças com PC diparética quando comparadas à EOM.BACKGROUND: Gait disorders are very common in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (CP. In order to improve the CP children's gait and to quantify the outcomes of this intervention it becomes essential to perform an instrumented analysis before and after the intervention. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the correlation among the Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale (EVGS, the Visual Gait Assessment Scale (VGAS and the Observational Gait Scale (OGS. METHODS: Cross sectional study aiming to analyze the gait of 8

  20. Changing trends in the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in a rural district of India: Systematic observations over a decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit C Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Globally, limited data are available on changing trends of blindness from a single region. Aims : To report the changing trends in the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment (VI, and visual outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural district of Andhra Pradesh, India, over period of one decade. Settings and Design : Rural setting; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services (RACSS method, population-based, cross-sectional survey was done in a rural district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants ≥50 years of age. Further, a comparative analysis was done with participants ≥50 years from the previously concluded Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS study, who belonged to the same district. Statistical Analysis : Done using 11 th version of Stata. Results : Using RACSS, 2160/2300 (93.9% participants were examined as compared with the APEDS dataset (n=521. Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness in RACSS and APEDS was 8% (95% CI, 6.9-9.1% and 11% (95% CI, 8.3-13.7%, while that of VI was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.2-15.1% and 40.3% (95% CI, 36.1-44.5%, respectively. Cataract was the major cause of blindness in both the studies. There was a significant reduction in blindness following cataract surgery as observed through RACSS (17.3%; 95% CI, 13.5-21.8% compared with APEDS (34%; 95% CI, 20.9-49.3%. Conclusion : There was a significant reduction in prevalence of blindness and VI in this rural district of India over a decade.

  1. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  2. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  3. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  4. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  5. NASA GIBS & Worldview - Lesson Ready Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechini, M. F.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M. M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; De Luca, A. P.; King, J.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; Thompson, C. K.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Pressley, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    For more than 20 years, the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) has operated dozens of remote sensing satellites collecting 14 Petabytes of data that span thousands of science parameters. Within these observations are keys the Earth Scientists have used to unlock many things that we understand about our planet. Also contained within these observations are a myriad of opportunities for learning and education. The trick is making them accessible to educators and students in convenient and simple ways so that effort can be spent on lesson enrichment and not overcoming technical hurdles. The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) system and NASA Worldview website provide a unique view into EOS data through daily full resolution visualizations of hundreds of earth science parameters. For many of these parameters, visualizations are available within hours of acquisition from the satellite. For others, visualizations are available for the entire mission of the satellite. Accompanying the visualizations are visual aids such as color legends, place names, and orbit tracks. By using these visualizations, educators and students can observe natural phenomena that enrich a scientific education. This presentation will provide an overview of the visualizations available in NASA GIBS and Worldview and how they are accessed. We will also provide real-world examples of how the visualizations have been used in educational settings including planetariums, visitor centers, hack-a-thons, and public organizations.

  6. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-07-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

  7. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified.

  8. Visually scoring hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Bolour, Sheila; Woods, Keslie; Moore, April; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is the presence of excess body or facial terminal (coarse) hair growth in females in a male-like pattern, affects 5-15% of women, and is an important sign of underlying androgen excess. Different methods are available for the assessment of hair growth in women. We conducted a literature search and analyzed the published studies that reported methods for the assessment of hair growth. We review the basic physiology of hair growth, the development of methods for visually quantifying hair growth, the comparison of these methods with objective measurements of hair growth, how hirsutism may be defined using a visual scoring method, the influence of race and ethnicity on hirsutism, and the impact of hirsutism in diagnosing androgen excess and polycystic ovary syndrome. Objective methods for the assessment of hair growth including photographic evaluations and microscopic measurements are available but these techniques have limitations for clinical use, including a significant degree of complexity and a high cost. Alternatively, methods for visually scoring or quantifying the amount of terminal body and facial hair growth have been in use since the early 1920s; these methods are semi-quantitative at best and subject to significant inter-observer variability. The most common visual method of scoring the extent of body and facial terminal hair growth in use today is based on a modification of the method originally described by Ferriman and Gallwey in 1961 (i.e. the mFG method). Overall, the mFG scoring method is a useful visual instrument for assessing excess terminal hair growth, and the presence of hirsutism, in women.

  9. Integrating a visualization component in a scientific information system for observation of atmospheric phenomena; Integration einer Visualisierungskomponente in ein wissenschaftliches Informationssystem zur Beobachtung atmosphaerischer Phaenomene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolber, M.

    1995-10-01

    This report deals with the integration of a visualization component for a scientific information system, which is used within research analysing global change. This integration is based upon a visualization management system. On the one hand, the special issue for this component is to provide an information-oriented data access using a five-dimensional data structure, whilst on the other, we need a division of the data space into explicitly addressable, self-describing files with a maximum of three dimensions. First, a conceptual data model is developed which is used to underly the input for the visualization system. Following on from this, different realization scenarios are then studied and compared for the spatial database. Finally, a hybrid solution is presented using both an object oriented database system and a scientific data format, taking into consideration the restrictions of the interface to the visualization system. (orig.)

  10. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  11. Parallel Planes Information Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-26

    This software presents a user-provided multivariate dataset as an interactive three dimensional visualization so that the user can explore the correlation between variables in the observations and the distribution of observations among the variables.

  12. A Hundred Comets: The Visual-Wavelength Observations of the Survey of Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei (SEPPCoN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, James M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Lowry, S. C.; Meech, K. J.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Pittichova, J.; Weaver, H. A.; Lisse, C. M.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Campins, H.; Groussin, O.; Kelley, M. S.; Lamy, P. L.; Licandro, J.; Reach, W. T.; Toth, I.

    2010-05-01

    We present new results from SEPPCoN, a Survey of Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei. This project is currently surveying 100 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) to measure the mid-infrared thermal emission and visible reflected sunlight of the nuclei. The scientific goal is to determine the distributions of radius, geometric albedo, thermal inertia, axial ratio, and color among the JFC nuclei. In the past we have presented results from the completed mid-IR observations of our sample [1]; here we present preliminary results from ongoing, broadband visible-wavelength observations of nuclei obtained from a variety of ground-based facilities (Mauna Kea, Cerro Pachon, La Silla, La Palma, Apache Point, Table Mtn., and Palomar Mtn.), including contributions from the Near Earth Asteroid Telescope project (NEAT) archive. The nuclei were observed at high heliocentric distance (usually over 4 AU) and so many comets show either no or little contamination from dust coma. While several nuclei have been observed as snapshots, we have multiepoch photometry for many of our targets. With our datasets we are building a large database of photometry, and such a database is essential to the derivation of albedo and shape of a large number of nuclei, and to the understanding of biases in the survey. Support for this work was provided by NSF and the NASA Planetary Astronomy program. Reference: [1] Fernandez, Y.R., et al. 2007, BAAS 39, 827.

  13. NASA/NOAA: Earth Science Electronic Theater 1999. Earth Science Observations, Analysis and Visualization: Roots in the 60s - Vision for the Next Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. Fritz

    1999-01-01

    The Etheater presents visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966, to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI-Onyx Graphics-Supercomputer are NASA''s visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the NASA Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the Earth Science ETheater 1999 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris, Munich, Sydney, Melbourne, Honolulu, Washington, New York, and Dallas. The presentation Jan 11-14 at the AMS meeting in Dallas used a 4-CPU SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation with 8 GB RAM and a Terabyte Disk at 3840 X 1024 resolution with triple synchronized BarcoReality 9200 projectors on a 60ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense HyperImage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites, Hyper

  14. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  15. A tool for integrating genetic and mass spectrometry-based peptide data: Proteogenomics Viewer: PV: A genome browser-like tool, which includes MS data visualization and peptide identification parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, José Eduardo; da Silva, Vandeclécio Lira; de Souza, Sandro José; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio

    2017-07-01

    In this manuscript we describe Proteogenomics Viewer, a web-based tool that collects MS peptide identification, indexes to genomic sequence and structure, assigns exon usage, reports the identified protein isoforms with genomic alignments and, most importantly, allows the inspection of MS2 information for proper peptide identification. It also provides all performed indexing to facilitate global analysis of the data. The relevance of such tool is that there has been an increase in the number of proteogenomic efforts to improve the annotation of both genomics and proteomics data, culminating with the release of the two human proteome drafts. It is now clear that mass spectrometry-based peptide identification of uncharacterized sequences, such as those resulting from unpredicted exon joints or non-coding regions, is still prone to a higher than expected false discovery rate. Therefore, proper visualization of the raw data and the corresponding genome alignments are fundamental for further data validation and interpretation. Also see the video abstract here: http://youtu.be/5NzyRvuk4Ac. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Armstrong Laboratory Space Visual Function Tester Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Melvin R.; Task, H. Lee; Gleason, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space visual function tester program are presented. Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on apparent changes in their vision while on-orbit. Comments have included descriptions of earth features and objects that would suggest enhanced distance visual acuity. In contrast, some cosmonaut observations suggest a slight loss in their object discrimination during initial space flight. Astronauts have also mentioned a decreased near vision capability that did not recover to normal until return to earth. Duntley space vision experiment, USSR space vision experiments, and visual function testers are described.

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Fujita, Motoi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Takeo; Naruse, Shoji; Takagi, Mineo.

    1995-01-01

    Signal changes in the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation were evaluated using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The experiments were performed on 10 normal human volunteers and 2 patients with homonymous hemianopsia, including one who was recovering from the exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. The visual stimuli were provided by a pattern generator using the checkerboard pattern for determining the visual evoked potential of full-field and hemifield stimulation. In normal volunteers, a signal increase was observed on the bilateral primary visual cortex during the full-field stimulation and on the contra-lateral cortex during hemifield stimulation. In the patient with homonymous hemianopsia after cerebral infarction, the signal change was clearly decreased on the affected side. In the other patient, the one recovering from multiple sclerosis with an almost normal visual field, the fMRI was within normal limits. These results suggest that it is possible to visualize the activation of the visual cortex during visual stimulation, and that there is a possibility of using this test as an objective method of visual field examination. (author)

  18. Late subsequent ocular morbidity in retinopathy of prematurity patients, with emphasis on visual loss caused by insidious 'involutive' pathology: an observational series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Jensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses late complications in eyes of surviving premature infants typically occurring years into the steady state attained after the initial ophthalmic events associated with preterm birth. The study focuses on insidious visual loss, as well as eventual vitreoretinal and anterior...

  19. Late subsequent ocular morbidity in retinopathy of prematurity patients, with emphasis on visual loss caused by insidious 'involutive' pathology: an observational series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Jensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses late complications in eyes of surviving premature infants typically occurring years into the steady state attained after the initial ophthalmic events associated with preterm birth. The study focuses on insidious visual loss, as well as eventual vitreoretinal and anterior seg...

  20. Visual stimulation, {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy and fMRI of the human visual pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucard, Christine C.; Cornelissen, Frans W. [University of Groningen, Laboratory for Experimental Ophthalmology, Postbus 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, BCN Neuro-imaging Center, Postbus 196, Groningen (Netherlands); Mostert, Jop P.; Keyser, Jacques De [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E. [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose was to assess changes in lactate content and other brain metabolites under visual stimulation in optical chiasm, optic radiations and occipital cortex using multiple voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS). {sup 1}H chemical shift imaging (CSI) examinations of transverse planes centered to include the above structures were performed in four subjects at an echo time of 135 ms. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to confirm the presence of activity in the visual cortex during the visual stimulation. Spectral maps of optical chiasm were of poor quality due to field disturbances caused by nearby large blood vessels and/or eye movements. The optic radiations and the occipital lobe did not show any significant MR spectral change upon visual stimulation, i.e., the peak areas of inositol, choline, creatine, glutamate and N-acetylaspartate were not affected. Reproducible lactate signals were not observed. fMRI confirmed the presence of strong activations in stimulated visual cortex. Prolonged visual stimulation did not cause significant changes in MR spectra. Any signal observed near the 1.33 ppm resonance frequency of the lactate methyl-group was artifactual, originating from lipid signals from outside the volume of interest (VOI). Previous claims about changes in lactate levels in the visual cortex upon visual stimulation may have been based on such erroneous observations. (orig.)

  1. Halftone visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Arce, Gonzalo R; Di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into n shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the n shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Extended visual cryptography [1] was proposed recently to construct meaningful binary images as shares using hypergraph colourings, but the visual quality is poor. In this paper, a novel technique named halftone visual cryptography is proposed to achieve visual cryptography via halftoning. Based on the blue-noise dithering principles, the proposed method utilizes the void and cluster algorithm [2] to encode a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images) carrying significant visual information. The simulation shows that the visual quality of the obtained halftone shares are observably better than that attained by any available visual cryptography method known to date.

  2. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  3. Comparison of visual observation and excavation to quantify density of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus in rivers of north-eastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamand F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a rapid decline in several protected unionid species, government agencies urgently require a reliable method to estimate population size for the most endangered species. We used a dataset collected from 16 river stations in north-eastern France to compare the efficiency of visual estimation (bathyscope and a manual excavation to estimate numbers of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus. Our investigations indicated that, whereas a visual approach was sufficient to detect unionid presence, only 10% of all individuals were registered compared with manual excavation at the same site. In order to obtain an accurate density estimate (especially as regards the juvenile population, sediment excavation is necessary, despite it being time consuming and damaging to the mussel’s habitat.

  4. A visualization environment for supercomputing-based applications in computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlakos, C.J.; Schoof, L.A.; Mareda, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, we characterize a visualization environment that has been designed and prototyped for a large community of scientists and engineers, with an emphasis in superconducting-based computational mechanics. The proposed environment makes use of a visualization server concept to provide effective, interactive visualization to the user`s desktop. Benefits of using the visualization server approach are discussed. Some thoughts regarding desirable features for visualization server hardware architectures are also addressed. A brief discussion of the software environment is included. The paper concludes by summarizing certain observations which we have made regarding the implementation of such visualization environments.

  5. Visual intelligence Microsoft tools and techniques for visualizing data

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Mark; Jorgensen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Go beyond design concepts and learn to build state-of-the-art visualizations The visualization experts at Microsoft's Pragmatic Works have created a full-color, step-by-step guide to building specific types of visualizations. The book thoroughly covers the Microsoft toolset for data analysis and visualization, including Excel, and explores best practices for choosing a data visualization design, selecting tools from the Microsoft stack, and building a dynamic data visualization from start to finish. You'll examine different types of visualizations, their strengths and weaknesses, a

  6. Clinical application of visual evoked potential in orbital cellulitis of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the visual evoked potential in infantile orbital cellulitis' clinical applications by monitoring the visual evoked potential changes in infantile orbital cellulitis before, during and after treatment.METHODS: Twenty-three cases of CT diagnosed single orbital cellulitis were examined by the visual evoked potentials. The affected eyes as observation group, and healthy eyes as control group. Comparative observation of visual evoked potential changes in amplitude and incubation period before, during and after the treatment. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the observation group's visual evoked potential changes included reduced amplitude, extended incubation period. With the treatment progress, the observation group had gradual increase in amplitude, gradual reduction in incubation period. CONCLUSION: In infantile orbital cellulitis, the use of visual evoked potentials is a simple, feasible and effective method to monitoring the visual function during the treatment.

  7. Visual memory and visual perception: when memory improves visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Benoit; Lesourd, Mathieu; Brunel, Lionel; Versace, Rémy

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between memory and perception in order to identify the influence of a memory dimension in perceptual processing. Our aim was to determine whether the variation of typical size between items (i.e., the size in real life) affects visual search. In two experiments, the congruency between typical size difference and perceptual size difference was manipulated in a visual search task. We observed that congruency between the typical and perceptual size differences decreased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 1), and noncongruency between these two differences increased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 2). We argue that these results highlight that memory and perception share some resources and reveal the intervention of typical size difference on the computation of the perceptual size difference.

  8. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  9. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and

  10. Web-based visual analysis for high-throughput genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecks, Jeremy; Eberhard, Carl; Too, Tomithy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2013-06-13

    Visualization plays an essential role in genomics research by making it possible to observe correlations and trends in large datasets as well as communicate findings to others. Visual analysis, which combines visualization with analysis tools to enable seamless use of both approaches for scientific investigation, offers a powerful method for performing complex genomic analyses. However, there are numerous challenges that arise when creating rich, interactive Web-based visualizations/visual analysis applications for high-throughput genomics. These challenges include managing data flow from Web server to Web browser, integrating analysis tools and visualizations, and sharing visualizations with colleagues. We have created a platform simplifies the creation of Web-based visualization/visual analysis applications for high-throughput genomics. This platform provides components that make it simple to efficiently query very large datasets, draw common representations of genomic data, integrate with analysis tools, and share or publish fully interactive visualizations. Using this platform, we have created a Circos-style genome-wide viewer, a generic scatter plot for correlation analysis, an interactive phylogenetic tree, a scalable genome browser for next-generation sequencing data, and an application for systematically exploring tool parameter spaces to find good parameter values. All visualizations are interactive and fully customizable. The platform is integrated with the Galaxy (http://galaxyproject.org) genomics workbench, making it easy to integrate new visual applications into Galaxy. Visualization and visual analysis play an important role in high-throughput genomics experiments, and approaches are needed to make it easier to create applications for these activities. Our framework provides a foundation for creating Web-based visualizations and integrating them into Galaxy. Finally, the visualizations we have created using the framework are useful tools for high

  11. Visual Information Communications International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Zhang, Kang; VINCI'09

    2010-01-01

    Visual Information Communication is based on VINCI'09, The Visual Information Communications International Conference, September 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Topics covered include The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration, The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages, Methods for Visual Analytics and Knowledge Discovery, Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization, Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing. This cutting-edge book addresses the issues of knowledge discovery, end-user programming, modeling, rapid systems prototyping, education, and design activities. Visual Information Communications is an edited volume whose contributors include well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including architects, artists, engineers, and scientists. Visual Information Communication is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers working in the field of digital design and visual communications. This volume i...

  12. Visual Guided Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Martin

    1999-01-01

    .... Similarly, the problem of visual navigation is the recovery of an observer's self-motion with respect to the environment from the moving pattern of light reaching the eyes and the complex of extra...

  13. Exploring hospitality within hospital meals by means of visual methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reflects the application of visual methodologies adapted in an explorative study on hospitality and hospital meals. It takes point of departure in a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork placed at a general hospital in 2012. Visual methodologies were applied in multiple ways....... This includes visual methodologies as part of observation and interview strategies. The paper presents and discusses how the application of different visual methodologies can contribute to the construction of ethnographical knowledge on hospitality and hospital meals. Finally ethical considerations as well...

  14. Improved observer dependent perception of weak edges when scanning an image in real time indicated by introducing 1/f noise into the primary visual cortex V1. Theory and experimental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton-Benko, E; Nguyen, H T; Hung, W T; Thornton, B S

    2009-09-01

    We present results of a new process for generating 1/f type noise sequences and introducing the noise in the primary visual cortex which then enables improved perception of weak edges when an observer is scanning a complex image in real time to detect detail such as in mammogram reading sessions. It can be explained by an adaptation of information theory for functional rather than previous task-based methods for formulating processes for edge formation in early vision. This is enabled from a two "species" classification of the interaction of opposing on-centre and off-centre neuron processes. We show that non-stationary stochastic resonances predicted by theory can occur with 1/f noise in the primary visual cortex V1 and suggest that signalling exchanges between V1 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus can initiate neural activity for saccadic action (and observer attention) for weak edge perception. Improvements predicted by our theory were shown from 600 observations by two groups of observers of limited experience and an experienced radiologist for reference (but not for diagnosis). They scanned and rated the definition of microcalcification in clusters separately rated by the experienced radiologist. The results and supporting theory showed dependence on the observer's attention and orderly scanning. Using a compact simplified equipment configuration the methodology has important clinical applications for conjunction searches of features and for detection of objects in poor light conditions for vehicles.

  15. Scientific Visualization and Computational Science: Natural Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uselton, Samuel P.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific visualization is developing rapidly, stimulated by computational science, which is gaining acceptance as a third alternative to theory and experiment. Computational science is based on numerical simulations of mathematical models derived from theory. But each individual simulation is like a hypothetical experiment; initial conditions are specified, and the result is a record of the observed conditions. Experiments can be simulated for situations that can not really be created or controlled. Results impossible to measure can be computed.. Even for observable values, computed samples are typically much denser. Numerical simulations also extend scientific exploration where the mathematics is analytically intractable. Numerical simulations are used to study phenomena from subatomic to intergalactic scales and from abstract mathematical structures to pragmatic engineering of everyday objects. But computational science methods would be almost useless without visualization. The obvious reason is that the huge amounts of data produced require the high bandwidth of the human visual system, and interactivity adds to the power. Visualization systems also provide a single context for all the activities involved from debugging the simulations, to exploring the data, to communicating the results. Most of the presentations today have their roots in image processing, where the fundamental task is: Given an image, extract information about the scene. Visualization has developed from computer graphics, and the inverse task: Given a scene description, make an image. Visualization extends the graphics paradigm by expanding the possible input. The goal is still to produce images; the difficulty is that the input is not a scene description displayable by standard graphics methods. Visualization techniques must either transform the data into a scene description or extend graphics techniques to display this odd input. Computational science is a fertile field for visualization

  16. [Dice test--a simple method for assessment of visual acuity in infants with visual deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrschneider, K; Brill, B; Bayer, Y; Ahrens, P

    2010-07-01

    Determination of visual acuity in low vision infants or patients with additional cerebral retardation is difficult. In our low vision department we used dice of different sizes and colors as well as other defined objects to determine visual acuity (VA). In this study we compared the results of the dice test with conventional tests for measurement of visual acuity. A total of 88 children with different causes of visual impairment e.g. albinism, retinal scars, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), achromatopsia and optic atrophy etc., were included in this longitudinal study. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (range 2.9-18.9 years). The first reliable examination was performed between the ages of 4 and 24 months (median 11 months). We estimated VA depending on the edge length of the dice, which were recognized at a distance of 30 cm, while 4 mm complied with VA 20/200. Best corrected binocular visual acuity was compared between the dice test, measurement with the Lea symbols and with numbers or Landolt rings. Estimation of visual acuity using the dice test was possible at the end of the first year of life (median 11 months, range 4-27 months). Although observation is limited to visual acuity results in the low vision range between light reaction and 20/120 there was nearly complete agreement between all three VA measurements. Visual acuity ranged from light perception to 20/20 with a median of 20/100. In 39 patients visual acuity was 20/200 or less at the end of the observation period. Visual acuity estimation overestimated visual acuity only in 5 out of the 88 patients, while in all of the patients with later acuity measurements better than 20/200, our best value of 20/200 was achieved. Using simple visual objects, such as dice with different colors and size down to an edge length of 4 mm, it is possible to estimate visual acuity in low vision infants within the first year of life. This option is also very helpful in patients who are not able to perform other visual

  17. Orbits for 18 Visual Binaries and Two Double-line Spectroscopic Binaries Observed with HRCAM on the CTIO SOAR 4 m Telescope, Using a New Bayesian Orbit Code Based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Rene A.; Claveria, Ruben M.; Orchard, Marcos E.; Silva, Jorge F.

    2017-11-01

    We present orbital elements and mass sums for 18 visual binary stars of spectral types B to K (five of which are new orbits) with periods ranging from 20 to more than 500 yr. For two double-line spectroscopic binaries with no previous orbits, the individual component masses, using combined astrometric and radial velocity data, have a formal uncertainty of ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ . Adopting published photometry and trigonometric parallaxes, plus our own measurements, we place these objects on an H-R diagram and discuss their evolutionary status. These objects are part of a survey to characterize the binary population of stars in the Southern Hemisphere using the SOAR 4 m telescope+HRCAM at CTIO. Orbital elements are computed using a newly developed Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that delivers maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters, as well as posterior probability density functions that allow us to evaluate the uncertainty of our derived parameters in a robust way. For spectroscopic binaries, using our approach, it is possible to derive a self-consistent parallax for the system from the combined astrometric and radial velocity data (“orbital parallax”), which compares well with the trigonometric parallaxes. We also present a mathematical formalism that allows a dimensionality reduction of the feature space from seven to three search parameters (or from 10 to seven dimensions—including parallax—in the case of spectroscopic binaries with astrometric data), which makes it possible to explore a smaller number of parameters in each case, improving the computational efficiency of our MCMC code. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  18. Enhanced visual acuity with echogenic needles in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block: a randomized, comparative, observer-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbal, B; Choquet, O; Gourari, A; Bouic, N; Massone, A; Biboulet, P; Bringuier, S; Capdevila, X

    2015-04-01

    We prospectively evaluated the effect of insertion angle on the visibility of echogenic and nonechogenic needles in phantoms and in axillary nerve blocks in patients. Conventional and echogenic needles were studied in phantoms at insertion angles of 0-30°, 30-45°, and ≥ 45°. Operators rated comfort and image quality during the procedure and experts blinded to the needle groups randomly analyzed videos for tip and shaft visibility, surrounding tissue visibility, sharpness of the needle surface, and percentage of time with the needle completely visible. Patients scheduled for axillary nerve block were prospectively enrolled in the clinical study. Needle insertion angles were 0-30° for the median nerve approach, 30-45° for the radial nerve, and ≥ 45° for the musculocutaneous nerve. The same needle parameters were analyzed during the procedure and on videos. Physician comfort and image quality were significantly better for echogenic needles for phantoms and patients at 30-45° and ≥ 45° insertion angles. Needle tip and shaft visibility at 30-45° and ≥ 45° insertion angles in phantoms and for the musculocutaneous nerve in patients were significantly improved, as well as the percentage with complete needle visualization during the procedure. Tissue visibility and needle sharpness were significantly superior for conventional needles. There were no differences concerning block parameters and adverse events. Needles with enhanced echogenicity improved physician comfort, image quality, needle visibility, and visualization time of the needle during ultrasound-guided procedures in phantoms and axillary nerve blocks using insertion angles of 30-45° and ≥ 45°.

  19. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense § 4.76 Visual acuity. (a) Examination of visual acuity. Examination of visual acuity must include the central uncorrected and corrected visual acuity for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual acuity. 4.76...

  20. Visual impairment in children with congenital Zika syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liana O; Ventura, Camila V; Lawrence, Linda; van der Linden, Vanessa; van der Linden, Ana; Gois, Adriana L; Cavalcanti, Milena M; Barros, Eveline A; Dias, Natalia C; Berrocal, Audina M; Miller, Marilyn T

    2017-08-01

    To describe the visual impairment associated with ocular and neurological abnormalities in a cohort of children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). This cross-sectional study included infants with microcephaly born in Pernambuco, Brazil, from May to December 2015. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the Zika virus on the cerebrospinal fluid samples was positive for all infants. Clinical evaluation consisted of comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity, visual function assessment, visual developmental milestone, neurologic examination, and neuroimaging. A total of 32 infants (18 males [56%]) were included. Mean age at examination was 5.7 ± 0.9 months (range, 4-7 months). Visual function and visual developmental milestone could not be tested in 1 child (3%). Visual impairment was detected in 32 infants (100%). Retinal and/or optic nerve findings were observed in 14 patients (44%). There was no statistical difference between the patients with ocular findings and those without (P = 0.180). All patients (100%) demonstrated neurological and neuroimaging abnormalities; 3 (9%) presented with late-onset of microcephaly. Children with CZS demonstrated visual impairment regardless of retina and/or optic nerve abnormalities. This finding suggests that cortical/cerebral visual impairment may be the most common cause of blindness identified in children with CZS. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  2. Disposable Visual Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amidon, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    A disposable visual sensor includes a body defining an enclosed chamber, a power source mounted in the camber, an on-off switch mounted on the body and accessible from outside the body, a processor...

  3. EMDialog: bringing information visualization into the museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Uta; Schmidt, Holly; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2008-01-01

    Digital information displays are becoming more common in public spaces such as museums, galleries, and libraries. However, the public nature of these locations requires special considerations concerning the design of information visualization in terms of visual representations and interaction techniques. We discuss the potential for, and challenges of, information visualization in the museum context based on our practical experience with EMDialog, an interactive information presentation that was part of the Emily Carr exhibition at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary. EMDialog visualizes the diverse and multi-faceted discourse about this Canadian artist with the goal to both inform and provoke discussion. It provides a visual environment that allows for exploration of the interplay between two integrated visualizations, one for information access along temporal, and the other along contextual dimensions. We describe the results of an observational study we conducted at the museum that revealed the different ways visitors approached and interacted with EMDialog, as well as how they perceived this form of information presentation in the museum context. Our results include the need to present information in a manner sufficiently attractive to draw attention and the importance of rewarding passive observation as well as both short- and longer term information exploration.

  4. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...... officers, city planners) to support our arguments....

  5. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  6. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  7. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network.

  9. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network. PMID:27441715

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Visualization in Physics FOCUS ON VISUALIZATION IN PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barry C.; Senden, Tim; Springel, Volker

    2008-12-01

    cosmology wherein this (in principle invisible) dark matter dominates the cosmic matter content. The advantages of visualization found for simulated data also hold for real world data as well. With the application of computerized acquisition many scientific disciplines are witnessing exponential growth rates of the volume of accumulated raw data, which often makes it daunting to condense the information into a manageable form, a challenge that can be addressed by modern visualization techniques. Such visualizations are also often an enticing way to communicate scientific results to the general public. This need for visualization is especially true in basic science, with its reliance on a benevolent and interested general public that drives the need for high-quality visualizations. Despite the widespread use of visualization, this technology has suffered from a lack of the unifying influence of shared common experiences. As with any emerging technology practitioners have often independently found solutions to similar problems. It is the aim of this focus issue to celebrate the importance of visualization, report on its growing use by the broad community of physicists, including biophysics, chemical physics, geophysics, astrophysics, and medical physics, and provide an opportunity for the diverse community of scientists using visualization to share work in one issue of a journal that itself is in the vanguard of supporting visualization and multimedia. A remarkable breadth and diversity of visualization in physics is to be found in this issue spanning fundamental aspects of relativity theory to computational fluid dynamics. The topics span length scales that are as small as quantum phenomena to the entire observable Universe. We have been impressed by the quality of the submissions and hope that this snap-shot will introduce, inform, motivate and maybe even help to unify visualization in physics. Readers are also directed to the December issue of Physics World which includes

  11. Asymmetry and symmetry in brain waves from dolphin left and right hemispheres: some observations after anesthesia, during quiescent hanging behavior, and during visual obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S H

    2002-01-01

    Studies of sleep in cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), substantiated by electrophysiological data, are rare with the great majority of observations having been made by one group from Russia. This group employed hard-wired recording with low-noise cables for their EEG observations, whereas our report describes behavioral and EEG observations of dolphin sleep using telemetry. Marked asymmetry of the EEG was observed during behavioral sleep posture. At different times synchronized slow waves appeared in both left and right brain hemispheres concurrently with lower voltage, faster, desynchronized EEG activity in the opposite hemisphere. On the other hand, during one brief period of sleep behavior, sleep-like EEG activity appeared on leads from both hemispheres. When the animal was exposed to a loud sound, it woke with lower voltage, faster, relatively symmetrical, desynchronized EEG activity appearing from both hemispheres. Additionally, the EEG appeared relatively desynchronized and symmetrical between the two hemispheres when the animal was awake during recovery from pentothal-halothane anesthesia as well as during waking periods when one or both of the animal's eyes were covered by an opaque rubber suction cup. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Visualization of JPEG Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Mohamad, Kamaruddin; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    There are a lot of information embedded in JPEG image than just graphics. Visualization of its metadata would benefit digital forensic investigator to view embedded data including corrupted image where no graphics can be displayed in order to assist in evidence collection for cases such as child pornography or steganography. There are already available tools such as metadata readers, editors and extraction tools but mostly focusing on visualizing attribute information of JPEG Exif. However, none have been done to visualize metadata by consolidating markers summary, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in a single program. In this paper, metadata visualization is done by developing a program that able to summarize all existing markers, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in JPEG. The result shows that visualization of metadata helps viewing the hidden information within JPEG more easily.

  13. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 619 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  14. Jeff's Reef Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 607 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  15. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 618 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  16. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 615 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  17. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 614 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  18. Cocoa Beach, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 617 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of from fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance...

  19. Jeff's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 606 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  20. Visual art and visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their weight in gold”. I perceive a metabletic (van den Berg, 1956) parallel to philosophy transforming itself into speculative logic games, and psychology going cognitive by freeing itself from phenomen...

  1. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  2. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  3. Data visualization a guide to visual storytelling for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Data Visualization: A Guide to Visual Storytelling for Libraries is a practical guide to the skills and tools needed to create beautiful and meaningful visual stories through data visualization. Learn how to sift through complex datasets to better understand a variety of metrics, such as trends in user behavior and electronic resource usage, return on investment (ROI) and impact metrics, and learning and reference analytics. Sections include: .Identifying and interpreting datasets for visualization .Tools and technologies for creating meaningful visualizations .Case studies in data visualization and dashboards Understanding and communicating trends from your organization s data is essential. Whether you are looking to make more informed decisions by visualizing organizational data, or to tell the story of your library s impact on your community, this book will give you the tools to make it happen."

  4. Virtual reality visualization of accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.; Papka, M.; DeFanti, T.; Kettunen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the use of the CAVE virtual reality visualization environment as an aid to the design of accelerator magnets. They have modeled an elliptical multipole wiggler magnet being designed for use at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The CAVE environment allows the authors to explore and interact with the 3-D visualization of the magnet. Capabilities include changing the number of periods the magnet displayed, changing the icons used for displaying the magnetic field, and changing the current in the electromagnet and observing the effect on the magnetic field and particle beam trajectory through the field

  5. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    What. This chapter concerns how visual methods and visual materials can support visually oriented, collaborative, and creative learning processes in education. The focus is on facilitation (guiding, teaching) with visual methods in learning processes that are designerly or involve design. Visual...... or professional, to facilitate with visual methods in a critical, reflective, and experimental way. The chapter offers recommendations for facilitating with visual methods to support playful, emergent designerly processes. The chapter also has a critical, situated perspective. Where. This chapter offers case...... challenges are discussed, including supporting difficult group collaborative processes (such as dealing with interpersonal tensions). You will gain an understanding about how and why to work with visual methods and how to develop a dynamic, reflexive facilitation practice. The chapter contains...

  7. Visualization of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Hultquist, Jeff; Bryson, Steve; Kenwright, David; Lane, David; Walatka, Pamela; Clucas, Jean; Watson, Velvin; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific visualization serves the dual purpose of exploration and exposition of the results of numerical simulations of fluid flow. Along with the basic visualization process which transforms source data into images, there are four additional components to a complete visualization system: Source Data Processing, User Interface and Control, Presentation, and Information Management. The requirements imposed by the desired mode of operation (i.e. real-time, interactive, or batch) and the source data have their effect on each of these visualization system components. The special requirements imposed by the wide variety and size of the source data provided by the numerical simulation of fluid flow presents an enormous challenge to the visualization system designer. We describe the visualization system components including specific visualization techniques and how the mode of operation and source data requirements effect the construction of computational fluid dynamics visualization systems.

  8. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  9. Organ visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of selenium-75-labelled cholesterol derivatives for the visualization of the adren in nuclear medicine are outlined. Selenium-75 is a sole gamma emitter; its chemical preparation is described

  10. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. LDAR observations of a developing thunderstorm correlated with field mill, ground strike location, and weather radar data including the first report of the design and capabilities of a new, time-of-arrival Ground-strike Location System (GSLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to observe and measure a thunderstorm prior to, during, and after its development over the Kennedy Space Center was successful. Correlated measurements of airborne field strength, ground-based field strength, LDAR lightning discharge location in the clouds, weather radar percipitation echoes, plus ground strike location with the new KSC Ground Strike Location System (GSLS) were gathered, and reported. This test marks the first operational use of the GSLS System, and this report contains the first report of its design and capabilities.

  12. Average Annual Layer Thickness of the WAIS Divide Ice Core from Visual Stratigraphy, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes ~50 m averaged annual layer thicknesses down to 3403 m depth at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core as observed visually using...

  13. Improving visual skills: II-remote assessment via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Maureen K; Grisham, J David; Wurm, Janice K; Wurm, William C

    2009-02-01

    Even though poor readers often have poor visual skills, such as binocular coordination and oculomotor control, students' visual skills are rarely assessed. Computer assessments have the potential to assist in identifying students whose visual skills are deficient. This study compared assessments made by an Internet-based computer orthoptics program with those of an on-site vision therapist. Students (N = 41) in grades 1 through 8, reading at least 2 levels below grade, were assessed for visual skill dysfunction (including binocular fusion and tracking ability) by a vision therapist at their school in Wisconsin. The therapist determined whether the student had adequate visual skills based on clinical and behavioral observations. A "remote" investigator located in California determined the adequacy of accommodative facility, tracking, and vergence skills in the same students, based on quantitative progress through the modules of an Internet-based computer orthoptics training program during 3 assessment sessions. The on-site therapist made 33 referrals for possible visual skills training (80%). The remote investigator made 25 referrals (61%), all of which were consistent with referrals made by the on-site therapist; thus, no false-positives occurred when using the remote assessment technique. The 8 additional referrals by the therapist were attributed to the ability to observe student behavior during assessment. Remote assessment of visual skills via an Internet orthoptics program may provide a simple means to detect visual skill problems experienced by poor readers.

  14. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Mall

    Full Text Available Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems.

  15. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  16. Assessment of visual disability using visual evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jihoon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9–42 years, 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19–36 years, 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9–71 years, and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Results Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes subjects were significant [y = −0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = −0.072x + 1.22 (−0.072. This resulted in a prediction

  17. Assessment of visual disability using visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jihoon; Oh, Seiyul; Kyung, Sungeun

    2012-08-06

    The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP) to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9-42 years), 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19-36 years), 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9-71 years), and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR) were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR) of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR) of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR) of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes) and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes) subjects were significant [y = -0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR)]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = -0.072x + 1.22 (-0.072). This resulted in a prediction reference of visual acuity associated with malingering vs. real

  18. Distinct acute zones for visual stimuli in different visual tasks in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a sophisticated visual system and exhibits complex visual behaviors. Visual responses, vision processing and higher cognitive processes in Drosophila have been studied extensively. However, little is known about whether the retinal location of visual stimuli can affect fruit fly performance in various visual tasks. We tested the response of wild-type Berlin flies to visual stimuli at several vertical locations. Three paradigms were used in our study: visual operant conditioning, visual object fixation and optomotor response. We observed an acute zone for visual feature memorization in the upper visual field when visual patterns were presented with a black background. However, when a white background was used, the acute zone was in the lower visual field. Similar to visual feature memorization, the best locations for visual object fixation and optomotor response to a single moving stripe were in the lower visual field with a white background and the upper visual field with a black background. The preferred location for the optomotor response to moving gratings was around the equator of the visual field. Our results suggest that different visual processing pathways are involved in different visual tasks and that there is a certain degree of overlap between the pathways for visual feature memorization, visual object fixation and optomotor response.

  19. Design and visualization of synthetic holograms for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škeren, M; Nývlt, M; Svoboda, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a software for the design and visualization of holographic elements containing full scale of visual effects. It enables to simulate an observation of the holographic elements under general conditions including different light sources with various spectral and coherence properties and various geometries of reconstruction. Furthermore, recent technologies offer interesting possibilities for the 3D visualization such as the 3D techniques based on shutter or polarization glasses, anaglyphs, etc. The presented software is compatible with the mentioned techniques and enables an application of the 3D hardware tools for visualization. The software package can be used not only for visualization of the existing designs, but also for a fine tuning of the spatial, kinetic, and color properties of the hologram. Moreover, the holograms containing all types of the 3D effects, general color mixing, kinetic behavior, diffractive cryptograms, etc. can be translated using the software directly to a high resolution micro-structure.

  20. The formation and design of 'The Acute Admission Database'- a database including a prospective, observational cohort of 6279 patients triaged in the Emergency Department in a larger Danish hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Charlotte; Lauritzen, Marlene Mp; Danker, Jakob K

    2012-01-01

    (range 1-123). The proportion of patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit was 1.6% (95% CI 1.2-2.0), 1.8% (95% CI 1.5-2.2) died within 7 days, and 4.2% (95% CI 3.7-4.7) died within 28 days after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges of data registration, we succeeded in creating a database...... outcome. A likely explanation is the difficulty in retrieving all relevant information from one database. The objective of this article was 1) to describe the formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database', and 2) to characterize the cohort included. METHODS: All adult patients triaged...

  1. Music alters visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-04-21

    Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  2. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  3. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  4. 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, B. R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the innovative use of Blender, a 3D graphics package, for astronomical visualization. With a Python API and feature rich interface, Blender lends itself well to many 3D data visualization scenarios including data cube rendering, N-body simulations, catalog displays, and surface maps. We focus on the aspects of the software most useful to astronomers such as visual data exploration, applying data to Blender object constructs, and using graphics processing units (GPUs) for rendering. We share examples from both observational data and theoretical models to illustrate how the software can fit into an astronomer's toolkit.

  5. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  6. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  9. Temperature and Moisture Conditions for Life in the Extreme Arid Region of the Atacama Desert: Four Years of Observations Including the El Niño of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Cáceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-06-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5°C and 16.6°C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9°C, and the minimum was -5.7°C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m-2 in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong föhn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s-1. During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Niño of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  10. New Zealand's Fourth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Including the Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The New Zealand Government is committed to playing its part in the global response to climate change. This Fourth National Communication provides a snapshot of New Zealand's progress with implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This document covers the period from the submission of the Third National Communication in January 2002 through to the end of December 2005. This document also contains New Zealand's Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol. New Zealand's response to climate change has evolved substantially since the Third National Communication was submitted. On 19 December 2002, New Zealand became the 101st nation to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In 2002, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Climate Change Response Act. This Act established a New Zealand climate change registry and corresponding institutional arrangements in accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements. Other achievements are detailed throughout this Fourth National Communication. When the Government introduced its climate change policy package in 2002, it anticipated there would be three reviews of the package not later than 2005, 2007 and 2010. The reviews would be necessary to monitor progress with emissions reductions, assess the effectiveness of policies, and confirm that New Zealand was positioned to meet its commitments. The first of these reviews was commissioned by the Government in mid-2005 and completed by November 2005. The review concluded that some elements of the Government's 2002 climate change policy package should be modified to better position New Zealand to respond to the longer-term challenges of climate change. A key outcome of the policy review was the announcement by the newly elected Government in December 2005 that the previously announced carbon tax would not proceed. In addition, a suite of future work programmes would be required to inform Government

  11. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  12. Information Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Baños, Carlos José; Andreasson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning graphs are one of many ways to visualize information. It is very hard to understand certain type of information when it is presented in text or in tables with a huge amount of numbers. It is easier to present it graphically. People can have a general idea of the information and if it is necessary to see the details, it is possible to have a way to add more information to the graphical display. A graphical visualization is able to compress the information, which represented in text c...

  13. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  14. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  15. Luminous variable stars with naked eye: data reduction including extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The observation of variable stars from urban contexts is hampered by city lights and field of view. Some bright stars like Betelgeuse and Antares are visible from the majority of cities, and during clear nights can be accurately estimated with the naked eye. The reference stars should be bright stars, not necessarily at the same altitude, including the atmospheric extinction in the data reduction. The software Stellarium 0.12.4 calculates well the standard atmospheric extinction with stars at least 10 degrees above the horizon. The accuracy of visual estimations is better than 0.1 magnitudes.

  16. The structure of visual spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; van Doorn, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The “visual space” of an optical observer situated at a single, fixed viewpoint is necessarily very ambiguous. Although the structure of the “visual field” (the lateral dimensions, i.e., the “image”) is well defined, the “depth” dimension has to be inferred from the image on the basis of “monocular

  17. Visualizing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of visualisation and multiple representations in mathematics has been stressed, especially in a context of problem solving. Hanna and Sidoli comment that "Diagrams and other visual representations have long been welcomed as heuristic accompaniments to proof, where they not only facilitate the understanding of theorems and their…

  18. Visual sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-12-01

    We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentation processes: objects fall due to gravity, and aggregate into strata over time. Inspired by this metaphor, data is visually depicted as falling objects using a force model to land on a surface, aggregating into strata over time. In this paper, we discuss how this metaphor addresses the specific challenge of smoothing the transition between incoming and aging data. We describe the metaphor's design space, a toolkit developed to facilitate its implementation, and example applications to a range of case studies. We then explore the generative capabilities of the design space through our toolkit. We finally illustrate creative extensions of the metaphor when applied to real streams of data.

  19. Visual Literacy: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Donald J., Ed.

    Listed are nearly 300 books, articles, and audiovisual materials relating to visual literacy. Listings for written materials include author, title, publisher, and date of publication. Audiovisual listings include title, media type, date of production, and distributor. (EMH)

  20. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention res....... The book explains the TVA model and shows how it accounts for attentional effects observed across all the research areas described. Principles of Visual Attention offers a uniquely integrated view on a central topic in cognitive neuroscience....

  1. Visual Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common disorder of middle-aged and elderly people in which degeneration of the extrapyramidal motor system causes significant movement problems. In some patients, however, there are additional disturbances in sensory systems including loss of the sense of smell and auditory and/or visual problems. This article is a general overview of the visual problems likely to be encountered in PD. Changes in vision in PD may result from alterations in visual acuity, contrast...

  2. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candoussau, F.; Boqueras, M.; Gómez-Bolea, A.

    2007-01-01

     Technical abstract:  New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs...... from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.     ...

  3. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  4. Visual rehabilitation of children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Janssen, N.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2006-01-01

    Visual rehabilitation, consisting of visual stimulation and visual training, is a common practice in the education of children with visual impairments. Ferrell and Muir have stated that scientific research into the effects of visual stimulation and training is ambiguous and that therefore

  5. How do People Make Sense of Unfamiliar Visualizations?: A Grounded Model of Novice's Information Visualization Sensemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Sung-Hee; Hung, Ya-Hsin; Lam, Heidi; Kang, Youn-ah; Yi, Ji Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would like to investigate how people make sense of unfamiliar information visualizations. In order to achieve the research goal, we conducted a qualitative study by observing 13 participants when they endeavored to make sense of three unfamiliar visualizations (i.e., a parallel-coordinates plot, a chord diagram, and a treemap) that they encountered for the first time. We collected data including audio/video record of think-aloud sessions and semi-structured interview; and analyzed the data using the grounded theory method. The primary result of this study is a grounded model of NOvice's information Vlsualization Sensemaking (NOVIS model), which consists of the five major cognitive activities: 1 encountering visualization, 2 constructing a frame, 3 exploring visualization, 4 questioning the frame, and 5 floundering on visualization. We introduce the NOVIS model by explaining the five activities with representative quotes from our participants. We also explore the dynamics in the model. Lastly, we compare with other existing models and share further research directions that arose from our observations.

  6. NCI Visuals Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI Visuals Online contains images from the collections of the National Cancer Institute's Office of Communications and Public Liaison, including general biomedical and science-related images, cancer-specific scientific and patient care-related images, and portraits of directors and staff of the National Cancer Institute.

  7. IDRC Data Visualization Review

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    consultant, and a judge for data visualization competitions. Amanda, and her colleagues have also received several awards for their dynamic work, including top honors at. Malofiej, the largest international infographics competition. This review was commissioned by IDRC's Evalua- tion Unit with assistance from Jacqueline ...

  8. Visualizing Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Reality Capture Technologies, Inc. is a spinoff company from Ames Research Center. Offering e-business solutions for optimizing management, design and production processes, RCT uses visual collaboration environments (VCEs) such as those used to prepare the Mars Pathfinder mission.The product, 4-D Reality Framework, allows multiple users from different locations to manage and share data. The insurance industry is one targeted commercial application for this technology.

  9. Application of Gelatin Sponge Impregnated with a Mixture of 3 Drugs to Intraoperative Nerve Root Block Combined with Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery in the Treatment of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: A Clinical Observation Including 96 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin Peng; Fan, Yong; Liu, Ji Jun; Zhang, Jia Nan; Chang Liu, Shi; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-12-01

    Application of nerve root block is mainly for diagnosis with less application in intraoperative treatment. The aim of this study was to observe clinical and imaging outcomes of application of gelatin sponge impregnated with a mixture of 3 drugs to intraoperative nerve root block combined with robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery in to treat adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. From January 2012 to November 2014, 108 patients with adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis were treated with robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery combined with intraoperative gelatin sponge impregnated with a mixture of 3 drugs. Visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores were used to evaluate postoperative improvement of back and leg pain, and clinical effects were assessed according to the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Imaging was obtained preoperatively, 1 week and 3 months postoperatively, and at the last follow-up. Fusion status, complications, and other outcomes were assessed. Follow-up was complete for 96 patients. Visual analog scale scores of leg and back pain on postoperative days 1-7 were decreased compared with preoperatively. At 1 week postoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and last follow-up, visual analog scale score, Oswestry Disability Index score, coronal Cobb angle, and coronal and sagittal deviated distance decreased significantly (P = 0.000) and lumbar lordosis angle increased (P = 0.000) compared with preoperatively. Improvement rate of Oswestry Disability Index was 81.8% ± 7.4. Fusion rate between vertebral bodies was 92.7%. Application of gelatin sponge impregnated with 3 drugs combined with robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for treatment of adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis is safe and feasible with advantages of good short-term analgesia effect, minimal invasiveness, short length of stay, and good long-term clinical

  10. Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of middle-aged and elderly people in which degeneration of the extrapyramidal motor system causes significant movement problems. In some patients, however, there are additional disturbances in sensory systems including loss of the sense of smell and auditory and/or visual problems. This paper is a general overview of the visual problems likely to be encountered in PD. Changes in vision in PD may result from alterations in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour discrimination, pupil reactivity, eye movements, motion perception, visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speeds. Slower visual processing speeds can also lead to a decline in visual perception especially for rapidly changing visual stimuli. In addition, there may be disturbances of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, and chronic visual hallucinations. Some of the treatments used in PD may also have adverse ocular reactions. The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is useful in evaluating retinal dopamine mechanisms and in monitoring dopamine therapies in PD. If visual problems are present, they can have an important effect on the quality of life of the patient, which can be improved by accurate diagnosis and where possible, correction of such defects.

  11. Visual Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common disorder of middle-aged and elderly people in which degeneration of the extrapyramidal motor system causes significant movement problems. In some patients, however, there are additional disturbances in sensory systems including loss of the sense of smell and auditory and/or visual problems. This paper is a general overview of the visual problems likely to be encountered in PD. Changes in vision in PD may result from alterations in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour discrimination, pupil reactivity, eye movements, motion perception, visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speeds. Slower visual processing speeds can also lead to a decline in visual perception especially for rapidly changing visual stimuli. In addition, there may be disturbances of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, and chronic visual hallucinations. Some of the treatments used in PD may also have adverse ocular reactions. The pattern electroretinogram (PERG is useful in evaluating retinal dopamine mechanisms and in monitoring dopamine therapies in PD. If visual problems are present, they can have an important effect on the quality of life of the patient, which can be improved by accurate diagnosis and where possible, correction of such defects.

  12. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  13. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  14. ICT, Education, and Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Graeme

    2001-01-01

    Reviews developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in the education of children with visual impairments. Highlights include the population of children with visual impairments in the United Kingdom; and World Health Organization classification of disability as a criteria by which the relevance of ICT can be measured.…

  15. Reflective Reconstruction of Visual Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    objects. The teacher used a range of visual materials including video clips, diagrams, student drawings, and student produced 3D models, each endowed with unique material and visual dimensions. The teacher activated those through talking, writing, drawing and working with artifacts and purposefully...... recorded conversations with individual students to be able to reflect on and track the children’s progression in understanding....

  16. Perceptions Concerning Visual Culture Dialogues of Visual Art Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamur, Nuray

    2012-01-01

    The visual art which is commented by the visual art teachers to help processing of the visual culture is important. In this study it is tried to describe the effect of visual culture based on the usual aesthetic experiences to be included in the learning process art education. The action research design, which is a qualitative study, is conducted…

  17. Developing Verbal and Visual Literacy through Experiences in the Visual Arts: 25 Tips for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret H.

    2008-01-01

    Including talk about art--conversing with children about artwork, their own and others'--as a component of visual art activities extends children's experiences in and understanding of visual messages. Johnson discusses practices that help children develop visual and verbal expression through active experiences with the visual arts. She offers 25…

  18. Distributed Systems for Problems in Robust Control and Visual Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tannenbaum, Allen

    2000-01-01

    .... A key application is in controlled active vision, including visual tracking, the control of autonomous vehicles, motion planning, and the utilization of visual information in guidance and control...

  19. Personalized visual aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel, Edward A.; Stahl, Jonathan; Maurer, Natalia; Denker, Alexander; Starr, G. G.

    2014-02-01

    How is visual information linked to aesthetic experience, and what factors determine whether an individual finds a particular visual experience pleasing? We have previously shown that individuals' aesthetic responses are not determined by objective image features but are instead a function of internal, subjective factors that are shaped by a viewers' personal experience. Yet for many classes of stimuli, culturally shared semantic associations give rise to similar aesthetic taste across people. In this paper, we investigated factors that govern whether a set of observers will agree in which images are preferred, or will instead exhibit more "personalized" aesthetic preferences. In a series of experiments, observers were asked to make aesthetic judgments for different categories of visual stimuli that are commonly evaluated in an aesthetic manner (faces, natural landscapes, architecture or artwork). By measuring agreement across observers, this method was able to reveal instances of highly individualistic preferences. We found that observers showed high agreement on their preferences for images of faces and landscapes, but much lower agreement for images of artwork and architecture. In addition, we found higher agreement for heterosexual males making judgments of beautiful female faces than of beautiful male faces. These results suggest that preferences for stimulus categories that carry evolutionary significance (landscapes and faces) come to rely on similar information across individuals, whereas preferences for artifacts of human culture such as architecture and artwork, which have fewer basic-level category distinctions and reduced behavioral relevance, rely on a more personalized set of attributes.

  20. Peripheral Vision of Youths with Low Vision: Motion Perception, Crowding, and Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B.; Lusk, Kelly E.; Corn, Anne L.; Lappin, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. Methods. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10–17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9–18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. Results. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Conclusions. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function. PMID:22836766

  1. Cerebral versus Ocular Visual Impairment: The Impact on Developmental Neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?n, Maria B. C.; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Mart?n-Hern?ndez, Juan; L?pez-Miguel, Alberto; Maldonado, Miguel; Baladr?n, Carlos; Bauer, Corinna M.; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is clinically defined as significant visual dysfunction caused by injury to visual pathways and structures occurring during early perinatal development. Depending on the location and extent of damage, children with CVI often present with a myriad of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity and impaired visual field function. Most striking, however, are impairments in visual processing and attention which have a significant impact on learning,...

  2. A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of visual hallucinations in the human striate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Hina; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Lee, Soo Y; Park, Hyun W; Im, Dongmi; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Chaudhary, Safee U

    2016-11-29

    Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins. An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual cortical areas including the striate, parastriate and peristriate cortex in the occipital lobe of the human brain. 24 healthy subjects were enrolled and four visual patterns including hallucination circle (HCC), hallucination fan (HCF), retinotopy circle (RTC) and retinotopy cross (RTX) were used towards registering their impact in the aforementioned visual related areas. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the significance of difference between induced activations. Multinomial regression and and K-means were used to cluster activation patterns in visual areas of the brain. Significant activations were observed in the visual cortex as a result of stimulus presentation. The responses induced by visual stimuli were resolved to Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19. Activation data clustered into independent and mutually exclusive clusters with HCC registering higher activations as compared to HCF, RTC and RTX. We conclude that small circular objects, in rotation, tend to leave greater hallucinating impressions in the visual region. The similarity between observed activation patterns and those reported in conditions such as epilepsy and visual hallucinations can help elucidate the cortical mechanisms underlying these conditions. Trial Registration 1121_GWJUNG.

  3. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  4. Data visualization methods, data visualization devices, data visualization apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan E.; Crow, Vernon L.; Payne, Deborah A.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Cook, Kristin A.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2015-06-30

    Data visualization methods, data visualization devices, data visualization apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a data visualization method includes accessing a plurality of initial documents at a first moment in time, first processing the initial documents providing processed initial documents, first identifying a plurality of first associations of the initial documents using the processed initial documents, generating a first visualization depicting the first associations, accessing a plurality of additional documents at a second moment in time after the first moment in time, second processing the additional documents providing processed additional documents, second identifying a plurality of second associations of the additional documents and at least some of the initial documents, wherein the second identifying comprises identifying using the processed initial documents and the processed additional documents, and generating a second visualization depicting the second associations.

  5. Using Visual Supports with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Visualizing large-scale uncertainty in astrophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Li, Yinggang; Hanson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Visualization of uncertainty or error in astrophysical data is seldom available in simulations of astronomical phenomena, and yet almost all rendered attributes possess some degree of uncertainty due to observational error. Uncertainties associated with spatial location typically vary signicantly with scale and thus introduce further complexity in the interpretation of a given visualization. This paper introduces effective techniques for visualizing uncertainty in large-scale virtual astrophysical environments. Building upon our previous transparently scalable visualization architecture, we develop tools that enhance the perception and comprehension of uncertainty across wide scale ranges. Our methods include a unified color-coding scheme for representing log-scale distances and percentage errors, an ellipsoid model to represent positional uncertainty, an ellipsoid envelope model to expose trajectory uncertainty, and a magic-glass design supporting the selection of ranges of log-scale distance and uncertainty parameters, as well as an overview mode and a scalable WIM tool for exposing the magnitudes of spatial context and uncertainty.

  7. Different Strokes for Different Folks: Visual Presentation Design between Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Steven R.; Jianu, Radu; Ziemkiewicz, Caroline; Guo, Hua; Laidlaw, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an ethnographic study of design differences in visual presentations between academic disciplines. Characterizing design conventions between users and data domains is an important step in developing hypotheses, tools, and design guidelines for information visualization. In this paper, disciplines are compared at a coarse scale between four groups of fields: social, natural, and formal sciences; and the humanities. Two commonplace presentation types were analyzed: electronic slideshows and whiteboard “chalk talks”. We found design differences in slideshows using two methods – coding and comparing manually-selected features, like charts and diagrams, and an image-based analysis using PCA called eigenslides. In whiteboard talks with controlled topics, we observed design behaviors, including using representations and formalisms from a participant’s own discipline, that suggest authors might benefit from novel assistive tools for designing presentations. Based on these findings, we discuss opportunities for visualization ethnography and human-centered authoring tools for visual information. PMID:26357149

  8. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  9. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  10. Current methods of visual rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    Despite therapeutic progress, many diseases of the eyes and visual pathways still cause persistent visual deficits that make everyday life more difficult in many ways. Rehabilitation aims to compensate for these limitations by optimizing residual vision. The demand for visual rehabilitation will increase markedly in the near future. We summarize the state of the art in visual rehabilitation on the basis of a selective review of the literature, including randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane and PubMed databases as well as Cochrane reviews. We also pay particular attention to studies illustrating an important principle or a clinically established method. Central visual field defects impair reading. Persons with an absolute central scotoma can regain reading ability by eccentric fixation and text magnification. Many kinds of magnifying visual aids are available. Specific reading training can further improve reading speed. Peripheral field defects impair orientation. Persons with a concentric field defect can be helped by tactile aids, such as a cane, and with orientation and mobility training. Persons with hemianopia can benefit from compensatory saccadic training. Suitable rehabilitative measures chosen after the thorough diagnostic evaluation of a visual impairment and analysis of its effects can usually restore reading ability, improve orientation, and thereby enhance the patient's independence and quality of life. As the demand for visual rehabilitation is increasing, steps will need to be taken to make it more widely available. Furthermore, as the scientific basis for visual rehabilitation is currently inadequate in some areas, more research in the field will be needed.

  11. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  12. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogate Parikshit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  13. Clinical and social characteristics associated with reduced visual acuity at presentation in Australian patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from a long-term observational data set. The Fight Retinal Blindness! Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vuong; Daien, Vincent; Guymer, Robyn H; McAllister, Ian L; Morlet, Nigel; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C

    2018-04-01

    Identifying variables that influence presenting visual acuity (VA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is important because it is a strong predictor of long-term outcomes. To assess the clinical and social characteristics associated with low presenting VA in nAMD patients. The present study is a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective, observational database. We identified 3242 treatment-naïve patients from 54 Australian practices in the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry. Age, gender, ethnicity and VA were recorded at the baseline visit. Socio-economic status was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics socio-economic indexes for areas. Association between clinical and socio-economic characteristics with presenting VA was identified. Poor VA (≤35 letters) in the presenting eye was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.33 for patients aged ≥80 years vs. <80 years [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.04, 1.71]), treatment at a public practice (AOR: 1.91 for public vs. private practices [95% CI: 1.46, 2.50]) and intermediate (36-69 letters) VA in the fellow eye (AOR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.47, 0.95] and 0.64 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.85] for poor [≤35 letters] and good [≥70 letters] VA vs. intermediate VA in the fellow eye). Gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status were not independently associated with VA at presentation. Poor presenting vision is detrimental to the long-term outcomes of nAMD. Poor presentation of nAMD in Australia may not be related to socio-economic circumstances, but due to systems of care. Further research is warranted to determine why patients at public practices present with worse vision compared with private practices in Australia. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Learning in repeated visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-07-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embedded among repeated distractors. To make the task more challenging, some participants performed search for multiple targets, increasing demands on visual working memory (WM). Following search, memory for search distractors was assessed using a surprise two-alternative forced choice recognition memory test with semantically matched foils. Search performance was facilitated by distractor object learning and by spatial memory; it was most robust when object identity was consistently tied to spatial locations and weakest (or absent) when object identities were inconsistent across trials. Incidental memory for distractors was better among participants who searched under high WM load, relative to low WM load. These results were observed when visual search included exhaustive-search trials (Experiment 1) or when all trials were self-terminating (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, stimulus exposure was equated across WM load groups by presenting objects in a single-object stream; recognition accuracy was similar to that in Experiments 1 and 2. Together, the results suggest that people incidentally generate memory for nontarget objects encountered during search and that such memory can facilitate search performance.

  16. On visual-vestibular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented regarding visual vestibular interaction, and the results of three studies on the subject are briefly noted. An attempt to put together some of these observations with elementary notions of a visual vestibular interaction program is shown in the form of a flow chart representation of a possible model. This is a nonlinear model in which visual and vestibular influences are linearly weighted when they are in relative agreement but switch to the more believable one when they are in disagreement. A solution to the human space orientation problem is depicted by a schema for optimal subjective orientation based on several sensory modalities.

  17. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  18. Disentangling How the Brain is "Wired" in Cortical (Cerebral) Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabet, Lotfi B; Mayer, D Luisa; Bauer, Corinna M; Wright, Darick; Kran, Barry S

    2017-05-01

    Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) results from perinatal injury to visual processing structures and pathways of the brain and is the most common cause of severe visual impairment or blindness in children in developed countries. Children with CVI display a wide range of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity, impaired visual field function, as well as impairments in higher-order visual processing and attention. Together, these visual impairments can dramatically influence a child's development and well-being. Given the complex neurologic underpinnings of this condition, CVI is often undiagnosed by eye care practitioners. Furthermore, the neurophysiological basis of CVI in relation to observed visual processing deficits remains poorly understood. Here, we present some of the challenges associated with the clinical assessment and management of individuals with CVI. We discuss how advances in brain imaging are likely to help uncover the underlying neurophysiology of this condition. In particular, we demonstrate how structural and functional neuroimaging approaches can help gain insight into abnormalities of white matter connectivity and cortical activation patterns, respectively. Establishing a connection between how changes within the brain relate to visual impairments in CVI will be important for developing effective rehabilitative and education strategies for individuals living with this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural mechanisms underlying sound-induced visual motion perception: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Souta; Higuchi, Satomi; Teramoto, Wataru; Sugita, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present. Here, we investigated brain activity related to the perception of SIVM using a 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Specifically, we focused on the patterns of neural activities in SIVM and visually induced visual apparent motion (VIVM). We observed shared activations in the middle occipital area (V5/hMT), which is thought to be involved in visual motion processing, for SIVM and VIVM. Moreover, as compared to VIVM, SIVM resulted in greater activation in the superior temporal area and dominant functional connectivity between the V5/hMT area and the areas related to auditory and crossmodal motion processing. These findings indicate that similar but partially different neural mechanisms could be involved in auditory-induced and visually-induced motion perception, and neural signals in auditory, visual, and, crossmodal motion processing areas closely and directly interact in the perception of SIVM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual working memory contaminates perception

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Suk; Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that the contents of visual working memory may be maintained within sensory areas early in the visual hierarchy. We tested this possibility using a well-studied motion repulsion phenomenon in which perception of one direction of motion is distorted when another direction of motion is viewed simultaneously. We found that observers misperceived the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they were holding a different mot...

  1. Visual perception and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Medical imaging represents a particularly distinct discipline for image processing since it uniquely depends on the ''expert observer'' and yet models of the human visual system are totally inadequate at the complex level to allow satisfactory prediction of observer response to a given image modification. An illustration of the difficulties in assessing observer performance is shown by a series of optical illustrations which demonstrate that net cognitive behavior is not readily predictable. Although many of these phenomena are often considered as exceptional visual events, the setting of complex images makes it difficult to entirely exclude at least partial operation of these impairments during performance of the diagnostic medical imaging task

  2. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  3. Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.

  4. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool for ocular malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Tarciana de Souza; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Berezovsky, Adriana; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Watanabe, Sung Eun Song; Salomão, Solange Rios

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the contributions of transient pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials in the diagnosis of ocular malingering at a Brazilian university hospital. Adult patients with suspected malingering in one or both eyes were referred for visual evoked potential testing. Data from patients' medical records were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Data analysis included the distance optotype visual acuity based on a ETDRS retro-illuminated chart and the transient pattern-reversal visual evoked potential parameters of latency (milliseconds) and amplitude (microvolts) for the P100 component, using checkerboards with visual subtenses of 15' and 60'. Motivations for malingering were noted. The 20 subjects included 11 (55%) women. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 61 years (mean= 45.05 ± 11.76 years; median= 49 years). In 8 patients (6 women), both eyes exhibited reduced visual acuity with normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters (pure malingerers). The remaining 12 patients (7 men) exhibited reduced vision in only 1 eye, with simulated reduced vision in the contralateral eye (exaggerators). Financial motivation was noted in 18 patients (9 men). Normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters with suspected ocular malingering were observed in a 20 patient cohort. This electrophysiological technique appeared to be useful as a measure of visual pathway integrity in this specific population.

  5. AstroBlend: An astrophysical visualization package for Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present AstroBlend, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, Blender. While Blender has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. AstroBlend combines the three dimensional capabilities of Blender with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, yt, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which includes tutorials, and a gallery of example images and movies, along with links to downloadable data, three dimensional artistic models, and various other resources.

  6. Designing Data Visualizations Representing Informational Relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Data visualization is an efficient and effective medium for communicating large amounts of information, but the design process can often seem like an unexplainable creative endeavor. This concise book aims to demystify the design process by showing you how to use a linear decision-making process to encode your information visually. Delve into different kinds of visualization, including infographics and visual art, and explore the influences at work in each one. Then learn how to apply these concepts to your design process. Learn data visualization classifications, including explanatory, expl

  7. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  8. Visualizing Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations. (i) A sealed "rainbow tube" contains six smaller vessels, each filled with a different brightly colored solution (low entropy). When the tube is inverted, the solutions mix together and react to form an amorphous precipitate (high entropy). The change from low entropy to high entropy is irreversible as long as the tube remains sealed. (ii) When U.S. currency is withdrawn from circulation, intact bills (low entropy) are shredded into small fragments (high entropy). Shredding is quick and easy; the reverse process is clearly nonspontaneous. It is theoretically possible, but it is time-consuming and energy-intensive, to reassemble one bill from a pile that contains fragments of hundreds of bills. We calculate the probability P of drawing pieces of only one specific bill from a mixture containing one pound of bills, each shredded into n fragments. This result can be related to Boltzmann's entropy formula S?=klnW.

  9. PENCAPAIAN SENSE OF DESIGN DALAM PERANCANGAN DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2016-12-01

    , as a mediation place among product, services, even self actualization with social community who became target. The presence of sense on every element in the design will frame the concept of design. Research methods uses a qualitative approach with emphasis on observation and documentation. The analize data uses case study. Creating with sense is appreciation problems, because every action of human involve all five senses. The appreciation through the imagination manifested visually may experience stylized, distortion, and adaptation. But interestingly, designer is able to capture the essence, so the sense be more involved in the creation process. The sense of design is the result of the appreciation that includes creative activity. The creative, expression, perception, character, productive, inventive, innovation, inspiration, and emergentif aspects that present in the overall design concept focused on achieving aesthetic value. The design of visual communications show the sense of the process until the final design. The sense of design is present in every element of the design such as illustration, typography, color, and layout.Keywords : Sense of Design, Element Design, Visual Communication Design

  10. Longterm visual associations affect attentional guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.

    2011-01-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a

  11. Visual dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gregory R; Owsley, Cynthia

    2003-08-01

    The four most common sight-threatening conditions in older adults in North America are cataract, ARM, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Even in their moderate stages, these conditions cause visual sensory impairments and reductions in health-related quality of life, including difficulties in daily tasks and psychosocial problems. Many older adults are free from these conditions, yet still experience a variety of visual perceptual problems resulting from aging-related changes in the optics of the eye and degeneration of the visual neural pathways. These problems consist of impairments in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, temporal sensitivity, motion perception, peripheral visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speed. PD causes a progressive loss of dopaminergic cells predominantly in the retina and possibly in other areas of the visual system. This retinal dopamine deficiency produces selective spatial-temporal abnormalities in retinal ganglion cell function, probably arising from altered receptive field organization in the PD retina. The cortical degeneration characteristics of AD, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques, also are present in the visual cortical areas, especially in the visual association areas. The most prominent electrophysiologic change in AD is a delay in the P2 component of the flash VEP. Deficits in higher-order visual abilities typically are compromised in AD, including problems with visual attention, perceiving structure from motion, visual memory, visual learning, reading, and object and face perception. There have been reports of a visual variant of AD in which these types of visual problems are the initial and most prominent signs of the disease. Visual sensory impairments (e.g., contrast sensitivity or achromatopsia) also have been reported but are believed more reflective of cortical disturbances than of AD-associated optic neuropathy.

  12. Teach yourself visually Mac Mini

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The perfect how-to guide for visual learners Apple?s Mac Mini packs a powerful punch is in a small package, including both HDMI and Thunderbolt ports plus the acclaimed OS X. But if you want to get the very most from all this power and versatility, be sure to get this practical visual guide. With full-color, step-by-step instructions as well as screenshots and illustrations on every page, it clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks rather than burying you in pages of text. Discover helpful visuals and how-tos on the OS, hardware specs, Launchpad, the App Store, multimedia capabilities (such

  13. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the second...... channel of the first camera are capable of imaging anatomy beneath the surface in ultra-violet, visual, or infra-red spectrum. A data processor is configured for computing registration of the first image to the second image to provide visualization of subsurface anatomy during surgical procedures...

  14. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    , however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... on investigating children’s perspectives through participant observation, but also ontological and political ones....

  15. Visual cues for data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rabenhorst, David A.; Gerth, John A.; Kalin, Edward B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a set of visual techniques, based on principles of human perception and cognition, which can help users analyze and develop intuitions about tabular data. Collections of tabular data are widely available, including, for example, multivariate time series data, customer satisfaction data, stock market performance data, multivariate profiles of companies and individuals, and scientific measurements. In our approach, we show how visual cues can help users perform a number of data mining tasks, including identifying correlations and interaction effects, finding clusters and understanding the semantics of cluster membership, identifying anomalies and outliers, and discovering multivariate relationships among variables. These cues are derived from psychological studies on perceptual organization, visual search, perceptual scaling, and color perception. These visual techniques are presented as a complement to the statistical and algorithmic methods more commonly associated with these tasks, and provide an interactive interface for the human analyst.

  16. Reconfigurable Auditory-Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); McClain, Bryan (Inventor); Miller, Joel D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method for visual and audible communication between a central operator and N mobile communicators (N greater than or equal to 2), including an operator transceiver and interface, configured to receive and display, for the operator, visually perceptible and audibly perceptible signals from each of the mobile communicators. The interface (1) presents an audible signal from each communicator as if the audible signal is received from a different location relative to the operator and (2) allows the operator to select, to assign priority to, and to display, the visual signals and the audible signals received from a specified communicator. Each communicator has an associated signal transmitter that is configured to transmit at least one of the visual signals and the audio signal associated with the communicator, where at least one of the signal transmitters includes at least one sensor that senses and transmits a sensor value representing a selected environmental or physiological parameter associated with the communicator.

  17. R Aqr observing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. George Wallerstein (University of Washington) has requested AAVSO coverage of the long period/symbiotic variable R Aquarii beginning immediately in support of high resolution spectroscopic observations planned for 2016 January 19 and 21. Several other astronomers, including Drs. Lee Anne Willson (Iowa State University), Ulisse Munari (INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy), and Fred Walter (Stony Brook University) are studying R Aqr closely and additional spectroscopic and other observations are planned for the near future. R Aqr is both a Mira (M) and a symbiotic (ZAND) - it is a close binary system consisting of a hot star and a late-type star (the Mira), both enveloped in nebulosity. As a result, the very interesting light curve shows not only the Mira pulsation but also complex eclipse behavior as the two stars interact. The period of Mira variation is 387.0 days; the eclipse period is 43.6-44 years. The cause of the eclipse is unknown; several theories h! ave been proposed, including a focused accretion stream, a disk or cloud around the secondary, and a triggered mass loss that produces an opaque cloud. Careful investigation of this upcoming event should help to resolve this question. The last eclipse of R Aqr was in 1978. The next eclipse is predicted for 2022, but may be early. The current behavior of R Aqr suggests that the eclipse, which lasts for several years, may either be beginning or its beginning may be imminent. R Aqr was at minimum in early December 2015 at magnitude V=11.4, and is currently at visual magnitude 11.0. During this phase of the approximately 44-year eclipse cycle, at maximum it may be as bright as V 6.0-6.5 but is not expected to become brighter. Beginning immediately, nightly BVRI CCD and DSLR photometry and visual observations are requested. As R Aqr brightens towards maximum and is in range, PEP observations are also requested. Ongoing spectroscopy over the next several years will be interesting to see as the system

  18. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  19. The visual divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is a playground for visualization. Yet research and technological innovations in visual communication and data visualization do not account for a substantial part of the world's population: vulnerable audiences with low levels of literacy.

  20. Interrelationships between visual-motor integration, visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (4th ed.) (VMI), was used to evaluate visual skills, while the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 evaluated six object control skills. There was a statistical significant (p≤0.01) association between VMI, two object control skills and total score for object control skills. Visual ...

  1. Diagnosing cerebral visual impairment in children with good visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Maria; Dekker, Marjoke; Pilon, Florine; Bals, Irmgard

    2012-06-01

    To identify elements that could facilitate the diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children with good visual acuity in the general ophthalmic clinic. We retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of 30 children with good visual acuity and CVI and compared them with those of 23 children who were referred with a suspicion of CVI, but proved to have a different diagnosis. Clinical characteristics included medical history, MRI findings, visual acuity, crowding ratio (CR), visual field assessment, and the results of ophthalmologic and orthoptic examination. We also evaluated the additional value of a short CVI questionnaire. Eighty-three percent of the children with an abnormal medical history (mainly prematurity and perinatal hypoxia) had CVI, in contrast with none of the children with a normal medical history. Cerebral palsy, visual field defects, and partial optic atrophy only occurred in the CVI group. 41% of the children with CVI had a CR ≥2.0, which may be related to dorsal stream dysfunction. All children with CVI, but also 91% of the children without CVI gave ≥3 affirmative answers on the CVI questionnaire. An abnormal pre- or perinatal medical history is the most important risk factor for CVI in children, and therefore in deciding which children should be referred for further multidisciplinary assessment. Additional symptoms of cerebral damage, i.e., cerebral palsy, visual field defects, partial optic atrophy, and a CR ≥2 may support the diagnosis. CVI questionnaires should not be used for screening purposes as they yield too many false positives.

  2. Moving Observer Support for Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas

    . The thesis discusses the VR-tree, an extension of the R-tree that enables observer relative data extraction. To support incremental observer position relative data extraction the thesis proposes the Volatile Access Structure (VAST). VAST is a main memory structure that caches nodes of the VR-tree. VAST......Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid requirements on database and visualization systems. Systems that visualize huge amounts of data tend to request large amounts of memory resources and heavily use the CPU to process and visualize data. Current systems employ a loosely coupled...

  3. Visual working memory contaminates perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2011-10-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that the contents of visual working memory may be maintained within sensory areas early in the visual hierarchy. We tested this possibility using a well-studied motion repulsion phenomenon in which perception of one direction of motion is distorted when another direction of motion is viewed simultaneously. We found that observers misperceived the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they were holding a different motion direction in visual working memory. Control experiments showed that none of a variety of alternative explanations could account for this repulsion effect induced by working memory. Our findings provide compelling evidence that visual working memory representations directly interact with the same neural mechanisms as those involved in processing basic sensory events.

  4. Association between visual impairment and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Rojas, E Ruthy; Comas, Mercè; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the association between visual impairment (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis) and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery. A cohort of 104 patients aged 60 years and over with bilateral cataract was assessed preoperatively, after first-eye surgery (monocular pseudophakia) and after second-eye surgery (binocular pseudophakia). Partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and linear regression models were calculated. In patients with bilateral cataracts, visual disability was associated with visual acuity (PCC = -0.30) and, to a lesser extent, with contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.16) and stereopsis (PCC = -0.09). In monocular and binocular pseudophakia, visual disability was more strongly associated with stereopsis (PCC = -0.26 monocular and -0.51 binocular) and contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.18 monocular and 0.34 binocular) than with visual acuity (PCC = -0.18 monocular and -0.18 binocular). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis accounted for between 17% and 42% of variance in visual disability. The association of visual impairment with patient-reported visual disability differed at each stage of cataract surgery. Measuring other forms of visual impairment independently from visual acuity, such as contrast sensitivity or stereopsis, could be important in evaluating both needs and outcomes in cataract surgery. More comprehensive assessment of the impact of cataract on patients should include measurement of both visual impairment and visual disability.

  5. Adjustment to acquired vision loss in adults presenting for visual disability certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Aditya; Rohatgi, Jolly; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2017-03-01

    Rehabilitation of the visually disabled depends on how they adjust to loss; understanding contributing factors may help in effective rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess adjustment to acquired vision loss in adults. This observational study, conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology at a tertiary-level teaching hospital, included thirty persons (25-65 years) with visual disability, might contribute to reducing stress and depression.

  6. Data Cube Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.; Gárate, Matías

    2017-06-01

    With the increasing data acquisition rates from observational and computational astrophysics, new tools are needed to study and visualize data. We present a methodology for rendering 3D data cubes using the open-source 3D software Blender. By importing processed observations and numerical simulations through the Voxel Data format, we are able use the Blender interface and Python API to create high-resolution animated visualizations. We review the methods for data import, animation, and camera movement, and present examples of this methodology. The 3D rendering of data cubes gives scientists the ability to create appealing displays that can be used for both scientific presentations as well as public outreach.

  7. Participatory visualization with Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.

  8. Visualizing molecular unidirectional rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    We directly visualize the spatiotemporal evolution of a unidirectional rotating molecular rotational wave packet. Excited by two time-delayed polarization-skewed ultrashort laser pulses, the cigar- or disk-shaped rotational wave packet is impulsively kicked to unidirectionally rotate as a quantum rotor which afterwards disperses and exhibits field-free revivals. The rich dynamics can be coherently controlled by varying the timing or polarization of the excitation laser pulses. The numerical simulations very well reproduce the experimental observations and intuitively revivify the thoroughgoing evolution of the molecular rotational wave packet of unidirectional spin.

  9. Visual discomfort and flicker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Garcia, Jesel; Jiang, Fang; Wilkins, Arnold J; Takeuchi, Tatsuto; Webster, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Flickering lights can be uncomfortable to look at and can induce seizures in observers with photosensitive epilepsy. However, the temporal characteristics contributing to these effects are not fully known. In the spatial domain, one identified source of visual discomfort is when images have Fourier amplitude spectra that deviate from the natural (∼1/frequency, 1/f) statistical characteristics of natural scenes, especially if they contain excess energy at the medium frequencies at which the visual system is most sensitive. We tested for analogous effects in the temporal domain, manipulating both the amplitude and phase spectra of the flicker. Participants judged the relative discomfort of temporal luminance variations in a pair of uniform 17° fields with different temporal modulations. In general, discomfort increased with deviations from natural amplitude spectra, particularly those with excess energy at medium frequencies or biased toward sharper spectra. These ratings of discomfort were also consistent with ratings of how natural the modulations appeared. However, the temporal discomfort judgments were also strongly affected by the phase spectra of the flicker, with fixed vs. random spectra producing very different responses. This was not due to the perceived regularity or predictability of the flicker, but could arise from a number of other potential factors. Our findings suggest that, like spatial patterns, visual discomfort in time-varying patterns depends in part on how similar they are to the amplitude spectra of temporal variations in the natural visual environment, but also point to the critical role of the phase spectrum in the perceived discomfort of flicker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Making Memories: The Development of Long-Term Visual Knowledge in Children with Visual Agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Metitieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2 years and 3.7 years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.

  11. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  13. Designing Visual Character Of Raden Wijaya As Historical Figure In Visual Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Pratama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual character in Visual Novel games have the power to carry messages. Creation of visual characters in historical narratives can also bring cultural meaning. This study examines the creation of Raden Wijaya visual character as a case example in Visual Novel Twist Majapahit which is set in Majapahit kingdom but with manga-style visualization. On the contrary the creation of Raden Wijaya visual character in this study is more trying to accentuate the characteristic of Indonesia. The choice of Raden Wijaya character is based on consideration because it has historically included a major influence in expanding the royal power. The study discussions are elaborated qualitatively with the Social Semiotic approach that analyzes informative functions interactive functions and imaginative functions in visual character design elements. The results of this study show that design elements can build a comprehensive association of meanings so that the creation of visual characters tailored to historical figures has the potential to bring cultural messages.

  14. Joint engagement in infants and its relationship to their visual impairment measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta Alfaro, Andrea; Morash, Valerie S; Lei, Daisy; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Coordination of attention between a social partner and an external focus of shared interest, called joint engagement, is associated with positive developmental outcomes such as better language, socio-emotional, and theory of mind skills in sighted infants. Current measures of joint engagement rely on an infant's visual behaviors, making it difficult to study joint engagement in infants with low or no vision. In a naturalistic observational study, 20 infants with various levels of visual impairments - mean ages: 1.08 years (N=9) and 1.62 years (N=18), were videotaped during 30-min free play sessions with their caregivers. Seven infants were tested at both ages. Videos were coded to determine the percentage of time the dyads participated in joint engagement. Results showed that all visually impaired infants participated in joint engagement, with a significant increase between earlier and later ages. Infants' visual impairment levels were described in terms of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as measured using both visual evoked potential and preferential looking techniques. Of the visual measurements, infants' reduction in contrast sensitivity measured with preferential looking, alone, predicted the infants' percentage of time in joint engagement across ages. Contrary to prior research that exclusively focused on visual acuity, this finding supports the need to include contrast sensitivity measurements in studies with visually impaired infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  16. Visual arts

    OpenAIRE

    Velthuis, O.

    2003-01-01

    A Handbook of Cultural Economics includes over 60 eminently readable and concise articles by 50 expert contributors. This unique Handbook is both highly informative and readable; it covers a wide area of cultural economics and its closely related subjects. While being accessible to any reader with a basic knowledge of economics, it presents a comprehensive study at the fore-front of the field.

  17. Distributed visualization framework architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

    2010-01-01

    An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this

  18. Ivor Horton's beginning visual C++ 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Learn C++ with the best tutorial on the market! Horton's unique tutorial approach and step-by-step guidance have helped over 100,000 novice programmers learn C++. In Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013, Horton not only guides you through the fundamentals of the standard C++ language, but also teaches you how C++ is used in the latest Visual Studio 2013 environment. Visual Studio 2013 includes major changes to the IDE and expanded options for C++ coding. Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013 will teach you the latest techniques to take your Visual C++ coding to an all-new level.C++ langua

  19. Visualization of large scale structure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SubbaRao, M U; Aragon-Calvo, M A; Szalay, A S; Chen, H W; Quashnock, J M; York, D G

    2008-01-01

    We will discuss the challenges of visualizing large cosmological datasets. These include observational issues such as the masks and incomplete nature of the survey volume, cosmological issues such as redshift distortions and the difficulty of visualizing datasets that span cosmological epochs, as well as the inherent visualization challenges in presenting dense three-dimensional (3D) datasets. Two case studies will be presented. The first will feature the identification of filamentary structures in the large scale distribution of galaxies. The second case study will feature visualizations of the correlations between quasar absorption line systems and luminous red galaxies. Finally, we will give an overview of our visualization work-flow which features the use of the open-source 3D modeling program Blender.

  20. Visualization of large scale structure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SubbaRao, M U [Space Visualization Laboratory, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, 1300 S Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Aragon-Calvo, M A; Szalay, A S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chen, H W; Quashnock, J M; York, D G [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: msubbarao@adlerplanetarium.org

    2008-12-15

    We will discuss the challenges of visualizing large cosmological datasets. These include observational issues such as the masks and incomplete nature of the survey volume, cosmological issues such as redshift distortions and the difficulty of visualizing datasets that span cosmological epochs, as well as the inherent visualization challenges in presenting dense three-dimensional (3D) datasets. Two case studies will be presented. The first will feature the identification of filamentary structures in the large scale distribution of galaxies. The second case study will feature visualizations of the correlations between quasar absorption line systems and luminous red galaxies. Finally, we will give an overview of our visualization work-flow which features the use of the open-source 3D modeling program Blender.

  1. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus eAlm

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years and middle-aged adults (50-60 years with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy towards more visually dominated responses.

  2. Visual loss at presentation in children with pseudotumor cerebri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Al-Senawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe visual loss at presentation in children with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC, and discuss mechanisms of visual loss and distinguishing features of pediatric PTC. Materials and Methods: Two children with papilledema and visual complaints were referred for ophthalmic evaluation. Both patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic work-up. Results: Patient 1, an 8-year-old girl, presented with a 2-week history of headache, vomiting, and visual impairment in both eyes. The child had no previous medical history. Patient 2, a 9-year-old boy, experienced sudden loss of vision in both eyes one week prior to presentation, along with severe headache and vomiting. He had undergone a renal transplantation one year back, and his current medications included cyclosporine A (CsA and oral prednisolone. Extensive disc swelling, lipid exudation and retinal thickening in the posterior pole were observed in both patients. Lumbar puncture in both showed elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Both were treated with oral acetazolamide. Patient 1 additionally received intravenous methylprednisolone followed by an oral taper. CsA was stopped in patient 2. PTC and papilledema resolved with above measures in both patients, with partial recovery of visual function. Conclusions: PTC in children may have atypical manifestations. Visual acuity may be compromised acutely due to several factors. Patients with PTC and severe visual loss at presentation mandate an aggressive management approach. Use of intravenous steroids may be considered along with acetazolamide. Despite resolution of PTC, sequelae such as optic atrophy or macular scarring may impede eventual visual recovery. Physicians following patients on CsA need to be aware of the possible neuro-ophthalmic complications of the drug.

  3. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...

  4. Visual Perceptual Learning and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosher, Barbara; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2017-09-15

    Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision. Models, especially computational models, play a key role in behavioral and physiological investigations of the mechanisms of perceptual learning and for understanding, predicting, and optimizing human perceptual processes, learning, and performance. Performance improvements resulting from reweighting or readout of sensory inputs to decision provide a strong theoretical framework for interpreting perceptual learning and transfer that may prove useful in optimizing learning in real-world applications.

  5. The GEANT4 Visualization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J

    2007-01-01

    The Geant4 Visualization System is a multi-driver graphics system designed to serve the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit. It is aimed at the visualization of Geant4 data, primarily detector descriptions and simulated particle trajectories and hits. It can handle a variety of graphical technologies simultaneously and interchangeably, allowing the user to choose the visual representation most appropriate to requirements. It conforms to the low-level Geant4 abstract graphical user interfaces and introduces new abstract classes from which the various drivers are derived and that can be straightforwardly extended, for example, by the addition of a new driver. It makes use of an extendable class library of models and filters for data representation and selection. The Geant4 Visualization System supports a rich set of interactive commands based on the Geant4 command system. It is included in the Geant4 code distribution and maintained and documented like other components of Geant4

  6. Vision In Stroke cohort: Profile overview of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-11-01

    To profile the full range of visual disorders from a large prospective observation study of stroke survivors referred by stroke multidisciplinary teams to orthoptic services with suspected visual problems. Multicenter prospective study undertaken in 20 acute Trust hospitals. Standardized screening/referral forms and investigation forms documented data on referral signs and symptoms plus type and extent of visual impairment. Of 1,345 patients referred with suspected visual impairment, 915 were recruited (59% men; mean age at stroke onset 69 years [SD 14]). Initial visual assessment was at median 22 days post stroke onset. Eight percent had normal visual assessment. Of 92% with confirmed visual impairment, 24% had reduced central visual acuity visual field loss was present in 52%, most commonly homonymous hemianopia. Fifteen percent had visual inattention and 4.6% had other visual perceptual disorders. Overall 84% were visually symptomatic with visual field loss the most common complaint followed by blurred vision, reading difficulty, and diplopia. Treatment options were provided to all with confirmed visual impairment. Targeted advice was most commonly provided along with refraction, prisms, and occlusion. There are a wide range of visual disorders that occur following stroke and, frequently, with visual symptoms. There are equally a wide variety of treatment options available for these individuals. All stroke survivors require screening for visual impairment and warrant referral for specialist assessment and targeted treatment specific to the type of visual impairment.

  7. The role of primary auditory and visual cortices in temporal processing: A tDCS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, G; Grondin, S; Forgione, M; Fracasso, V; Mapelli, D; Stablum, F

    2016-10-15

    Many studies showed that visual stimuli are frequently experienced as shorter than equivalent auditory stimuli. These findings suggest that timing is distributed across many brain areas and that "different clocks" might be involved in temporal processing. The aim of this study is to investigate, with the application of tDCS over V1 and A1, the specific role of primary sensory cortices (either visual or auditory) in temporal processing. Forty-eight University students were included in the study. Twenty-four participants were stimulated over A1 and 24 participants were stimulated over V1. Participants performed time bisection tasks, in the visual and the auditory modalities, involving standard durations lasting 300ms (short) and 900ms (long). When tDCS was delivered over A1, no effect of stimulation was observed on perceived duration but we observed higher temporal variability under anodic stimulation compared to sham and higher variability in the visual compared to the auditory modality. When tDCS was delivered over V1, an under-estimation of perceived duration and higher variability was observed in the visual compared to the auditory modality. Our results showed more variability of visual temporal processing under tDCS stimulation. These results suggest a modality independent role of A1 in temporal processing and a modality specific role of V1 in the processing of temporal intervals in the visual modality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective Classroom Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Penny R.; Dykes, Mary K.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for including students with visual impairments in general education settings. It explains categories of visual impairments and how students with visual impairments learn. Auditory learning and visual learning accommodations are addressed, and checklists for orientation and mobility adaptations, and for classroom…

  9. Visual impairment workshop for sighted students

    OpenAIRE

    Habjan, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The education process based on the inclusion concept enables primary school education close to home to children with visual impairment. Before admission of visual impairment pupil, the school environment and didactic materials are adapted and teachers are provided with additional training. The preparation of sighted peers is often ignored, who form erroneous ideas through observing the adaptations and activities of a visual impairment peer, or adopt prejudices and stereotypical beliefs from ...

  10. A Case Report on Somatoform Disorder: Colorful Visual Hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Afghah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a case of somatoform disorder (not otherwise specified-NOS. Methods: The patient was an eight-year-old boy who complained of anxiety and seeing visual hallucinations of colorful shapes. He was administered ant migraine and antiepileptic drugs. However, no changes were observed. Psychotherapy was started, as well as fluoxetine (20 mg per day. Initial assessments included a behavioral interview, charting of daily activities, and recording visual hallucinations with a description of the patient’s emotional and situational condition during the hallucinations. Results: The patient’s visual hallucinations disappeared completely after two months of treatment. Discussion: Somatoform disorders may respond well to a combination of behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication.

  11. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment. METHODS: Twelve patients with acquired, documented HVFD were eligible to be included. All patients underwent specific vision-targeted, health-related QOL questionnaire and monocular and binocular Goldmann perimetry before commencing prism therapy. Patients were fitted with monocular prisms on the side of the HVFD with the base-in the direction of the field defect creating a peripheral optical exotropia and field expansion. After the treatment period, QOL questionnaires and perimetry were repeated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the treatment group, 10 of whom were included in data analysis. Overall, there was significant improvement within multiple vision-related, QOL functioning parameters, specifically within the domains of general health (p < 0.01), general vision (p < 0.05), distance vision (p < 0.01), peripheral vision (p < 0.05), role difficulties (p < 0.05), dependency (p < 0.05), and social functioning (p < 0.05). Visual field expansion was shown when measured monocularly and binocularly during the study period in comparison with pretreatment baselines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HVFD demonstrate decreased QOL. Monocular sector prisms can improve the QOL and expand the visual field in these patients.

  12. Handbook of visual communications

    CERN Document Server

    Hang, Hseuh-Ming

    1995-01-01

    Handbook of Visual Communications explores the latest developments in the field, such as model-based image coding, and provides readers with insight into possible future developments.Key Features* Displays comprehensive coverage from fundamental theory to international standards and VLSI design* Includes 518 pages of contributions from well-known experts* [please keep this feature current with the page count]* Presents state-of-the-art knowledge--the most up-to-date and accurate information on various topics in the field* Provides an extensive overview of international standards for industrial

  13. Immersive Visual Data Analysis For Geoscience Using Commodity VR Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Immersive visualization using virtual reality (VR) display technology offers tremendous benefits for the visual analysis of complex three-dimensional data like those commonly obtained from geophysical and geological observations and models. Unlike "traditional" visualization, which has to project 3D data onto a 2D screen for display, VR can side-step this projection and display 3D data directly, in a pseudo-holographic (head-tracked stereoscopic) form, and does therefore not suffer the distortions of relative positions, sizes, distances, and angles that are inherent in 2D projection. As a result, researchers can apply their spatial reasoning skills to virtual data in the same way they can to real objects or environments. The UC Davis W.M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES, http://keckcaves.org) has been developing VR methods for data analysis since 2005, but the high cost of VR displays has been preventing large-scale deployment and adoption of KeckCAVES technology. The recent emergence of high-quality commodity VR, spearheaded by the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive, has fundamentally changed the field. With KeckCAVES' foundational VR operating system, Vrui, now running natively on the HTC Vive, all KeckCAVES visualization software, including 3D Visualizer, LiDAR Viewer, Crusta, Nanotech Construction Kit, and ProtoShop, are now available to small labs, single researchers, and even home users. LiDAR Viewer and Crusta have been used for rapid response to geologic events including earthquakes and landslides, to visualize the impacts of sealevel rise, to investigate reconstructed paleooceanographic masses, and for exploration of the surface of Mars. The Nanotech Construction Kit is being used to explore the phases of carbon in Earth's deep interior, while ProtoShop can be used to construct and investigate protein structures.

  14. A Geometric Approach to Visualization of Variability in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Weiyi

    2016-12-19

    We propose a new method for the construction and visualization of boxplot-type displays for functional data. We use a recent functional data analysis framework, based on a representation of functions called square-root slope functions, to decompose observed variation in functional data into three main components: amplitude, phase, and vertical translation. We then construct separate displays for each component, using the geometry and metric of each representation space, based on a novel definition of the median, the two quartiles, and extreme observations. The outlyingness of functional data is a very complex concept. Thus, we propose to identify outliers based on any of the three main components after decomposition. We provide a variety of visualization tools for the proposed boxplot-type displays including surface plots. We evaluate the proposed method using extensive simulations and then focus our attention on three real data applications including exploratory data analysis of sea surface temperature functions, electrocardiogram functions and growth curves.

  15. Screening methods for post-stroke visual impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kerry Louise; Hepworth, Lauren Rachel; Rowe, Fiona

    2017-12-01

    To provide a systematic overview of the various tools available to screen for post-stroke visual impairment. A review of the literature was conducted including randomised controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, systematic reviews and retrospective medical note reviews. All languages were included and translation was obtained. Participants included adults ≥18 years old diagnosed with a visual impairment as a direct cause of a stroke. We searched a broad range of scholarly online resources and hand-searched articles registers of published, unpublished and on-going trials. Search terms included a variety of MESH terms and alternatives in relation to stroke and visual conditions. Study selection was performed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the STROBE, GRACE and PRISMA statements. A total of 25 articles (n = 2924) were included in this review. Articles appraised reported on tools screening solely for visual impairments or for general post-stroke disabilities inclusive of vision. The majority of identified tools screen for visual perception including visual neglect (VN), with few screening for visual acuity (VA), visual field (VF) loss or ocular motility (OM) defects. Six articles reported on nine screening tools which combined visual screening assessment alongside screening for general stroke disabilities. Of these, three included screening for VA; three screened for VF loss; three screened for OM defects and all screened for VN. Two tools screened for all visual impairments. A further 19 articles were found which reported on individual vision screening tests in stroke populations; two for VF loss; 11 for VN and six for other visual perceptual defects. Most tools cannot accurately account for those with aphasia or communicative deficits, which are common problems following a stroke. There is currently no standardised visual screening tool which can accurately

  16. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave...... or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  17. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  18. Visual Processing Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Older adults commonly report difficulties in visual tasks of everyday living that involve visual clutter, secondary task demands, and time sensitive responses. These difficulties often cannot be attributed to visual sensory impairment. Techniques for measuring visual processing speed under divided attention conditions and among visual distractors have been developed and have established construct validity in that those older adults performing poorly in these tests are more likely to exhibit d...

  19. Automated visual inspection of textile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1997-01-01

    and structure of the horizontal threads and an observation model that incorporates knowledge about the visual appearance of the threads given their position and structure. Using this model the horizontal threads are located. Features are calculated from the located threads to identify the defects. To go from...

  20. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization is the process of representing data, information, and knowledge in a visual form to support the tasks of exploration, confirmation, presentation, and understanding. This book is designed as a textbook for students, researchers, analysts, professionals, and designers of visualization techniques, tools, and systems. It covers the full spectrum of the field, including mathematical and analytical aspects, ranging from its foundations to human visual perception; from coded algorithms for different types of data, information and tasks to the design and evaluation of new visualization techniques. Sample programs are provided as starting points for building one's own visualization tools. Numerous data sets have been made available that highlight different application areas and allow readers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different visualization methods. Exercises, programming projects, and related readings are given for each chapter. The book concludes with an examination of several existin...

  1. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  2. Negative emotion boosts quality of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Negative emotion impacts a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory (WM). The present study investigated whether negative emotion modulated WM capacity (quantity) or resolution (quality), 2 independent limits on WM storage. In Experiment 1, observers tried to remember several colors over 1-s delay and then recalled the color of a randomly picked memory item by clicking a best-matching color on a continuous color wheel. On each trial, before the visual WM task, 1 of 3 emotion conditions (negative, neutral, or positive) was induced by having observers to rate the valence of an International Affective Picture System image. Visual WM under negative emotion showed enhanced resolution compared with neutral and positive conditions, whereas the number of retained representations was comparable across the 3 emotion conditions. These effects were generalized to closed-contour shapes in Experiment 2. To isolate the locus of these effects, Experiment 3 adopted an iconic memory version of the color recall task by eliminating the 1-s retention interval. No significant change in the quantity or quality of iconic memory was observed, suggesting that the resolution effects in the first 2 experiments were critically dependent on the need to retain memory representations over a short period of time. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotion selectively boosts visual WM quality, supporting the dissociable nature quantitative and qualitative aspects of visual WM representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Influence of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive error on visual impairment in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fabio H; Corrente, José E; Opromolla, Paula; Schellini, Silvana A

    2014-06-25

    The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of blindness and visual impairment are widely based on best-corrected visual acuity excluding uncorrected refractive errors (URE) as a visual impairment cause. Recently, URE was included as a cause of visual impairment, thus emphasizing the burden of visual impairment due to refractive error (RE) worldwide is substantially higher. The purpose of the present study is to determine the reversal of visual impairment and blindness in the population correcting RE and possible associations between RE and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the western region of state of São Paulo, using systematic and random sampling of households between March 2004 and July 2005. Individuals aged more than 1 year old were included and were evaluated for demographic data, eye complaints, history, and eye exam, including no corrected visual acuity (NCVA), best corrected vision acuity (BCVA), automatic and manual refractive examination. The definition adopted for URE was applied to individuals with NCVA > 0.15 logMAR and BCVA ≤ 0.15 logMAR after refractive correction and unmet refractive error (UREN), individuals who had visual impairment or blindness (NCVA > 0.5 logMAR) and BCVA ≤ 0.5 logMAR after optical correction. A total of 70.2% of subjects had normal NCVA. URE was detected in 13.8%. Prevalence of 4.6% of optically reversible low vision and 1.8% of blindness reversible by optical correction were found. UREN was detected in 6.5% of individuals, more frequently observed in women over the age of 50 and in higher RE carriers. Visual impairment related to eye diseases is not reversible with spectacles. Using multivariate analysis, associations between URE and UREN with regard to sex, age and RE was observed. RE is an important cause of reversible blindness and low vision in the Brazilian population.

  4. Modeling Visual Symptoms and Visual Skills to Measure Functional Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, M. K.; Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Massof, R. W.

    2016-11-01

    Obtaining a clear image of the world depends on good eye coordination (“binocular vision”). Yet no standard exists by which to determine a threshold for good vs poor binocular vision, as exists for the eye chart and visual acuity. We asked whether data on the signs and symptoms related to binocular vision are sufficiently consistent with children's self-reported visual symptoms to substantiate a construct model of Functional Binocular Vision (FBV), and then whether that model can be used to aggregate clinical and survey observations into a meaningful diagnostic measure. Data on visual symptoms from 1,100 children attending school in Los Angeles were obtained using the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS); and for more than 300 students in that sample, 35 additional measures were taken, including acuity, cover test near and far, near point of convergence, near point of accommodation, accommodative facility, vergence ranges, tracking ability, and oral reading fluency. A preliminary analysis of data from the 15-item, 5-category CISS and 15 clinical variables from 103 grade school students who reported convergence problems (CISS scores of 16 or higher) suggests that the clinical and survey observations will be optimally combined in a multidimensional model.

  5. Visualizing Structure and Dynamics of Disaccharide Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, J. F.; Beckham, G. T.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of several solvent models on the conformational properties and dynamics of disaccharides such as cellobiose and lactose. Significant variation in timescale for large scale conformational transformations are observed. Molecular dynamics simulation provides enough detail to enable insight through visualization of multidimensional data sets. We present a new way to visualize conformational space for disaccharides with Ramachandran plots.

  6. The Use of Visual Arts as a Window to Diagnosing Medical Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2016-08-01

    Observation is a key step preceding diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. Careful patient observation is a skill that is learned but rarely explicitly taught. Furthermore, proper clinical observation requires more than a glance; it requires attention to detail. In medical school, the art of learning to look can be taught using the medical humanities and especially visual arts such as paintings and film. Research shows that such training improves not only observation skills but also teamwork, listening skills, and reflective and analytical thinking. Overall, the use of visual arts in medical school curricula can build visual literacy: the capacity to identify and analyze facial features, emotions, and general bodily presentations, including contextual features such as clothing, hair, and body art. With the ability to formulate and convey a detailed "picture" of the patient, clinicians can integrate aesthetic and clinical knowledge, helping facilitate the diagnosing of medical pathologies. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  7. [Visual dependence after recent stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, I; Derighetti, F; Gellez-Leman, M-C; Bradaï, N; Yelnik, A

    2006-05-01

    After chronic stroke, inability to use pertinent somatosensory or vestibular information have been described. The aim of the study was to determine whether visual dependence occurred early after stroke before rehabilitation. Thirty patients with recent hemiplegia (16 right and 14 left hemispheric stroke) performed the rod and frame test (RFT). Patients were asked to adjust the rod to the vertical position under 3 conditions: basically, with a frame tilted 18 degrees to the right and then with the frame tilted to the left. Bias in each condition (mean, SD) was recorded and compared to adjustments of the rod by 23 controls. Motor control, sensibility, functional level (functional independence measure), age, neglect, and then balance by the postural assessment scale for stroke were assessed. Fifty-six per cent (17/30) of patients but only 26% of controls were influenced by the tilt of the frame on the 2 sides (visual dependence). No correlation was found between visual dependence and the characteristics of the patients. Many patients with recent hemiplegia seem to rely on visual input. The mechanisms of such visual dependence are discussed. Rehabilitation programs should take into account the possible impairment of sensory organisation and should include exercises to be performed under visual disturbances.

  8. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; Isenberg, P; Isenberg, T; Dykes, J; Boukhelifa, N; Slingsby, A

    2012-12-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These primitives allow higher-level graphical features such as bar charts, line charts, treemaps and node-link diagrams to be drawn in a sketchy style with a specified degree of sketchiness. The framework is designed to be easily integrated into existing visualization implementations with minimal programming modification or design effort. We show examples of use for statistical graphics, conveying spatial imprecision and for enhancing aesthetic and narrative qualities of visualization. We evaluate user perception of sketchiness of areal features through a series of stimulus-response tests in order to assess users' ability to place sketchiness on a ratio scale, and to estimate area. Results suggest relative area judgment is compromised by sketchy rendering and that its influence is dependent on the shape being rendered. They show that degree of sketchiness may be judged on an ordinal scale but that its judgement varies strongly between individuals. We evaluate higher-level impacts of sketchiness through user testing of scenarios that encourage user engagement with data visualization and willingness to critique visualization design. Results suggest that where a visualization is clearly sketchy, engagement may be increased and that attitudes to participating in visualization annotation are more positive. The results of our work have implications for effective information visualization design that go beyond the traditional role of sketching as a tool for prototyping or its use for an indication of general uncertainty.

  9. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  10. A link between visual disambiguation and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Kersten, Daniel

    2010-11-10

    Sensory information in the retinal image is typically too ambiguous to support visual object recognition by itself. Theories of visual disambiguation posit that to disambiguate, and thus interpret, the incoming images, the visual system must integrate the sensory information with previous knowledge of the visual world. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of human subjects, we have found evidence for functional specialization for storing disambiguating information in memory versus interpreting incoming ambiguous images. Subjects viewed two-tone, "Mooney" images, which are typically ambiguous when seen for the first time but are quickly disambiguated after viewing the corresponding unambiguous color images. Activity in one set of regions, including a region in the medial parietal cortex previously reported to play a key role in Mooney image disambiguation, closely reflected memory for previously seen color images but not the subsequent disambiguation of Mooney images. A second set of regions, including the superior temporal sulcus, showed the opposite pattern, in that their responses closely reflected the subjects' percepts of the disambiguated Mooney images on a stimulus-to-stimulus basis but not the memory of the corresponding color images. Functional connectivity between the two sets of regions was stronger during those trials in which the disambiguated percept was stronger. This functional interaction between brain regions that specialize in storing disambiguating information in memory versus interpreting incoming ambiguous images may represent a general mechanism by which previous knowledge disambiguates visual sensory information.

  11. Visual complications in diabetes mellitus: beyond retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Petropoulos, I N; Ponirakis, G; Malik, R A

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetes mellitus; however, other causes of visual impairment/loss include other retinal and non-retinal visual problems, including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and cataracts. Additionally, when a person with diabetes complains of visual disturbance despite a visual acuity of 6/6, abnormalities in refraction, contrast sensitivity, straylight and amplitude of accommodation should be considered. We review and highlight these visual problems for physicians who manage people with diabetes to ensure timely referral and treatment to limit visual disability, which can have a significant impact on daily living, especially for those participating in sports and driving. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  12. Grid-based Visualization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaux, M.; Tangmunarunkit, H.; Kesselman, C.

    2003-12-01

    Advances in science and engineering have put high demands on tools for high-performance large-scale visual data exploration and analysis. For example, earthquake scientists can now study earthquake phenomena from first principle physics-based simulations. These simulations can generate large amounts of data, possibly high spatial resolution, and long time series. Single-system visualization software running on commodity machines cannot scale up to the large amounts of data generated by these simulations. To address this problem, we propose a flexible and extensible Grid-based visualization framework for time-critical, interactively controlled visual browsing of spatially and temporally large datasets in a Grid environment. Our framework leverages Grid resources for scalable computation and data storage to maintain performance and interactivity with large visualization jobs. Our framework utilizes Globus Toolkit 2.4 components for security (i.e., GSI), resource allocation and management (i.e., DUROC, GRAM) and communication (i.e., Globus-IO) to couple commodity desktops with remote, scalable storage and computational resources in a Grid for interactive data exploration. There are two major components in this framework---Grid Data Transport (GDT) and the Grid Visualization Utility (GVU). GDT provides libraries for performing parallel data filtering and parallel data exchange among Grid resources. GDT allows arbitrary data filtering to be integrated into the system. It also facilitates multi-tiered pipeline topology construction of compute resources and displays. In addition to scientific visualization applications, GDT can be used to support other applications that require parallel processing and parallel transfer of partial ordered independent files, such as file-set transfer. On top of GDT, we have developed the Grid Visualization Utility (GVU), which is designed to assist visualization dataset management, including file formatting, data transport and automatic

  13. PROBLEMS WRITING FROM DICTATION FOR BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ševala Tulumović; Branka Eškirović; Izeta Husić-Đuzić

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this research was to get insight into mistakes that occur while blind and visually impaired students, and students with no visual disabilities, when writing by dictation. Respondents sample was consisted of three groups of students: blind (N = 51), visually impaired (N = 42) and students with no visual disabilities (N = 123). Respondents sample included students from first to fourth grade of elementary schools in Tuzla Canton as well as blind and visually impaired students ...

  14. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  15. Interactive visual supports for children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Gillian R.; Hirano, Sen; Marcu, Gabriela; Monibi, Mohamad; Nguyen, David H.; Yeganyan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Interventions to support children with autism often include the use of visual supports, which are cognitive tools to enable learning and the production of language. Although visual supports are effective in helping to diminish many of the challenges of autism, they are difficult and time-consuming to create, distribute, and use. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study focused on uncovering design guidelines for interactive visual supports that would address the many chall...

  16. Creating Effective Data Visualizations - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In this course I aim to give an overview of data visualisation as a field, including many of the important theoretical groundings in data visualization. We will explore the different ways of representing visual information, and the strengths/weaknesses of those approaches. Using real-world case studies, I will demonstrate techniques and best practices for visualizing complex multi-dimensional data common to high energy physics and other fields.

  17. Creating Effective Data Visualizations - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In this course I aim to give an overview of data visualisation as a field, including many of the important theoretical groundings in data visualization. We will explore the different ways of representing visual information, and the strengths/weaknesses of those approaches. Using real-world case studies, I will demonstrate techniques and best practices for visualizing complex multi-dimensional data common to high energy physics and other fields.

  18. Visual Analytics for Heterogeneous Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Yu, L.; Zhu, F.; Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.; Jiang, H.; Yu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience data obtained from diverse sources have been routinely leveraged by scientists to study various phenomena. The principal data sources include observations and model simulation outputs. These data are characterized by spatiotemporal heterogeneity originated from different instrument design specifications and/or computational model requirements used in data generation processes. Such inherent heterogeneity poses several challenges in exploring and analyzing geoscience data. First, scientists often wish to identify features or patterns co-located among multiple data sources to derive and validate certain hypotheses. Heterogeneous data make it a tedious task to search such features in dissimilar datasets. Second, features of geoscience data are typically multivariate. It is challenging to tackle the high dimensionality of geoscience data and explore the relations among multiple variables in a scalable fashion. Third, there is a lack of transparency in traditional automated approaches, such as feature detection or clustering, in that scientists cannot intuitively interact with their analysis processes and interpret results. To address these issues, we present a new scalable approach that can assist scientists in analyzing voluminous and diverse geoscience data. We expose a high-level query interface that allows users to easily express their customized queries to search features of interest across multiple heterogeneous datasets. For identified features, we develop a visualization interface that enables interactive exploration and analytics in a linked-view manner. Specific visualization techniques such as scatter plots to parallel coordinates are employed in each view to allow users to explore various aspects of features. Different views are linked and refreshed according to user interactions in any individual view. In such a manner, a user can interactively and iteratively gain understanding into the data through a variety of visual analytics operations. We

  19. Visual Quality Assessment of Posterior Capsule Opacification Using Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate intraocular scattering in eyes with posterior capsule opacification by means of an objective scatter index (OSI obtained from double-pass images of optical quality assessment system (OQAS TM II and to determine the indication for laser capsulotomy when patients report visual disturbances without decreased visual acuity. Methods. In this prospective, observational, and nonconsecutive case series study, a total of 32 eyes of 29 patients are diagnosed with posterior capsule opacification after age-associated cataract were analyzed. Patient examination included age, the period after cataract surgery, logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and OSI. Results. We found a significant decrease in the BCVA and increase in the OSI with the development of posterior capsule opacification. The decrease of BCVA was statistically correlated with the increase of OSI (r=0.812, P<0.01. In patients who reported visual disturbances without decreased visual acuity, OSI decreased to <1.3 and subjective symptoms were resolved in all cases although there was no significant improvement in visual acuity after laser capsulotomy. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that OSI is also a useful parameter for objectively evaluating posterior capsule opacification. OSI may help predict laser capsulotomy in patients who report visual disturbances without decreased visual acuity.

  20. GABA predicts visual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-10-06

    Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A generalized 3D framework for visualization of planetary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K. W.; De Wolfe, A. W.; Putnam, B.; Lindholm, D. M.; Nguyen, D.

    2016-12-01

    As the volume and variety of data returned from planetary exploration missions continues to expand, new tools and technologies are needed to explore the data and answer questions about the formation and evolution of the solar system. We have developed a 3D visualization framework that enables the exploration of planetary data from multiple instruments on the MAVEN mission to Mars. This framework not only provides the opportunity for cross-instrument visualization, but is extended to include model data as well, helping to bridge the gap between theory and observation. This is made possible through the use of new web technologies, namely LATIS, a data server that can stream data and spacecraft ephemerides to a web browser, and Cesium, a Javascript library for 3D globes. The common visualization framework we have developed is flexible and modular so that it can easily be adapted for additional missions. In addition to demonstrating the combined data and modeling capabilities of the system for the MAVEN mission, we will display the first ever near real-time `QuickLook', interactive, 4D data visualization for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS). In this application, data from all four spacecraft can be manipulated and visualized as soon as the data is ingested into the MMS Science Data Center, less than one day after collection.

  2. Seeing it my way: living with childhood onset visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, V; Hundt, G Lewando; Keeley, S; Rahi, J S

    2015-03-01

    Although the significant impact of visual disability in childhood has been widely recognized, children's own perspectives of living with a visual impairment have not been considered. We report the experiences of visually impaired (VI) children and young people aged 10-15 years about growing up with impaired sight. The participants were 32 VI children and young people, aged 10-15 years [visual acuity logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) worse than 0.51] recruited through National Health Service (NHS) paediatric ophthalmology and developmental vision clinics and 11 VI pupils aged 12-17 attending a specialist school for pupils with disabilities. Individual semi-structured interviews with participants captured their experiences of living with a visual impairment. A child-centred interview topic guide was developed from a literature review, observations at ophthalmology clinics, consultation with health and education professionals working with VI children and young people, and interviews and a focus group with VI pupils from the specialist school. Collaborative qualitative thematic analysis by three researchers identified emergent themes. NVivo software was used for coding the data. Analysis identified six themes concerning living with a visual impairment: (i) social relationships, participation and acceptance; (ii) independence and autonomy; (iii) psychological and emotional well-being; (iv) aspirations and concerns about the future; (v) functioning - home, school and leisure; and (vi) treatment of eye condition. Key issues included: the importance of family and peer support; balancing independence, support and safety; the emotional burden and adjustment of living with a disability; concerns about education and job prospects in the future; functional restrictions and limitations; and ongoing management of the eye condition. The findings offer insights into the complex realities of living with visual impairment. They provide the basis for development of

  3. Visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rimona S.; Schrag, Anette E.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Lees, Andrew J.; Morris, Huw R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease have a number of specific visual disturbances. These include changes in colour vision and contrast sensitivity and difficulties with complex visual tasks such as mental rotation and emotion recognition. We review changes in visual function at each stage of visual processing from retinal deficits, including contrast sensitivity and colour vision deficits to higher cortical processing impairments such as object and motion processing and neglect. We consider changes in visual function in patients with common Parkinson’s disease-associated genetic mutations including GBA and LRRK2. We discuss the association between visual deficits and clinical features of Parkinson’s disease such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder and the postural instability and gait disorder phenotype. We review the link between abnormal visual function and visual hallucinations, considering current models for mechanisms of visual hallucinations. Finally, we discuss the role of visuo-perceptual testing as a biomarker of disease and predictor of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27412389

  4. Storyline Visualizations of Eye Tracking of Movie Viewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, John T.; Arendt, Dustin L.; Blaha, Leslie M.

    2016-12-16

    Storyline visualizations offer an approach that promises to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of individual observers and simultaneously illustrate emerging group behaviors. We develop a visual analytics approach to parsing, aligning, and clustering fixation sequences from eye tracking data. Visualization of the results captures the similarities and differences across a group of observers performing a common task. We apply our storyline approach to visualize gaze patterns of people watching dynamic movie clips. Storylines mitigate some of the shortcomings of existent spatio-temporal visualization techniques and, importantly, continue to highlight individual observer behavioral dynamics.

  5. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  6. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Singhal

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  7. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  8. Effects of auditory vection speed and directional congruence on perceptions of visual vection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Isabella Alexis

    Spatial disorientation is a major contributor to aircraft mishaps. One potential contributing factor is vection, an illusion of self-motion. Although vection is commonly thought of as a visual illusion, it can also be produced through audition. The purpose of the current experiment was to explore interactions between conflicting visual and auditory vection cues, specifically with regard to the speed and direction of rotation. The ultimate goal was to explore the extent to which aural vection could diminish or enhance the perception of visual vection. The study used a 3 x 2 within-groups factorial design. Participants were exposed to three levels of aural rotation velocity (slower, matched, and faster, relative to visual rotation speed) and two levels of aural rotational congruence (congruent or incongruent rotation) including two control conditions (visual and aural-only). Dependent measures included vection onset time, vection direction judgements, subjective vection strength ratings, vection speed ratings, and horizontal nystagmus frequency. Subjective responses to motion were assessed pre and post treatment, and oculomotor responses were assessed before, during, and following exposure to circular vection. The results revealed a significant effect of stimulus condition on vection strength. Specifically, directionally-congruent aural-visual vection resulted in significantly stronger vection than visual and aural vection alone. Perceptions of directionally-congruent aural-visual vection were slightly stronger vection than directionally-incongruent aural-visual vection, but not significantly so. No significant effects of aural rotation velocity on vection strength were observed. The results suggest directionally-incongruent aural vection could be used as a countermeasure for visual vection and directionally-congruent aural vection could be used to improve vection in virtual environments, provided further research is done.

  9. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  10. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  11. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  12. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ...

  13. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  14. The Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  15. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  16. Visual Control of Locomotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loomis, Jack M; Beall, Andrew C

    2005-01-01

    The accomplishments were threefold. First, a software tool for rendering virtual environments was developed, a tool useful for other researchers interested in visual perception and visual control of action...

  17. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...

  18. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  19. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  20. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, Jo; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Dykes, Jason; Boukhelifa, Nadia; Slingsby, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These

  1. Preparatory attention in visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battistoni, E.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    2017-01-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a

  2. Preparatory attention in visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battistoni, E.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a

  3. Neurophysiology of visual aura in migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Visual processing in migraine has been targeted because the visual symptoms that are commonly associated with attack, either in the form of aura or other more subtle symptoms, indicate that the visual pathways are involved in migrainous pathophysiology. The visual aura of the migraine attack has been explained by the cortical spreading depression (CSD) of Leao, neuroelectric event beginning in the occipital cortex and propagating into contiguous brain region. Clinical observations suggest that hyperexcitability occurs not only during the attack, typically in the form of photophobia, but also between attacks. Numerous human neuroimaging, neurophysiological and psychophysical studies have identified differences in cortical visual processing in migraine. The possibility of imaging the typical visual aura with BOLD functional MRI has revealed multiple neurovascular events in the occipital cortex within a single attack that closely resemble CSD. As transient synchronized neuronal excitation precedes CSD, changes in cortical excitability underlie the migraine attack. Independent evidence for altered neuronal excitability in migraineurs between attacks emerges from visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), recordings of cortical potentials and psychophysics. Recently, both TMS and psychophysical studies measuring visual performance in migraineurs have used measures which presumably measure primary visual (V1) and visual association cortex. Our VEP and blink reflex study showed that migraine patients exhibiting allodynia might show central sensitization of braistem trigeminal neuron and had contrast modulation dysfunction during the cortical visual processing of V1 and visual association cortex in-between attacks. In pathophysiology of migraine, these neurophysiological and psychophysical studies indicate that abnormal visual and trigeminal hyperexcitability might persist between migraine attacks. The influence of migraine on cortical

  4. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  5. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Community screening for visual impairment in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Emily L; Evans, Jennifer R; Smeeth, Liam

    2018-02-20

    a brief health assessment including one question about vision (standard care). People given the detailed health assessment had a similar risk of visual impairment (visual acuity worse than 6/18 in either eye) at follow-up compared with people given the brief assessment (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.36, 1807 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). The mean composite score of the VFQ-25 was 86.0 in the group that underwent visual acuity screening compared with 85.6 in the standard care group, a difference of 0.40 (95% CI -1.70 to 2.50, 1807 participants, high-certainty evidence). The evidence from RCTs undertaken to date does not support vision screening for older people living independently in a community setting, whether in isolation or as part of a multi-component screening package. This is true for screening programmes involving questions about visual problems, or direct measurements of visual acuity.The most likely reason for this negative review is that the populations within the trials often did not take up the offered intervention as a result of the vision screening and large proportions of those who did not have vision screening appeared to seek their own intervention. Also, trials that use questions about vision have a lower sensitivity and specificity than formal visual acuity testing. Given the importance of visual impairment among older people, further research into strategies to improve vision of older people is needed. The effectiveness of an optimised primary care-based screening intervention that overcomes possible factors contributing to the observed lack of benefit in trials to date warrants assessment; trials should consider including more dependent participants, rather than those living independently in the community.

  7. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  8. Creating Visual Materials for Multi-Handicapped Deaf Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Carole; Brosmith, Susan

    1980-01-01

    The article describes two groups of visual materials developed for multiply handicapped deaf teenagers. The daily living skills project includes vocabulary lists, visuals, games and a model related to household cleaning, personal grooming, or consumer skills. The occupational information project includes visuals of tools, materials, and clothing…

  9. Computational visual distinctness metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Baena, J.; Toet, A.; Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Garrido, A.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new computational visual distinctness metric based on principles of the early human visual system is presented. The metric is applied to quantify (1) the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes and (2) the perceptual differences between compressed and uncompressed images. The new

  10. Programming Visual Basic 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    This information-packed guide helps you understand Visual Basic 2005, the next-generation release of the popular Visual Basic programming language. This book aims to make you immediately productive in creating Windows and web applications using Visual Basic 2005 and all of its tools. Perfect for experienced VB6 and novice programmers

  11. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  12. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  13. Teach yourself visually Office 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Learn the new Microsoft Office suite the easy, visual way Microsoft Office 2013 is a power-packed suite of office productivity tools including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, Access, and Publisher. This easy-to-use visual guide covers the basics of all six programs, with step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots showing what you should see at each step. You'll also learn about using Office Internet and graphics tools, while the additional examples and advice scattered through the book give you tips on maximizing the Office suite. If you learn best when you can see how

  14. Multiple variables data sets visualization in ROOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couet, O

    2008-01-01

    The ROOT graphical framework provides support for many different functions including basic graphics, high-level visualization techniques, output on files, 3D viewing etc. They use well-known world standards to render graphics on screen, to produce high-quality output files, and to generate images for Web publishing. Many techniques allow visualization of all the basic ROOT data types, but the graphical framework was still a bit weak in the visualization of multiple variables data sets. This paper presents latest developments done in the ROOT framework to visualize multiple variables (>4) data sets

  15. 1st Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Lewis; Fisher, Brian; Schmidt, Albrecht; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses research, methods, and recent developments in the interdisciplinary field that spans research in visualization, eye tracking, human-computer interaction, and psychology. It presents extended versions of papers from the First Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization (ETVIS), which was organized as a workshop of the IEEE VIS Conference 2015. Topics include visualization and visual analytics of eye-tracking data, metrics and cognitive models, eye-tracking experiments in the context of visualization interfaces, and eye tracking in 3D and immersive environments. The extended ETVIS papers are complemented by a chapter offering an overview of visualization approaches for analyzing eye-tracking data and a chapter that discusses electrooculography (EOG) as an alternative of acquiring information about eye movements. Covering scientific visualization, information visualization, and visual analytics, this book is a valuable resource for eye-tracking researchers within the visualization community.

  16. Visualizing Data from EarthScope's USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Frassetto, A.; Adinolfi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray program has generated a large volume of data from across the North American continent. The Transportable Array (TA) component of USArray has deployed over 400 seismic stations in a grid with 70 km spacing between stations. The TA has rolled the array across the contiguous US states over a ten-year period, and will have occupied over 1600 distinct sites from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean by the end of 2013. All stations transmit multiple channels of 40 samples per second data continuously, in near real time. Each station records and transmits seismic, barometric pressure, and infrasound data, as well as various state-of-health data streams. All data are immediately open and unrestricted. The TA provides a unique tool for visualizing large-scale seismic wave phenomena. The power of this tool is particularly apparent when displaying simultaneous signals from all stations as a function of time, as well as rendering multiple channels of data from each station. In this situation it is challenging to convey the 3D motion at each station as well as the aggregate 3D motion across the entire set of 400 stations. Creating movies of the data becomes essential to illustrate the time dependence of the observations. Typically the rendering of such movies requires the use of programming language that is suitable for both data analysis and graphics, as it is essential to explore different data pre-processing strategies (often filtering, but also including other pre-processing steps). Different visualization strategies provide a means for dealing with the very large volume of data generated by the TA. Typical data review strategies include a survey mode to scan large volumes of data for signals of interest, or zooming in on fine features using combinations of specialized data processing and frame-by-frame time-steps, or going back and forth between the two modes. The data visualizations are continuously evolving to explore new ideas. The movie

  17. Visualization Tools for Teaching Computer Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaohong; Vega, Percy; Qadah, Yaseen; Archer, Ricky; Yu, Huiming; Xu, Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Using animated visualization tools has been an important teaching approach in computer science education. We have developed three visualization and animation tools that demonstrate various information security concepts and actively engage learners. The information security concepts illustrated include: packet sniffer and related computer network…

  18. Visual Infrared Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.; de Zeeuw, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements for visual and visual-infrared colors provide the means to determine both the average temperature of the giant branch and the turnoff-temperature of the main sequence. This allows to model fractional contributions of different populations, including age- and

  19. Literacy Instruction Through Communicative and Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the evidence suggesting the effectiveness of literacy instruction through communicative and visual arts, according to Flood, Heath, and Lapp (1997). Visual arts includes everything from dramatic performances to comic books to television viewing. The communicative arts, such as reading, writing, and…

  20. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  1. Classifying web pages with visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Lupascu, T.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2010-01-01

    To automatically classify and process web pages, current systems use the textual content of those pages, including both the displayed content and the underlying (HTML) code. However, a very important feature of a web page is its visual appearance. In this paper, we show that using generic visual

  2. Organization of the Drosophila larval visual circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Nanae; Neagu-Maier, G Larisa; Fetter, Richard D; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Truman, James W; Zlatic, Marta; Cardona, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Visual systems transduce, process and transmit light-dependent environmental cues. Computation of visual features depends on photoreceptor neuron types (PR) present, organization of the eye and wiring of the underlying neural circuit. Here, we describe the circuit architecture of the visual system of Drosophila larvae by mapping the synaptic wiring diagram and neurotransmitters. By contacting different targets, the two larval PR-subtypes create two converging pathways potentially underlying the computation of ambient light intensity and temporal light changes already within this first visual processing center. Locally processed visual information then signals via dedicated projection interneurons to higher brain areas including the lateral horn and mushroom body. The stratified structure of the larval optic neuropil (LON) suggests common organizational principles with the adult fly and vertebrate visual systems. The complete synaptic wiring diagram of the LON paves the way to understanding how circuits with reduced numerical complexity control wide ranges of behaviors.

  3. Integrative Systems Biology Visualization with MAYDAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonsy Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is pivotal for gaining insight in systems biology data. As the size and complexity of datasets and supplemental information increases, an efficient, integrated framework for general and specialized views is necessary. MAYDAY is an application for analysis and visualization of general ‘omics’ data. It follows a trifold approach for data visualization, consisting of flexible data preprocessing, highly customizable data perspective plots for general purpose visualization and systems based plots. Here, we introduce two new systems biology visualization tools for MAYDAY. Efficiently implemented genomic viewers allow the display of variables associated with genomic locations. Multiple variables can be viewed using our new track-based ChromeTracks tool. A functional perspective is provided by visualizing metabolic pathways either in KEGG or BioPax format. Multiple options of displaying pathway components are available, including Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN glyphs. Furthermore, pathways can be viewed together with gene expression data either as heatmaps or profiles.

  4. The Human Dimension of Battlespace Visualization: Research and Design Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    ...) and predict COA results. Specific topics covered as part of situation understanding included terrain visualization, situation displays that use symbology, techniques for abstract visualizations, and multi-media knowledge walls...

  5. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  6. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  7. Effects of visual attention on chromatic and achromatic detection sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Keiji; Sato, Masayuki; Kuwamura, Keiko

    2014-05-01

    Visual attention has a significant effect on various visual functions, such as response time, detection and discrimination sensitivity, and color appearance. It has been suggested that visual attention may affect visual functions in the early visual pathways. In this study we examined selective effects of visual attention on sensitivities of the chromatic and achromatic pathways to clarify whether visual attention modifies responses in the early visual system. We used a dual task paradigm in which the observer detected a peripheral test stimulus presented at 4 deg eccentricities while the observer concurrently carried out an attention task in the central visual field. In experiment 1, it was confirmed that peripheral spectral sensitivities were reduced more for short and long wavelengths than for middle wavelengths with the central attention task so that the spectral sensitivity function changed its shape by visual attention. This indicated that visual attention affected the chromatic response more strongly than the achromatic response. In experiment 2 it was obtained that the detection thresholds increased in greater degrees in the red-green and yellow-blue chromatic directions than in the white-black achromatic direction in the dual task condition. In experiment 3 we showed that the peripheral threshold elevations depended on the combination of color-directions of the central and peripheral stimuli. Since the chromatic and achromatic responses were separately processed in the early visual pathways, the present results provided additional evidence that visual attention affects responses in the early visual pathways.

  8. Motor-auditory-visual integration: The role of the human mirror neuron system in communication and communication disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bel, Ronald M.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a trimodal system composed of neuronal populations that respond to motor, visual, and auditory stimulation, such as when an action is performed, observed, heard or read about. In humans, the MNS has been identified using neuro-imaging techniques (such as fMRI and mu suppression in the EEG). It reflects an integration of motor-auditory-visual information processing related to aspects of language learning including action understanding and recognition. Such int...

  9. Visualization program development using Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akira; Suto, Keiko

    2002-03-01

    Method of visualization programs using Java for the PC with the graphical user interface (GUI) is discussed, and applied to the visualization and analysis of 1D and 2D data from experiments and numerical simulations. Based on an investigation of programming techniques such as drawing graphics and event driven program, example codes are provided in which GUI is implemented using the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT). The marked advantage of Java comes from the inclusion of library routines for graphics and networking as its language specification, which enables ordinary scientific programmers to make interactive visualization a part of their simulation codes. Moreover, the Java programs are machine independent at the source level. Object oriented programming (OOP) methods used in Java programming will be useful for developing large scientific codes which includes number of modules with better maintenance ability. (author)

  10. A pilot study to record visual evoked potentials during prone spine surgery using the SightSaver™ photic visual stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffin, E M; Emerson, R G; Cheng, J; Mercado, K; Smith, K; Beckman, J D

    2017-12-20

    This is a pilot study to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of recording real-time flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) using the SightSaver TM Visual Stimulator mask during prone spine surgery. A prospective, observational pilot study. Twenty patients presenting for spine surgery (microdiscectomy, 1-2 level lumbar fusion, or > 2 levels thoraco-lumbar fusion) were enrolled. The SightSaver™ Visual Stimulator™ was used to elicit VEPs throughout surgery. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were simultaneously recorded. All patients underwent general anesthesia with a combination of intravenous and inhaled agents. The presence, absence, and changes in VEP were qualitatively analyzed. Reproducible VEPs were elicited in 18/20 patients (36/40 eyes). VEPs were exquisitely sensitive to changes in anesthesia and decayed with rising MAC of isoflurane and/or N 2 O. Decrements in VEPs were observed without concomitant changes in SSEPs. The mask was simple to apply and use and was not associated with adverse effects. The SightSaver™ mask represents an emerging technology for monitoring developing visual insults during surgery. The definitive applications remain to be determined, but likely include use in select patients and/or surgeries. Here, we have validated the device as safe and effective, and show that VEPs can be recorded in real time under general anesthesia in the prone position. Future studies should be directed towards understanding the ideal anesthetic regimen to facilitate stable VEP recording during prone spine surgery.

  11. Rethinking map legends with visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Jason; Wood, Jo; Slingsby, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    This design paper presents new guidance for creating map legends in a dynamic environment. Our contribution is a set of guidelines for legend design in a visualization context and a series of illustrative themes through which they may be expressed. These are demonstrated in an applications context through interactive software prototypes. The guidelines are derived from cartographic literature and in liaison with EDINA who provide digital mapping services for UK tertiary education. They enhance approaches to legend design that have evolved for static media with visualization by considering: selection, layout, symbols, position, dynamism and design and process. Broad visualization legend themes include: The Ground Truth Legend, The Legend as Statistical Graphic and The Map is the Legend. Together, these concepts enable us to augment legends with dynamic properties that address specific needs, rethink their nature and role and contribute to a wider re-evaluation of maps as artifacts of usage rather than statements of fact. EDINA has acquired funding to enhance their clients with visualization legends that use these concepts as a consequence of this work. The guidance applies to the design of a wide range of legends and keys used in cartography and information visualization.

  12. Manneristic behaviors of visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Alysha; Rowe, Fiona J

    2011-09-01

    To review the literature on visual impairment in children in order to determine which manneristic behaviors are associated with visual impairment, and to establish why these behaviors occur and whether severity of visual impairment influences these behaviors. A literature search utilizing PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge databases was performed. The University of Liverpool ( www.liv.ac.uk/orthoptics/research ) and local library facilities were also searched. The main manneristic or stereotypic behaviors associated with visual impairment are eye-manipulatory behaviors, such as eye poking and rocking. The degree of visual impairment influences the type of behavior exhibited by visually impaired children. Totally blind children are more likely to adopt body and head movements whereas sight-impaired children tend to adopt eye-manipulatory behaviors and rocking. The mannerisms exhibited most frequently are those that provide a specific stimulation to the child. Theories to explain these behaviors include behavioral, developmental, functional, and neurobiological approaches. Although the precise etiology of these behaviors is unknown, it is recognized that each of the theories is useful in providing some explanation of why certain behaviors may occur. The age at which the frequency of these behaviors decreases is associated with the child's increasing development, thus those visually impaired children with additional disabilities, whose development is impaired, are at an increased risk of developing and maintaining these behaviors. Certain manneristic behaviors of the visually impaired child may also help indicate the cause of visual impairment. There is a wide range of manneristic behaviors exhibited by visually impaired children. Some of these behaviors appear to be particularly associated with certain causes of visual impairment or severity of visual impairment, thus they may supply the practitioner with useful information. Further research into the

  13. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  14. Visualization system on ITBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Visualization systems PATRAS/ITBL and AVS/ITBL, which are based on visualization software PATRAS and AVS/Express respectively, have been developed on a global, heterogeneous computing environment, Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL). PATRAS/ITBL allows for real-time visualization of the numerical results acquired from coupled multi-physics numerical simulations, executed on different hosts situated in remote locations. AVS/ITBL allow for post processing visualization. The scientific data located in remote sites may be selected and visualized on a web browser installed in a user terminal. The global structure and main functions of these systems are presented. (author)

  15. Professional Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Randolph, Nick; Anderson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    A must-have guide that covers all the new features of Visual Studio 2010. Visual Studio allows you to create and manage programming projects for the Windows platform, and the new 2010 version has undergone a major overhaul comprised of significant changes. Written by an author team of veteran programmers and developers, Professional Visual Studio 2010 gets you quickly up to speed on what you can expect from the newest version of Visual Studio. This book's first section is dedicated to familiarizing you with the core aspects of Visual Studio 2010. Everything you need is contained in the first f

  16. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  17. Visual dependence affects postural sway responses to continuous visual field motion in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Lauer, Richard T; Tucker, Carole A; Thompson, Elizabeth D; Keshner, Emily A

    2018-01-17

    The current study aimed to explore the impact of visual dependence on sensorimotor coupling of postural sway and visual motion in adults and teens with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that individuals with CP would exhibit greater magnitudes of sway than healthy individuals, and the presence of visual dependence (VD) would produce instability in the direction of visual motion. Participants stood in a virtual environment in which the visual scene remained static or continuously rotated 30 degree/second in pitch-up or pitch-down. Increased center of pressure and center of mass responses were observed in the direction of visual scene motion in those with CP. Those with VD exhibited reduced frequency responses in anterior-posterior direction than those who were visually independent. VD suggests deficient sensorimotor integration that could contribute to postural instability and reduced motor function. Individuals with CP who are visually dependent may benefit from more sensory focused rehabilitation strategies. AP, anterior-posterior; CP, cerebral palsy; COM, center of mass; COP, center of pressure; MDF, median frequency; ML, mediolateral; PD, pitch down (nose down) rotation; PU, pitch up (nose up) rotation; RFT, rod and frame test; RMS, root mean square; SLP, slope of the fitted line; TD, typical development; VD, visual dependence; VI, visual independence; VOR, vestibulo-ocular reflex; VPI, visual perceptual impairment.

  18. Characterizing the effects of feature salience and top-down attention in the early visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Ling, Sam; McCormack, Devin; Tong, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The visual system employs a sophisticated balance of attentional mechanisms: salient stimuli are prioritized for visual processing, yet observers can also ignore such stimuli when their goals require directing attention elsewhere. A powerful determinant of visual salience is local feature contrast: if a local region differs from its immediate surround along one or more feature dimensions, it will appear more salient. We used high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) at 7T to characterize the modulatory effects of bottom-up salience and top-down voluntary attention within multiple sites along the early visual pathway, including visual areas V1-V4 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Observers viewed arrays of spatially distributed gratings, where one of the gratings immediately to the left or right of fixation differed from all other items in orientation or motion direction, making it salient. To investigate the effects of directed attention, observers were cued to attend to the grating to the left or right of fixation, which was either salient or nonsalient. Results revealed reliable additive effects of top-down attention and stimulus-driven salience throughout visual areas V1-hV4. In comparison, the LGN exhibited significant attentional enhancement but was not reliably modulated by orientation- or motion-defined salience. Our findings indicate that top-down effects of spatial attention can influence visual processing at the earliest possible site along the visual pathway, including the LGN, whereas the processing of orientation- and motion-driven salience primarily involves feature-selective interactions that take place in early cortical visual areas. NEW & NOTEWORTHY While spatial attention allows for specific, goal-driven enhancement of stimuli, salient items outside of the current focus of attention must also be prioritized. We used 7T fMRI to compare salience and spatial attentional enhancement along the early visual hierarchy. We report additive effects of

  19. A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

  20. Visual time series analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a platform which supplies an easy-to-handle, interactive, extendable, and fast analysis tool for time series analysis. In contrast to other software suits like Maple, Matlab, or R, which use a command-line-like interface and where the user has to memorize/look-up the appropriate...... commands, our application is select-and-click-driven. It allows to derive many different sequences of deviations for a given time series and to visualize them in different ways in order to judge their expressive power and to reuse the procedure found. For many transformations or model-ts, the user may...... choose between manual and automated parameter selection. The user can dene new transformations and add them to the system. The application contains efficient implementations of advanced and recent techniques for time series analysis including techniques related to extreme value analysis and filtering...

  1. Visual problems associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2018-02-28

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its associated concussion are major causes of disability and death. All ages can be affected but children, young adults and the elderly are particularly susceptible. A decline in mortality has resulted in many more individuals living with a disability caused by TBI including those affecting vision. This review describes: (1) the major clinical and pathological features of TBI; (2) the visual signs and symptoms associated with the disorder; and (3) discusses the assessment of quality of life and visual rehabilitation of the patient. Defects in primary vision such as visual acuity and visual fields, eye movement including vergence, saccadic and smooth pursuit movements, and in more complex aspects of vision involving visual perception, motion vision ('akinopsia'), and visuo-spatial function have all been reported in TBI. Eye movement dysfunction may be an early sign of TBI. Hence, TBI can result in a variety of visual problems, many patients exhibiting multiple visual defects in combination with a decline in overall health. Patients with chronic dysfunction following TBI may require occupational, vestibular, cognitive and other forms of physical therapy. Such patients may also benefit from visual rehabilitation, including reading-related oculomotor training and the prescribing of spectacles with a variety of tints and prism combinations. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  2. Write like a visual artist: Tracing the textually mediated art world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Klostermann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social organisation of Canada’s art world from the standpoint of practising visual artists. Bringing together theories of literacy and institutional ethnography, the article investigates the literacy practices of visual artists, making visible how artists use written texts to participate in public galleries and in the social and institutional relations of the art world. Drawing on extended ethnographic research, including interviews, observational field notes and textual analyses, this study sheds light on the ways visual artists enact particular texts, enact organisational processes, and to enact the social and conceptual worlds they are a part of. Through the lens of visual artists, this study locates two particular texts – the artist statement and the bio statement – in the extended social and institutional relations of the art world.

  3. Impact of a prototype visualization tool for new information in EHR clinical documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farri, O; Rahman, A; Monsen, K A; Zhang, R; Pakhomov, S V; Pieczkiewicz, D S; Speedie, S M; Melton, G B

    2012-01-01

    EHR clinical document synthesis by clinicians may be time-consuming and error-prone due to the complex organization of narratives, excessive redundancy within documents, and, at times, inadvertent proliferation of data inconsistencies. Development of EHR systems that are easily adaptable to the user's work processes requires research into visualization techniques that can optimize information synthesis at the point of care. To evaluate the effect of a prototype visualization tool for clinically relevant new information on clinicians' synthesis of EHR clinical documents and to understand how the tool may support future designs of clinical document user interfaces. A mixed methods approach to analyze the impact of the visualization tool was used with a sample of eight medical interns as they synthesized EHR clinical documents to accomplish a set of four pre-formed clinical scenarios using a think-aloud protocol. Differences in the missing (unretrieved) patient information (2.3±1.2 [with the visualization tool] vs. 6.8±1.2 [without the visualization tool], p = 0.08) and accurate inferences (1.3±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3, p = 0.09) were not statistically significant but suggest some improvement with the new information visualization tool. Despite the non-significant difference in total times to task completion (43±4 mins vs 36±4 mins, p = 0.35) we observed shorter times for two scenarios with the visualization tool, suggesting that the time-saving benefits may be more evident with certain clinical processes. Other observed effects of the tool include more intuitive navigation between patient details and increased efforts towards methodical synthesis of clinical documents. Our study provides some evidence that new information visualization in clinical notes may positively influence synthesis of patient information from EHR clinical documents. Our findings provide groundwork towards a more effective display of EHR clinical documents using advanced visualization applications.

  4. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  5. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8......Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...

  6. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  7. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 μg/kg vs placebo) on both α oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital α power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced α power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of α oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

  8. Visual photometry: accuracy and precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Visual photometry, estimation by eye of the brightness of stars, remains an important source of data even in the age of widespread precision instruments. However, the eye-brain system differs from electronic detectors and its results may be expected to differ in several respects. I examine a selection of well-observed variables from the AAVSO database to determine several internal characteristics of this data set. Visual estimates scatter around the fitted curves with a standard deviation of 0.14 to 0.34 magnitudes, most clustered in the 0.21-0.25 range. The variation of the scatter does not seem to correlate with color, type of variable, or depth or speed of variation of the star’s brightness. The scatter of an individual observer’s observations changes from star to star, in step with the overall scatter. The shape of the deviations from the fitted curve is non-Gaussian, with positive excess kurtosis (more outlying observations). These results have implications for use of visual data, as well as other citizen science efforts.

  9. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  10. Visual Memory of Meaningless Shapes in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salmanian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available objective: Visual memory is an important cognitive ability, which has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs. In such studies meaningful shapes were used more frequently. Since meaningless shapes provide a better assessment of short term visual memory, in this study we used them to evaluate visual memory in children and adolescents with ASDs compared to the normal group.Methods: Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB including Paired Associates Learning (PAL, Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM, Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS were administered to 15 children and adolescents with ASDs (high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome and to 15 normal participants aged 8 to 17,with IQ of above 70.Results: Individuals with ASDs performed worse than the normal group on visual memory tasks. After eliminating IQ as a covariate, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of visual memory performance.Conclusion: It seems that deficits on visual memory tasks in youths with ASDs could be related to their general intellectual abilities.

  11. Interaction between visual and chemical cues in a Liolaemus lizard: a multimodal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Natalin S; Halloy, Monique

    2017-12-01

    Multimodal communication involves the use of signals and cues across two or more sensory modalities. The genus Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) offers a great potential for studies on the ecology and evolution of multimodal communication, including visual and chemical signals. In this study, we analyzed the response of male and female Liolaemus pacha to chemical, visual and combined (multimodal) stimuli. Using cue-isolation tests, we registered the number of tongue flicks and headbob displays from exposure to signals in each modality. Number of tongue flicks was greater when a chemical stimulus was presented alone than in the presence of visual or multimodal stimuli. In contrast, headbob displays were fewer in number with visual and chemical stimuli alone, but significantly higher in number when combined. Female signallers triggered significantly more tongue flicks than male signallers, suggesting that chemical cues are involved in sexual recognition. We did not find an inhibition between chemical and visual cues. On the contrary, we observed a dominance of the chemical modality, because when presented with visual stimuli, lizards also responded with more tongue flicks than headbob displays. The total response produced by multimodal stimuli was similar to that of the chemical stimuli alone, possibly suggesting non-redundancy. We discuss whether the visual component of a multimodal signal could attract attention at a distance, increasing the effectiveness of transmission and reception of the information in chemical cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among older adults in the city of Lodz, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michal S; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in a sample of Polish older adults. The study was designed in a cross-sectional and observational manner. Data concerning the vision status were assessed in 2214 eyes from 1107 subjects of European Caucasian origin; most of whom live in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Visual impairment was defined as distance visual acuity visual acuity (BCVA) 20/200 in better-seeing eye, and blindness was defined as BCVA ≤20/200 in both eyes (United States criteria). Visual impairment was found in 27.5% subjects in the worse-seeing eye. Multiple regression analysis showed that increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and female gender (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.93) were independent risk factors. No association was found between visual impairment and socioeconomic status of subjects. Noncorrectable visual impairment was found in 7.0% of subjects, including 5.2% of subjects with unilateral and 1.8% of subjects with bilateral visual impairment. Low vision and blindness accounted for 1.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and were only associated with older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.10). Retinal diseases represented the major cause of noncorrectable visual impairment and accounted for more than half of causes of blindness. Provision of appropriate refractive correction improves visual acuity in 75% subjects presenting with visual impairment. Retinal diseases are a major cause of noncorrectable visual impairment and blindness in this older population.

  13. Visualization needs and techniques for astrophysical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapferer, W; Riser, T

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations have evolved continuously towards being an important field in astrophysics, equivalent to theory and observation. Due to the enormous developments in computer sciences, both hardware- and software-architecture, state-of-the-art simulations produce huge amounts of raw data with increasing complexity. In this paper some aspects of problems in the field of visualization in numerical astrophysics in combination with possible solutions are given. Commonly used visualization packages along with a newly developed approach to real-time visualization, incorporating shader programming to uncover the computational power of modern graphics cards, are presented. With these techniques at hand, real-time visualizations help scientists to understand the coherences in the results of their numerical simulations. Furthermore a fundamental problem in data analysis, i.e. coverage of metadata on how a visualization was created, is highlighted.

  14. Visualization needs and techniques for astrophysical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapferer, W.; Riser, T.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations have evolved continuously towards being an important field in astrophysics, equivalent to theory and observation. Due to the enormous developments in computer sciences, both hardware- and software-architecture, state-of-the-art simulations produce huge amounts of raw data with increasing complexity. In this paper some aspects of problems in the field of visualization in numerical astrophysics in combination with possible solutions are given. Commonly used visualization packages along with a newly developed approach to real-time visualization, incorporating shader programming to uncover the computational power of modern graphics cards, are presented. With these techniques at hand, real-time visualizations help scientists to understand the coherences in the results of their numerical simulations. Furthermore a fundamental problem in data analysis, i.e. coverage of metadata on how a visualization was created, is highlighted.

  15. Central Experimental Oculina Research Reserve, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 612 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  16. Visual Data Mining Toolbox, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visual Data Mining (VDM) is an Internet-based software that supports spatial and temporal analyses of multimodal NASA science data including satellite images and...

  17. Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-02-26

    In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Migraine with visual aura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Attention and visual memory in visualization and computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics.

  20. Radiologic observation of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Ra, Y. W.; Kim, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic findings of thirty eight cases of renal tuberculosis treated at this hospital during last 4 years were analysed with following results. The cases examined were 24 male and 14 female patients. Age distribution was broad and evenly distributed ranging from 2nd decades to 5th decades. Main symptoms complained were urinary frequency, hematuria, dysuria and flank pain. Findings of physical examination revealed tenderness of costovertebral angle, palpable mass on flank area and epididymal indutration. The simple chest films showed pulmonary tuberculosis in 22 cases including 6 cases of active military type. Thirty one cases showed increased ESR, 8 cases showed AFB positive in urine and 12 cases showed bilateral renal tuberculosis. Through urographic findings nonvisualization, cyceopelviectasis, motheaten appearance of minor calyx, contracted bladder, delayed visualization, ureteral stricture and beading were observed in order of frequency. Five cases with miliary tuberculosis showed advanced renal lesion on urogram

  1. Neurovisual training (TRIGRAM in young patients with visual-perceptive dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pacella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. Although this condition is characterized by anatomical malformation of the brain, it seems that the typical reading pattern of dyslexic may be also related to more complex sensory deficits. Among them, visual-perceptive deficits have been described in a subtype of dyslexia, called visual-perceptive dyslexia. The distinctive feature of a patient suffering from visual-perceptive dyslexia form is marked by effortlessly recognize the characteristics of each individual stimulus. The Tetra protocol is a visual-perceptual evaluation protocol that was introduced for the diagnostic phase and the rehabilitation of visual-perceptive dyslexia. The diagnostic tests include: the eidomorphometry test, designed to evaluate the perception of spatial relationships; the contrast sensitivity threshold test, especially at low spatial frequencies; and the REPORT TEST words, to assess the speed and the reading efficiency. In addition, the rehabilitation phase is carried out with the visual neuro-enhancement program TRIGRAM, a visual training proposal designed to reduce the lateral masking phenomenon in visual-perceptive dyslexic. Thus, in this study we used the diagnostic tests of TETRA® Protocol to determine presence of visual-perceptual abnormalities in children with dyslexia. Proven time the presence of these visual-perceptual alterations, the patients were also subjected to the rehabilitation sessions of TRIGRAM, in order to investigate whether this visual training may improve the pattern of reading. At the end of the program (t1 and after three months (t2, the same subjects underwent the same diagnostic tests of TETRA® Protocol to evaluate and confirm the results obtained during rehabilitation program. The results showed a significant increase in contrast sensitivity at low and high spatial frequencies. Moreover, the same improvements in the visual system's ability to discriminate the contours of an object

  2. Visual Working Memory Enhances the Neural Response to Matching Visual Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Surya; Guggenmos, Matthias; Christophel, Thomas B; Haynes, John-Dylan; Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sterzer, Philipp

    2017-07-12

    Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain visual information available for subsequent goal-directed behavior. The content of VWM has been shown to affect the behavioral response to concurrent visual input, suggesting that visual representations originating from VWM and from sensory input draw upon a shared neural substrate (i.e., a sensory recruitment stance on VWM storage). Here, we hypothesized that visual information maintained in VWM would enhance the neural response to concurrent visual input that matches the content of VWM. To test this hypothesis, we measured fMRI BOLD responses to task-irrelevant stimuli acquired from 15 human participants (three males) performing a concurrent delayed match-to-sample task. In this task, observers were sequentially presented with two shape stimuli and a retro-cue indicating which of the two shapes should be memorized for subsequent recognition. During the retention interval, a task-irrelevant shape (the probe) was briefly presented in the peripheral visual field, which could either match or mismatch the shape category of the memorized stimulus. We show that this probe stimulus elicited a stronger BOLD response, and allowed for increased shape-classification performance, when it matched rather than mismatched the concurrently memorized content, despite identical visual stimulation. Our results demonstrate that VWM enhances the neural response to concurrent visual input in a content-specific way. This finding is consistent with the view that neural populations involved in sensory processing are recruited for VWM storage, and it provides a common explanation for a plethora of behavioral studies in which VWM-matching visual input elicits a stronger behavioral and perceptual response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans heavily rely on visual information to interact with their environment and frequently must memorize such information for later use. Visual working memory allows for maintaining such visual information in the mind

  3. Visual PEF Reader - VIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Victor; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Boehmer, Rudy A.; Kim, Rachel Y.

    2011-01-01

    This software graphically displays all pertinent information from a Predicted Events File (PEF) using the Java Swing framework, which allows for multi-platform support. The PEF is hard to weed through when looking for specific information and it is a desire for the MRO (Mars Reconn aissance Orbiter) Mission Planning & Sequencing Team (MPST) to have a different way to visualize the data. This tool will provide the team with a visual way of reviewing and error-checking the sequence product. The front end of the tool contains much of the aesthetically appealing material for viewing. The time stamp is displayed in the top left corner, and highlighted details are displayed in the bottom left corner. The time bar stretches along the top of the window, and the rest of the space is allotted for blocks and step functions. A preferences window is used to control the layout of the sections along with the ability to choose color and size of the blocks. Double-clicking on a block will show information contained within the block. Zooming into a certain level will graphically display that information as an overlay on the block itself. Other functions include using hotkeys to navigate, an option to jump to a specific time, enabling a vertical line, and double-clicking to zoom in/out. The back end involves a configuration file that allows a more experienced user to pre-define the structure of a block, a single event, or a step function. The individual will have to determine what information is important within each block and what actually defines the beginning and end of a block. This gives the user much more flexibility in terms of what the tool is searching for. In addition to the configurability, all the settings in the preferences window are saved in the configuration file as well

  4. Feast for the Eyes: An Introduction to Data Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Tara J

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization is defined as the use of data presented in a graphical or pictorial manner. While data visualization is not a new concept, the ease with which anyone can create a data-drive chart, image, or visual has encouraged its growth. The increase of free sources of data and need for user-created content on social media has also led to a rise in data visualization's popularity. This column will explore what data visualization is and how it is currently being used. It will also discuss the benefits, potential problems, and uses in libraries. A brief list of visualization guides is included.

  5. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyf...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  6. Promoting Visualization Skills through Deconstruction Using Physical Models and a Visualization Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Holly Kristine

    Visualization skills are important in learning chemistry, as these skills have been shown to correlate to high ability in problem solving. Students' understanding of visual information and their problem-solving processes may only ever be accessed indirectly: verbalization, gestures, drawings, etc. In this research, deconstruction of complex visual concepts was aligned with the promotion of students' verbalization of visualized ideas to teach students to solve complex visual tasks independently. All instructional tools and teaching methods were developed in accordance with the principles of the theoretical framework, the Modeling Theory of Learning: deconstruction of visual representations into model components, comparisons to reality, and recognition of students' their problemsolving strategies. Three physical model systems were designed to provide students with visual and tangible representations of chemical concepts. The Permanent Reflection Plane Demonstration provided visual indicators that students used to support or invalidate the presence of a reflection plane. The 3-D Coordinate Axis system provided an environment that allowed students to visualize and physically enact symmetry operations in a relevant molecular context. The Proper Rotation Axis system was designed to provide a physical and visual frame of reference to showcase multiple symmetry elements that students must identify in a molecular model. Focus groups of students taking Inorganic chemistry working with the physical model systems demonstrated difficulty documenting and verbalizing processes and descriptions of visual concepts. Frequently asked student questions were classified, but students also interacted with visual information through gestures and model manipulations. In an effort to characterize how much students used visualization during lecture or recitation, we developed observation rubrics to gather information about students' visualization artifacts and examined the effect instructors

  7. Visualization: Teaching the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Visualization : Teaching the Art A Monograph by Major Phillip M. Johnson United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...DSN 585-3171 SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Major Phillip M. Johnson Title of Monograph: Visualization : Teaching the Art ...ABSTRACT VISUALIZATION : TEACHING THE ART by MAJOR Phillip M. Johnson, USA, 53 pages. Effectively applying operational art and battle command is a

  8. Earth and Space Science Electronic Theater: State-of-the-Art Visualization from the Latest Remote Sensing Observations. High Definition Television on the SMM IMAX Screen with Ultra High Performance Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fritz Hasler (NASA/Goddard) will demonstrate the latest Blue Marble Digital Earth technology. We will fly in from space through Terra, Landsat 7, to 1 m Ikonos "Spy Satellite" data to Washington, NYC, Chicago, and LA. You will see animations using the new 1 km global datasets from the EOS Terra satellite. Spectacular new animations from Terra, Landsat 7, and SeaWiFS will be presented. See the latest animations of the super hurricanes like, Floyd, Luis, and Mitch, from GOES & TRMM. See movies assembled using new low cost HDTV nonlinear editing equipment that is revolutionizing the way we communicate scientific results. See climate change in action with Global Land & Ocean productivity changes over the last 20 years. Remote sensing observations of ocean SST, height, winds, color, and El Nino from GOES, AVHRR, SSMI & SeaWiFS are put in context with atmospheric and ocean simulations. Compare symmetrical equatorial eddies observed by GOES with the simulations.

  9. The assessment of cognition in visually impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Alison; Firbank, Michael J; Collerton, Daniel; Clarke, Michael; Jefferis, Joanna Mary; Taylor, John-Paul; McKeith, Ian G; Mosimann, Urs Peter

    2013-01-01

    visual and cognitive impairments are common in later life. Yet there are very few cognitive screening tests for the visually impaired. to screen for cognitive impairment in the visually impaired. case-control study including 150 elderly participants with visual impairment (n = 74) and a control group without visual impairment (n = 76) using vision-independent cognitive tests and cognitive screening tests (MMSE and clock drawing tests (CDT)) which are in part vision dependent. the scoring of the two groups did not differ in the vision-independent cognitive tests. Visually impaired patients performed poorer than controls in the vision-dependent items of the MMSE (T = 7.3; df: 148; P visual impairment (P visually impaired patients benefit from cognitive tests, which do not rely on vision. The more visually impaired the greater the benefit.

  10. Cortical spatiotemporal dimensionality reduction for visual grouping

    OpenAIRE

    Cocci, Giacomo; Barbieri, Davide; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The visual systems of many mammals, including humans, are able to integrate the geometric information of visual stimuli and perform cognitive tasks at the first stages of the cortical processing. This is thought to be the result of a combination of mechanisms, which include feature extraction at the single cell level and geometric processing by means of cell connectivity. We present a geometric model of such connectivities in the space of detected features associated with spatiotemporal visua...

  11. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  12. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  13. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  14. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  15. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  16. Measuring Visual Double Stars with Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady; Genet, Russell M.; Faisal Al-Zaben, Dewei Li, Yongyao Li, Aren Dennis, Zhixin Cao, Junyao Li, Steven Qu, Jeff Li, Michael Fene, Allen Priest, Stephen Priest, Rex Qiu, , and, Bill Riley

    2016-06-01

    The Astronomy Research Seminars introduce students to scientific research by carrying out the entire process: planning a scientific research project, writing a research proposal, gathering and analyzing observational data, drawing conclusions, and presenting the research results in a published paper and presentation.In 2015 Cuesta College and Russell Genet sponsored a new hybrid format for the seminar enabling distance learning. Boyce Research Initiatives and Education Foundation (BRIEF) conducted the course at The Army and Navy Academy (ANA) in Carlsbad, California, in the spring and fall of 2015.The course objective is to complete the research and publish the paper within one semester. Our program schedule called for observations to be performed within a two week period. Measurement of visual binary stars was chosen because sufficient observations could be made in just two evenings of good weather. We quickly learned that our location by the ocean did not provide reliable weather to use local telescopes.The iTelescope network of robotic telescopes located in Australia, Spain and the U.S. solved the problem. Reservations for these systems are booked online and include date, time, exposure and filters. The high quality telescopes range from 4" to 27" in size with excellent cameras. By watching the weather forecasts for the sites, we were able to schedule our observations within the two week time frame required.Timely and reliable data reduction was the next hurdle. The students were using widely varying equipment (PCs, MACs, tablets, smart phones) with incompatible software. After wasting time trying to be computer technicians, we settled a on standard set of software relying on Mirametrics' Mira Pro x64. We installed the software on an old laptop, downloaded the iTelescope data files, gave the students remote access using GoToMyPC.These efficiencies enabled us to meet the demanding one semester schedule and assure a better learning experience. We have been able to

  17. Priming and the guidance by visual and categorical templates in visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eWilschut

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual search is thought to be guided by top-down templates that are held in visual working memory. Previous studies have shown that a search-guiding template can be rapidly and strongly implemented from a visual cue, whereas templates are less effective when based on categorical cues. Direct visual priming from cue to target may underlie this difference. In two experiments we first asked observers to remember two possible target colors. A postcue then indicated which of the two would be the relevant color. The task was to locate a briefly presented and masked target of the cued color among irrelevant distractor items. Experiment 1 showed that overall search accuracy improved more rapidly on the basis of a direct visual postcue that carried the target color, compared to a neutral postcue that pointed to the memorized color. However, selectivity towards the target feature, i.e. the extent to which observers searched selectively among items of the cued versus uncued color, was found to be relatively unaffected by the presence of the visual signal. In Experiment 2 we compared search that was based on either visual or categorical information, but now controlled for direct visual priming. This resulted in no differences in overall performance nor selectivity. Altogether the results suggest that perceptual processing of visual search targets is facilitated by priming from visual cues, whereas attentional selectivity is enhanced by a working memory template that can formed from both visual and categorical input. Furthermore, if the priming is controlled for, categorical- and visual-based templates similarly enhance search guidance.

  18. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  19. The earliest electrophysiological correlate of visual awareness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Mika; Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2008-01-01

    To examine the neural correlates and timing of human visual awareness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments while the observers were detecting a grey dot that was presented near subjective threshold. ERPs were averaged for conscious detections of the stimulus (hits......) and nondetections (misses) separately. Our results revealed that hits, as compared to misses, showed a negativity around 180-350 ms at occipital and posterior temporal sites. It was followed by a positive wave after 400-500 ms, peaking at parietal sites. These correlates were not affected by a manipulation...... of attention. The early negativity, called 'visual awareness negativity' (VAN), may be a general, primary electrophysiological correlate of visual awareness. The present data show that it can be observed in response to appearance of a stimulus in visual awareness and that it generalizes across different...

  20. Introduction to Vector Field Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Vector field visualization techniques are essential to help us understand the complex dynamics of flow fields. These can be found in a wide range of applications such as study of flows around an aircraft, the blood flow in our heart chambers, ocean circulation models, and severe weather predictions. The vector fields from these various applications can be visually depicted using a number of techniques such as particle traces and advecting textures. In this tutorial, we present several fundamental algorithms in flow visualization including particle integration, particle tracking in time-dependent flows, and seeding strategies. For flows near surfaces, a wide variety of synthetic texture-based algorithms have been developed to depict near-body flow features. The most common approach is based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) algorithm. There also exist extensions of LIC to support more flexible texture generations for 3D flow data. This tutorial reviews these algorithms. Tensor fields are found in several real-world applications and also require the aid of visualization to help users understand their data sets. Examples where one can find tensor fields include mechanics to see how material respond to external forces, civil engineering and geomechanics of roads and bridges, and the study of neural pathway via diffusion tensor imaging. This tutorial will provide an overview of the different tensor field visualization techniques, discuss basic tensor decompositions, and go into detail on glyph based methods, deformation based methods, and streamline based methods. Practical examples will be used when presenting the methods; and applications from some case studies will be used as part of the motivation.

  1. OLAP Cube Visualization of Hydrologic Data Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Wallis, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project, we assemble comprehensive observations data catalogs that support CUAHSI data discovery services (WaterOneFlow services) and online mapping interfaces (e.g. the Data Access System for Hydrology, DASH). These catalogs describe several nation-wide data repositories that are important for hydrologists, including USGS NWIS and EPA STORET data collections. The catalogs contain a wealth of information reflecting the entire history and geography of hydrologic observations in the US. Managing such catalogs requires high performance analysis and visualization technologies. OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cube, often called data cubes, is an approach to organizing and querying large multi-dimensional data collections. We have applied the OLAP techniques, as implemented in Microsoft SQL Server 2005, to the analysis of the catalogs from several agencies. In this initial report, we focus on the OLAP technology as applied to catalogs, and preliminary results of the analysis. Specifically, we describe the challenges of generating OLAP cube dimensions, and defining aggregations and views for data catalogs as opposed to observations data themselves. The initial results are related to hydrologic data availability from the observations data catalogs. The results reflect geography and history of available data totals from USGS NWIS and EPA STORET repositories, and spatial and temporal dynamics of available measurements for several key nutrient-related parameters.

  2. Film Animasi Malaysia: Narasi Verbal ke Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nizam bin Othman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the issues are to look into the approaches and education problems that happen in the verbal narration in old society and how the construction and preservation of legends and folklore into animation forms. This paper is to identify the icon, structure and method that use in film animation to emphasize the culture understanding of the legends and folklore. The ideas of this paper are to identify form; icon and meaning that attach in local folklore and translated into animation based on culture theory. This case study research involves collecting data through documentation; including interview method, observation and visual understanding on animation collection. The data analysis concentrates on technique and overall animation process, focusing on its impact on culture and local society. Legend and folklore are a part of Malays tradition culture that has been spreading and handing on from one generation to another. The story of fairy tales, myths, extraordinary and miraculous of early centuries of human evolution now been represent in new form, that involved visual and other human sense’s. This paper will discuss about the condition of the understanding and imaginations in this new generation are still same as early century about the beauty of Mahsuri, the extraordinary and enthusiastic of Hang Tuah and the kindheartedness of Bawang Putih. How human accepted and preserves tradition and culture customs but in adaptation process, upgrading and decent with civilization maturity. The outcome are expected to contribute in preserving culture and tradition.

  3. Views of Children with Visual Impairment on the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine the views of children with visual impairment on the challenges of inclusion. A questionnaire was administered on 20 children with visual impairment. These had been randomly selected from three schools that were including children with visual impairment in their teaching and learning ...

  4. Storage and binding of object features in visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Paul M; Wu, Emma Y; Husain, Masud

    2010-01-01

    An influential conception of visual working memory is of a small number of discrete memory “slots”, each storing an integrated representation of a single visual object, including all its component features. When a scene contains more objects than there are slots, visual attention controls which objects gain access to memory.

  5. Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, John S [Kennewick, WA; Dowson, Scott T [West Richland, WA; Hart, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Hatley, Wes L [Kennewick, WA

    2008-05-13

    A method of displaying correlations among information objects comprises receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

  6. A Content-Driven Approach to Visual Literacy: Gestalt Rediscovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Linda

    The goal of an introductory graphics course is fundamental visual literacy, which includes learning to appreciate the power of visuals in communication and to express ideas visually. Traditional principles of design--the focus of the course--are based on more fundamental gestalt theory, which relates to human pattern-seeking behavior, particularly…

  7. Visual Representations of the Water Cycle in Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinisha, K.; Ramadas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual representations, including photographs, sketches and schematic diagrams, are a valuable yet often neglected aspect of textbooks. Visual means of communication are particularly helpful in introducing abstract concepts in science. For effective communication, visuals and text need to be appropriately integrated within the textbook. This study…

  8. Visual Complaints and Eye Problems in Orchestral Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Henny Jm; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina Aw; de Crom, Ronald Mpc; Schouten, Jan Sag; Webers, Carroll Ab

    2016-09-01

    To study visual complaints and eye diseases among professional and amateur orchestral musicians in the Netherlands. In this observational study, members from professional and amateur symphony or wind orchestras were asked to complete a questionnaire collecting demographic data, musical, medical, and family history, and data on present visual complaints and/or eye diseases. Questions about playing in the orchestra were also asked. Data from 70 professionals and 48 amateurs showed that most musicians needed glasses or contact lenses for playing in the orchestra (61% of the professionals, 63% of the amateurs). A majority (66% of professionals, 71% of amateurs) had visited an ophthalmologist at least once during their lifetime, and 10% of the professionals and 23% of the amateurs were currently under treatment of an ophthalmologist. Visual complaints while playing in the orchestra were quite common and included poor lighting conditions, problems with reading small notes, blurred vision, tired eyes, and itching or burning eyes. Professional musicians especially reported adverse effects of eye complaints encountered in the orchestra for daily life; 35% got tired earlier and 33% felt that they could not adequately perform their tasks in the orchestra. The results show that visual complaints and eye problems probably are quite common among orchestral musicians and therefore warrant further interest and research.

  9. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is elicited with para-foveal hemifield oddball stimulation: An event-related brain potential (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The study tested whether the vMMN was observable when the visual input is restricted to one visual hemifield and, with this, only para-foveal input to one of the two primary sensory cortices in the visual system is available for stimulus processing. The vMMN was elicited by the stimulation restricted to a small portion of the visual field. This demonstrates that in general vMMN elicitation is not confined to stimulations covering a broad range of the visual field or to the propagation of sensory information to both sensory visual cortices. In addition, the vMMN amplitudes showed a high variability between the different conditions, including non-significant vMMN amplitudes. This suggests that pronounced vMMNs observed in experimental settings relies on salient visual stimuli covering different channels of sensory information in vision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SAPHO: Treatment options including bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Tom; Vlam, Kurt de

    2016-10-01

    Both the diagnosis and treatment of the syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) remain difficult. We describe a case series of 21 patients with SAPHO and their response to several pharmacological treatments. Clinical and biochemical data, along with medical imaging, were collected from the medical records of 21 patients, diagnosed as SAPHO during follow-up between 2005 and 2013. Symptoms and inflammatory markers were recorded twice, once at first patient presentation, and once at the end of follow-up. Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis were labeled as defining features. All treatment options were categorized according to their respective responses (full remission, partial remission, and no disease control). There was a female predominance and a median age of 32 years (range: 12-54 years). Median follow-up duration was 45 months (range: 0-188 months). Total prevalence of defining features in this cohort increased for each defining feature during follow-up, except for acne. All patients reached full or partial remission at the end of follow-up. A total of 14 patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Of which 8 of them went into full or partial remission. In our case series, none of the patients had the full presentation of SAPHO at the first consultation. Some presented with symptoms suggestive for psoriatic arthritis. This explains why diagnosis of SAPHO can be challenging. Full remission was induced in the majority of individuals. Bisphosphonates seem to be a noteworthy treatment option. We suggest a prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial with bisphosphonates to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A neural theory of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing...... resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally important objects than to less important ones. By use of the same basic equations used in TVA, NTVA accounts for a wide range of known attentional effects in human performance (reaction times and error rates) and a wide range of effects observed in firing rates...

  12. The Application of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine To The Visualization Of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, J. C.

    2017-05-01

    The Montage Image Mosaic Engine was designed as a scalable toolkit, written in C for performance and portability across *nix platforms, that assembles FITS images into mosaics. This code is freely available and has been widely used in the astronomy and IT communities for research, product generation, and for developing next-generation cyber-infrastructure. Recently, it has begun finding applicability in the field of visualization. This development has come about because the toolkit design allows easy integration into scalable systems that process data for subsequent visualization in a browser or client. The toolkit it includes a visualization tool suitable for automation and for integration into Python: mViewer creates, with a single command, complex multi-color images overlaid with coordinate displays, labels, and observation footprints, and includes an adaptive image histogram equalization method that preserves the structure of a stretched image over its dynamic range. The Montage toolkit contains functionality originally developed to support the creation and management of mosaics, but which also offers value to visualization: a background rectification algorithm that reveals the faint structure in an image; and tools for creating cutout and downsampled versions of large images. Version 5 of Montage offers support for visualizing data written in HEALPix sky-tessellation scheme, and functionality for processing and organizing images to comply with the TOAST sky-tessellation scheme required for consumption by the World Wide Telescope (WWT). Four online tutorials allow readers to reproduce and extend all the visualizations presented in this paper.

  13. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Darainy, Mohammad; Bricolo, Emanuela; Ostry, David J

    2013-10-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well? It has been recently shown that motor learning that involves actual physical practice is also associated with plasticity in the somatosensory system. Here, we assessed the idea that observational learning likewise changes somatosensory function. We evaluated changes in somatosensory function after human subjects watched videos depicting motor learning. Subjects first observed video recordings of reaching movements either in a clockwise or counterclockwise force field. They were then trained in an actual force-field task that involved a counterclockwise load. Measures of somatosensory function were obtained before and after visual observation and also following force-field learning. Consistent with previous reports, video observation promoted motor learning. We also found that somatosensory function was altered following observational learning, both in direction and in magnitude, in a manner similar to that which occurs when motor learning is achieved through actual physical practice. Observation of the same sequence of movements in a randomized order did not result in somatosensory perceptual change. Observational learning and real physical practice appear to tap into the same capacity for sensory change in that subjects that showed a greater change following observational learning showed a reliably smaller change following physical motor learning. We conclude that effects of observing motor learning extend beyond the boundaries of traditional motor circuits, to include somatosensory representations.

  14. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...

  15. Collaborative interactive visualization: exploratory concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Marielle; Lavigne, Valérie; Drolet, Frédéric

    2015-05-01

    Dealing with an ever increasing amount of data is a challenge that military intelligence analysts or team of analysts face day to day. Increased individual and collective comprehension goes through collaboration between people. Better is the collaboration, better will be the comprehension. Nowadays, various technologies support and enhance collaboration by allowing people to connect and collaborate in settings as varied as across mobile devices, over networked computers, display walls, tabletop surfaces, to name just a few. A powerful collaboration system includes traditional and multimodal visualization features to achieve effective human communication. Interactive visualization strengthens collaboration because this approach is conducive to incrementally building a mental assessment of the data meaning. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the envisioned collaboration architecture and the interactive visualization concepts underlying the Sensemaking Support System prototype developed to support analysts in the context of the Joint Intelligence Collection and Analysis Capability project at DRDC Valcartier. It presents the current version of the architecture, discusses future capabilities to help analyst(s) in the accomplishment of their tasks and finally recommends collaboration and visualization technologies allowing to go a step further both as individual and as a team.

  16. NASA Dryden flow visualization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfrate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  17. Computer systems and methods for visualizing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Chris; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2010-07-13

    A method for forming a visual plot using a hierarchical structure of a dataset. The dataset comprises a measure and a dimension. The dimension consists of a plurality of levels. The plurality of levels form a dimension hierarchy. The visual plot is constructed based on a specification. A first level from the plurality of levels is represented by a first component of the visual plot. A second level from the plurality of levels is represented by a second component of the visual plot. The dataset is queried to retrieve data in accordance with the specification. The data includes all or a portion of the dimension and all or a portion of the measure. The visual plot is populated with the retrieved data in accordance with the specification.

  18. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... statistically to lesion location and size measured by MRI. Visual processing speed was impaired in the contralesional hemifield for most patients, but typically preserved ipsilesionally, even after large cortico-subcortical lesions. When bilateral deficits in processing speed occurred, they were related...

  19. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  20. DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL DAN PANGGILAN KRISTIANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlianto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Communication Design is one of the arts movements. Being one aspect of the culture%2C it shows a holistic development and develops a great influence on human life including the way of thinking and attitude. To the Christian point of view%2C there are some visual media presentations that need special and precautious treatment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Disain Komunikasi Visual merupakan perkembangan yang makin maju dari seni sebagai aspek kebudayaan yang berkembang makin holistik dan punya daya pengaruh empat dimensional terhadap kehidupan manusia%2C yaitu pandangan dan pola perilaku dan kehidupan seseorang. Ditinjau dari Iman Kristiani%2C setidaknya ada berbagai bentuk pengaruh penyajian media visual yang perlu dihadapi dengan kewaspadaan. Visual Communication Design%2C Christian values.