WorldWideScience

Sample records for included unabated intense

  1. Quince años de MedUNAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hérnandez Rey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Para conmemorar los quince años de MedUNAB el comité estudiantil quiso escribir sobre el significado que tiene para cada uno de sus miembros pertenecer a ella. Es así como en este editorial recogemos las distintas experiencias que se han tenido, algunas de años, otras de meses. MedUNAB es una escuela editorial que hace posible que tres veces al año la comunidad académica de Latinoamérica cuente, tanto física como virtualmente, con una revista científica del área de la salud. Los miembros del comité estudiantil son seleccionados por el editor y por los integrantes con más antigüedad después de hacer un entrenamiento en el cual se aprenden las bases para el proceso editorial que va desde la recepción de los artículos, hasta cómo hacer llegar la revista a cada uno de ustedes en aulas de clase, congresos, simposios, charlas y consultorios, pasando por la evaluación de los escritos, basada en los estrictos parámetros internacionales, la búsqueda de revisores calificados, la corrección de estilo y la diagramación.

  2. Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, Pia; Brandt, Nils; Nordström, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO 2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO 2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO 2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO 2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO 2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO 2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO 2 intensity. - Highlights: • We present a formula for calculating hybrid dynamic CO 2 intensity of electricity generation mixes. • We apply the dynamic CO 2 Intensity on hourly electricity market prices and generation units for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate the spearman correlation between hourly electricity market price and dynamic CO 2 intensity for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate carbon footprint of shifting 1 kWh load daily from on-peak hours to off-peak hours using the dynamic CO 2 intensity. • We conclude that using dynamic CO 2 intensity for

  3. La investigación al interior del programa de enfermería - UNAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Gómez Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2000 la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga-UNAB, estableció en su plan de desarrollo de manera específica la creación del Programa de Enfermería como una manera de impulsar la naciente Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y como una forma para responder a una necesidad de la región y del país, con crecientes necesidades y demandas de salud por parte de la población, y teniendo en cuenta la reorganización de los servicios de salud y los avances científicos y tecnológicos. Es así como se abordó el tema procurando explorar escenarios que dieran fuerza al programa e hicieran que se posicionara entre las preferidas por los jóvenes que buscasen cursar estudios universitarios.

  4. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  5. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  6. Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Unkelbach, Jan; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David

    2012-02-07

    We present a method to include robustness in a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties (or errors) of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios (shifted patient positions, proton beam undershoot and overshoot). Objectives and constraints can be defined for the nominal scenario, thus characterizing nominal plan quality. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios and thus provides a measure of plan robustness. The optimization method is based on a linear projection solver and is capable of handling large problem sizes resulting from a fine dose grid resolution, many scenarios, and a large number of proton pencil beams. A base-of-skull case is used to demonstrate the robust optimization method. It is demonstrated that the robust optimization method reduces the sensitivity of the treatment plan to setup and range errors to a degree that is not achieved by a safety margin approach. A chordoma case is analyzed in more detail to demonstrate the involved trade-offs between target underdose and brainstem sparing as well as robustness and nominal plan quality. The latter illustrates the advantage of MCO in the context of robust planning. For all cases examined, the robust optimization for

  7. Beam dynamics in high intensity cyclotrons including neighboring bunch effects: Model, implementation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Yang (杨建俊

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Space-charge effects, being one of the most significant collective effects, play an important role in high intensity cyclotrons. However, for cyclotrons with small turn separation, other existing effects are of equal importance. Interactions of radially neighboring bunches are also present, but their combined effects have not yet been investigated in any great detail. In this paper, a new particle in the cell-based self-consistent numerical simulation model is presented for the first time. The model covers neighboring bunch effects and is implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. We discuss this model together with its implementation and validation. Simulation results are presented from the PSI 590 MeV ring cyclotron in the context of the ongoing high intensity upgrade program, which aims to provide a beam power of 1.8 MW (CW at the target destination.

  8. Maximum-Intensity Volumes for Fast Contouring of Lung Tumors Including Respiratory Motion in 4DCT Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietzel, Eike; Liu, Arthur K.; Chen, George T.Y.; Choi, Noah C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum-intensity volumes (MIV) for fast contouring of lung tumors including respiratory motion. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data of 10 patients were acquired. Maximum-intensity volumes were constructed by assigning the maximum Hounsfield unit in all CT volumes per geometric voxel to a new, synthetic volume. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on all CT volumes, and their union was constructed. The GTV with all its respiratory motion was contoured on the MIV as well. Union GTVs and GTVs including motion were compared visually. Furthermore, planning target volumes (PTVs) were constructed for the union of GTVs and the GTV on MIV. These PTVs were compared by centroid position, volume, geometric extent, and surface distance. Results: Visual comparison of GTVs demonstrated failure of the MIV technique for 5 of 10 patients. For adequate GTV MIV s, differences between PTVs were <1.0 mm in centroid position, 5% in volume, ±5 mm in geometric extent, and ±0.5 ± 2.0 mm in surface distance. These values represent the uncertainties for successful MIV contouring. Conclusion: Maximum-intensity volumes are a good first estimate for target volume definition including respiratory motion. However, it seems mandatory to validate each individual MIV by overlaying it on a movie loop displaying the 4DCT data and editing it for possible inadequate coverage of GTVs on additional 4DCT motion states

  9. Spectral line intensities of NeVII for non-equilibrium ionization plasma including dielectronic recombination processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Safronova, U.

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients from Li-like Ne (Ne{sup 7+}) ions to Be-like Ne (Ne{sup 6+}) ions for selected excited states of Ne{sup 6+} ions. A collisional-radiative model (CRM) for Ne{sup 6+} ions is constructed to calculate the population density of each excited state in non-equilibrium ionization plasmas, including recombining processes. NeVII spectral line intensities and the radiative power loss are calculated with the CRM. A density effect caused by collisional excitation from the metastable state 2s2p {sup 3}P is found at an electron density of 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. The collisional excitations between excited states become important at high electron temperature T{sub e} > or approx. 100 eV. (author)

  10. Patient and program costs, and outcomes, of including gender-sensitive services in intensive inpatient programs for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornack, Sarah E; Yates, Brian T

    2017-12-01

    Gender-sensitive services (GSS) attempt to make substance use treatment better for women, but at what cost and with what results? We sought answers to these questions in a federally-funded study by measuring separately the patient and provider costs of adding GSS, outcomes, and cost-outcome relationships for 12 mixed-gender intensive inpatient programs (IIP) that varied in amounts and types of GSS. GSS costs to female inpatients included time devoted to GSS and expenses for care of dependents while in the IIP. GSS costs to providers included time spent with patients, indirect services, treatment facilities, equipment, and materials. Offering more GSS was expected to consume more patient and provider resources. Offering more GSS also was expected to enhance outcomes and cost-outcome relationships. We found that average GSS costs to patients at the IIPs were $585 ($515-$656) per patient. Average GSS costs to providers at the IIPs were $344 ($42-$544) per patient. GSS costs to patients significantly exceeded GSS costs to providers. Contrary to previous research, offering more GSS services to patients did not result in significantly higher costs to patients or providers. IIPs offering more GSS may have delivered fewer traditional services, but this did not significantly affect outcomes, i.e., days until returning to another substance use treatment. In fact, median cost-outcome for these IIPs was a promising 35 treatment-free days, i.e., over a month, per $100 of GSS resources used by patients and providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of web services for computerized medical decision support, including infection control and antibiotic management, in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurbaut, Kristof; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Colpaert, Kirsten; Lamont, Kristof; Taveirne, Kristof; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominique; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU) requires complex software services, to reduce improper use of antibiotics and inappropriate therapies, and to offer earlier and more accurate detection of infections and antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether web-based software can facilitate the computerization of complex medical processes in the ICU. The COSARA application contains the following modules: Infection overview, Thorax, Microbiology, Antibiotic therapy overview, Admission cause with comorbidity and admission diagnosis, Infection linking and registration, and Feedback. After the implementation and test phase, the COSARA software was installed on a physician's office PC and then on the bedside PCs of the patients. Initial evaluation indicated that the services had been integrated easily into the daily clinical workflow of the medical staff. The use of a service oriented architecture with web service technology for the development of advanced decision support in the ICU offers several advantages over classical software design approaches.

  12. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Precision-Oriented Radiation Therapy Techniques Including Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Liu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary results with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Between August 2000 and May 2001, we treated 19 patients with NPC using IMRT. Twelve patients had stage I-II disease and seven had stage III-IV disease. Six patients received 9.0-19.8 Gy three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT before IMRT and 18 patients received a brachytherapy boost after IMRT. The mean follow-up time was 13.0 months. All patients with stage II-IV disease except one received two cycles of chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU during radiotherapy, followed by two to four cycles of chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using clinical examination and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The mean doses administered to the gross tumor volume and clinical tumor volume were 70.9 Gy and 63.2 Gy, respectively. The mean doses administered to the right and left parotid glands were 38.1 Gy and 38.6 Gy, respectively. All 19 patients had a complete response of primary and lymph node disease. Grade III mucositis developed during chemoradiotherapy in 15 patients (79%. In addition, clinical grade I xerostomia was recorded in nine patients, grade II in nine, and grade III in one. This study demonstrated that 3D-CRT, IMRT, intracavitary brachytherapy, and chemotherapy are effective and safe methods to treat NPC. Although IMRT treatment spared parotid gland function, its efficacy may be significantly influenced by disease stage and location of the neck lymph nodes. More cases and a longer follow-up to assess survival and complications are planned.

  13. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  14. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  15. Development of a Web-Based Quality Dashboard Including a Toolbox to Improve Pain Management in Dutch Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos-Blom, Marie-José; Gude, Wouter T; de Jonge, Evert; Spijkstra, Jan Jaap; van der Veer, Sabine N; Dongelmans, Dave A; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2017-01-01

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is a common strategy to improve quality of care. Meta-analyses have indicated that A&F may be more effective in realizing desired change when baseline performance is low, it is delivered by a supervisor or colleague, it is provided frequently and in a timely manner, it is delivered in both verbal and written formats, and it includes specific targets and an action plan. However, there is little information to guide operationalization of these factors. Researchers have consequently called for A&F interventions featuring well-described and carefully justified components, with their theoretical rationale made explicit. This paper describes the rationale and development of a quality dashboard including an improvement toolbox for four previous developed pain indicators, guided by Control Theory.

  16. Evolution of ventricular outpouching through the fetal and postnatal periods: Unabating dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Kumar Dipak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular outpouching is a rare finding in prenatal sonography and the main differential diagnoses are diverticulum, aneurysm, and pseudoaneurysm in addition to congenital cysts and clefts. The various modes of fetal presentation of congenital ventricular outpouching include an abnormal four-chamber view on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram, fetal arrhythmia, fetal hydrops, and pericardial effusion. Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA/nonapical diverticula are usually isolated defects. Apical diverticula are always associated with midline thoracoabdominal defects (epigastric pulsating diverticulum or large omphalocele and other structural malformations of the heart. Most patients with LVA/congenital ventricular diverticulum remain clinically asymptomatic but they can potentially give rise to complications such as ventricular tachyarrhythmias, systemic embolism, sudden death, spontaneous rupture, and severe valvular regurgitation. The treatment of asymptomatic LVA and isolated congenital ventricular diverticulum is still undefined. In this review, our aim is to outline a systematic approach to a fetus detected with ventricular outpouching. Starting with prevalence and its types, issues in fetal management, natural course and evolution postbirth, and finally the perpetual dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction is discussed.

  17. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that

  18. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  19. HIV-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma: Good Efficacy and Tolerance of Intensive Chemotherapy Including CODOX-M/IVAC with or without Rituximab in the HAART Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, J. A.; Hicks, L. K.; Cheung, M. C.; Song, K. W.; Ezzat, H.; Leger, C. S.; Boro, J.; Montaner, J. S. G.; Harris, M.; Leitch, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The outcome of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has improved substantially in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. However, HIV-Burkitt lymphoma (BL), which accounts for up to 20% of HIV-NHL, has poor outcome with standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed HIV-BL treated in the HAART era with the Magrath regimen (CODOX-M/IVAC±R) at four Canadian centres. Results. Fourteen patients with HIV-BL received at least one CODOX-M/IVAC±R treatment. Median age at BL diagnosis was 45.5 years, CD4 count 375 cells/mL and HIV viral load (VL) 250 cells/mL and undetectable, respectively, in 4. Conclusion. Intensive chemotherapy with CODOX-M/IVAC±R yielded acceptable toxicity and good survival rates in patients with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma receiving HAART. PMID:22190945

  20. HIV-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma: Good Efficacy and Tolerance of Intensive Chemotherapy Including CODOX-M/IVAC with or without Rituximab in the HAART Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The outcome of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL has improved substantially in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART era. However, HIV-Burkitt lymphoma (BL, which accounts for up to 20% of HIV-NHL, has poor outcome with standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed HIV-BL treated in the HAART era with the Magrath regimen (CODOX-M/IVAC±R at four Canadian centres. Results. Fourteen patients with HIV-BL received at least one CODOX-M/IVAC±R treatment. Median age at BL diagnosis was 45.5 years, CD4 count 375 cells/mL and HIV viral load (VL 250 cells/mL and undetectable, respectively, in 4. Conclusion. Intensive chemotherapy with CODOX-M/IVAC±R yielded acceptable toxicity and good survival rates in patients with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma receiving HAART.

  1. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  2. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

    2003-10-01

    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  3. The effects of a cycling warm-up including high-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4 km time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L

    2017-03-25

    Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65.3 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min) performed two 4 km cycling time trials following a 5-minute recovery after a warm-up at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 6.5-minutes (MW), and a warm-up with conditioning contractions (CW) consisting of 5 minutes at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max then 3 x 10-seconds at 70% of peak power interspersed with 30-seconds recovery. Blood lactate concentrations were measured before and after time trial. Expired gases were analysed along with time, power output (PO), and peak forces over each 500 m split. Following CW, mean completion time was reduced (1.7 ± 3.5 s p > 0.05), PO increased (5.1 ± 10.5 W p > 0.05) as did peak force per pedal stroke (5.7 ± 11 N p > 0.05) when compared to MW. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 increased (1.4 ± 1.6 ml·kg·min p cycling but work and recovery durations should be optimised for each athlete.

  4. Percepción de estudiantes y docentes de la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (UNAB sobre el curso en línea de inducción a la modalidad virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Osorio Valdès

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir y reflexionar sobre la percepción de los estudiantes y docentes del curso en línea: “Inducción a la modalidad virtual”, ofrecido a los nuevos estudiantes de los diferentes programas de UNAB Tecnológica (Colombia. Para ello se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, con un diseño de investigación no experimental transversal que incluyó una muestra de 37 estudiantes y 3 docentes; a quienes se aplicaron diferentes instrumentos de recolección de información diseñados para esta investigación (2 encuestas y 1 guía de análisis del curso. Los resultados indican que la mayoría de estudiantes y docentes encuentran dentro del curso el cumplimiento de aspectos relacionados con los componentes pedagógico, tecnológico y organizativo; y ubican algunos aspectos susceptibles de mejora relacionados con el diseño del curso (componente pedagógico, duración y espacio de tiempo en el que es implementado (componente organizativo y servicio de consejería (componente tecnológico.

  5. Calculated and measured stresses in simple panels subject to intense random acoustic loading including the near noise field of a turbojet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W

    1958-01-01

    Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.

  6. Low-Intensity Ultrasound-Induced Anti-inflammatory Effects Are Mediated by Several New Mechanisms Including Gene Induction, Immunosuppressor Cell Promotion, and Enhancement of Exosome Biogenesis and Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders.Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS.Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1 LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2 LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells, MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells, B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells; (3 LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4 LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5 Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6 LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways.Conclusions: Our results have provided novel insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS, and have provided guidance for the development of future novel therapeutic LIUS for cancers, inflammatory disorders, tissue regeneration and tissue repair.

  7. Clinical-dosimetric analysis of measures of dysphagia including gastrostomy-tube dependence among head and neck cancer patients treated definitively by intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Kathleen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To investigate the association between dose to various anatomical structures and dysphagia among patients with head and neck cancer treated by definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and materials Thirty-nine patients with squamous cancer of the head and neck were treated by definitive concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 68 to 72. In each patient, a gastrostomy tube (GT was prophylacticly placed prior to starting treatment. Prolonged GT dependence was defined as exceeding the median GT duration of 192 days. Dysphagia was scored using standardized quality-of-life instruments. Dose-volume histogram (DVH data incorporating the superior/middle pharyngeal constrictors (SMPC, inferior pharyngeal constrictor (IPC, cricoid pharyngeal inlet (CPI, and cervical esophagus (CE were analyzed in relation to prolonged GT dependence, dysphagia, and weight loss. Results At 3 months and 6 months after treatment, 87% and 44% of patients, respectively, were GT dependent. Spearman's ρ analysis identified statistical correlations (p 30%, IPC V60 > 60%, IPC Dmean > 60 Gy, and CPI Dmax > 62 Gy predicted for greater than 50% probability of prolonged GT dependence. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that adhering to the following parameters may decrease the risk of prolonged GT dependence and dysphagia: IPC V65

  8. El proyecto “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: 15 años construyendo un activo institucional de la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga-UNAB / Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas Disease Project. CHICAMOCHA: 15 Years Building an Asset for The Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga-UNAB / O Projeto Cardiovascular Investigação de Saúde e colaboração para avaliar os marcadores e resultados da doença de Chagas CHICAMOCHA: 15 anos construindo um ativo institucional na Universidade Autônoma de Bucaramanga-UNAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villar-Centeno, MD., Esp., MSc., PhD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El 3 de mayo del año 2000 asistió a una oficina de la entonces naciente Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (UNAB, quien fuera el primer participante de un proyecto llamado “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA. Su estudio piloto, planeado para un año, fue financiado por el departamento de ayudas a la comunidad de ECOPETROL (a través de un convenio con el ISABU, firmado por el entonces director, el actual decano de la facultad, Dr. Juan José Rey. El apoyo dado por el director de investigaciones de la UNAB, Dr. Germán Oliveros, y el decano en la época, Dr. Juan Carlos Mantilla encontró un rector dispuesto, el Dr. Gabriel Burgos Mantilla, que equiparó el apoyo económico con el del patrocinador externo. Con ese soporte, bajo la coordinación del Dr. Luis Ángel Villar, el equipo de trabajo inicial (Víctor Mauricio Herrera, médico, Martha Vásquez, enfermera y Claudia Ríos, secretaria inició este proyecto. CHICAMOCHA fue concebido para que – estudiando donantes de sangre con pruebas de tamización positivas o negativas para Trypanosoma cruzi en una relación 1:4 – se sirvieran dos propósitos: El primero era facilitar el estudio del diagnóstico temprano de la cardiomiopatía de Chagas, por comparación con su contraparte de seronegativos; el segundo, a mayor plazo, era construir una cohorte de adultos jóvenes clínicamente sanos. Esto permitiría, luego de varios años de observación, contribuir al estudio de la enfermedad cardiovascular de origen aterosclerótico y sus factores de riesgo, como aporte al conocimiento de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT en nuestro medio. En esta editorial haremos énfasis en la segunda meta, cumplida más de una década después. Luego de varios intentos por superar las dificultades logísticas, se logra conseguir financiación de Colciencias para reevaluar los

  9. Homelessness in America: Unabated and Increasing. A 10-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Barbara; Gleason, Mary Ann

    Ten years after passage of the McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, homelessness was studied in 11 urban, rural, and suburban communities and 4 states. The first section of the report examines the findings of detailed research on homelessness in these locations. The second section draws conclusions and outlines future directions for efforts to…

  10. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  11. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  12. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  13. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  14. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  15. The intense neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1966-01-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through μ-, π- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  18. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Møller, Morten Hylander; Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. STUDY POPULATION: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID) was established in 2007...... and includes virtually all ICU admissions in Denmark since 2005. The DID obtains data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, with complete follow-up through the Danish Civil Registration System. MAIN VARIABLES: For each ICU admission, the DID includes data on the date and time of ICU admission, type...

  19. Reducing Transport Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banister, D. [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Stead, D. [OTB Research Institute, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper transport intensity concerns the economic or energy efficiency of transport. The focus of the paper is the measurement and use of indicators of transport intensity. Most research has concentrated on the volume and distance measures, which show continuous increases over time, normally at a rate that is higher than the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It is argued that an additional element needs to be included, namely transport efficiency, which relates to modes, technologies, organisational structures, the use of resources and prices. The measurement of GDP also needs to be extended. Measures of economic and transport energy efficiency are applied to EU countries and contrasted with similar measures for the USA and Canada. The empirical evidence is then placed in the wider context of globalisation and economic change, and the case for real decoupling is made for both the freight and passenger sectors.

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and ... The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're doing ...

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen CF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian Fynbo Christiansen,1 Morten Hylander Møller,2 Henrik Nielsen,1 Steffen Christensen3 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Intensive Care 4131, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. Study population: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID was established in 2007 and includes virtually all ICU admissions in Denmark since 2005. The DID obtains data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, with complete follow-up through the Danish Civil Registration System. Main variables: For each ICU admission, the DID includes data on the date and time of ICU admission, type of admission, organ supportive treatments, date and time of discharge, status at discharge, and mortality up to 90 days after admission. Descriptive variables include age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index score, and, since 2010, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II. The variables are recorded with 90%–100% completeness in the recent years, except for SAPS II score, which is 73%–76% complete. The DID currently includes five quality indicators. Process indicators include out-of-hour discharge and transfer to other ICUs for capacity reasons. Outcome indicators include ICU readmission within 48 hours and standardized mortality ratios for death within 30 days after admission using case-mix adjustment (initially using age, sex, and comorbidity level, and, since 2013, using SAPS II for all patients and for patients with septic shock. Descriptive data: The DID currently includes 335,564 ICU admissions during 2005–2015 (average 31,958 ICU admissions per year. Conclusion: The DID provides a

  3. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  7. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the propos...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...

  8. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  9. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Guozhen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  11. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  12. African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is to provide a medium for the dissemination of original works in Africa and other parts of the world about anaesthesia and intensive care including the application of basic sciences ...

  13. Hispanic Inpatient Pain Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Deborah Dillon; Ambrose, Margaret; Morey, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Hispanic adults experience significant pain, but little is known about their pain during hospitalization. The purpose of this research was to describe Hispanic inpatients' pain intensity and compare their pain intensity with that of non-Hispanic patients. A post hoc descriptive design was used to examine 1,466 Hispanic inpatients' medical records (63.2% English speakers) and 12,977 non-Hispanic inpatients' medical records from one hospital for 2012. Mean documented pain intensity was mild for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic inpatients. Pain intensity was greater for English-speaking Hispanic patients than Spanish speakers. The odds of being documented with moderate or greater pain intensity decreased 30% for Spanish-speaking patients. Greater pain intensity documented for English-speaking Hispanic inpatients suggests underreporting of pain intensity by Spanish-speaking patients. Practitioners should use interpreter services when assessing and treating pain with patients who speak languages different from the practitioners' language(s). © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles ... Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming laps Tennis (singles) ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ... miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. ... Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than 10 miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming laps Tennis (singles) Aerobic dancing Bicycling 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping ...

  7. [Intensive care medicine-survival and prospect of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, A

    2017-10-01

    Intensive care medicine has achieved a significant increase in survival rates from critical illness. In addition to short-term outcomes like intensive care unit or hospital mortality, long-term prognosis and prospect of life of intensive care patients have recently become increasingly important. Pure survival is no longer a sole goal of intensive care medicine. The prediction of an intensive care patient's individual course should include the period after intensive care. A relevant proportion of all intensive care patients is affected by physical, psychological, cognitive, and social limitations after discharge from the intensive care unit. The prognosis of the status of the patient after discharge from the intensive care unit is an important part of the decision-making process with respect to the implementation or discontinuation of intensive care measures. The heavy burden of intensive care treatment should not solely be argued by pure survival but an anticipated sound prospect of life.

  8. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  9. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  10. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  11. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  12. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  13. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  14. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  15. New rainfall coefficients : including tools for estimation of intensity and hyetographs in Texas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Depth-Duration-Frequency coefficients for Texas were updated from findings reported in Asquith (1998) and Asquith and Roussel (2004) and are herein referred to as the 2015DDF values. The 2015DDF values were used to estimate the 2015ebd value...

  16. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  17. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence...

  18. Intensity (a.u)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Supplementary Information. Fig. S1. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern (Cu Kα) for AlPO-5: (a) as prepared, (b) calcined and (c) simulated [Ref. 27]. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. Intensity (a.u) b c a. 2θ ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to Action ... doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  5. INTENSITY DEPENDENT EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEI, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is currently under commissioning after a seven-year construction cycle. Unlike conventional hadron colliders, this machine accelerates, stores, and collides heavy ion beams of various combinations of species. The dominant intensity dependent effects are intra-beam scattering at both injection and storage, and complications caused by crossing transition at a slow ramp rate. In this paper, the authors present theoretical formalisms that have been used for the study, and discuss mechanisms, impacts, and compensation methods including beam cooling and transition jump schemes. Effects of space charge, beam-beam, and ring impedances are also summarized

  6. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  7. Intensities of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissell, David; Vannini, Phillip; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate...... to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark...... this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions...

  8. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  9. [Quality assurance concepts in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, A; Braun, J P; Riessen, R; Dubb, R; Kaltwasser, A; Bingold, T M

    2015-11-01

    Intensive care medicine (ICM) is characterized by a high degree of complexity and requires intense communication and collaboration on interdisciplinary and multiprofessional levels. In order to achieve good quality of care in this environment and to prevent errors, a proactive quality and error management as well as a structured quality assurance system are essential. Since the early 1990s, German intensive care societies have developed concepts for quality management and assurance in ICM. In 2006, intensive care networks were founded in different states to support the implementation of evidence-based knowledge into clinical routine and to improve medical outcome, efficacy, and efficiency in ICM. Current instruments and concepts of quality assurance in German ICM include core intensive care data from the data registry DIVI REVERSI, quality indicators, peer review in intensive care, IQM peer review, and various certification processes. The first version of German ICM quality indicators was published in 2010 by an interdisciplinary and interprofessional expert commission. Key figures, indicators, and national benchmarks are intended to describe the quality of structures, processes, and outcomes in intensive care. Many of the quality assurance tools have proved to be useful in clinical practice, but nationwide implementation still can be improved.

  10. Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper (CDIM) is a 1.0m-class infrared telescope capable of three-dimensional spectro-imaging observations over the wavelength range of 0.75 to 7.5 microns, at a spectral resolving power at or better than 300. This will be achieved with linear variablefilters (LVFs) and a large field-of-view (FoV). The survey strategy using spacecraft operations following a shift and stare mode will result in more than 1300 independent narrow-band spectral images of the sky at a given location. Currently prioritized science programs, taking over three-years of a five-year mission, will be accomplished with a two-tiered wedding-cake survey with the shallowest spanning close to 300 sq. degrees and the deepest tier of about 25 sq. degrees.The remaining two-years could be used for additional survey programs (the wide tier can be expanded to 1000 sq. degrees) or for use by the astronomical community through a General Observing (GO) campaign. CDIM survey data will allow us to (i) establish the initial mass function of stars in galaxies present during reionization, (ii) definitively address AGN/quasar contribution to the reionization photon budget; (iii) establish the environmental dependence of star-formation during reionization through clustering and other environmental measurements; (iv) establish the metal abundance of first-light galaxies during reionization over two decades of stellar mass; (v) measure 3D intensity fluctuations during reionization in both Ly-alpha and H-alpha; and (vi) combine intensity fluctuations with 21-cm data to establish the topology of reionization bubbles.

  11. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  12. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large majority of animals (94% preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation-the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self

  13. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm...... and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...... will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency...

  14. Computer intensive statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakowitz, S.

    The special session “Computer-Intensive Statistical Methods” was held in morning and afternoon parts at the 1985 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Calif. Its mission was to provide a forum for hydrologists and statisticians who are active in bringing unconventional, algorithmic-oriented statistical techniques to bear on problems of hydrology. Statistician Emanuel Parzen (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex.) opened the session by relating recent developments in quantile estimation methods and showing how properties of such methods can be used to advantage to categorize runoff data previously analyzed by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela). Statistician Eugene Schuster (University of Texas, El Paso) discussed recent developments in nonparametric density estimation which enlarge the framework for convenient incorporation of prior and ancillary information. These extensions were motivated by peak annual flow analysis. Mathematician D. Myers (University of Arizona, Tucson) gave a brief overview of “kriging” and outlined some recently developed methodology.

  15. Orchestrating intensities and rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Juelskjær, Malou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to trace how contemporary (post)psychologies, when used as psy-leadership tools in order to reach new standards, may create new work around the standards and may also create new subjectivities. It is well known that education is a field in which standardization and the ......The aim of this article is to trace how contemporary (post)psychologies, when used as psy-leadership tools in order to reach new standards, may create new work around the standards and may also create new subjectivities. It is well known that education is a field in which standardization...... environmentality and learning-centered governance standards has dramatic and performative effects for the production of (educational) subjectivities. This implies a shift from governing identities, categories and structures towards orchestrating affective intensities and rhythms. Finally, the article discusses...... possible new worries and vulnerabilities when school goes post-psychological....

  16. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse eJakobsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed whispering can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats’ dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive manoeuvres of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity and directionality of echolocation signals in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat’s perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat’s view of its acoustic scene.

  17. Intensive Scheduling: When Less Is More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Francis, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the potential benefits of intensive scheduling, an alternative to traditional school day structuring that allows students to take fewer classes but stay in them longer. Suggests that fewer and longer classes accommodate more cooperative learning styles and enhance student academic performance. Includes descriptions of several intensive…

  18. Intensity Frontier Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

    2013-09-24

    The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked “Who ordered that?” upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

  19. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  20. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  1. Intensive Care for Eclampic Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment of puerperas with eclampic coma, by substantiating, developing, and introducing new algorithms for correction of systemic hemodynamic, metabolic disturbances, and perfusion-metabolic changes in brain tissues. Subjects and methods. Studies were conducted in 18 puerperas with eclampic coma (Group 2 in whom the authors used a new treatment algorithm aimed at maintaining baseline cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, restoring volemic levels at the expense of interstitial fluid. A control group (Group 1 included 30 patients who received conventional standard therapy. Regional cerebral circulation was measured by a non-invasive (inhalation radioisotopic method, by applying the tracer 131Xe, as described by V. D. Obrist et al., on a modified КПРДИ-1 apparatus (USSR. The rate of brain oxygen uptake was determined from the oxygen content between the artery and the internal jugular vein. Central hemodynamic parameters were studied by the direct method of right heart catheterization using a flow-directed Swan-Ganz catheter. The volumes of total and extracellular fluids were estimated using 20% urea and mannitol solutions, respectively, at 0.2 g/kg weight by the procedure of V. M. Mogen. Circulating blood volume (CBV was determined by a radioisotopic method using 131iodine albumin on an УPI-7 apparatus (USSR. Cerebral spinal fluid pressure was measured by an ИиНД apparatus. Studies were made in four steps: 1 on admission; 2 on days 2—3; 3 during emergence from coma; 4 before transition. Results. The use of the new algorithm for intensive care for eclampic coma, which is aimed at improving the perfusion metabolic provision of brain structures, with a reduction in mean blood pressure by 10—15% of the baseline level, by administering magnesium sulfate and nimodipine, and at compensating for CBV by high-molecular-weight hydroxyethylated starch (stabizol, ensured early emergence from a comatose state

  2. Intense particle beam and multiple applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Machida, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Multiple Application Intense Particle Beam project is an experiment in which an injector of high energy neutral or ionized particles will be used to diagnose high density and high temperature plasmas. The acceleration of the particles will be carried out feeding a diode with a high voltage pulse produced by a Marx generator. Other apllications of intense particle beam generated by this injector that could be explored in the future include: heating and stabilization of compact toroids, treatment of metallic surfaces and ion implantation. (author) [pt

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Gerber, James S.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Herrero, Mario; MacDonald, Graham K.; Brauman, Kate A.; Havlik, Petr; O'Connell, Christine S.; Johnson, Justin A.; Saatchi, Sassan; West, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics--including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (`production intensity’)--can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal-1)--concentrated in Europe and Indonesia--accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities.

  4. Intensity formulas for triplet bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budo, A.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work in this area is surveyed and the mathematics involved in determining the quantitative intensity measurements in triplet bands is presented. Explicit expressions for the intensity distribution in the branches of the 3 Sigma-3 Pi and 1 Sigma-3Pi bands valid for all values of the coupling constant Y of the 3 Pi terms are given. The intensity distribution calculated according to the formulas given is compared with measurements of PH, 3 Pi-3 Sigma. Good quantitative agreement is obtained.

  5. Light Intensity Physical Activity Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    Diabetes Mellitus; Physical Exercise; Light Intensity Physical Activity; Arterial Stiffness; Aortic Stiffness; Pulse Wave Velocity; Type2 Diabetes; Sedentary Lifestyle; Artery Disease; Physical Activity

  6. Traffic light intensity meter, TIM®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leden, N. van der; Varkevisser, J.; Vroom, J. de; Oijen, T van

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of traffic lights decreases over time as a result of pollution and ageing. The Dutch Traffic Research Centre of the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is searching for a convenient method for measuring the luminous intensity of traffic lights on the road, in order

  7. Intensive meditation for refractory pain and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Madhav; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Levine, David; Becker, Diane; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Ford, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess patient interest in intensive meditation training for chronic symptoms. This was a cross-sectional anonymous survey among six chronic disease clinics in Baltimore including Chronic Kidney Disease, Crohn's Disease, Headache, Renal Transplant Recipients, General Rheumatology, and lupus clinic. Subjects were 1119 consecutive patients registering for their appointments at these clinics. Outcome measures were 6-month pain, global symptomatology, four-item perceived stress scale, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, and attitudes toward use of meditation for managing symptoms. We then gave a scripted description of an intensive, 10-day meditation training retreat. Patient interest in attending such a retreat was assessed. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of patients approached completed the survey. Fifty-three percent (53%) of patients reported moderate to severe pain over the past 6 months. Eighty percent (80%) reported use of some CAM therapy in the past. Thirty-five percent (35%) thought that learning meditation would improve their health, and 49% thought it would reduce stress. Overall, 39% reported interest in attending the intensive 10-day meditation retreat. Among those reporting moderate to severe pain or stress, the percentages were higher (48% and 59%). In a univariate analysis, higher education, nonworking/disabled status, female gender, higher stress, higher pain, higher symptomatology, and any CAM use were all associated with a greater odds of being moderately to very interested in an intensive 10-day meditation retreat. A multivariate model that included prior use of CAM therapies as predictors of interest in the program fit the data significantly better than a model not including CAM therapies (p = 0.0013). Over 50% of patients followed in chronic disease clinics complain of moderate to severe pain. Patients with persistent pain or stress are more likely to be interested in intensive meditation.

  8. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic

  9. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  10. Intensity distributions in fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millane, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The probability distribution of X-ray intensities in fiber diffraction are different from those for single crystals (Wilson statistics) because of the cylindrical averaging of the diffraction data. Stubbs has recently determined the intensity distributions on a fiber diffraction pattern for a fixed number of overlapping Fourier-Bessel terms. Some properties of the amplitude and intensity distributions are derived here. It is shown that the amplitudes and intensities are approximately normally distributed (the distributions being asymptotically normal with increasing number of Fourier-Bessel terms). Improved approximations using an Edgeworth series are derived. Other statistical properties and some asymptotic expansions are also derived, and normalization of fiber diffraction amplitudes is discussed. The accuracies of the normal approximations are illustrated for particular fiber structures, and possible applications of intensity statistics in fiber diffraction are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out.

  12. The future of intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, L; Annane, D; Antonelli, M; Chiche, J D; Cuñat, J; Girard, T D; Jiménez, E J; Quintel, M; Ugarte, S; Mancebo, J

    2013-03-01

    Intensive care medical training, whether as a primary specialty or as secondary add-on training, should include key competences to ensure a uniform standard of care, and the number of intensive care physicians needs to increase to keep pace with the growing and anticipated need. The organisation of intensive care in multiple specialty or central units is heterogeneous and evolving, but appropriate early treatment and access to a trained intensivist should be assured at all times, and intensivists should play a pivotal role in ensuring communication and high-quality care across hospital departments. Structures now exist to support clinical research in intensive care medicine, which should become part of routine patient management. However, more translational research is urgently needed to identify areas that show clinical promise and to apply research principles to the real-life clinical setting. Likewise, electronic networks can be used to share expertise and support research. Individuals, physicians and policy makers need to allow for individual choices and priorities in the management of critically ill patients while remaining within the limits of economic reality. Professional scientific societies play a pivotal role in supporting the establishment of a defined minimum level of intensive health care and in ensuring standardised levels of training and patient care by promoting interaction between physicians and policy makers. The perception of intensive care medicine among the general public could be improved by concerted efforts to increase awareness of the services provided and of the successes achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. [Intensive care of delirium syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielmann, S; Petrow, H; Walther, P; Henze, Th

    2003-01-01

    Delirium is mental dysfunctions occurring as impaired attentional and memory systems with disturbances of consciousness, affectivity, psychomotor activity and sleep patterns. Numerous factors and underlying diseases may be responsible for these non-specific symptoms. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of preadmission history and current clinical status, supplemented by laboratory and extended technical diagnostic procedures, are always required. If delirium occurs in connection with emergency admission to hospital, an organic disease can most regularly be found. Due to its rapid time of onset and minor side-effects, the intravenous injection of 2.0 g gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is preferred for sedation of extremely agitated patients. Neuroleptic drugs are indicated in psychiatric patients. A central anticholinergic syndrome in the early postoperative period causative of the symptoms of delirium may respond to intravenous injection of physostigmine. Most of the time, however, these acute disturbances of brain function are best treated by correction of homeostatic imbalances, restoration of cardiovascular and respiratory stability and alleviation of pain. Postoperative delirium occurring two or more days later is frequently due to respiratory distress, followed by sepsis, alcohol withdrawal and many other causes including heart failure, exsiccosis and side-effects of drugs. In intensive care patients, delirium may be caused, for example, by withdrawal (alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines), the onset of sepsis (often venous catheter related), side-effects of drugs, problems of communication, sleep deprivation and others. Treatment should focus on finding the right approach. Personal care should be intensified and include help from family members. Most problems arise from agitated, non-cooperative patients. Treatment with clonidine, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid or neuroleptic drugs like perazin and haloperidol may be required to reduce agitation and the activation of

  14. Olfactory memories are intensity specific in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dushyant; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yarali, Ayse; Oguz, Tuba; Gerber, Bertram

    2013-05-01

    Learning can rely on stimulus quality, stimulus intensity, or a combination of these. Regarding olfaction, the coding of odour quality is often proposed to be combinatorial along the olfactory pathway, and working hypotheses are available concerning short-term associative memory trace formation of odour quality. However, it is less clear how odour intensity is coded, and whether olfactory memory traces include information about the intensity of the learnt odour. Using odour-sugar associative conditioning in larval Drosophila, we first describe the dose-effect curves of learnability across odour intensities for four different odours (n-amyl acetate, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde). We then chose odour intensities such that larvae were trained at an intermediate odour intensity, but were tested for retention with either that trained intermediate odour intensity, or with respectively higher or lower intensities. We observed a specificity of retention for the trained intensity for all four odours used. This adds to the appreciation of the richness in 'content' of olfactory short-term memory traces, even in a system as simple as larval Drosophila, and to define the demands on computational models of associative olfactory memory trace formation. We suggest two kinds of circuit architecture that have the potential to accommodate intensity learning, and discuss how they may be implemented in the insect brain.

  15. Obesity in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honiden, Shyoko; McArdle, John R

    2009-09-01

    The exact prevalence of obesity among critically ill patients is not known, but some evidence suggests that in the United States one in four patients in the intensive care unit is obese. The authors review the physiologic alterations in obesity that are relevant in critical illness and highlight some common diseases associated with obesity. Various practical challenges in the care of the critically ill obese patient, including drug dosing, are also reviewed.

  16. Intensive Care Nursing And Time Management

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCANLI, Derya; İLGÜN, Seda

    2008-01-01

    Time is not like other resources, because it can not be bought, sold, stolen, borrowed, stored, saved, multiplied or changed. All it can be done is spent. Time management means the effective use of resources, including time, in such a way that indi- viduals are effective in achieving important personal goals. With the increasing emphasis on efficiency in health care, how a nurse manages her time is an important consideration. Since intensive care nurs- ing is focused on the care and tr...

  17. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  18. ANESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE IN HEART RETRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we describe our own experience of anesthetic management and early intensive care of two patients after heart retransplantation. As shown in this article, preretransplant clinical condition (severity of organs dys- function influences on character of intra- and postoperative periods including duration of anesthesia, surgery, postoperative ventilation and ICU stay, intra- and postoperative bleeding, volume of blood product transfusion, infection complications, need in renal replacement therapy, selective LPS-adsorption and other therapeutic op- tions. 

  19. Spatial variability of "Did You Feel It?" intensity data: insights into sampling biases in historical earthquake intensity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent parallel development of improved quantitative methods to analyze intensity distributions for historical earthquakes and of web‐based systems for collecting intensity data for modern earthquakes provides an opportunity to reconsider not only important individual historical earthquakes but also the overall characterization of intensity distributions for historical events. The focus of this study is a comparison between intensity distributions of historical earthquakes with those from modern earthquakes for which intensities have been determined by the U.S. Geological Survey “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) website (see Data and Resources). As an example of a historical earthquake, I focus initially on the 1843 Marked Tree, Arkansas, event. Its magnitude has been previously estimated as 6.0–6.2. I first reevaluate the macroseismic effects of this earthquake, assigning intensities using a traditional approach, and estimate a preferred magnitude of 5.4. Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) values for the Marked Tree earthquake are higher, on average, than those from the 2011 >Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake for distances ≤500  km but comparable or lower on average at larger distances, with a smaller overall felt extent. Intensity distributions for other moderate historical earthquakes reveal similar discrepancies; the discrepancy is also even more pronounced using earlier published intensities for the 1843 earthquake. I discuss several hypotheses to explain the discrepancies, including the possibility that intensity values associated with historical earthquakes are commonly inflated due to reporting/sampling biases. A detailed consideration of the DYFI intensity distribution for the Mineral earthquake illustrates how reporting and sampling biases can account for historical earthquake intensity biases as high as two intensity units and for the qualitative difference in intensity distance decays for modern versus historical events. Thus, intensity maps for

  20. On calculating intensity from XPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, Janos

    2006-01-01

    The intensity calculation is the basis for all quantitative applications of electron spectroscopy. Unfortunately, some misinterpreted terms are used and correctly interpreted terms are misused in the overwhelming majority of publications in XPS, including most textbooks as well as accepted and proposed standards. Due to this mistake the number of the detected electrons is given as having dimension of energy (?) and also the formulas for calculating the peak area and its standard deviation are wrong. Since in all other spectroscopic fields the number of the detected particles is dimensionless, continuing this practice leads to isolating XPS from both other measurement sciences and theory, because the measured total intensity in XPS is simply not comparable to the ones derived with other spectroscopic methods or theoretically. Therefore, the basic measuring processes and terms are critically reviewed and their physically correct interpretation is given. This interpretation reveals that the error is hidden in the incorrect interpretation of both the measurement process and the measured quantity. It is shown that through using the correct interpretation both the dimensions of the intensity calculated from electron spectroscopic measurements as well as the formulas related to the intensity and its standard deviation will agree with all other spectroscopic fields

  1. Vacuum in intensive gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinian, S.G.

    1977-12-01

    The behaviour of vacuum in a covariantly constant Yang-Mills field is considered. The expressions for the effective Lagrangian in an intensive field representing the asymptotic freedom of the theory are found

  2. Coagulation disorders in intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Coagulation disorders are common in intensive care patients and may range from isolated thrombocytopenia or prolonged clotting times to disseminated intravascular coagulation. There are many causes of disturbed coagulation in critically ill patients and each may require specific treatment

  3. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  4. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  5. Cloud computing for data-intensive applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing platforms for data-intensive scientific applications. It covers systems that deliver infrastructure as a service, including: HPC as a service; virtual networks as a service; scalable and reliable storage; algorithms that manage vast cloud resources and applications runtime; and programming models that enable pragmatic programming and implementation toolkits for eScience applications. Many scientific applications in clouds are also introduced, such as bioinformatics, biology, weather forecasting and social networks. Most chapters include case studie

  6. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  7. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  8. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  9. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  10. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  12. Sins: the Supernova Intensive Study - SN1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert

    1991-07-01

    Supernovae are stars at the end of stellar evolution. They mark the moment of stellar destruction, act as the key process in the chemical evolution of the universe, serve as agitators and probes of the interstellar medium, and provide sharp and useful tools for cosmological investigations. As SN 1987A demonstrated, the best progress in this field comes from detailed study of the brightest objects. Many central problems of supernova research can be attacked by intensive and extensive observations of a handful of moderately bright supernovae using the HST cameras and spectrographs. SN 1987A provides a unique opportunity to connect the evolution of a supernova with the development of a supernova remnant and will be intensively studied in this program. Because supernovae touch on so many fields of astronomy, the results of this Supernova Intensive Study (SINS) will affect a broad range of areas from stellar interiors to cosmology so a diverse team of investigators has been assembled which includes experts on all these aspects of astronomy. While the first cycle observations concentrate on SN 1987A and on a fresh supernova to be studied at intermediate age, the second and third cycle will include target-of-opportunity observations of freshly-discovered supernovae which will strive for good UV coverage at early phases of the outburst.

  13. An electronic delphi study to establish pediatric intensive care nursing research priorities in twenty European countries*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tume, Lyvonne N.; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Wielenga, Joke M.; Latour, Jos M.

    2014-01-01

    To identify and to establish research priorities for pediatric intensive care nursing science across Europe. A modified three-round electronic Delphi technique was applied. Questionnaires were translated into seven different languages. European PICUs. The participants included pediatric intensive

  14. Internet interventions for chronic pain including headache: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Buhrman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health problem and behavioral based treatments have been shown to be effective. However, the availability of these kinds of treatments is scarce and internet-based treatments have been shown to be promising in this area. The objective of the present systematic review is to evaluate internet-based interventions for persons with chronic pain. The specific aims are to do an updated review with a broad inclusion of different chronic pain diagnoses and to assess disability and pain and also measures of catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. A systematic search identified 891 studies and 22 trials were selected as eligible for review. Two of the selected trials included children/youth and five included individuals with chronic headache and/or migraine. The most frequently measured domain reflected in the primary outcomes was interference/disability, followed by catastrophizing. Result across the studies showed a number of beneficial effects. Twelve trials reported significant effects on disability/interference outcomes and pain intensity. Positive effects were also found on psychological variable such as catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. Several studies (n = 12 were assessed to have an unclear level of risk bias. The attrition levels ranged from 4% to 54% where the headache trials had the highest drop-out levels. However, findings suggest that internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT are efficacious measured with different outcome variables. Results are in line with trials in clinical settings. Meta-analytic statistics were calculated for interference/disability, pain intensity, catastrophizing and mood ratings. Results showed that the effect size for interference/disability was Hedge's g = −0.39, for pain intensity Hedge's g = −0.33, for catastrophizing Hedge's g = −0.49 and for mood variables (depression Hedge's g = −0.26.

  15. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  16. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  17. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  18. [Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessizius, S

    2014-10-01

    A high amount of recently published articles and reviews have already focused on early mobilisation in intensive care medicine. However, in the clinical setting the problem of its practicability remains as each professional group in the mobility team has its own expectations concerning the interventions made by physiotherapy. Even though there are as yet no standard operation procedures (SOP), there do exist distinctive mobilisation concepts that are well implemented in certain intensive care units (http://www.fruehmobilisierung.de/Fruehmobilisierung/Algorithmen.html). Due to these facts and the urgent need for SOPs this article presents the physiotherapeutic concept for the treatment of patients in the intensive care unit which has been developed by the author: First the patients' respiratory and motor functions have to be established in order to classify the patients and allocate them to their appropriate group (one out of three) according to their capacities; additionally, the patients are analysed by checking their so-called "surrounding conditions". Following these criteria a therapy regime is developed and patients are treated accordingly. By constant monitoring and re-evaluation of the treatment in accordance with the functions of the patient a dynamic system evolves. "Keep it simple" is one of the key features of that physiotherapeutic concept. Thus, a manual for the classification and the physiotherapeutic treatment of an intensive care patient was developed. In this article it is demonstrated how this concept can be implemented in the daily routine of an intensive care unit. Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine has proven to play an important role in the patients' early rehabilitation if the therapeutic interventions are well adjusted to the needs of the patients. A team of nursing staff, physiotherapists and medical doctors from the core facility for medical intensive care and emergency medicine at the medical university of Innsbruck developed the

  19. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...... and discusses the sources of error in measurement of sound intensity and the resulting limitations imposed on various applications of such measurements. Finally, some unresolved problems are mentioned, and the possibility of improving the instrumentation is discussed....

  20. Intense beams of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Results of experiments performed in order to accelerate intense beams of light and heavier ions are presented. The accelerating diodes are driven by existing pulsed power generators. Optimization of the generator structure is described in chapter I. Nuclear diagnostics of the accelerated light ion beams are presented in chapter II. Chapter III deals with the physics of intense charged particle beams. The models developed are applied to the calculation of the performances of the ion diodes described in the previous chapters. Chapter IV reports preliminary results on a multiply ionized carbon source driven by a 0.1 TW pulsed power generator. (author) [fr

  1. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  2. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive insulin therapy: Tight blood sugar control Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes complications. Consider the ... cases if you have type 2 diabetes — intensive insulin therapy may be the key to long-term ...

  3. Unabated adenovirus replication following activation of the cGAS/STING-dependent antiviral response in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eric; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2014-12-01

    The cGAS/STING DNA sensing complex has recently been established as a predominant pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for DNA-directed type I interferon (IFN) innate immune activation. Using replication-defective adenovirus vectors and replication-competent wild-type adenovirus, we have modeled the influence of the cGAS/STING cascade in permissive human cell lines (A549, HeLa, ARPE19, and THP1). Wild-type adenovirus induced efficient early activation of the cGAS/STING cascade in a cell-specific manner. In all responsive cell lines, cGAS/STING short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown resulted in a loss of TBK1 and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) activation, a lack of beta interferon transcript induction, loss of interferon-dependent STAT1 activation, and diminished induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Adenoviruses that infect through the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad2 and Ad5) and the CD46 (Ad35) and desmoglein-2 (Ad7) viral receptors all induce the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. The magnitude of the IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response was strongly influenced by serotype, with Ad35>Ad7>Ad2. For each serotype, no enhancement of viral DNA replication or virus production occurred in cGAS or STING shRNA-targeted cell line pools. We found no replication advantage in permissive cell lines that do not trigger the cGAS/STING cascade following infection. The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and we found no evidence that Ad stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency. This study shows for the first time that the cGAS DNA sensor directs a dominant IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response to adenovirus in human cell lines. Activation of cGAS occurs with viruses that infect through different high-affinity receptors (CAR, CD46, and desmoglein-2), and the magnitude of the cGAS/STING DNA response cascade is influenced by serotype-specific functions. Furthermore, activation of the cGAS cascade occurred in a cell-specific manner. Activation of the cGAS/STING response did not impact viral replication, and viral immune evasion strategies did not target the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. These studies provide novel insight into the early innate recognition response to adenovirus. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Intensive rainfall recharges tropical groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Taylor, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Dependence upon groundwater to meet rising agricultural and domestic water needs is expected to increase substantially across the tropics where, by 2050, over half of the world’s population is projected to live. Rare, long-term groundwater-level records in the tropics indicate that groundwater recharge occurs disproportionately from heavy rainfalls exceeding a threshold. The ubiquity of this bias in tropical groundwater recharge to intensive precipitation is, however, unknown. By relating available long-term records of stable-isotope ratios of O and H in tropical precipitation (15 sites) to those of local groundwater, we reveal that groundwater recharge in the tropics is near-uniformly (14/15 sites) biased to intensive monthly rainfall, commonly exceeding the ∼70th intensity decile. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in the tropics. Nevertheless, the processes that transmit intensive rainfall to groundwater systems and enhance the resilience of tropical groundwater storage in a warming world, remain unclear. (letter)

  5. Low Intensity Conflict: Global Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, James Berry

    1987-01-01

    Examines the increase in low intensity conflict (LIC) such as terrorism and subversion, since World War II and discusses the United States ability to deal with it. States that LICs continue to increase, making U.S. involvement inevitable. Describes necessary preparations and actions for meeting this challenge. (GEA)

  6. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  7. Intensive care of haematological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magid, Tobias; Haase, Nicolai; Andersen, Jakob Steen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the treatment results of 320 consecutive patients with malignant haematological diagnoses admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit at a Danish University hospital over a six-year period (2005-2010). With reference to international publications, we describe the development...

  8. intensive and extensive feeding regimes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production and reproduction parameters in ram lambs, under intensive and extensive feeding regimes. J.P.C. Greyling* and G.J. Taylor. Department of Animal Science, University of the Orange Free State, PO. Box 339, Bloemfontein,. 9300, South Africa. Received revised 1 July 1999; accepted 28 July 1999. Forty Dorper ...

  9. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, A.; Alekseichuk, I.; Bikson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  10. Transport intensity in Europe - indicators and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D. [University College London (United Kingdom). Bartlett School of Planning

    2001-07-01

    There is increasing interest in how transport intensity can be improved. Improvements in energy intensity across all sectors as a whole (rather the transport sector in specific) have been reported in a number of European countries but the extent to which transport intensity has improved has not been examined in so much detail. Using international statistical sources for all European countries, and detailed data for the UK, this paper explores a number of indicators of transport intensity, examines recent trends in transport intensity and examines how intensity has changed over time. The paper contributes to understanding about the definition of transport intensity and changes in transport intensity in European Member States. (author)

  11. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  12. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  13. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  14. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  15. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  16. Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.

  17. Intensive therapy of severe complications of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kozhokaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of risk factors and clinical characteristics of heavy complications of influenza for working out of criteria of polymodal intensive therapy and resuscitation was the work purpose. Results of linical supervision by 114 sick heavy form of influenza with pulmonary and extra pulmonary complications are presented. All patients suffered from virus pneumonia and sharp defeat of lungs /sharp respirator distress-syndrome (OPL/ORDS. Pulmonary complications included bacterial (85, 96 % and micotic (2, 63 % pneumonia, thrombosis of legoch arteries (19,29 %, the sharp respiratory insufficiency, caused by the polyneuropathy of a critical condition of the patient (18,42 %, the exssudative pleuritis (9,65 %, spontaneous pheumothorax (4,39 %, spontaneous pheumomediastinum (2,69 %. Extra pulmonary complications concerned the swell of brain at 100 % of patients, including, with development of a brain coma (26,32 %, sepsis (85,96 %, including, with development of septic shock (68,42 %, syndrome of disseminated intravenous coagulation (49,12 %, multyorgan insufficiency (56,14 %, sharp heavy miocarditis (22,81 %, sharp nephritic insufficiency (18,42 %, sharp hepatic insufficiency (10,52 %. Early development of pathophysiological processes (the expressed infringements of a gas exchange and an acid-base condition, a secondary immunodeficiency, heamodynamical insufficiency,m etc. leads to underestimation of severity of the patient’s condition and to failer of algorithm of polymodal intensive therapy. Development of severe complications(sepsis, septic shock, sharp respirator distress-syndrome demands expansion for epidemic of specialized medicalstructures on rendering timely intensive therapy and resuscitation.

  18. Development of a Web-Based Quality Dashboard Including a Toolbox to Improve Pain Management in Dutch Intensive Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Blom, Marie-José; Gude, Wouter T.; de Jonge, Evert; Spijkstra, Jan Jaap; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2017-01-01

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is a common strategy to improve quality of care. Meta-analyses have indicated that A&F may be more effective in realizing desired change when baseline performance is low, it is delivered by a supervisor or colleague, it is provided frequently and in a timely manner, it is

  19. Antibiotic Policies in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Saltoglu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial management of patients in the Intensive Care Units are complex. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem. Effective strategies for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in ICUs have focused on limiting the unnecessary use of antibiotics and increasing compliance with infection control practices. Antibiotic policies have been implemented to modify antibiotic use, including national or regional formulary manipulations, antibiotic restriction forms, care plans, antibiotic cycling and computer assigned antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, infectious diseases consultation is a simple way to limit antibiotic use in ICU units. To improve rational antimicrobial using a multidisiplinary approach is suggested. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 299-309

  20. High-intensity, focused ultrasonic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1988-01-01

    machines marketed by companies in Germany and France, in particular. Two main types of ESWL systems are prevailing, the spark gap-based and the piezoelectric disk-based systems. This paper is introduced by a brief reconsideration of the features of pressure waves in water produced by an electrical...... distribution, etc. involving nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption in the high-intensity focused ultrasonic fields produced by an ellipsoid as well as a spherical cap focusing geometry. Data from the development of an ESWL of the piezoelectric disk type are reported including demands to transducers...

  1. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science II

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    This book series addresses a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field, Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. Its progress is being stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Highlights of this second volume include Coulomb explosion and fragmentation of molecules, control of chemical dynamics, high-order harmonic generation, propagation and filamentation, and laser-plasma interaction. All chapters are authored by foremost experts in their fields and the texts are written at a level accessible to newcomers and graduate students, each chapter beginning with an introductory overview.

  2. Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gils, J.M.; Leydecker, G.

    1991-01-01

    The catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4 contains some 20 000 seismic events that happened in member countries of the European Communities, Switzerland and Austria. It was prepared on the basis of already existing national catalogues and includes historical data as well as present-day data. All historical data are harmonized as far as possible to the same intensity scale (MSK-scale) to make them suitable for computerization. Present-day data include instrumental and macroseismic data. Instrumental data are expressed in terms of magnitude (Richter scale) while macroseismic data are given in intensities. Compilation of seismic data can provide a basis for statistically supported studies of site selection procedures and the qualitative assessment of seismic risks. Three groups of seismic maps illustrate the content of the catalogue for different time periods and different intensities

  3. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  4. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  5. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  6. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  7. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  8. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  9. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  10. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  11. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  12. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  13. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  14. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  15. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wu, Yu-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman selection model is used to accommodate sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical result...

  16. [Pathomorphologic findings following intensive therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchti, C

    1986-05-24

    Based on autopsy findings in 301 adults who had died after intensive care, different patterns of single or multiple organ damage were identified. Signs of septicemia and/or exudative-to-fibrosing alveolitis (EFA) of the lungs, the prominent cause of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), were recognized in 89 cases. Severe, progressive EFA, which appears to ensue mainly from continuing damage to alveolar walls, consequent fibroblast proliferation and so-called atelectatic induration (collapsed alveoli forming single thick septa), was registered only in individuals who had undergone long-term intensive care. The latter was necessitated in various severe conditions of which abdominal disease was the most important. Systemic disorders, such as hemorrhagic diathesis and multiple organ damage ("multiple organ failure"), showed a close correlation with septicemia. Infections with gram-negative bacteria appear to play a special role in such processes. Morphologically, these cases were characterized by multiple organ/system damage, e.g., in order of frequency, partial necrosis of renal proximal tubules, followed by signs of regeneration; jaundice; splenitis; lobular pneumonia; centrolobular-to-zonal liver necrosis, in part combined with cholestasis; petechial and/or extended hemorrhage; and others. This complex pattern contrasted strongly with findings in individuals who had been admitted to intensive care because of e.g. a cardiovascular incident: in this latter group (125 cases) intensive care was usually of short duration, progressive EFA was largely absent, signs of septicemia were exceptional, and multiple organ/system damage was rare. The group with polytraumatism (28 cases) exhibited a pattern of organ damage intermediate between (a) and (b).

  17. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in short-time testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shun; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Midorikawa, Taishi; Konishi, Masayuki; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2014-01-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) rate and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (FATmax-intensity) were designed to evaluate fat metabolism capacity and to provide individuals with a target exercise intensity during prolonged exercise. However, the previous methods of determining FATmax-intensity were time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of FATmax-intensity determined by short-time testing. Nine healthy young men performed ramp exercise, in a short-time test, until exhaustion and 5 constant-load exercises of 60 min each at individual FATmax-intensity determined by ramp protocol (FATmax-intensity(R)), FATmax-intensity(R) ± 5% of peak oxygen uptake (VO₂peak) and FATmax-intensity(R) ± 10%VO₂peak. FATmax-intensity was determined among 5 trials at points of early exercise (10 min) and prolonged exercise (60 min) to evaluate the validity of FATmax-intensity(R). Ten minutes after starting constant-load exercise, FATmax-intensity(R) showed the highest fat oxidation among 5 trials, even though MFO by ramp protocol was overestimated. Therefore, it may be useful for evaluation of fat metabolism to include the measurement of the FATmax-intensity in a routine ramp test. However, because FATmax-intensity(R) did not elicit the highest fat oxidation among 5 trials of 60 min each after starting constant-load exercise, FATmax-intensity(R) may not be effective for prolonged exercise training.

  18. Absolute intensities of supersonic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Habets, A.H.M.; Verster, N.F.

    1977-01-01

    In a molecular beam experiment the center-line intensity I(0) (particles s -1 sterad -1 ) and the flow rate dN/dt (particles s -1 ) of a beam source are important features. To compare the performance of different types of beam sources the peaking factor, kappa, is defined as the ratio kappa=π(I(0)/dN/dt). The factor π is added to normalize to kappa=1 for an effusive source. The ideal peaking factor for the supersonic flow from a nozzle follows from continuum theory. Numerical values of kappa are available. Experimental values of kappa for an argon expansion are presented in this paper, confirming these calculations. The actual center-line intensity of a supersonic beam source with a skimmer is reduced in comparison to this ideal intensity if the skimmer shields part of the virtual source from the detector. Experimental data on the virtual source radius are given enabling one to predict this shielding quantitatively. (Auth.)

  19. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  20. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  1. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Garceau, Luke R; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-12-01

    Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ≤ 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ≤ 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program.

  2. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  3. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  4. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  5. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  6. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  7. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  9. Benchmarking rehabilitation practice in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anna; Stevenson, Matt; Harlow, Stephanie Km

    2015-02-01

    Early rehabilitation in critically ill patients has been demonstrated to be safe and is associated with many positive outcomes. Despite this, there are inconsistencies in the early active rehabilitation that patients receive on intensive care units. The aims of this study were to quantify the amount of active rehabilitation provided for patients in a District General Hospital intensive care unit and to identify specific barriers encountered. Data were collected over a six-week period during March and April 2013. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit at St Peter's Hospital for more than 48 h were included. For every treatment session, the treating physiotherapist recorded what type of treatment took place. Treatments were classified as either non-active or active rehabilitation. Non-active rehabilitation included chest physiotherapy, passive range of movement exercises and hoisting to a chair. Active rehabilitation was defined as any treatment including active/active-assisted exercises, sitting on the edge of the bed, sitting to standing, standing transfers, marching on the spot or ambulation. Classification of rehabilitation was based upon internationally agreed intensive care unit activity codes and definitions. All barriers to active rehabilitation were also recorded. The study included 35 patients with a total of 194 physiotherapy treatment sessions. Active rehabilitation was included in 51% of all treatment sessions. The median time to commencing active rehabilitation from intensive care unit admission was 3 days (range 3-42 [IQR 3-7]). The most frequent barriers to active rehabilitation were sedation and endotracheal tubes, which together accounted for 50% of the total barriers. The study provides useful benchmarking of current rehabilitation activity in a District General Hospital intensive care unit and highlights the most common barriers encountered to active rehabilitation. Longer duration studies incorporating larger sample sizes are

  10. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  11. [Biological rhythms for anaesthesia and intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersyn, G; Chassard, D; Pain, L

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge of biological rhythms has led to better understanding of the time-of-day dependent effects of anaesthetic drugs. These chronopharmacological effects are currently explained by the biological rhythms modulating the pharmacokinetic, toxic and pharmacodynamic parameters of these substances. Such effect has been described for general anesthetics, local anaesthetics, analgesics as well as for antibiotics. But recent data also highlight that general anaesthetics, probably part of their brain effects, also alter the regulation of biological rhythms, including the sleep-wake or the endogenous circadian temperature rhythms. This desynchronization of biological rhythms can led to disturbance of the circadian secretion of many substances, including hormones. Finally, biological rhythms have been also described with regard to physiology of pain and cardiovascular physiopathology. The concept of biological rhythm should be present in mind not only for the clinical management of patients but also for setting studies in the field of anaesthesia, pain and intensive care. 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Nosocomial diarrhea in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marcon

    Full Text Available We made an epidemiological case-control study to examine risk factors for the development of diarrhea in the intensive care unit (ICU of a public hospital in Santo André, SP, from January to October 2002. Forty-nine patients with diarrhea (cases and 49 patients without diarrhea (controls, matched for age and gender, were included in the study. A stool culture and enzyme immunoassays for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B were performed on fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Fourteen of them presented positive cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 22 patients presented positive ELISA for Clostridium diffícile. Nosocomial diarrhea was associated with several factors, including use of antibiotics (P=0.001, use of ceftriaxone (P=0.001, presence of infection (P=0.010 and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001.

  13. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  14. Trends in Intense Typhoon Minimum Sea Level Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Durden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent publications have examined trends in the maximum wind speed of tropical cyclones in various basins. In this communication, the author focuses on typhoons in the western North Pacific. Rather than maximum wind speed, the intensity of the storms is measured by their lifetime minimum sea level pressure (MSLP. Quantile regression is used to test for trends in storms of extreme intensity. The results indicate that there is a trend of decreasing intensity in the most intense storms as measured by MSLP over the period 1951–2010. However, when the data are broken into intervals 1951–1987 and 1987–2010, neither interval has a significant trend, but the intensity quantiles for the two periods differ. Reasons for this are discussed, including the cessation of aircraft reconnaissance in 1987. The author also finds that the average typhoon intensity is greater in El Nino years, while the intensity of the strongest typhoons shows no significant relation to El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  15. Rethinking the intensive care environment: considering nature in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Claire; Batten, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    With consideration of an environmental concept, this paper explores evidence related to the negative impacts of the intensive care unit environment on patient outcomes and explores the potential counteracting benefits of 'nature-based' nursing interventions as a way to improve care outcomes. The impact of the environment in which a patient is nursed has long been recognised as one determinant in patient outcomes. Whilst the contemporary intensive care unit environment contains many features that support the provision of the intensive therapies the patient requires, it can also be detrimental, especially for long-stay patients. This narrative review considers theoretical and evidence-based literature that supports the adoption of nature-based nursing interventions in intensive care units. Research and theoretical literature from a diverse range of disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, architecture and environmental science were considered in relation to patient outcomes and intensive care nursing practice. There are many nature-based interventions that intensive care unit nurses can implement into their nursing practice to counteract environmental stressors. These interventions can also improve the environment for patients' families and nurses. Intensive care unit nurses must actively consider and manage the environment in which nursing occurs to facilitate the best patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  17. Towards Perfect Water Line Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-06-01

    Over the last ten years the increased availability of computational resources and the steady refinement of theoretical methods have permitted more and more accurate first principle calculations of water-vapor spectra as exemplified, e.g., by the very successful BT2 line list both line positions and intensities, a reliable dipole moment surface (DMS), affecting line intensities. It is also very useful to several application to give reasonable uncertainty bars for computed quantities, an aspect which traditionally has received little attention. We report here recent progress leading to very accurate room-temperature linelists covering the range 0.05-20 000 cm-1, complete with uncertainty bars, for the H_218O and H_217O water isotopologues Line intensities were produced using a recent DMS produced by our group which is capable of giving line intensites accurate to 1% for most medium and strong transitions. Line positions are based if possible on the experimentally derived energy levels recently produced by a IUPAC task group and have a typical accuracy of 0.0002 cm-1; when experimentally derived energy levels are unavailable calculated line position are provided, with an accuracy of the order of 0.2 cm-1. An extension to the main isotopologue H_216O is currently underway. R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris and R. N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. {368}, 1087-1094 (2006). L. Lodi and J. Tennyson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.02.023 L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and O. L. Polyansky, J. Chem. Phys. {135}, 034113 (2011). J. Tennyson at al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. {110}, 573-96 (2009).

  18. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  19. Plasmas and intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The present article begins with a description of the laser technology required to reach the high irradiances of interest and provides a brief outline of the more important diagnostic techniques used in investigating the plasmas. An introduction to plasma waves is given and the linear and nonlinear excitation of waves is discussed. The remainder of the article describes some of the experimental evidence supporting the interpretation of the plasma behaviour at high laser-light intensities in terms of the excitation of plasma waves and the subsequent heating of plasma by these waves. (author)

  20. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  1. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  2. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  3. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  4. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  5. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  7. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  8. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  9. Nursing management and organizational ethics in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlody, Ginger Schafer

    2007-02-01

    This article describes organizational ethics issues involved in nursing management of an intensive care unit. The intensive care team and medical center management have the dual responsibility to create an ethical environment in which to provide optimum patient care. Addressing organizational ethics is key to creating that ethical environment in the intensive care unit. During the past 15-20 yrs, increasing costs in health care, competitive markets, the effect of high technology, and global business changes have set the stage for business and healthcare organizational conflicts that affect the ethical environment. Studies show that critical care nurses experience moral distress and are affected by the ethical climate of both the intensive care unit and the larger organization. Thus, nursing moral distress may result in problems related to recruitment and retention of staff. Other issues with organizational ethics ramifications that may occur in the intensive care unit include patient safety issues (including those related to disruptive behavior), intensive care unit leadership style, research ethics, allocation of resources, triage, and other economic issues. Current organizational ethics conflicts are discussed, a professional practice model is described, and multidisciplinary recommendations are put forth.

  10. Apparatus for controlled mixing in a high intensity mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Z.; Gupta, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for controlled mixing of a mixable material in a high intensity mixer. The system enables instantaneous, precise and continual monitoring of a batch in a high intensity mixer which heretofore could not be achieved. The process comprises the steps of feeding a batch of material into a high intensity mixer, agitating the batch in the mixer, monitoring batch temperature separately from mixer temperature and discharging the batch from the mixer when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level. The apparatus includes means for monitoring batch temperature in a high intensity mixer separately from mixer temperature, and means responsive to the batch temperature to discharge the batch when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level

  11. The intense proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency of Japan has formulated the OMEGA project, in which incineration of nuclear wastes by use of accelerators is defined as one of the important tasks. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been engaged for several years in basic studies in incineration technology with use of an intense proton linear accelerator. The intense proton accelerator program intends to provide a large scale proton linear accelerator called Engineering Test Accelerator. The principal purpose of the accelerator is to develop nuclear waste incineration technology. The accelerator will also be used for other industrial applications and applied science studies. The present report further outlines the concept of incineration of radio-activities of nuclear wastes, focusing on nuclear reactions and a concept of incineration plant. Features of Engineering Test Accelerator are described focusing on the development of the accelerator, and research and development of incineration technology. Applications of science and technology other than nuclear waste incineration are also discussed. (N.K.)

  12. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  13. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  14. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  15. Firm-level determinants of energy and carbon intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jing; Karplus, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, China's leaders have sought to coordinate official energy intensity reduction targets with new targets for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) intensity reduction. The Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) included for the first time a binding target for energy intensity, while a binding target for CO 2 intensity was included later in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015). Using panel data for a sample of industrial firms in China covering 2005 to 2009, we investigate the drivers of energy intensity reduction (measured in terms of direct primary energy use and electricity use) and associated CO 2 intensity reduction. Rising electricity prices were associated with decreases in electricity intensity and increases in primary energy intensity, consistent with a substitution effect. Overall, we find that energy intensity reduction by industrial firms during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan translated into more than proportional CO 2 intensity reduction because reducing coal use—in direct industrial use as well as in the power sector—was a dominant abatement strategy. If similar dynamics characterize the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015), the national 17 percent CO 2 intensity reduction target may not be difficult to meet—and the 16 percent energy intensity reduction target may result in significantly greater CO 2 intensity reduction. - Highlights: • We describe China's Eleventh Five-Year Plan energy policies. • We examine the drivers of energy, electricity and carbon intensity reduction. • Higher electricity prices correlated with reductions in industrial electricity intensity. • Energy intensity reduction efforts were effective at reducing carbon intensity

  16. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  17. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Celis, M.; Larraga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields

  20. [Intensity of depression in pedagogy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Panek, Michał; Zielińska-Wyderkiewicz, Ewa; Kuna, Piotr; Górski, Paweł

    2012-03-01

    The teacher's profession is regarded to be susceptible to professional burnout. Its early markers include high neuroticism and tendency to depressive reactions. The aim of the study was to assess the depression intensity and the occurrence of mood disorders in the population of full-time and extramural course students of pedagogy aged 19-30, as well as the difference in intensity of the measured constructs between men and women. The study was carried out on the group of 223 women and 162 men aged 19-30 studying pedagogy at Piotrków Trybunalski Division of Jan Kochanowski Memorial University in Kielce in the years 2008-2011. The control group consisted of 76 women and 88 men studying economics. Students of full-time and extramural courses were included. All the participants were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory. Depression as a syndrome was diagnosed if the score of 10 of more was obtained. Among female students of pedagogy, 21 out of 223 obtained Beck Depression Inventory scores equal to, or above 10; whereas among female students of economics 1 out of 76 obtained such a result. The relative risk of developing depression (understood as Beck Depression Inventory result of 10 or more) was found to be significantly higher among female pedagogues (OR 7.797; CI 1.0306 to 58.9856) than among female economists. Among male pedagogy students, 2 out of 162 obtained 10 points, or more. It means that the risk of depression in female pedagogues was as much as over eight-fold higher than in male pedagogues (OR 8.3168; CI 1.9215 - 35.9979). The risk of depression in men studying pedagogy was not higher than in men studying economics, who obtained the Beck Depression Inventory scores of 10 or more in 1 case out of 88 (OR 1.1; CI 0.0983 to 12.3032). Considering all pedagogues irrespectively of gender versus all economists, the risk of depression in the group of pedagogues is over five-fold higher than among economists (OR 5.1464; CI 1.1991 to 22.0885). In the whole group of

  1. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  2. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine......" protocol was directed toward improving ICU environment between 10pm and 6am. Noise levels during control and intervention nights were recorded. Patients on mechanical ventilation and able to give consent were eligible for the study. We monitored sleep by PSG.The standard (American Association of Sleep...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...

  3. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  4. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  5. Client-centred therapy in multiple sclerosis: more intensive diagnostic evaluation and less intensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssen, Isaline C J M; Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent; Steultjens, Esther M J; Knol, Dirk L; Polman, Chris H; Steultjens, Martijn P M

    2014-06-01

    Despite beneficial effects on communication and process measures, client-centred practice has been shown to result in poor functional outcomes. To examine a potential explanation for poor functional outcomes, this paper aims to assess whether in client-centred therapy more time is spent on diagnostic consultation and less time on actual treatment compared to usual care. A multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial was performed. Thirteen hospitals and rehabilitation centres, 29 therapists and 269 outpatients with multiple sclerosis participated. Measurements included an inventory of diagnostic and treatment goals, the number of sessions, therapy duration and therapy intensity. In client-centred therapy, more sessions were used for diagnostic consultation (10.9% points difference, p = 0.030); the time needed to formulate the first treatment goal was longer (11.4 days difference, p = 0.041); there was a tendency towards more goals directed to diagnostic issues (0.69 goals difference, p = 0.056), spending more hours on indirect issues (1.16 h difference, p = 0.051) and towards a longer total therapy period (1.56 months difference, p = 0.058) than in usual care. Client-centred therapy resulted in more intensive diagnostic evaluation and less intensive treatment. This suggests that client-centred therapy should be adjusted towards a more proportional distribution of time devoted to diagnostic evaluation versus actual treatment.

  6. Infection control in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamed F; Askari, Reza

    2014-12-01

    It is critical for health care personnel to recognize and appreciate the detrimental impact of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections. The economic, clinical, and social expenses to patients and hospitals are overwhelming. To limit the incidence of ICU-acquired infections, aggressive infection control measures must be implemented and enforced. Researchers and national committees have developed and continue to develop evidence-based guidelines to control ICU infections. A multifaceted approach, including infection prevention committees, antimicrobial stewardship programs, daily reassessments-intervention bundles, identifying and minimizing risk factors, and continuing staff education programs, is essential. Infection control in the ICU is an evolving area of critical care research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalar, Banu; Ozyar, Enis; Gunduz, Kaan; Gungor, Gorkem

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  8. Data Intensive Computing on Amazon Web Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magana-Zook, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-21

    The Geophysical Monitoring Program (GMP) has spent the past few years building up the capability to perform data intensive computing using what have been referred to as “big data” tools. These big data tools would be used against massive archives of seismic signals (>300 TB) to conduct research not previously possible. Examples of such tools include Hadoop (HDFS, MapReduce), HBase, Hive, Storm, Spark, Solr, and many more by the day. These tools are useful for performing data analytics on datasets that exceed the resources of traditional analytic approaches. To this end, a research big data cluster (“Cluster A”) was set up as a collaboration between GMP and Livermore Computing (LC).

  9. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-01-01

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy μ + μ - colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings (μSR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included

  10. The calculation of vibrational intensities in forbidden electronic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip M; Xu, Haifeng; Sears, Trevor J

    2006-10-28

    A method is described for the use of electronic structure and Franck-Condon factor programs in the calculation of the vibrational intensities in forbidden electronic transitions. Using the B 2B2-X 2B1 electronic transition of benzonitrile cation as a test case, transition moments were calculated using the symmetry adapted cluster/configuration interaction method at various points along the normal mode displacements of the molecule, from which transition moment derivatives were obtained. The transition moments were found to vary almost linearly with respect to the normal mode displacements. Using these, along with Franck-Condon factors, an expansion of the transition moment with respect to the normal coordinates provides a measure of vibrational intensities, including the effects of geometry change and Duschinsky rotation [Acta Physicochim. URSS 7, 551 (1937)]. Second order terms in the moment expansion are calculated, and it is determined that they must be included if the intensity of combination bands is to be properly obtained.

  11. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  12. The Concept of Ethics in the Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutay Alpir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ethics in the intensive care unit has developed in the last 50 years along with the advancements and regulations in this area of medicine. Especially by the use of life-supportive equipment in the intensive care units and the resulting elongation in the terminal stage of life has led to newly described clinical conditions. These conditions include vegetative state, brain death, dissociated heart death. The current trend aiming to provide the best health care facilities with optimal costs resulted with regulations. The conflicts in the patient-physician relations resulting from these regulations has resolved to some extent by the studies of intensive care unit ethics. The major ethical topics in the intensive care are the usage of autonomy right, the selection of patients to be admitted to the intensive care unit and the limitation of the treatment. The patient selection is optimized by triage and allocation, the limitation of the treatment is done by the means of withdrawal and withhold, and the usage of autonomy right is tried to be solved by proxy, living will and ethics committee regulations. The ethical regulations have found partial solutions to the conflicts. For the ultimate solution much work about the subject has to be done. (Journal of the Turkish Society of Intensive Care 2010; 8: 77-84

  13. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate: 1997-2006?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hua; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    China is the second largest energy consumer in the world. During 1997-2002, China's energy intensity declined by 33%. However, it rose by 10.7% over 2003-2005, and declined by 1.2% in 2006. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate so drastically? Industry accounts for approximately 70% of the total energy consumption in China. In this paper, we decompose China's industrial energy intensity changes between 1997 and 2002 into sectoral structural effects and efficiency effects (measured by sectoral energy intensities at two-digit level and including the shifts of product mix in the sub-sector or firm level), using Toernqvist and Sato-Vartia Index methods. The results show that in this period, efficiency effects possibly contributed to a majority of the decline, while the contribution from structural effects was less. During 2003-2005, the excessive expansion of high-energy consuming sub-sectors and the high investment ratio were foremost sources of the increasing energy intensity. Attributed to the government efforts, the energy intensity has started to decline slightly since July 2006. In future, to save more energy, in addition to technical progress, China should attach more importance to optimizing its sectoral structure, and lowering its investment ratio

  14. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  15. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  16. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods exist to calculate global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHG) as measures of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agroecosystems. Little is, however, known about net GWP and GHGI that account for all sources and sinks of GHG emissions. Sources of GHG include...

  17. Knowledge and Attitudes of Nurses Regarding Pain in the Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions associated with severe pain include surgical incision, traumatic wounds, effect of prolonged immobility, and ... to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, hyperglycemia, lipolysis, muscles breakdown, and delayed wound healing. In addition, anxiety, confusion, sleep ..... child's pain intensity (F). 47. 68.1. 15.

  18. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile dysfunction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne B.; Persiani, Marie; Boie, Sidsel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) can be used as a treatment for men with erectile dysfunction of organic origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study included 112 ...... are needed. KEYWORDS: Erectile dysfunction; extracorporeal shockwave; penis...

  19. Laser and intense pulsed light hair removal technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F

    2011-01-01

    Light-based hair removal (LHR) is one of the fastest growing, nonsurgical aesthetic cosmetic procedures in the United States and Europe. A variety of light sources including lasers, e.g. alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and broad-spectrum intense...

  20. Intense field non-resonant multiphoton absorption of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the results of nonlinear ionization and dissociation of gas-phase diatomic molecules, H 2 , D 2 , O 2 , and Cl 2 , in an intense (10 11-14 W/cm 2 ) laser field. Measurements include energy and angularly resolved vibrational photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as mass spectroscopy. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to the editor- Comments on materials previously published in the journal, clinical observations or other matters relevant to anaesthesia and intensive care. Letters ... Title page Should include the title of the manuscript, the name, qualification and full address of each author, the name, address and email address of the ...

  2. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  3. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  4. Underutilization of high-intensity statin therapy after hospitalization for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Kent, Shia T; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Levitan, Emily B; Yun, Huifeng; Sharma, Pradeep; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Bittner, Vera

    2015-01-27

    National guidelines recommend use of high-intensity statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease (CHD) events. This study sought to estimate the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries filling prescriptions for high-intensity statins after hospital discharge for a CHD event and to analyze whether statin intensity before hospitalization is associated with statin intensity after discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 65 and 74 years old. Beneficiaries were included in the analysis if they filled a statin prescription after a CHD event (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) in 2007, 2008, or 2009. High-intensity statins included atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg. Among 8,762 Medicare beneficiaries filling a statin prescription after a CHD event, 27% of first post-discharge fills were for a high-intensity statin. The percent filling a high-intensity statin post-discharge was 23.1%, 9.4%, and 80.7%, for beneficiaries not taking statins pre-hospitalization, taking low/moderate-intensity statins, and taking high-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Compared with beneficiaries not on statin therapy pre-hospitalization, multivariable adjusted risk ratios for filling a high-intensity statin were 4.01 (3.58-4.49) and 0.45 (0.40-0.52) for participants taking high-intensity and low/moderate-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Only 11.5% of beneficiaries whose first post-discharge statin fill was for a low/moderate-intensity statin filled a high-intensity statin within 365 days of discharge. The majority of Medicare beneficiaries do not fill high-intensity statins after hospitalization for CHD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frequency, number of times per week/month and intensity, amount of times each day) and the extent to which... school activities, including meals and recess periods, with students who do not have a disability. E...

  6. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  7. Intense video gaming is not essentially problematic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Tóth, Dénes; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko

    2017-11-01

    Video games are more popular than ever and the general public, including parents, educators, and the media, tends to consider intense video gaming fundamentally problematic. To test this hypothesis, participants were recruited via gaming-related websites resulting in a sample of N = 5,222 online video gamers (mean age: 22.2 years, SD = 6.4). Besides assessing gaming time, we administered the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Two structural regression models were estimated with both gaming time and problematic gaming as outcome variables. Predictors were psychiatric symptoms in the first, and gaming motives in the second model. Both models yielded adequate fit indices. Psychiatric symptoms had a moderate positive effect on problematic use (β = .46, p effect on gaming time was practically zero (β = -.01, p = .84). In the second model, Escape was the most prominent motive and was moderately to-strongly associated (β = .58, p < .001) with problematic use. However, the association between Escape and gaming time was substantially weaker (β = .21, p < .001). The correlation between gaming time and problematic use was weak-to-moderate in both models (r = .26, p < .001 and r = .21, p < .001, respectively). Data suggest that gaming time is weakly associated with negative psychological factors such as psychiatric symptoms and Escape motive, which were found to be consistently related to problematic use. Therefore, the amount of gaming time alone appears to be an unreliable predictor of problematic use, which questions the aforementioned idea that intense gaming is essentially problematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Intensive care unit audit: invasive procedure surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariama Amaral Michels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objective: currently, Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs constitute a serious public health problem. It is estimated that for every ten hospitalized patients, one will have infection after admission, generating high costs resulting from increased length of hospitalization, additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The intensive care unit (ICU, due to its characteristics, is one of the most complex units of the hospital environment, a result of the equipment, the available technology, the severity of inpatients and the invasive procedures the latter are submitted to. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence to specifi c HAI prevention measures in invasive ICU procedures. Methods: This study had a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory approach. Among the risk factors for HAIs are the presence of central venous access, indwelling vesical catheter and mechanical ventilation, and, therefore, the indicators were calculated for patients undergoing these invasive procedures, through a questionnaire standardized by the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC. Results: For every 1,000 patients, 15 had catheter-related bloodstream infection, 6.85 had urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheter in the fi rst half of 2010. Conclusion: most HAIs cannot be prevented, for reasons inherent to invasive procedures and the patients. However, their incidence can be reduced and controlled. The implementation of preventive measures based on scientifi c evidence can reduce HAIs signifi cantly and sustainably, resulting in safer health care services and reduced costs. The main means of prevention include the cleaning of hands, use of epidemiological block measures, when necessary, and specifi c care for each infection site. KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection. Intensive care units.

  9. The intensity of A. Wat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kandziora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a collection of literary essays Elementy do portretu. Szkice o twórczości Aleksandra Wata published and edited by Poznań-based specialists in Polish literature and dedicated to Professor Ewa Wiegandt. The starting point for the discussion is the observation that the authors of the essays had to grapple with the elusiveness and multidimensional character of the output of A. Wat, with the entanglement of the text of his works with the text of his biography, and finally with the multitude of its cultural contexts. The reviewer distinguishes four research currents in the collection of essays, each being a different answer to these particular traits of Wat’s writing. Historical and literary studies in the book show the author in his relations and as a non-categorizable author, and challenge the Futurist character of his juvenile writings by juxtaposing them with earlier Symbolism and later Catastrophism. The interpretative study current tries to find ways to define Wat through reading his individual works. Here, the overriding opposition between ”closeness” and ”openness”, so pivotal in the poet’s works, becomes apparent. The current of thematology that present Wat’s literary topoi in relation to his biography is well represented in the volume. Finally, the studies that cross the strictly literary horizon try to capture the multi-tier structures of Wat’s works, reinterpreting them from the sociological, historical or axiological perspectives. The final conclusion of the review is the acknowledgement of the richness offered by the book that corresponds well to the intensity of works and the biography of the author.

  10. Leaving home: how older adults prepare for intensive volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Grainger, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Using the concepts in the Fogg Behavioral Model, 37 volunteers aged 50 and older described their preparation for intensive volunteering with faith-based organizations. Their multistage preparation process included decision points where respondents needed to choose whether to drop out or continue preparation. Ability was a stronger determinant of serving than motivation, particularly in terms of health and finances. This model can facilitate understanding of the barriers to volunteering and aid organizations in tailoring support at crucial points for potential older volunteers in intensive service. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science Volume I

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    This is the first of a series of books on Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field, spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. Its progress is being stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Highlights of this volume include intense VUV laser--cluster interaction, resonance and chaos-assisted tunneling, and the effects of the carrier-envelope phase on high-order harmonic generation. All chapters are authored by foremost experts in their fields and the presentation is at a level accessible to newcomers and graduate students, each chapter beginning with an introductory overview.

  12. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  13. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  14. Patients’ Admissions in Intensive Care Units: A Clustering Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care is a critical area of medicine having a multidisciplinary nature requiring all types of healthcare professionals. Given the critical environment of intensive care units (ICUs, the need to use information technologies, like decision support systems, to improve healthcare services and ICU management is evident. It is proven that unplanned and prolonged admission to the ICU is not only prejudicial to a patient's health, but also such a situation implies a readjustment of ICU resources, including beds, doctors, nurses, financial resources, among others. By discovering the common characteristics of the admitted patients, it is possible to improve these outcomes. In this study clustering techniques were applied to data collected from admitted patients in an intensive care unit. The best results presented a silhouette of 1, with a distance to centroids of 6.2 × 10−17 and a Davies–Bouldin index of −0.652.

  15. Accuracy of Determining Stress Intensity Factors in Some Numerical Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vorel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are many programs for numerical analysis of cracks, in particular for determining stress intensity factors. Analyses of a single-edge cracked beam and flat plate with a semielliptical surface crack are presented in this study to examine the accuracy and applicability of the Franc2d and Franc3d programs. Further numerical computations of the MARC program and analytical solutions of stress intensity factors were included to compare the results with each other. For this purpose MARC was equipped with special user procedures. The influence of mesh fineness on the results was also investigated in all programs. The distributions of the stress intensity factors show good agreement in quality. The maximum deviations from the analytical solutions are 9.7 %. With greater numbers of elements programs Franc2d and Franc3d showed some instability, which currently reduces the usefulness and reliability of these promising tools for engineering applications.

  16. Probiotics in neonatal intensive care - back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Girish; Rao, Shripada; Patole, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Survival of extremely preterm and critically ill neonates has improved significantly over the last few decades following advances in neonatal intensive care. These include antenatal glucocorticoids, surfactant, continuous positive airway pressure support, advanced gentle modes of ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide. Probiotic supplementation is a recent significant milestone in the history of neonatal intensive care. Very few, if any, interventions match the ability of probiotics to significantly reduce the risk of death and definite necrotising enterocolitis while facilitating enteral feeds in high-risk preterm neonates. Probiotics also have a potential to benefit neonates with surgical conditions with significant gastrointestinal morbidity. Current evidence for the benefits of probiotic supplementation for neonates in an intensive care unit is reviewed. The mechanisms for the benefits of probiotics in this population are discussed, and guidelines for clinicians are provided in the context of the regulatory framework in Australia. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  18. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    . We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the "greedy growth scan", is a modification of the spatial scan method...... of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the "greedy growth scan" is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis...... of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales....

  19. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  20. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  1. The development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Krister; Ekström-Jodal, Barbro; Meretoja, Olli; Valentin, Niels; Wagner, Kari

    2015-05-01

    The initiation and development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care have much in common in the Scandinavian countries. The five countries had to initiate close relations and cooperation in all medical disciplines. The pediatric anesthesia subspecialty took its first steps after the Second World War. Relations for training and exchange of experiences between Scandinavian countries with centers in Europe and the USA were a prerequisite for development. Specialized pediatric practice was not a full-time position until during the 1950s, when the first pediatric anesthesia positions were created. Scandinavian anesthesia developed slowly. In contrast, Scandinavia pioneered both adult and certainly pediatric intensive care. The pioneers were heavily involved in the teaching and training of anesthetists and nurses. This was necessary to manage the rapidly increasing work. The polio epidemics during the 1950s initiated a combination of clinical development and technical innovations. Blood gas analyses technology and interpretation in combination with improved positive pressure ventilators were developed in Scandinavia contributing to general and pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice. Scandinavian specialist training and accreditation includes both anesthesia and intensive care. Although pediatric anesthesia/intensive care is not a separate specialty, an 'informal accreditation' for a specialist position is obtained after training. The pleasure of working in a relatively small group of devoted colleagues and staff has persisted from the pioneering years. It is still one of the most inspiring and pleasant gifts for those working in this demanding specialty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fatigue in Intensive Care Nurses and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sevim; Taşdemir, Nurten; Kurt, Aylin; İlgezdi, Ebru; Kubalas, Özge

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue negatively affects the performance of intensive care nurses. Factors contributing to the fatigue experienced by nurses include lifestyle, psychological status, work organization and sleep problems. To determine the level of fatigue among nurses working in intensive care units and the related factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 102 nurses working in intensive care units in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey. Data were collected between February and May 2014 using a personal information form, the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The intensive care nurses in the study were found to be experiencing fatigue. Significant correlations were observed between scores on the VAS-F Fatigue and anxiety (p=0.01), depression (p=0.002), and sleep quality (p<0.001). Anxiety, depression and quality of sleep were significantly affected by the intensive care nurses' levels of fatigue. These results can be of benefit in taking measures which may be used to reduce fatigue in nurses, especially the fatigue related to work organization and social life.

  3. The Relevance of Stretch Intensity and Position: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos eApostolopoulos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups; athletes (n = 24, clinical (n = 29, elderly (n = 12, and general population (n = 87. The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance

  4. Practical Approaches to Prescribing Physical Activity and Monitoring Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Pipe, Andrew L

    2016-04-01

    Regular physical activity helps to prevent heart disease, and reduces the risk of first or subsequent cardiovascular events. It is recommended that Canadian adults accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more, and perform muscle- and bone-strengthening activities at least 2 days per week. Individual exercise prescriptions can be developed using the frequency, intensity, time, and type principles. Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity interval training is efficacious for a broad spectrum of heart health outcomes. Several practical approaches to prescribing and monitoring exercise intensity exist including: heart rate monitoring, the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, the Talk Test, and, motion sensors. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale matches a numerical value to an individual's perception of effort, and can also be used to estimate heart rate. The Talk Test, the level at which simple conversation is possible, can be used to monitor desired levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. Motion sensors can provide users with practical and useful exercise training information to aid in meeting current exercise recommendations. These approaches can be used by the public, exercise scientists, and clinicians to easily and effectively guide physical activity in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeling close: emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; Kane, Joanne; McGraw, A Peter; Dale, Jeannette

    2010-06-01

    The results of 6 experiments indicate that emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance. People who described events emotionally rather than neutrally perceived those events as less psychologically distant, including embarrassing autobiographical events (Experiment 1), past and future dentist visits (Experiment 2), positive and negative events (Experiment 3), and a national tragedy (Experiment 6). People also perceived an event (dancing in front of an audience) as less psychologically distant when they were in a more emotionally arousing social role (of performer) than in a less emotionally arousing social role (of observer; Experiment 4). Two findings bolster the causal role of emotional intensity in reducing perceived psychological distance. First, reported emotional intensity was negatively correlated with perceived psychological distance and statistically mediated the effect of being in an emotionally arousing social role on perceived psychological distance (Experiment 4). Second, providing people with an alternative interpretation of their emotions (emotionally ambiguous whale songs) significantly reduced, even reversed, the negative correlation between self-reported emotional intensity and perceived psychological distance (Experiment 5). These findings about emotional intensity are consistent with the broader idea that perceived psychological distance is grounded in and influenced by the phenomenology of objective distance. Implications for theories of psychological distance, emotionality, and choice are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Accurate line intensities of methane from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Andrei V.; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report first-principle theoretical predictions of methane spectral line intensities that are competitive with (and complementary to) the best laboratory measurements. A detailed comparison with the most accurate data shows that discrepancies in integrated polyad intensities are in the range of 0.4%-2.3%. This corresponds to estimations of the best available accuracy in laboratory Fourier Transform spectra measurements for this quantity. For relatively isolated strong lines the individual intensity deviations are in the same range. A comparison with the most precise laser measurements of the multiplet intensities in the 2ν3 band gives an agreement within the experimental error margins (about 1%). This is achieved for the first time for five-atomic molecules. In the Supplementary Material we provide the lists of theoretical intensities at 269 K for over 5000 strongest transitions in the range below 6166 cm-1. The advantage of the described method is that this offers a possibility to generate fully assigned exhaustive line lists at various temperature conditions. Extensive calculations up to 12,000 cm-1 including high-T predictions will be made freely available through the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru) that contains ab initio born line lists and provides a user-friendly graphical interface for a fast simulation of the absorption cross-sections and radiance.

  7. Pediatric safety incidents from an intensive care reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapik, Julia Lynn; Pronovost, Peter J; Miller, Marlene R; Thompson, David A; Wu, Albert W

    2009-06-01

    Adverse events impose a great burden on patients and the health care system, but not enough is known about how to address incidents involving pediatric patients. This study examined the demographic factors, types of events, contributing system factors, and harm associated with incidents that occur in pediatric intensive care units. Cross-sectional analysis of 2 years of data on all pediatric safety incidents and near misses reported to the voluntary provider-recorded Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System in regards to harm and contributing factors. In 464 incidents reported from 23 intensive care units to the Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System, patients were physically injured in one third of incidents and harmed in some way in two thirds of incidents. Medication errors were the most common incident type, but were associated with less harm than other event types. Line, tube, and airway events comprised one third of incidents and were associated with more harm than other types. Patient contributing factors were a strong predictor of harm; training and education factors were also commonly cited. In multivariate analysis, patient factors were the strongest predictor of harm adjusting for age, sex, and race. Pediatric patients are commonly harmed in intensive care units. There are several potential ways to improve safety including protocols for high-risk procedures involving lines and tubes, improved monitoring, and staffing, training and communication initiatives. Providers may be able to identify patients at increased risk for harm and intervene to protect patient safety.

  8. Global Distributions of Thunderstorms, Segregated by Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    geographical locations of intense thunderstorms demonstrate strong regional preferences for certain land areas, while they are extremely rare over tropical oceans. Favored locations include south central United States, southeast South America, and equatorial Africa. There is a preference for these to occur in the spring and summer, but they do occur throughout most of the year. Other regions have extreme storms more tightly confined to specific seasons, such as the Sahel, the Indian subcontinent, and northern Australia. Intense storms are distributed quite differently than rainfall, and even differently than total annual lightning. Maps of these provide some new metrics for global models, if they are to simulate the type of convection as a component of our climate system.

  9. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  10. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high intensity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their ...

  11. Exercise intensity and hypertension: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutcher, Y N; Boutcher, S H

    2017-03-01

    One bout of aerobic exercise and regular participation in aerobic exercise has been shown to result in a lowering of office and ambulatory blood pressure of hypertensive individuals. Higher-intensity aerobic exercise, up to 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, does not produce a greater hypotensive effect, compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Intermittent aerobic and anaerobic exercise, however, performed at an intensity >70% of maximal oxygen uptake has been shown to significantly reduce office and ambulatory blood pressure of hypertensive individuals. Thus, faster, more intense forms of exercise can also bring about blood pressure reduction in the hypertensive population. Compared with continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, high-intensity intermittent exercise typically results in a greater aerobic fitness increase in less time and produces greater changes in arterial stiffness, endothelial function, insulin resistance and mitochondrial biogenesis. One of the characteristics of high-intensity intermittent training is that it typically involves markedly lower training volume compared with traditional aerobic and resistance exercise programmes making it a time-efficient strategy to accrue adaptations and blood pressure benefits. This review briefly summarizes the results of studies that have examined the effects of single and repeated bouts of aerobic and resistance exercise on office and ambulatory blood pressure of hypertensive individuals. Then a more detailed summary of studies examining the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise and training on hypertension is provided.

  12. Development and comparison of different intensity duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Microsoft Excel software was used to develop exponential, logarithmic and power intensity-duration-frequency models for return period (T) of duration-frequency models for return period (T) of between 2 years and 100 years using rainfall intensity data for durations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, ...

  13. Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-17-10 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release...customary unit. Grant #  HDTRA 1-12-1-0044 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release Final Report PI: Keith A. Nelson 617-253-1423 kanelson

  14. Treatment intensity and childhood apraxia of speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    BackgroundIntensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. AimTo investigate the

  15. Effects of Harvest Intensity on Production of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghehsareh Ardestani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With regard to retrogression trend of rangelands in central Zagross, many native plant species are expected to be increasingly on the verge of extinction. Therefore, for proper rangeland management the optimum harvest intensity of important plant species is an essential factor for rehabilitation and recovery of native rangeland species. This research was aimed to study the response of four range species to clipping intensity on yield and regrowth and to determine the appropriate harvesting intensity to increase the stability and survival of four range species. Astragalus caragana, Astragalus cyclophyllon, Astragalus podolobus and Medicago sativa were planted in the college of natural resources greenhouse in Isfahan University of Technology campus, during 2013 growing season. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 levels: control, 60%, and 80% cuttings of plant stems at harvest times. Production of dry matter and stem heights were measured and evaluated. The results showed significant differences at α=1% among species, harvest intensity and interactions between species and harvest intensities. Based on these results, M. sativa and A. caragana are more tolerant to moderate and heavy grazing than two other species. Consequently, a harvesting intensity of 60% was recommended as the best allowable use of M. sativa and A. caragana. On the other hand, A. cyclophyllon and A. podolobus were more sensitive to harvest intensity. However, A. cyclophyllon and A. podolobus could not tolerate intensive grazing during the first growing season.

  16. Gaussian processes for prediction in intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Guiza Grandas, Fabian; Ramon, Jan; Blockeel, Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of Gaussian Processes for regression in the application of prediction in Intensive Care. We propose a preliminary solution to predicting the evolution of a patient's state during his stay in intensive care by means of defined patient specific characteristics.

  17. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, B.; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  18. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  19. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt...

  20. Earthquake Intensity and Strong Motion Analysis Within SEISCOMP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Weber, B.; Ghasemi, H.; Cummins, P. R.; Murjaya, J.; Rudyanto, A.; Rößler, D.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring and predicting ground motion parameters including seismic intensities for earthquakes is crucial and subject to recent research in engineering seismology.gempa has developed the new SIGMA module for Seismic Intensity and Ground Motion Analysis. The module is based on the SeisComP3 framework extending it in the field of seismic hazard assessment and engineering seismology. SIGMA may work with or independently of SeisComP3 by supporting FDSN Web services for importing earthquake or station information and waveforms. It provides a user-friendly and modern graphical interface for semi-automatic and interactive strong motion data processing. SIGMA provides intensity and (P)SA maps based on GMPE's or recorded data. It calculates the most common strong motion parameters, e.g. PGA/PGV/PGD, Arias intensity and duration, Tp, Tm, CAV, SED and Fourier-, power- and response spectra. GMPE's are configurable. Supporting C++ and Python plug-ins, standard and customized GMPE's including the OpenQuake Hazard Library can be easily integrated and compared. Originally tailored to specifications by Geoscience Australia and BMKG (Indonesia) SIGMA has become a popular tool among SeisComP3 users concerned with seismic hazard and strong motion seismology.

  1. The impact of soil suction variation on earthquake intensity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglari Mahnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties can completely change the ground motion characteristics as they travel from the bedrock to the surface because, soil as a low-pass filter, may amplify or deamplify seismic motions in some frequencies on the wave travelling path. Recent studies about the advanced unsaturated soil mechanics clearly shows that dynamic properties of soils, including small-strain shear modulus (Gmax, shear modulus reduction (G/Gmax, and damping ratio (D curves are affected by changes in the soil suction level. The current study present nonlinear time-dependent analysis of three different unsaturated soils available in the literature with different ranges of nonlinear behaviour that earlier have been studied on unsaturated dynamic models. Since, the earthquake intensity parameters can be used to describe the damage potential of an earthquake, the focus of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the suction variation on the engineering ground motion parameters, including peak values of strong motion, Vmax/Amax, root-mean-square acceleration, Arias intensity, characteristic intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, acceleration spectrum intensity, effective design acceleration, A95 parameter and predominant period separately under the near-field and the far-field seismicity categories.

  2. Spherical Harmonic Analyses of Intensity Mapping Power Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Adrian; Zhang, Yunfan; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-12-01

    Intensity mapping is a promising technique for surveying the large-scale structure of our universe from z = 0 to z ˜ 150, using the brightness temperature field of spectral lines to directly observe previously unexplored portions of our cosmic timeline. Examples of targeted lines include the 21 cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, rotational lines of carbon monoxide, and fine-structure lines of singly ionized carbon. Recent efforts have focused on detections of the power spectrum of spatial fluctuations, but have been hindered by systematics such as foreground contamination. This has motivated the decomposition of data into Fourier modes perpendicular and parallel to the line of sight, which has been shown to be a particularly powerful way to diagnose systematics. However, such a method is well-defined only in the limit of a narrow-field, flat-sky approximation. This limits the sensitivity of intensity mapping experiments, as it means that wide surveys must be separately analyzed as a patchwork of smaller fields. In this paper, we develop a framework for analyzing intensity mapping data in a spherical Fourier-Bessel basis, which incorporates curved sky effects without difficulty. We use our framework to generalize a number of techniques in intensity mapping data analysis from the flat sky to the curved sky. These include visibility-based estimators for the power spectrum, treatments of interloper lines, and the “foreground wedge” signature of spectrally smooth foregrounds.

  3. Nuclear beta decay induced by intense electromagnetic fields: Basic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    A basic formalism is developed for the theory of the effect on nuclear beta decay of an intense, plane-wave electromagnetic field. Interactions of the field with both the nuclear particles and the decay electron are included. The formalism is developed from first principles, including a derivation of transition probabilities between explicitly time-dependent asymptotic states. Interaction of the field with the nucleus is analyzed in terms of separation of the nucleus into an inert core and a fragment. The field interacts with the fragment, consisting of the nucleons which are candidates for beta decay, plus any other nucleons angular-momentum coupled to them in initial or final states. A separation of variables in the dynamical equations for the nucleus into center-of-mass and relative coordinates for the core and fragment shows direct charge coupling even for a fragment consisting entirely of neutrons. The transition formalism involves specific intense-field wave functions both for the nucleus and for the beta particle. Complete results are presented for total transition probability per unit time for intense-field-coupled nuclear beta decay. A much simplified formalism is given for the special case of very high field intensity at very low frequency. The results then bear a formal resemblance to ordinary beta decay theory, but they contain specific field effects in the beta particle spectral function, and in the nuclear interaction matrix elements. This is the first of a series of papers on this subject

  4. SPHERICAL HARMONIC ANALYSES OF INTENSITY MAPPING POWER SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Adrian; Zhang, Yunfan; Parsons, Aaron R., E-mail: acliu@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Intensity mapping is a promising technique for surveying the large-scale structure of our universe from z  = 0 to z  ∼ 150, using the brightness temperature field of spectral lines to directly observe previously unexplored portions of our cosmic timeline. Examples of targeted lines include the 21 cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, rotational lines of carbon monoxide, and fine-structure lines of singly ionized carbon. Recent efforts have focused on detections of the power spectrum of spatial fluctuations, but have been hindered by systematics such as foreground contamination. This has motivated the decomposition of data into Fourier modes perpendicular and parallel to the line of sight, which has been shown to be a particularly powerful way to diagnose systematics. However, such a method is well-defined only in the limit of a narrow-field, flat-sky approximation. This limits the sensitivity of intensity mapping experiments, as it means that wide surveys must be separately analyzed as a patchwork of smaller fields. In this paper, we develop a framework for analyzing intensity mapping data in a spherical Fourier–Bessel basis, which incorporates curved sky effects without difficulty. We use our framework to generalize a number of techniques in intensity mapping data analysis from the flat sky to the curved sky. These include visibility-based estimators for the power spectrum, treatments of interloper lines, and the “foreground wedge” signature of spectrally smooth foregrounds.

  5. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1980-04-01

    Relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays were evaluated for 16 nuclides, 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 139 Ce, sup(180m)Hf, 198 Au, 203 Hg and 207 Bi. For most of these nuclides disintegration rates can be determined by means of β-γ or X-γ coincidence method. Since decay schemes of these nuclides are established, intensities per decay of strong gamma rays were accurately evaluated by using weak beta-ray branching ratios, relative gamma-ray intensities and internal conversion coefficients. Half-lives of the nuclides were also evaluated. Use of the nuclides, therefore, are recommended for precision intensity calibration of the detectors. (author)

  6. [Nosocomial infections in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; López-Pueyo, María Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Nosocomial infections (NI) still have a high incidence in intensive care units (ICUs), and are becoming one of the most important problems in these units. It is well known that these infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and are associated with increases in the length of stay and excessive hospital costs. Based on the data from the ENVIN-UCI study, the rates and aetiology of the main nosocomial infections have been described, and include ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and both primary and catheter related bloodstream infections, as well as the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A literature review on the impact of different nosocomial infections in critically ill patients is also presented. Infection control programs such as zero bacteraemia and pneumonia have been also analysed, and show a significant decrease in NI rates in ICUs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth

    2014-05-01

    In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

  8. Status of the intense pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Brown, B.S.; Kustom, R.L.; Lander, G.H.; Potts, C.W.; Schulke, A.W.; Wuestefeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fortunately in spite of some premature reports of its impending demise, IPNS has passed the fourth anniversary of the first delivery of protons to the targets (May 5, 1981) and is approaching the fourth anniversary of its operation as a scattering facility (August 4, 1981). On June 10, 1984, the RCS delivered its one billionth pulse to the IPNS target - the total number of protons delivered to the targets amounted then to 75 stp cm 3 of H 2 gas. Since startup IPNS has improved steadily in terms of the performance of the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron, the source and its moderators and the scattering instruments, and a substantial and productive user program has evolved. This report summarizes the current status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We include reference to recent accelerator operating experience, neutron facility operating experience, improvements to these systems, design work on the ASPUN high-current facility, booster target design, the new solid methane moderator, characterization of the room temperature moderators, and provide some examples of recent results from several of the spectrometers

  9. Revisiting drivers of energy intensity in China during 1997–2007: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lin; Xu, Ming; Liang, Sai; Zeng, Siyu; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    The decline of China's energy intensity slowed since 2000. During 2002–2005 it actually increased, reversing the long-term trend. Therefore, it is important to identify drivers of the fluctuation of energy intensity. We use input–output structural decomposition analysis to investigate the contributions of changes in energy mix, sectoral energy efficiency, production structure, final demand structure, and final demand category composition to China's energy intensity fluctuation during 1997–2007. We include household energy consumption in the study by closing the input–output model with respect to households. Results show that sectoral energy efficiency improvements contribute the most to the energy intensity decline during 1997–2007. The increase in China's energy intensity during 2002–2007 is instead explained by changes in final demand composition and production structure. Changes in final demand composition are mainly due to increasing share of exports, while changes in production structure mainly arise from the shift of Chinese economy to more energy-intensive industries. Changes in energy mix and final demand structure contribute little to China's energy intensity fluctuation. From the consumption perspective, growing exports of energy-intensive products and increasing infrastructure demands explain the majority of energy intensity increase during 2002–2007. - Highlights: • We analyzed energy intensity change from production and consumption perspectives. • We extended the research scope of energy intensity to cover household consumption. • Sectoral energy efficiency improvement contributed most to energy intensity decline. • Impact of production structure change on energy intensity varied at different times. • Growing export demand newly became main driver of China's energy intensity increase

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING INTENSIVE METHODS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mytnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study and analysis of comparable existing intensive methods of teaching foreign languages. This work is carried out to identify the positive and negative aspects of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages. The author traces the idea of rational organization and intensification of teaching foreign languages from their inception to the moment of their preparation in an integrated system. advantages and disadvantages of the most popular methods of intensive training also analyzed the characteristic of different historical periods, namely cugestopedichny method G. Lozanov method activation of reserve possibilities of students G. Kitaygorodskoy, emotional-semantic method I. Schechter, an intensive course of learning a foreign language L. Gegechkori , sugestokibernetichny integral method of accelerated learning a foreign language B. Petrusinskogo, a crash course in the study of spoken language by immersion A. Plesnevich. Analyzed the principles of learning and the role of each method in the development of methods of intensive foreign language training. The author identified a number of advantages and disadvantages of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages: 1 the assimilation of a large number of linguistic, lexical and grammatical units; 2 active use of acquired knowledge, skills and abilities in the practice of oral speech communication in a foreign language; 3 the ability to use language material resulting not only in his speech, but also in understanding the interlocutor; 4 overcoming psychological barriers, including fear of the possibility of making a mistake; 5 high efficiency and fast learning; 6 too much new language material that is presented; 7 training of oral forms of communication; 8 decline of grammatical units and models.

  11. Building and Sustaining Complex Systems: Addressing Common Challenges to Implementing Intensive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Maurice; Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Gandhi, Allison G.; Gersten, Russell

    2014-01-01

    School and district personnel have identified common challenges in implementing individualized, intensive interventions for students with severe, persistent learning and behavioral needs. The National Center on Intensive Intervention has worked with scores of local educators--including district administrators, building principals, special and…

  12. Shock treatment in a cohort of Scandinavian intensive care units in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollind, M; Wickbom, F; Wilkman, E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shock is common in intensive care units, and treatment includes fluids, vasopressor and/or inotropic drugs, guided by hemodynamic monitoring. The aim of this study was to identify current practice for treatment of shock in Scandinavian intensive care units. METHODS: Seven-day inceptio...

  13. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    , or differences in efficiency of a plant with a wet cooled system and one with dry cooled system. There are a number of factors that we do not consider; most of these factors are location specific. These include ambient temperature and humidity, specific design parameters of the power plant, and dissolved solids and chemical composition of freshwater withdrawn from ground or surface sources. Even for a specific plant, water intensity will vary over time due to fluctuations in ambient temperature and humidity, and in temperature of the geothermal fluid. Thus the model’s water usage estimates should be treated as “first order” or “preliminary” estimates. This paper is part of a series exploring the water footprint of future transportation fuels including biofuels and electricity. The paper's broader objective is to highlight limitations imposed by water shortages to achieve higher penetration of various alternative fuels.

  14. Intense nonrelativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl Fus. 21, 529(1981)) is applied to the problem of the cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx.5 cm and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx.10 cm

  15. Monitoring in the Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Kipnis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In critical care, the monitoring is essential to the daily care of ICU patients, as the optimization of patient’s hemodynamic, ventilation, temperature, nutrition, and metabolism is the key to improve patients' survival. Indeed, the decisive endpoint is the supply of oxygen to tissues according to their metabolic needs in order to fuel mitochondrial respiration and, therefore, life. In this sense, both oxygenation and perfusion must be monitored in the implementation of any resuscitation strategy. The emerging concept has been the enhancement of macrocirculation through sequential optimization of heart function and then judging the adequacy of perfusion/oxygenation on specific parameters in a strategy which was aptly coined “goal directed therapy.” On the other hand, the maintenance of normal temperature is critical and should be regularly monitored. Regarding respiratory monitoring of ventilated ICU patients, it includes serial assessment of gas exchange, of respiratory system mechanics, and of patients' readiness for liberation from invasive positive pressure ventilation. Also, the monitoring of nutritional and metabolic care should allow controlling nutrients delivery, adequation between energy needs and delivery, and blood glucose. The present paper will describe the physiological basis, interpretation of, and clinical use of the major endpoints of perfusion/oxygenation adequacy and of temperature, respiratory, nutritional, and metabolic monitorings.

  16. High intensity heat pulse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalamanchili, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of finite-difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations is common in both design and research and development because of the advance of computers. The numerical methods for the unsteady heat diffusion equation received most attention not only because of heat transfer problems but also happened to be the basis for any study of parabolic partial differential equations. It is common to test the heat equation first even the methods developed for complex nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics or convective heat transfer. It is concluded that the finite-element method is conservative in both stability and monoscillation characteristics than the finite-difference method but not as conservative as the method of weighted-residuals. Since the finite-element is unique because of Gurtin's variational principle and numerous finite-differences can be constructed, it is found that some finite-difference schemes are better than the finite-element scheme in accuracy also. Therefore, further attention is focused here on finite-difference schemes only. Various physical problems are considered in the field of heat transfer. These include: numerous problems in steady and unsteady heat conduction; heat pulse problems, such as, plasma torch; problems arising from machining operations, such as, abrasive cut-off and surface grinding. (Auth.)

  17. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  18. Recent developments for beam intensity increase operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, T.; Anger, P.; Baelde, J.L.; Baumgarten, R.; Doutressoulles, C.; Ducoudret, B.; Etaix, G.; Jamet, C.; Mariette, C.; Petit, E.; Tichoux, G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the beam intensity increase operation (THI project) is to multiply the present intensities for lightest ions by a factor of fifteen in order to reach maximum power of six kilowatts. The main objective is the production of large amounts of rare isotopes, either with SISSI (device intended for producing radioactive beams), or with SPIRAL (production and acceleration of radioactive ion beams). As part of this THI project, new developments have been required such as spiral scanners, for beam profile measurements, and safety system to protect equipments against beam loses. Other developments are being carried on to improve the high intensity beam operation. (authors)

  19. Innovation system and knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this deliverable is to investigate the properties and the nature of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship as a largely distributed phenomenon at firm, sector and national levels in Denmark. Following the guidelines previously developed in the Deliverable 2.2.1 “Innovation systems...... and knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship: Analytical framework and guidelines for case study research” I will investigate the interplay between national innovation systems and knowledge- intensive entrepreneurship by focusing on two main sectors: machine tools, and computer and related activities....

  20. Geographical variation in use of intensive care: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Anne Høy Seemann; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Nielsen, Henrik; Christensen, Steffen; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether there is geographical variation in the use of intensive care resources in Denmark concerning both intensive care unit (ICU) admission and use of specific interventions. Substantial variation in use of intensive care has been reported between countries and within the US, however, data on geographical variation in use within more homogenous tax-supported health care systems are sparse. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study based on linkage of national medical registries including all Danish residents between 2008 and 2012 using population statistics from Statistics Denmark. Data on ICU admissions and interventions, including mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, acute renal replacement therapy, and treatment with inotropes/vasopressors, were obtained from the Danish Intensive Care Database. Data on patients' residence at the time of admission were obtained from the Danish National Registry of Patients. The overall age- and gender standardized number of ICU patients per 1000 person-years for the 5-year period was 4.3 patients (95 % CI, 4.2; 4.3) ranging from 3.7 (95 % CI, 3.6; 3.7) to 5.1 patients per 1000 person-years (95 % CI, 5.0; 5.2) in the five regions of Denmark and from 2.8 (95 % CI, 2.8; 3.0) to 23.1 patients per 1000 person-years (95 % CI, 13.0; 33.1) in the 98 municipalities. The age-, gender-, and comorbidity standardized proportion of use of interventions among ICU patients also differed across regions and municipalities. There was only minimal geographical variation in the use of intensive care admissions and interventions at the regional level in Denmark, but more pronounced variation at the municipality level.

  1. Damping of coherent oscillations in intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Transverse decoherence of a displaced ion bunch is an important phenomenon in synchrotrons and storage rings. An offset can be caused by an injection error after the bunch-to-bucket transfer between synchrotrons or by an externally generated kick. Decoherence results in a transverse emittance blowup, which can cause particle losses and a beam quality degradation. To prevent the beam blowup, a transverse feedback system (TFS) can be used. The damping time should be shorter than the characteristic decoherence time, which can be strongly affected by the interplay of different intensity effects (e.g., space charge and impedances). This thesis describes the development of the analytical models that explain decoherence and emittance growth with chromaticity, space charge, and image charges within the first synchrotron period. The pulsed response function including intensity effects was derived from the model for beam transfer functions. For a coasting beam, the two- dimensional model shows that space charge slows down and above intensity threshold suppresses decoherence. These predictions were confirmed by particle tracking simulations with self-consistent space charge fields. Additionally, halo buildup and losses during decoherence were observed in simulations. These effects were successfully interpreted using a non self-consistent particle-core model. The two-dimensional model was extended to the bunched beams. The simulation results reproduce the analytical predictions. The intensity threshold of decoherence suppression is higher in comparison to a coasting beam, image charges can restore decoherence. In the present work dedicated experiments were performed in the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI Darmstadt and the results were compared with simulations and analytical predictions. The contribution of nonlinearities and image charges is negligible while chromaticity and space charge dominate decoherence. To study the damping efficiency of TFS, a comprehensive TFS module was

  2. Coastal erosion's influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The demographic flight to the coast, begun in early civilization, continues unabated worldwide according to latest studies. The percentage of population living on the coast is expected to remain relatively constant over the next few decades, but the total numbers will increase as the population increases. Recent coastal battering by hurricanes and extratropical storms poses questions about coastal habitability and the real economics of coastal development. Repair costs are borne by private individuals as well as the public in various direct and indirect ways. As these costs escalate, it is fitting to ask what the future portends for storm and coastal-flood damage. It is known that development pressures will continue to increase along the coast, but what will happen concurrently to natural-hazard threats to this infrastructure? Though much emphasis has been placed on sea-level rise, the broader issue is climate change in general. Here, the author considers climate change in both its natural and anthropogenic perspectives. Without becoming mired in the debate about the greenhouse effect and human influence on climatic shifts, some of the broad classes of natural hazards that might accompany climate change are examined. There are several categories of possible global-change effects on coastal erosion. In the early 1980's, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report postulated increases in global sea level up to 4 meters during the next 100 years. Though balanced somewhat by other, lower estimates of sea-level rise, this higher extreme grabbed public attention. During the next decade, scientists attempted to concur on a more reasonable estimate of global sea-level rise due to climate change. Recent credible estimates suggest that approximately 10 to 20 percent of EPA's earlier maximum estimate is most reasonable

  3. Enhancing the intense field control of molecular fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Fatima; Esry, B D

    2012-09-28

    We describe a pump-probe scheme with which the spatial asymmetry of dissociating molecular fragments-as controlled by the carrier-envelope phase of an intense few-cycle laser pulse-can be enhanced by an order of magnitude or more. We illustrate the scheme using extensive, full-dimensional calculations for dissociation of H(2)(+) and include the averaging necessary for comparison with experiment.

  4. Useful References in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: The 2017 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzark, Karen C; Costello, John M; DeSena, Holly C; Thiagajaran, Ravi; Smith-Parrish, Melissa; Gist, Katja M

    2018-03-10

    Pediatric cardiac intensive care continues to evolve, with rapid advances in knowledge and improvement in clinical outcomes. In the past, the Board of Directors of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society created and subsequently updated a list of sentinel references focused on the care of critically ill children with congenital and acquired heart disease. The objective of this article is to provide clinicians with a compilation and brief summary of updated and useful references that have been published since 2012. Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society members were solicited via a survey sent out between March 20, 2017, and April 28, 2017, to provide important references that have impacted clinical care. The survey was sent to approximately 523 members. Responses were received from 45 members, of which some included multiple references. Following review of the list of references, and removing editorials, references were compiled by the first and last author. The final list was submitted to members of the society's Research Briefs Committee, who ranked each publication. Rankings were compiled and the references with the highest scores included. Research Briefs Committee members ranked the articles from 1 to 3, with one being highly relevant and should be included and 3 being less important and should be excluded. Averages were computed, and the top articles included in this article. The first (K.C.U.) and last author (K.M.G.) reviewed and developed summaries of each article. This article contains a compilation of useful references for the critical care of children with congenital and acquired heart disease published in the last 5 years. In conjunction with the prior version of this update in 2012, this article may be used as an educational reference in pediatric cardiac intensive care.

  5. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  6. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiren Chou

    2003-01-01

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R and D program is included in an appendix

  7. Determinants of procedural pain intensity in the intensive care unit. The Europain® study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puntillo, Kathleen A; Max, Adeline; Timsit, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergo several diagnostic and therapeutic procedures every day. The prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of pain related to these procedures are not well known. OBJECTIVES: To assess self-reported procedural pain intensity versus baseline pain......, examine pain intensity differences across procedures, and identify risk factors for procedural pain intensity. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter, multinational study of pain intensity associated with 12 procedures. Data were obtained from 3,851 patients who underwent 4,812 procedures...... in 192 ICUs in 28 countries. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pain intensity on a 0-10 numeric rating scale increased significantly from baseline pain during all procedures (P procedures, with median...

  8. Work intensity in sacroiliac joint fusion and lumbar microdiscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clay Frank,1 Dimitriy Kondrashov,2 S Craig Meyer,3 Gary Dix,4 Morgan Lorio,5 Don Kovalsky,6 Daniel Cher7 1Integrated Spine Care, Wawautosa, WI, 2St Mary’s Spine Center, San Francisco, CA, 3Columbia Orthopedic Group, Columbia, MO, 4Maryland Brain Spine and Pain, Annapolis, MD, 5Neurospine Solutions, Bristol, TN, 6Orthopaedic Center of Southern Illinois, Mt Vernon, IL, 7SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA Background: The evidence base supporting minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI joint fusion (SIJF surgery is increasing. The work relative value units (RVUs associated with minimally invasive SIJF are seemingly low. To date, only one published study describes the relative work intensity associated with minimally invasive SIJF. No study has compared work intensity vs other commonly performed spine surgery procedures.Methods: Charts of 192 patients at five sites who underwent either minimally invasive SIJF (American Medical Association [AMA] CPT® code 27279 or lumbar microdiscectomy (AMA CPT® code 63030 were reviewed. Abstracted were preoperative times associated with diagnosis and patient care, intraoperative parameters including operating room (OR in/out times and procedure start/stop times, and postoperative care requirements. Additionally, using a visual analog scale, surgeons estimated the intensity of intraoperative care, including mental, temporal, and physical demands and effort and frustration. Work was defined as operative time multiplied by task intensity.Results: Patients who underwent minimally invasive SIJF were more likely female. Mean procedure times were lower in SIJF by about 27.8 minutes (P<0.0001 and mean total OR times were lower by 27.9 minutes (P<0.0001, but there was substantial overlap across procedures. Mean preservice and post-service total labor times were longer in minimally invasive SIJF (preservice times longer by 63.5 minutes [P<0.0001] and post-service labor times longer by 20.2 minutes [P<0.0001]. The number of

  9. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author.

  10. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set – Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author

  11. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV: A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S H Wingenbach

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV. A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu hit rates were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the

  12. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  13. Artificial intelligence applications in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C W; Marshall, B E

    2001-02-01

    To review the history and current applications of artificial intelligence in the intensive care unit. The MEDLINE database, bibliographies of selected articles, and current texts on the subject. The studies that were selected for review used artificial intelligence tools for a variety of intensive care applications, including direct patient care and retrospective database analysis. All literature relevant to the topic was reviewed. Although some of the earliest artificial intelligence (AI) applications were medically oriented, AI has not been widely accepted in medicine. Despite this, patient demographic, clinical, and billing data are increasingly available in an electronic format and therefore susceptible to analysis by intelligent software. Individual AI tools are specifically suited to different tasks, such as waveform analysis or device control. The intensive care environment is particularly suited to the implementation of AI tools because of the wealth of available data and the inherent opportunities for increased efficiency in inpatient care. A variety of new AI tools have become available in recent years that can function as intelligent assistants to clinicians, constantly monitoring electronic data streams for important trends, or adjusting the settings of bedside devices. The integration of these tools into the intensive care unit can be expected to reduce costs and improve patient outcomes.

  14. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  15. [Diabetes treatment in children: intensive therapy is not always best].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegema, Renske; Schram, Petra; Nuboer, Roos

    2011-01-01

    Since the 'Diabetes Complications and Control Trial' results were published in 1993, intensive insulin therapy has been the standard treatment for paediatric patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This therapy significantly lowers the risk of long term complications of diabetes. The intensive therapy occurs by either continuous insulin infusion via a pump or a 4-times daily injection regime. In three young patients--two girls of 16 and a boy aged 12 years--the intensive treatment option appeared to be inadequate due to a variety of factors including lack of parental support and an eating disorder. All patients were put on a 2 or 3-times daily regime, which resulted in great improvements to their HbA1c levels and sense of well being. To the boy and one of the girls, extra support was given by a home care nurse. We recommend an individualized approach to the paediatric diabetic patient when it comes to the degree of intensity of the treatment.

  16. Using Deep Learning for Tropical Cyclone Intensity Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Maskey, M.; Berendes, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based techniques are the primary approach to estimating tropical cyclone (TC) intensity. Tropical cyclone warning centers worldwide still apply variants of the Dvorak technique for such estimations that include visual inspection of the satellite images. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) estimates about 10-20% uncertainty in its post analyses when only satellite-based estimates are available. The success of the Dvorak technique proves that spatial patterns in infrared (IR) imagery strongly relate to TC intensity. With the ever-increasing quality and quantity of satellite observations of TCs, deep learning techniques designed to excel at pattern recognition have become more relevant in this area of study. In our current study, we aim to provide a fully objective approach to TC intensity estimation by utilizing deep learning in the form of a convolutional neural network trained to predict TC intensity (maximum sustained wind speed) using IR satellite imagery. Large amounts of training data are needed to train a convolutional neural network, so we use GOES IR images from historical tropical storms from the Atlantic and Pacific basins spanning years 2000 to 2015. Images are labeled using a special subset of the HURDAT2 dataset restricted to time periods with airborne reconnaissance data available in order to improve the quality of the HURDAT2 data. Results and the advantages of this technique are to be discussed.

  17. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  18. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Cyclotrons for high-intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the important physical and technological aspects of cyclotrons for the acceleration of high-intensity beams. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of beam loss mechanisms and extraction schemes.

  20. Intensity of systematic joints: Methods and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Dixon, Jeanette M.

    1980-05-01

    Intensity (joint surface area per unit volume of rock) of a multiset system of joints can be calculated from measurements of perpendicular spacings between adjacent joints in the same sets. Several estimators of intensity are easily calculated. The estimator that uses the trimean of spacings is least distorted by irregular spacing data that are observed and expected in joint systems. Such a measure of joint intensity can be used in academic, engineering, environmental, and economic geology, and in mine design. We apply it to evaluating an exposed analogue of probable fractured gas reservoirs. A field test shows that a major cross-strike structural discontinuity in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians crosses into the easternmost Appalachian Plateau province as a zone of about twice-normal intensity of systematic jointing. *Present address: U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, Mail Stop 966, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225

  1. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type......±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...

  2. Pandemic influenza and pediatric intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Raoul E.; Andriessen, Maarten P. H. M.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    Objective: To assess the adequacy of preparedness planning for an influenza pandemic by modeling the pediatric surge capacity of healthcare facility and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) requirements over time. Governments and Public Health authorities have planned preparedness activities and

  3. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  4. WWW-intensive concept mapping for metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Kommers, P. (2006). WWW-intensive concept mapping for metacognition in solving ill-structured problems. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 16(3/4), 297-316.

  5. Intensive care unit family satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S M; So, H M; Fok, S K; Li, S C; Ng, C P; Lui, W K; Heyland, D K; Yan, W W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the level of family satisfaction in a local intensive care unit and its performance in comparison with international standards, and to determine the factors independently associated with higher family satisfaction. Questionnaire survey. A medical-surgical adult intensive care unit in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Adult family members of patients admitted to the intensive care unit for 48 hours or more between 15 June 2012 and 31 January 2014, and who had visited the patient at least once during their stay. Of the 961 eligible families, 736 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 76.6%). The mean (± standard deviation) total satisfaction score, and subscores on satisfaction with overall intensive care unit care and with decision-making were 78.1 ± 14.3, 78.0 ± 16.8, and 78.6 ± 13.6, respectively. When compared with a Canadian multicentre database with respective mean scores of 82.9 ± 14.8, 83.5 ± 15.4, and 82.6 ± 16.0 (Pcare were concern for patients and families, agitation management, frequency of communication by nurses, physician skill and competence, and the intensive care unit environment. A performance-importance plot identified the intensive care unit environment and agitation management as factors that required more urgent attention. This is the first intensive care unit family satisfaction survey published in Hong Kong. Although comparable with published data from other parts of the world, the results indicate room for improvement when compared with a Canadian multicentre database. Future directions should focus on improving the intensive care unit environment, agitation management, and communication with families.

  6. The patient experience of intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sedation practices in the intensive care unit have evolved from deep sedation and paralysis toward lighter sedation and better pain management. The new paradigm of sedation has enabled early mobilization and optimized mechanical ventilator weaning. Intensive care units in the Nordic c...... state, where they face the choice of life or death. Caring nurses and family members play an important role in assisting the patient to transition back to life....

  7. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  8. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1978-03-01

    Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 48 V, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 203 Hg, and 207 Bi. For eight of the nuclides, the half-lives were also evaluated. (auth.)

  9. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  10. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Precipitating and aggravating factors; (iv) The type, dosage, effectiveness, and side effects of any medication... alleged functional limitations and restrictions due to pain or other symptoms can reasonably be accepted... a determination as to the intensity, persistence, or functionally limiting effects of the claimant's...

  11. Grazing capacity estimates: why include biomass estimates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forage for ruminants in the dry season were assessed and matched with feed requirements in three villages in Zimbabwe, namely; Chiweshe, Makande and Mudzimu. Stocking rates were compared with grazing capacity to determine grazing intensities. Grazing capacities were estimated with and without crop residues to ...

  12. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  13. Intense-field photoionization of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allendorf, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the interaction of intense lasers with molecules are not longer unusual. A number of workers are considering ionization and dissociation processes in these more complex systems. Several examples of the work in this field can be found elsewhere in this volume. Of particular interest is the importance of internal degrees of freedom in above threshold ionization (ATI). What are the roles played by vibration and rotation when a molecule is irradiated by an intense electric field? How are the molecular potentials affected by the laser? To date, most high intensity experiments on molecules have been performed with a limited range of laser wavelengths, either harmonic orders of Nd:YAG laser, excimer wavelengths, or nontunable colliding pulse mode-locked dye lasers. The effects of the intense field on the internal structure of molecules have been probed only when molecular resonances were fortuitously encountered on the way to dissociation or ionization. This paper concentrates on the truly molecular aspects of the molecule-laser interaction. We employ a tunable laser system, and we choose our wavelengths and intensities to probe regions of the molecular potential where a distribution of bond lengths exists. Systematically tuning our laser frequency allows us to examine specific intermediate state resonances in multiphoton ionization, and trace the behavior of the resonances in the presence of the intense laser field

  14. Renton's Quendall Terminals on List of EPA Superfund Sites Targeted for Immediate, Intense Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the list of Superfund sites that Administrator Pruitt has targeted for intense and immediate attention, including the Quendall Terminals Site, a former creosote facility on the shore of Lake Washington in Renton, Washington.

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  17. Relocating an intensive care unit: An exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances Fengzhi; Foster, Michelle; Chaboyer, Wendy; Marshall, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    As new hospitals are built to replace old and ageing facilities, intensive care units are being constructed with single patient rooms rather than open plan environments. While single rooms may limit hospital infections and promote patient privacy, their effect on patient safety and work processes in the intensive care unit requires greater understanding. Strategies to manage changes to a different physical environment are also unknown. This study aimed to identify challenges and issues as perceived by staff related to relocating to a geographically and structurally new intensive care unit. This exploratory ethnographic study, underpinned by Donabedian's structure, process and outcome framework, was conducted in an Australian tertiary hospital intensive care unit. A total of 55 participants including nurses, doctors, allied health professionals, and support staff participated in the study. We conducted 12 semi-structured focus group and eight individual interviews, and reviewed the hospital's documents specific to the relocation. After sorting the data deductively into structure, process and outcome domains, the data were then analysed inductively to identify themes. Three themes emerged: understanding of the relocation plan, preparing for the uncertainties and vulnerabilities of a new work environment, and acknowledging the need for change and engaging in the relocation process. A systematic change management strategy, dedicated change leadership and expertise, and an effective communication strategy are important factors to be considered in managing ICU relocation. Uncertainty and staff anxiety related to the relocation must be considered and supports put in place for a smooth transition. Work processes and model of care that are suited to the new single room environment should be developed, and patient safety issues in the single room setting should be considered and monitored. Future studies on managing multidisciplinary work processes during intensive care unit

  18. Proposal for an intense slow positron beam facility at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeber, W.B.; Taqqu, D.; Zimmermann, U.; Solt, G.

    1990-05-01

    In the domain of condensed matter physics and materials sciences monoenergetic slow positrons in the form of highest intensity beams are demonstrated to be extreamly useful and considered to be highly needed. This conclusion has been reached and the scientific relevance of the positron probe has been highlighted at an international workshop in November 1989 at PSI, where the state of the art and the international situation on slow positron beams, the fields of application of intense beams and the technical possibilities at PSI for installing intense positron sources have been evaluated. The participants agreed that a high intensity beam as a large-scale user facility at PSI would serve fundamental and applied research. The analysis of responses given by numerous members of a widespread positron community has revealed a large research potential in the domain of solid-state physics, atomic physics and surface, thin-film and defect physics, for example. The excellent feature of slow positron beams to be a suitable probe also for lattice defects near surfaces or interfaces has attracted the interest not only of science but also of industry.In this report we propose the installation of an intense slow positron beam facility at PSI including various beam lines of different qualities and based on the Cyclotron production of β + emitting source material and on a highest efficiency moderation scheme which exceeds standard moderation efficiencies by two orders of magnitude. In its proposed form, the project is estimated to be realizable in the nineties and costs will amount to between 15 and 20 MSFr. (author) 10 figs., 6 tabs., 78 refs

  19. Influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orssatto, L B R; Moura, B M; Bezerra, E S; Andersen, L L; Oliveira, S N; Diefenthaeler, F

    2018-03-11

    Understanding the influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly is important to avoid reductions in physical function during the days following training. Twenty-two elderly were randomized in two groups: G70 (65.9 ± 4.8 years, n = 11) and G95 (66.9 ± 5.1, n = 11). Baseline tests included maximum voluntary isometric contraction (peak torque and rate of torque development - RTD), countermovement jump, and functional capacity (timed up and go, stairs ascent and descent). Then, both groups performed a single strength training session with intensities of 70% (G70) or 95% (G95) of five repetition maximum. The same tests were repeated immediately, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after the session. Peak torque was lower than baseline immediately after for both groups and at 24 h for G95. Compared with G70, G95 had lower peak torque at 24 h and 48 h. Countermovement jump, timed up and go, stairs ascent, and RTD at 0-50 ms only differed from baseline immediately after for both groups. RTD at 0-200 ms was lower than baseline immediately after and 24 h after the session for both groups. In conclusion, reduced physical function immediately after strength training can last for 1-2 days in elderly depending on the type of physical function and intensity of training. Higher intensity resulted in greater impairment. Exercise prescription in elderly should take this into account, e.g., by gradually increasing intensity during the first months of strength training. These results have relevance for elderly who have to be fit for work or other activities in the days following strength training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer: a 50th birthday tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Peter G.

    2014-07-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary since the first scientific measurements were produced with the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer, which was constructed in the early 1960's by Robert Hanbury Brown and Richard Twiss. A collaboration between the Universities of Sydney and Manchester, the interferometer was the culmination of a series of experiments which pioneered the technique of intensity interferometry. The immediate controversy surrounding the quantum implications of the technique enveloped some of the most eminent physicists of the day, sparking a debate about nonlocal effects and optical coherence. A full explanation of the workings of the intensity interferometer in a quantum context was finally put forward by Roy Glauber, ultimately earning him the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics. The intensity interferometer rekindled the field of high resolution stellar imaging, which had been extinguished for a half century (following the failure of Pease's 50-foot beam on Mt Wilson), while delivering the first ever measurements of the sizes of normal stars - establishing an effective temperature scaling relationship which has underpinned stellar astronomy for 50 years. This directly paved the way for the next generation of Michelson Stellar Interferometers. Intensity interferometry itself has found application in several fields (notably particle physics), and plans are in active development for modern reprises within stellar interferometry. However undoubtedly the greatest legacy lies in the Hanbury Brown Twiss (HBT) effect being the foundational experiment for what is now known as Quantum Optics - a field which underpins a huge sector of the technology which enables our modern world. This invited review discuses the development of the interferometer, including the controversy that its underlying principles generated within the contemporary physics community. The core scientific output generated by the instrument is presented, together with the impact of the

  1. Climate Change and Wildland Fire Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, M.; Wotton, M.; Marshall, G.

    2016-12-01

    Wildland fires are a frequent occurrence in many regions of the world. These fires are the result of interactions between climate/weather, fuels, and people. Our climate and associated day-to-day weather may be changing rapidly due to human activities that may have dramatic and unexpected impacts on regional and global fire activity. A warmer world means longer fire seasons, more lightning activity, and most importantly drier fuels. Existing studies suggest a general overall increase in fire occurrence and area burned although there is significant temporal and spatial variability. Future trends in fire severity and intensity are more difficult to project due to the complex and non-linear interactions between weather, vegetation and people. However, there are indications that fire severity and intensity are increasing. In this study we examine future fire intensity in Canada. We use 3 GCMs and 3 RCP scenarios to estimate potential fire intensity, fuel consumption and number of significant spread days throughout the boreal forest. We examine not only absolute change in fireline intensity and consumption, but also changing frequency of exceeding intensity thresholds used today to inform fire management decisions about resource effectiveness. We find that potential fuel consumption increases more than 25% in the most extreme scenarios for the majority of the boreal by the end of the century. Similarly, we observe an absolute increase in the number of days that could support significant fire spread by up to 50 days per year and a greater than threefold increase in the potential number of days where head fire intensity exceeds 10000kW/m in the most extreme cases. While fire severity increases in general, it is these changes in the exceedance of certain critical threshold for fire suppression effectiveness that have the potential to significantly impact fire operations. Fire management will be even more challenging in a warmer world.

  2. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  3. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Elsner

    Full Text Available The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93 [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  4. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  5. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  6. Economies of scale in British intensive care units and combined intensive care/high dependency units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip; Rapoport, John; Edbrooke, David

    2004-04-01

    To estimate the relationship between size of intensive care unit and combined intensive care/high dependency units and average costs per patient day. Retrospective data analysis. Multiple regression of average costs on critical care unit size, controlling for teaching status, type of unit, occupancy rate and average length of stay. Seventy-two United Kingdom adult intensive care and combined intensive care/high dependency units submitting expenditure data for the financial year 2000-2001 as part of the Critical Care National Cost Block Programme. None. The main outcome measures were total cost per patient day and the following components: staffing cost, consumables cost and clinical support services costs. Nursing Whole Time Equivalents per patient day were recorded. The unit size variable has a negative and statistically significant ( peconomies of scale in planning intensive care and combined intensive care/high dependency units.

  7. Sins: the Supernova Intensive Study - 87A Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert

    1991-07-01

    Supernovae are stars at the end of stellar evolution. They mark the moment of stellar destruction, act as the key process in the chemical evolution of the universe, serve as agitators and probes of the interstellar medium, and provide sharp and useful tools for cosmological investigations. As SN 1987A demonstrated, the best progress in this field comes from detailed study of the brightest objects. Many central problems of supernova research can be attacked by intensive and extensive observations of a handful of moderately bright supernovae using the HST cameras and spectrographs. SN 1987A provides a unique opportunity to connect the evolution of a supernova with the development of a supernova remnant and will be intensively studied in this program. Because supernovae touch on so many fields of astronomy, the results of this Supernova Intensive Study (SINS) will affect a broad range of areas from stellar interiors to cosmology so a diverse team of investigators has been assembled which includes experts on all these aspects of astronomy. While the first cycle observations concentrate on SN 1987A and on a fresh supernova to be studied at intermediate age, the second and third cycle will include target-of-opportunity observations of freshly-discovered supernovae which will strive for good UV coverage at early phases of the outburst.

  8. Selection of intense rainfall events based on intensity thresholds and lightning data in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gaal; P. Molnar; J. Szolgay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to identify intense warm season storms of convective character based on intensity thresholds and lightning, and analyzes their statistical properties. Long records of precipitation and lightning data at 4 stations and 10 min resolution in different climatological regions in Switzerland are used. Our premise is that thunderstorms associated with lightning generate bursts of high rainfall intensity. We divided all storms into those...

  9. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  10. Optical mapping at increased illumination intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Martišienė, Irma; Jurevičius, Jonas; Vosyliūtė, Rūta; Navalinskas, Antanas; Treinys, Rimantas; Matiukas, Arvydas; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ˜30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ˜10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.

  11. Analgesia, sedation, and memory of intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, M; Pinamonti, A; Cingolani, E; Grassi, L; Bianconi, M; Contu, P; Gritti, G; Alvisi, R

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between analgesia, sedation, and memory of intensive care. One hundred fifty-two adult, cooperative intensive care unit (ICU) patients were interviewed 6 months after hospital discharge about their memory of intensive care. The patient was considered to be cooperative when he/she was aware of self and environment at the interview. The patients were grouped as follows: A (45 patients) substantially no sedation, B (85) morphine, and C (22) morphine and other sedatives. The patients having no memory of intensive care were 38%, 34%, and 23% respectively, in the three groups. They were less ill, according to SAPS II (P memories was not different among the three groups. Females reported at least one emotional memory more frequently than males (odds ratio 4.17; 95% CI 10.97-1.59). The patients receiving sedatives in the ICU are not comparable with those receiving only opiates or nothing, due to the different clinical condition. The lack of memory of intensive care is present in one third of patients and is influenced more by length of stay in ICU than by the sedation received. Sedation does not influence the incidence of factual, sensation, and emotional memories of ICU admitted patients. Females have higher incidences of emotional memories than males. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  12. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Morten Brøgger; Perner, A; Wetterslev, J

    2013-01-01

    incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding varies considerably. Data on the incidence and severity of GI bleeding in general ICUs in the developed world as of today are lacking. The best intervention for SUP is yet to be settled by balancing efficacy and harm. In essence, it is unresolved if intensive care......Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is regarded as standard of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, recent randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have questioned the rationale and level of evidence for this recommendation. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate...... if SUP in the critically ill patients is indicated. Data sources: MEDLINE including MeSH, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Participants: patients in the ICU. Interventions: pharmacological and non-pharmacological SUP. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Risk of bias was assessed according to Grading...

  13. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  14. The intensive DT neutron generator of TU Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, Axel; DÖring, Toralf; Domula, Alexander; Zuber, Kai

    2018-01-01

    TU Dresden operates an accelerator-based intensive DT neutron generator. Experimental activities comprise investigation into material activation and decay, neutron and photon transport in matter and R&D work on radiation detectors for harsh environments. The intense DT neutron generator is capable to produce a maximum of 1012 n/s. The neutron source is a solid-type water-cooled tritium target based on a titanium matrix on a copper carrier. The neutron yield at a typical deuteron beam current of 1 mA is of the order of 1011 n/s in 4Π. A pneumatic sample transport system is available for short-time irradiations and connected to wo high-purity germanium detector spectrometers for the measurement of induced activities. The overall design of the experimental hall with the neutron generator allows a flexible setup of experiments including the possibility of investigating larger structures and cooled samples or samples at high temperatures.

  15. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, E. Milo

    1994-12-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate.

  16. INTENSITY- AND TIME COURSE-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS OF OXIDATIVE STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Lushchak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In living organisms, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is counterbalanced by their elimination and/or prevention of formation which in concert can typically maintain a steady-state (stationary ROS level. However, this balance may be disturbed and lead to elevated ROS levels and enhanced damage to biomolecules. Since 1985, when H. Sies first introduced the definition of oxidative stress, this area has become one of the hot topics in biology and, to date, many details related to ROS-induced damage to cellular components, ROS-based signaling, cellular responses and adaptation have been disclosed. However, some basal oxidative damage always occurs under unstressed conditions, and in many experimental studies it is difficult to show definitely that oxidative stress is indeed induced by the stressor. Therefore, usually researchers experience substantial difficulties in the correct interpretation of oxidative stress development. For example, in many cases an increase or decrease in the activity of antioxidant and related enzymes are interpreted as evidences of oxidative stress. Careful selection of specific biomarkers (ROS-modified targets may be very helpful. To avoid these sorts of problems, I propose several classifications of oxidative stress based on its time-course and intensity. The time-course classification includes acute and chronic stresses. In the intensity based classification, I propose to discriminate four zones of function in the relationship between “Dose/concentration of inducer” and the measured “Endpoint”: I – basal oxidative stress zone (BOS; II – low intensity oxidative stress (LOS; III – intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS; IV – high intensity oxidative stress (HOS. The proposed classifications may be helpful to describe experimental data where oxidative stress is induced and systematize it based on its time course and intensity. Perspective directions of investigations in the field include

  17. Closed-loop control for intensive care unit sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Wassim M; Bailey, James M

    2009-03-01

    The potential clinical applications of active control for pharmacology in general, and anesthesia and critical care unit medicine in particular, are clearly apparent. Specifically, monitoring and controlling the depth of anesthesia in surgery and the intensive care unit is of particular importance. Nonnegative and compartmental models provide a broad framework for biological and physiological systems, including clinical pharmacology, and are well suited for developing models for closed-loop control for drug administration. These models are derived from mass and energy balance considerations that involve dynamic states whose values are nonnegative and are characterized by conservation laws (e.g., mass, energy, fluid, etc.) capturing the exchange of material between kinetically homogenous entities called compartments. Compartmental models have been particularly important for understanding pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. One of the basic motivations for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic research is to improve drug delivery. In critical care medicine it is current clinical practice to administer potent drugs that profoundly influence levels of consciousness, respiratory, and cardiovascular function by manual control based on the clinician's experience and intuition. Open-loop control (manual control) by clinical personnel can be tedious, imprecise, time-consuming, and sometimes of poor quality, depending on the skills and judgement of the clinician. Closed-loop control based on appropriate dynamical systems models merits investigation as a means of improving drug delivery in the intensive care unit. In this article, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of feedback control using nonnegative and compartmental system theory for the specific problem of closed-loop control of intensive care unit sedation. Several closed-loop control paradigms are investigated including adaptive control, neural network adaptive control, optimal control, and hybrid adaptive

  18. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  19. High Intensity Performance of the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L. A.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Roser, T.; Smith, K. S.; VanAsselt, W.; Zhang, S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS provides 24 GeV protons for a multi-user program of fixed-target high energy physics experiments, such as the study of extremely rare Kaon decays. Up to 7 x 10 13 protons are slowly extracted over 2.2 seeds each 5.1 seconds. The muon storage ring of the g-2 experiment is supplied with bunches of 7 x 10 12 protons. Since the completion of the 1.9 GeV Booster synchrotron and installation of a new high-power rf system and transition jump system in the AGS various modes of operation have been explored to overcome space charge limits and beam instabilities at these extreme beam intensities. Experiments have been done using barrier cavities to enable accumulation of debunched beam in the AGS as a potential path to significantly higher intensities. We report on the present understanding of intensity limitations and prospects for overcoming them

  20. Hardness/intensity correlations among BATSE bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions about the nature of gamma-ray bursts derived from the size-frequency distribution may be altered if a significant correlation exists between burst intensity and spectral shape. Moreover, if gamma-ray bursts have a cosmological origin, such a correlation may be expected to result from the expansion of the universe. We have performed a rudimentary search of the BATSE bursts for hardness/intensity correlations. The range of spectral shapes was determined for each burst by computing the ratio of the intensity in the range 100-300 keV to that in 55-300 keV. We find weak evidence for the existence of a correlation, the strongest effect being present when comparing the maximum hardness ratio for each burst with its maximum rate.

  1. Making thermodynamic functions of nanosystems intensive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassimi, A M; Parsafar, G A

    2007-01-01

    The potential energy of interaction among particles in many systems is proportional to r -α . In systems for which α< d, we encounter nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions, where d is the space dimension. A scaling parameter, N-tilde, has been introduced to make the nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions of such systems extensive (intensive). Our simulation results show that this parameter is not capable of making the thermodynamic functions of a nanosystem extensive (intensive). Here we have presented a theoretical justification for N-tilde. Then we have generalized this scaling parameter to be capable of making the nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions of nanosystems extensive (intensive). This generalized parameter is proportional to the potential energy per particle at zero temperature

  2. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  3. Digital radiography in intensive neonatal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, L.; Bighi, S.; Cervi, P.N.; Lupi, L.; Vita, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the routinary use of a computerized digital radiography system in Intensive Neonatal Care department. The conventional screen-film system is replaced by photostimulable imaging plates, which are scanned during processing by a laser providing the digital image. The latter is subsequently processable on high-resolution monitors. Over a 6-month period 86 examinations were performed with this method in Intensive Neonatal Care; good technical results were obtained. The use of digital radiography in intensive neonatal care is extremely promising for it allows high-quality images to be obtained, and radiation dose and number of acquisitions to be reduced. Finally, work stations allow both selective visualization of different body structures and their magnification

  4. Spin and radiation in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, M.W.; Urbach, D.J.; Hatsagortsyan, K.Z.; Hu, S.X.; Keitel, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    The spin dynamics and its reaction on the particle motion are investigated for free and bound electrons in intense linearly polarized laser fields. Employing both classical and quantum treatments we analytically evaluate the spin oscillation of free electrons in intense laser fields and indicate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the motion of the electron. In Mott scattering an estimation for the spin oscillation is derived. In intense laser ion dynamics spin signatures are studied in detail with emphasis on high-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime. First- and second-order calculations in the ratio of electron velocity and the speed of light show spin signatures in the radiation spectrum and spin-orbit effects in the electron polarization

  5. Intense microfocus X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An intense microfocus X-ray source comprises a chamber, a turbomolecular pump to evacuate the chamber, an anode and a cathode within the chamber and electromagnet coils to focus electrons from the cathode on to a small spot on the anode to produce a divergent X-ray beam. The pump has a shaft to which the anode is connected, so that operation of the pump causes rotation of the anode. Heat generated in the anode by the incident electron beam is spread over a larger area than if the anode were stationary. Consequently a more intense electron beam can be used, leading to a more intense X-ray beam, without melting the anode. (author)

  6. Intensive care patient diaries in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Storli, Sissel Lisa; Åkerman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness and intensive care therapy are often followed by psychological problems such as nightmares, hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, depression, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Intensive care patient diaries have been kept by nurses and the patients' family since the early 1990s...... in the Scandinavian countries to help critically ill patients come to terms with their illness after hospital discharge. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the emergence and evolution of intensive care patient diaries in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The study had a comparative international design using...... have the potential to fulfill the existential needs of patients who struggle to make sense of their experiences and construct their own illness narrative....

  7. Calibrating photometric redshifts with intensity mapping observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Moodley, Kavilan

    2017-08-01

    Imaging surveys of galaxies will have a high number density and angular resolution yet a poor redshift precision. Intensity maps of neutral hydrogen will have accurate redshift resolution yet will not resolve individual sources. Using this complementarity, we show how the clustering redshifts approach proposed for spectroscopic surveys can also be used in combination with intensity mapping observations to calibrate the redshift distribution of galaxies in an imaging survey and, as a result, reduce uncertainties in photometric-redshift measurements. We show how the intensity mapping surveys to be carried out with the MeerKAT, HIRAX and SKA instruments can improve photometric-redshift uncertainties to well below the requirements of DES and LSST. The effectiveness of this method as a function of instrumental parameters, foreground subtraction and other potential systematic errors is discussed in detail.

  8. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensities in cognitive paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob A Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has become an important experimental tool for exploring the brain's functional anatomy. As TMS interferes with neural activity, the hypothetical function of the stimulated area can thus be tested. One unresolved methodological issue in TMS experiments is the question of how to adequately calibrate stimulation intensities. The motor threshold (MT is often taken as a reference for individually adapted stimulation intensities in TMS experiments, even if they do not involve the motor system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is reasonable to adjust stimulation intensities in each subject to the individual MT if prefrontal regions are stimulated prior to the performance of a cognitive paradigm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repetitive TMS (rTMS was applied prior to a working memory task, either at the 'fixed' intensity of 40% maximum stimulator output (MSO, or individually adapted at 90% of the subject's MT. Stimulation was applied to a target region in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG, as indicated by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI localizer acquired beforehand, or to a control site (vertex. Results show that MT predicted the effect size after stimulating subjects with the fixed intensity (i.e., subjects with a low MT showed a greater behavioral effect. Nevertheless, the individual adaptation of intensities did not lead to stable effects. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we suggest assessing MT and account for it as a measure for general cortical TMS susceptibility, even if TMS is applied outside the motor domain.

  10. Is high-intensity exercise better than moderate-intensity exercise for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, P

    2013-11-01

    This viewpoint debates the state-of-the-art research focusing on the optimal intensity of the exercise programs for inducing a sustained weight or fat-mass loss in overweight/obese people. In our demanding society, the most attractive messages in the popular press are those promising the best results in a short time. This might explain the emphasis given by media to those scientific articles that report the efficacy on weight loss of exercise programs by their shorter duration and higher intensity. However, in the literature on overweight or obese people, there is little conclusive evidence for more favorable effects with high-intensity training than with continuous moderate-intensity exercise on body weight or fat mass loss. Since both exercise protocols have been demonstrated as useful to reduce body weight, the decision on the intensity of exercise prescription should be individualized and based on outcomes different from fat or weight loss. In this regard, there are pro and contra arguments for the prescription of high-intensity aerobic exercise in obese people. Among the pro arguments, is the demonstration that, in several studies, high-intensity training appears to induce superior improvements in aerobic fitness. Among the contra arguments to prescribe high-intensity exercise is the demonstration that prescribing a higher-intensity exercise decreases adherence and results in the completion of less exercise. Thus, a successful exercise program should be proposed at a moderate intensity and a low perceived effort because obese subjects who have low self-efficacy, poor mood status, and are not familiar with high-intensity workouts could easily drop out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beam monitoring system for intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring system realizing novel principle of operation and allowing to register a two-dimensional beam current distribution within entire aperture (100...200 mm) of ion pipe for a time in nanosecond range has been designed and accomplished for beam control of the INR intense neutron source, for preventing thermo-mechanical damage of its first wall. Key unit of the system is monitor of two-dimensional beam current distribution, elements of which are high resistant to heating by the beam and to radiation off the source. The description of the system and monitor are presented. Implementation of the system for the future sources with more high intensities are discussed. (author)

  12. Parkinson's disease and intensive exercise therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Anders; Stenager, Egon; Pedersen, Martin Sloth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the effect of 3 intensive exercise therapy modalities - Resistance Training (RT), Endurance Training (ET) and Other Intensive Training Modalities (OITM) - in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials......, ET and OITM may have beneficial effects on balance, walking performance, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) score and quality of life in PD, but findings are inconsistent. No studies find deterioration in any outcomes following exercise therapy. CONCLUSION: RT, ET and OITM all...

  13. Intensity noise coupling in soliton fiber oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenchen; Schibli, Thomas R; Li, Peng; Bevilacqua, Carlo; Ruehl, Axel; Hartl, Ingmar

    2017-12-15

    We present an experimental and numerical study on the spectrally resolved pump-to-output intensity noise coupling in soliton fiber oscillators. In our study, we observe a strong pump noise coupling to the Kelly sidebands, while the coupling to the soliton pulse is damped. This behavior is observed in erbium-doped as well as holmium-doped fiber oscillators and confirmed by numerical modeling. It can be seen as a general feature of laser oscillators in which soliton pulse formation is dominant. We show that spectral blocking of the Kelly sidebands outside the laser cavity can improve the intensity noise performance of the laser dramatically.

  14. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkl?v, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acou...

  15. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2--3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10--15% relative to its mean value realized during a broad 9-year period contered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this 9-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small in relation to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant

  16. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.H.

    1979-03-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2 to 3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10-15 percent relative to its mean value realized during a broad nine-year period centered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this nine-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small relative to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant

  17. Thought outside the box: intensive care unit freakonomics and decision making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Deepika; Angus, Derek C

    2010-10-01

    Despite concerted efforts to improve the quality of care provided in the intensive care unit, inconsistency continues to characterize physician decision making. The resulting variations in care compromise outcomes and impose unnecessary decisional regret on clinicians and patients alike. Critical care is not the only arena where decisions fail to conform to the dictates of logic. Behavioral psychology uses scientific methods to analyze the influence of social, cognitive, and emotional factors on decisions. The overarching hypothesis underlying this "thought outside the box" is that the application of behavioral psychology to physician decision making in the intensive care unit will demonstrate the existence of cognitive biases associated with classic intensive care unit decisions; provide insight into novel strategies to train intensive care unit clinicians to better use data; and improve the quality of decision making in the intensive care unit as characterized by more consistent, patient-centered decisions with reduced decisional regret and work-related stress experienced by physicians.

  18. A Writing-Intensive Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss an upper division applied statistics course that has been structured to satisfy our college's writing intensive requirements within the mathematics major. In this course, students complete two projects, performing both a statistical survey and a controlled experiment, and then write up their work on each project in a formal paper. After…

  19. Heating of underdense plasmas by intense lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1972-08-01

    In this note we show that two intense driving fields with frequency much greater than the electron plasma frequency (ω/sub pe/), but with a frequency separation of nearly ω/sub pe/, will couple electron and ion plasma waves and drive them unstable. 6 refs

  20. Teamwork in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-01-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…

  1. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high inten- sity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their ...

  2. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  3. The determinants of subjective emotional intensity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Sonnemans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that emotional intensity is determined jointly by variables from the following 4 classes: concerns (strength and relevance), appraisal, regulation, and individual response propensities. For 6 wks, 37 college students reported an emotion every week and answered questions on a

  4. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  5. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  6. Radiologic protection in intensive therapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, H.; Juliana, C.; Gerusa, R.; Laurete, M.B.; Suelen, S.; Derech, Rodrigo D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray was a great achievement for humanity, especially for the medical community. In Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the RX tests, performed with mobile devices, add immense value to the diagnosis of inpatients who do not have the option to carry them out of bed. Following the technology and its improvements, fatalities arose from misuse of ionizing radiation, which mostly gave up for lack of knowledge of the biological effects caused by them, which leads to fear among professionals and often prevents a quick job and effectively by professionals of radiological techniques. The research it is a systematic review of the literature and justified by the scarcity of materials that reflect on the radiological protection in ICUs. For this study we found the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Pubmed were indexed terms radiological protection and intensive care units, the search in Portuguese and English terms were used radiological protection and intensive care unit. The study aims to inform professionals of ICUs on the main aspects that refer to X-rays in hospital beds, the standards of radiological protection and personal protective equipment, thus avoiding possible damage to the biological health of workers, addressing subjects in rules and laws about the X radiation, emphasizing the protection of professionals in intensive care. It is clear, finally, that little research is conducted in the context of radiological protection of workers ICU's and this is a place that receives daily RX equipment, deserving more attention to protect the worker. (author)

  7. Cofactors Influencing Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine samples were collected from 657 individuals and analyzed by centrifugation, and the number of ova was determined by microscopy. ... Cattle rearing (OR=9.01; CI=4.00-20.75; P=0.00) and farming (OR=3.14; CI=1.82-5.43; P=0.00) showed significant association with the prevalence and intensity of the disease.

  8. Material properties under intensive dynamic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cherne, Frank J; Zhernokletov, Mikhail V; Glushak, B L; Zocher, Marvin A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the physical and thermomechanical response of materials subjected to intensive dynamic loading is a challenge of great significance in engineering today. This volume assumes the task of gathering both experimental and diagnostic methods in one place, since not much information has been previously disseminated in the scientific literature.

  9. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  10. Knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship and financial capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses various financial issues of relevance in the context of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship. The study can be seen as an empirical test of parts of a theoretical framework previously developed which aims at identifying and explaining some of the key factors affecting...

  11. Exercise Intensity: How to Measure It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over your target heart rate zone, adjust your exercise intensity. It's important to note that maximum heart rate is just a guide. You may have a higher or lower maximum heart rate, sometimes by as ... an exercise physiologist or a personal trainer. Generally only elite ...

  12. Trading intensity and real estate performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Brounen (Dirk); P.M.A. Eichholtz (Piet); D. Ling (David)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether it is possible to create value through the active management of direct property portfolios. Using data from the USA, the UK and Australia, we examine whether trading intensity and portfolio growth explain the risk and return characteristics of listed

  13. An intensive tree-ring experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Hevia, Andrea; Camarero, J.J.; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, Dave; Crivellaro, Alan; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta; Hellman, Lena; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Kaye, Margot; Akhmetzyanov, Linar; Ashiq, Muhammad Waseem; Bhuyan, Upasana; Bondarenko, Olesia; Camisón, Álvaro; Camps, Sien; García, Vicenta Constante; Vaz, Filipe Costa; Gavrila, Ionela G.; Gulbranson, Erik; Huhtamaa, Heli; Janecka, Karolina; Jeffers, Darren; Jochner, Matthias; Koutecký, Tomáš; Lamrani-Alaoui, Mostafa; Lebreton-Anberrée, Julie; Seijo, María Martín; Matulewski, Pawel; Metslaid, Sandra; Miron, Sergiu; Morrisey, Robert; Opdebeeck, Jorgen; Ovchinnikov, Svyatoslav; Peters, Richard; Petritan, Any M.; Popkova, Margarita; Rehorkova, Stepanka; Ariza, María O.R.; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Linden, Van der Marjolein; Vannoppen, Astrid; Volařík, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The European Dendroecologial Fieldweek (EDF) provides an intensive learning experience in tree-ring research that challenges any participant to explore new multidisciplinary dendro-sciences approaches within the context of field and laboratory settings. Here we present the 25th EDF, held in

  14. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit

  15. Rethinking Teaching Strategies for Intensive French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacquie; Stead, Shelley; Woolfrey, Sid

    2004-01-01

    This article gives the perspectives of three teachers of intensive French (IF) as they adjusted their thinking to teaching in a French as a second language (FSL) classroom that was very different from the core French classroom and developed teaching strategies to facilitate effective learning of communication skills by the students. Four major…

  16. Auditory intensity processing: Categorization versus comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2015-10-01

    Intensity is an important parameter for the perception of complex auditory stimuli like speech. The results of previous studies on the processing of intensity are diverse since left-lateralized, right-lateralized and non-lateralized processing was suggested. A clear dependence of the lateralization on the kind of stimuli and/or task is not apparent. With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly investigated the differences between a categorical and comparative task. To determine hemispheric involvement we used a method with contralateral noise presentation. Harmonic complexes were presented monaurally without and with contralateral noise. Both categorization and comparison of harmonic complexes according to their intensity more strongly involved the left than the right auditory cortex shown by a stronger effect of the additional noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. Together with previous results, this suggests that left-lateralized processing of intensity in the auditory cortex can be observed independent of task and stimuli. The comparison task more strongly engaged the left auditory cortex than the categorization task probably due the additional need for sequential comparison and the right auditory cortex probably due to capacity reasons. Comparison also more strongly engaged areas associated with attentional processes and areas responsible for motor response selection. We suggest this to be caused by a more difficult response selection and by the need for continuous update of information in reference memory during the comparison task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous pain intensity estimation from facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltwang, Sebastian; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Automatic pain recognition is an evolving research area with promising applications in health care. In this paper, we propose the first fully automatic approach to continuous pain intensity estimation from facial images. We first learn a set of independent regression functions for continuous pain

  18. Systematic study of spatiotemporal dynamics of intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in vogue, like laser machining [1, 2], lightning control, atmospheric analysis and remote sensing of molecules [3] and supercontinuum generation [5–7]. The com- mercial availability of intense femtosecond lasers has made extensive experimental studies possible. A variety of far-field patterns have been demonstrated after ...

  19. Engineering Education in Research-Intensive Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Jones, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of engineering education in research-intensive institutions are reported and key areas for developmental focus identified. The work is based on a questionnaire and session summaries used during a two-day international conference held at Imperial College London. The findings highlight several common concerns, such as…

  20. [Intercultural competence. Management of foreignness in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, T

    2015-08-01

    Living in a multicultural society is characterized by different attitudes caused by a variety of religions and cultures. In intensive care medicine such a variety of cultural aspects with respect to pain, shame, bodiliness, dying and death is of importance in this scenario. To assess the importance of cultural and religious attitudes in the face of foreignness in intensive care medicine and nursing. Notification of misunderstandings and misinterpretations in communication and actions. An analysis of the scientific literature was carried out and typical intercultural conflict burden situations regarding the management of brain death, organ donation and end of life decisions are depicted. Specific attitudes are found in various religions or cultures regarding the change of a therapeutic target, the value of the patient's living will and the organization of rituals for dying. Intercultural conflicts are mostly due to misunderstandings, assessment differences, discrimination and differences in values. Intercultural competence is crucial in intensive care medicine and includes knowledge of social and cultural influences of different attitudes on health and illness, the abstraction from own attitudes and the acceptance of other or foreign attitudes.

  1. Mutual optical intensity propagation through non-ideal mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyu; Shi, Xianbo; Wang, Yong; Reininger, Ruben; Assoufid, Lahsen; Tai, Renzhong

    2017-09-01

    The mutual optical intensity (MOI) model is extended to include the propagation of partially coherent radiation through non-ideal mirrors. The propagation of the MOI from the incident to the exit plane of the mirror is realised by local ray tracing. The effects of figure errors can be expressed as phase shifts obtained by either the phase projection approach or the direct path length method. Using the MOI model, the effects of figure errors are studied for diffraction-limited cases using elliptical cylinder mirrors. Figure errors with low spatial frequencies can vary the intensity distribution, redistribute the local coherence function and distort the wavefront, but have no effect on the global degree of coherence. The MOI model is benchmarked against HYBRID and the multi-electron Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) code. The results show that the MOI model gives accurate results under different coherence conditions of the beam. Other than intensity profiles, the MOI model can also provide the wavefront and the local coherence function at any location along the beamline. The capability of tuning the trade-off between accuracy and efficiency makes the MOI model an ideal tool for beamline design and optimization.

  2. The Effects of Telecommuting Intensity on Employee Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel Mosher; Benevent, Richele; Schulte, Patricia; Rinehart, Christine; Crighton, K Andrew; Corcoran, Maureen

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of the intensity of telecommuting on employee health. Study design comprised a longitudinal analysis of employee demographic data, medical claims, health risk assessment data, and remote connectivity hours. Data from Prudential Financial served as the setting. Active employees ages 18 to 64 years who completed the health risk assessment between 2010 and 2011 were the study subjects. Measures included telecommuting status and intensity, and eight indicators of health risk status (obesity, depression, stress, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and an overall risk measure), with employee age, sex, race-ethnicity, job grade, management status, and work location as control variables. Health risks were determined for nontelecommuters and telecommuters working remotely ≤8, 9 to 32, 33 to 72, and ≥73 hours per month. Longitudinal models for each health risk were estimated, controlling for demographic and job characteristics. Telecommuting health risks varied by telecommuting intensity. Nontelecommuters were at greater risk for obesity, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and tobacco use, and were at greater overall risk than at least one of the telecommuting groups. Employees who telecommuted ≤8 hours per month were significantly less likely than nontelecommuters to experience depression. There was no association between telecommuting and stress or nutrition. Results suggest that employees may benefit from telecommuting opportunities. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  3. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures.

  4. An Exploratory Study of Intensive Neurofeedback Training for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Nan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder with ongoing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deteriorated functions. Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the effect of short but intensive neurofeedback training for schizophrenic patients with difficulty for long-time training. A middle-aged woman with chronic schizophrenia completed the intensive training of alpha/beta2 (20–30 Hz in four consecutive days with a total training duration of 13.5 hours. The results showed that her alpha/beta2 increased over sessions, and her behavior performance including short-term memory, mood, and speech pattern was improved at the end of neurofeedback training. Importantly, a 22-month follow-up found a dramatic improvement in both positive and negative symptoms. These positive outcomes suggest that such intensive neurofeedback training may provide new insight into the treatment of schizophrenia and thus deserves further study to fully examine its scope.

  5. Application of low field intensity joint MRI in ankle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the diagnostic value of the low field intensity joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in traumatic ankles. Methods: Through a retrospective examination and collection of 50 cases with complete information and checked by arthroscope or/and operated from Jan 2007 to Jun 2010, the diagnostic value ligament of the ankle joint, bone contusion,occult fracture, talus cartilage, and tendon could be evaluated. Cases of fracture for which could be diagnosed by X rays and CT were not included in this research. Results: The special low field intensity joint MRI had a high diagnostic sensitivity of 88.9% to ligamentum talofibulare anterius, but was only 50% sensitive to ligamentum calcaneofibulare. Its sensitivity to injury of ligamentum deltoideum and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis was up to 100%. Tendon injury, bone contusion and occult fracture could be exactly diagnosed. Its total sensitivity on talus cartilage traumatism was 70.6%. Its diagnosis sensitivity to talus cartilage traumatism at the 3rd-5th period by Mintz was 90%, with a lower one of 42.9% at the 1st-2nd period. Talus cartilage traumatism could be exactly predicted by osseous tissue dropsy below cartilage. Conclusion: The special low field intensity joint MRI is highly applicable to the diagnosis on ankle joint traumatism and facilitates clinical treatment. (authors)

  6. Intensive cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, H.; Kristensen, M.; Arendt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite promising results from intensive formats of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the format is rarely used. The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature within this area of research and provide a meta-analysis of the effectiveness...... of intensive CBT for youths or adults with OCD. The meta-analysis was based on 17 trials (11 adult and 6 youth) including a total of 646 participants. Large overall pre-post effect sizes (ES) of 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.85) for clinical ratings (n=16) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.45) for self-reports (n=5) were found...... (Hedges g). Based on two comparative nonrandomized studies and one RCT, a larger post-treatment effect of intensive treatment compared to standard weekly or twice weekly CBT was found (between group ES=0.39 (95% CI 0.05-0.74) for clinical ratings). This difference was no longer present at 3 month follow...

  7. [Sedation and analgesia practices among Spanish neonatal intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (Pneonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer generated holography with intensity-graded patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer Generated Holography achieves patterned illumination at the sample plane through phase modulation of the laser beam at the objective back aperture. This is obtained by using liquid crystal-based spatial light modulators (LC-SLMs, which modulate the spatial phase of the incident laser beam. A variety of algorithms are employed to calculate the phase modulation masks addressed to the LC-SLM. These algorithms range from simple gratings-and-lenses to generate multiple diffraction-limited spots, to iterative Fourier-transform algorithms capable of generating arbitrary illumination shapes perfectly tailored on the base of the target contour. Applications for holographic light patterning include multi-trap optical tweezers, patterned voltage imaging and optical control of neuronal excitation using uncaging or optogenetics. These past implementations of computer generated holography used binary input profile to generate binary light distribution at the sample plane. Here we demonstrate that using graded input sources, enables generating intensity graded light patterns and extend the range of application of holographic light illumination. At first, we use intensity-graded holograms to compensate for LC-SLM position dependent diffraction efficiency or sample fluorescence inhomogeneity. Finally we show that intensity-graded holography can be used to equalize photo evoked currents from cells expressing different level of chanelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, one of the most commonly used optogenetics light gated channels, taking into account the non-linear dependence of channel opening on incident light.

  9. Intrusive memories of hallucinations and delusions in traumatized intensive care patients: An interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Brewin, Chris R; Howell, David C J; White, Emily; Mythen, Michael G; Weinman, John A

    2015-09-01

    Psychological morbidity, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is common in survivors of intensive care. Intrusive memories of trauma are important symptoms of PTSD. Research has not established which aspects of intensive care are most traumatizing; invasive medical procedures, fear of dying from life-threatening illness or injury, or effects of psychoactive drugs, including hallucinations and delusions. Our study aimed to investigate the roots of post-intensive care trauma by interviewing survivors with symptoms of PTSD. Were their intrusive memories primarily of real events or hallucinations and delusions from intensive care? Interview study as part of a mixed-methods investigation of psychological outcomes post-intensive care. We used purposive sampling to identify patients with intrusive memories of intensive care unit. Detailed interviews were conducted to investigate the nature and content of post-intensive care memories. Intrusive memories were categorized as factual, hallucinatory/delusional, or uncertain. Thematic saturation was achieved after 17 interviews. Approximately 70% (12/17) of patients had hallucinatory/delusional intrusive memories of intensive care, while 12% (2/17) had factual but no hallucinatory/delusional memories; 18% (3) were uncertain whether memories were factual or hallucinatory/delusional. Further analysis suggested that 88% of all patients had hallucinatory/delusional intrusive memories. The content of intrusive memories commonly merged realistic events (involving intensive care staff, environment, medical procedures and unpleasant physical experiences) with delusions and frightening hallucinations. We found that patients in this in-depth study were more traumatized by frightening hallucinations/delusions than real events, suggesting they may have post-psychosis PTSD, rather than classic PTSD. Interventions are needed to diagnose and treat intensive care hallucinations/delusions, or minimize effects, to prevent PTSD.

  10. and the intensity of low back pain in older women with discopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Herbowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of previously experienced labor pains in the context of self-evaluated intensity of discopathy-related low back pain in female patients. Participants and procedure The retrospective study included 57 women who received neurosurgical consultation under ambulatory conditions. The intensity of low back pain experienced by every patient was scored using the 11-grade Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11; ranging from 0 to 10 points. Simultaneously, an obstetrical history was collected from every patient (year of delivery, intensity of labor pain assessed with NRS-11. Results Overall, 57 women, aged between 27 and 88 years (mean 52.8 ±15.6 years, were examined. The age at delivery ranged between 17 and 35 years (mean 25.6 ±5.6 years. The patient-reported intensity of pain in the lumbosacral spine, assessed with NRS-11, ranged between 5 and 10 points (mean 7.9 ±1.7 points, while the intensity of labor pain ranged between 3 and 10 points (mean 8.6 ±1.9 points. Labor pain was perceived as more significantly intense than low back pain localized in the lumbosacral spine. In four cases (7%, the intensity of low back pain was re-scored upon asking about the intensity of previous labor pain. Conclusions Labor pain experienced during full-term vaginal delivery is characterized by significantly higher intensity as compared to low back pain. The memory of pain experienced during previous labors can attenuate the intensity of discopathy-related low back pain.

  11. Does Concurrent Training Intensity Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Sanz, Adrián; Tuimil, José L; Abreu, Laurinda; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Varela-Sanz, A, Tuimil, JL, Abreu, L, and Boullosa, DA. Does concurrent training intensity distribution matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 181-195, 2017-Previous research has demonstrated the influence of intensity distribution on endurance training adaptations. However, no study has addressed the influence of intensity distribution on the effectiveness of concurrent training (CT). The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of 2 CT programs with different training intensity distribution and externally equated loads on physical fitness. Thirty-one sport science students volunteered and were evaluated for resting heart rate variability (HRV), countermovement jump, bench press, half squat, and maximum aerobic speed (MAS). All were randomly distributed into either a traditional-based training group (TT; n = 11; 65-75% of MAS, combined with 10-12 repetition maximum [RM]), polarized training group (PT; n = 10; 35-40% and 120% of MAS, combined with 5RM and 15RM), or control group (CG; n = 10). After 8 weeks of training (3 daysweek), TT and PT exhibited similar improvements in MAS, bench press, and half squat performances. No differences were observed between TT and PT groups for perceived loads. There were no changes in HRV for any group, although TT exhibited a reduction in resting heart rate. Compared with other groups, the PT group maintained jump capacity with an increment in body mass and body mass index without changes in body fatness. In conclusion, PT induced similar improvements in physical fitness of physically active individuals when compared with TT. However, PT produced a lower interference for jumping capacity despite an increment in body mass, whereas TT induced greater bradycardia. Extended studies with different intensity distributions should be conducted to better determine the dose-response of CT in various populations.

  12. Collimator setting optimization in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Hoban, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of collimator angle and bixel size settings in IMRT when using the step and shoot method of delivery. Of particular interest is minimisation of the total monitor units delivered. Beam intensity maps with bixel size 10 x 10 mm were segmented into MLC leaf sequences and the collimator angle optimised to minimise the total number of MU's. The monitor units were estimated from the maximum sum of positive-gradient intensity changes along the direction of leaf motion. To investigate the use of low resolution maps at optimum collimator angles, several high resolution maps with bixel size 5 x 5 mm were generated. These were resampled into bixel sizes, 5 x 10 mm and 10 x 10 mm and the collimator angle optimised to minimise the RMS error between the original and resampled map. Finally, a clinical IMRT case was investigated with the collimator angle optimised. Both the dose distribution and dose-volume histograms were compared between the standard IMRT plan and the optimised plan. For the 10 x 10 mm bixel maps there was a variation of 5% - 40% in monitor units at the different collimator angles. The maps with a high degree of radial symmetry showed little variation. For the resampled 5 x 5 mm maps, a small RMS error was achievable with a 5 x 10 mm bixel size at particular collimator positions. This was most noticeable for maps with an elongated intensity distribution. A comparison between the 5 x 5 mm bixel plan and the 5 x 10 mm showed no significant difference in dose distribution. The monitor units required to deliver an intensity modulated field can be reduced by rotating the collimator and aligning the direction of leaf motion with the axis of the fluence map that has the least intensity. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  14. Systematic review of high-intensity progressive resistance strength training of the lower limb compared with other intensities of strength training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Melissa J; Bramley-Tzerefos, Rebecca E; Jeffs, Kimberley J; Winter, Adele; Holland, Anne E

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of high-intensity progressive resistance strength training (HIPRST) on strength, function, mood, quality of life, and adverse events compared with other intensities in older adults. Online databases were searched from their inception to July 2012. Randomized controlled trials of HIPRST of the lower limb compared with other intensities of progressive resistance strength training (PRST) in older adults (mean age ≥ 65y) were identified. Two reviewers independently completed quality assessment using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and data extraction using a prepared checklist. Twenty-one trials were included. Study quality was fair to moderate (PEDro scale range, 3-7). Studies had small sample sizes (18-84), and participants were generally healthy. Meta-analyses revealed HIPRST improved lower-limb strength greater than moderate- and low-intensity PRST (standardized mean difference [SMD]=.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], .40 to 1.17 and SMD=.83; 95% CI, -.02 to 1.68, respectively). Studies where groups performed equivalent training volumes resulted in similar improvements in leg strength, regardless of training intensity. Similar improvements were found across intensities for functional performance and disability. The effect of intensity of PRST on mood was inconsistent across studies. Adverse events were poorly reported, however, no correlation was found between training intensity and severity of adverse events. HIPRST improves lower-limb strength more than lesser training intensities, although it may not be required to improve functional performance. Training volume is also an important variable. HIPRST appears to be a safe mode of exercise in older adults. Further research into its effects on older adults with chronic health conditions across the care continuum is required. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicians Experiencing Intense Emotions While Seeing Their Patients: What Happens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vilela Da; Carvalho, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physicians often deal with emotions arising from both patients and themselves; however, management of intense emotions when they arise in the presence of patients is overlooked in research. The aim of this study is to inspect physicians' intense emotions in this context, how these emotions are displayed, coping strategies used, adjustment behaviors, and the impact of the emotional reactions on the physician-patient relationship. A total of 127 physicians completed a self-report survey, built from a literature review. Participants were recruited in 3 different ways: through a snowball sampling procedure, via institutional e-mails, and in person during service meetings. Fifty-two physicians (43.0%) reported experiencing intense emotions frequently. Although most physicians (88.6%) tried to control their reactions, several reported not controlling themselves. Coping strategies to deal with the emotion at the moment included behavioral and cognitive approaches. Only the type of reaction (but not the emotion's valence, duration, relative control, or coping strategies used) seemed to affect the physician-patient relationship. Choking-up/crying, touching, smiling, and providing support were significantly associated with an immediate positive impact. Withdrawing from the situation, imposing, and defending oneself were associated with a negative impact. Some reactions also had an extended impact into future interactions. Experiencing intense emotions in the presence of patients was frequent among physicians, and the type of reaction affected the clinical relationship. Because many physicians reported experiencing long-lasting emotions, these may have important clinical implications for patients visiting physicians while these emotions last. Further studies are needed to clarify these results.

  16. Intensity Thresholds for Aerobic Exercise–Induced Hypoalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Samuels, Brian; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating exercise-induced hypoalgesia, there is limited understanding of the optimal intensity of aerobic exercise in producing hypoalgesic effects across different types of pain stimuli. Given that not all individuals are willing or capable of engaging in high intensity aerobic exercise, whether moderate intensity aerobic exercise is associated with a hypoalgesic response and whether this response generalizes to multiple pain induction techniques needs to be substantiated. Purpose This study’s purpose is to test for differences in the magnitude of pressure and heat pain modulation induced by moderate (MAE) and vigorous (VAE) intensity aerobic exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young males and 15 females completed one training session and three testing sessions consisting of 25 minutes of either 1) stationary cycling at 70% heart rate reserve (HRR), 2) stationary cycling at 50% HRR, or 3) quiet rest (control). Pain testing was conducted on both forearms prior to and immediately following each condition and included the following tests: pressure pain thresholds (PPT), suprathreshold pressure pain test, static continuous heat test, and repetitive pulse heat pain test. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on each pain measure. Results VAE and MAE reduced pain ratings during static continuous heat stimuli and repetitive heat pulse stimuli, with VAE producing larger effects. VAE also increased PPTs, while neither exercise influenced suprathreshold pressure pain ratings. Conclusion These results suggest that MAE is capable of producing a hypoalgesic effect using continuous and repetitive pulse heat stimuli. However, a dose-response effect was evident as VAE produced larger effects than MAE. PMID:24002342

  17. Mobility decline in patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Fábio Santos; Paim, Daniel de Macedo; Brito, Juliana de Oliveira; Barros, Idiel de Araujo; Nogueira, Thiago Barbosa; Martinez, Bruno Prata; Pires, Thiago Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the variation in mobility during hospitalization in an intensive care unit and its association with hospital mortality. Methods This prospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit. The inclusion criteria included patients admitted with an independence score of ≥ 4 for both bed-chair transfer and locomotion, with the score based on the Functional Independence Measure. Patients with cardiac arrest and/or those who died during hospitalization were excluded. To measure the loss of mobility, the value obtained at discharge was calculated and subtracted from the value obtained on admission, which was then divided by the admission score and recorded as a percentage. Results The comparison of these two variables indicated that the loss of mobility during hospitalization was 14.3% (p < 0.001). Loss of mobility was greater in patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the intensive care unit (p < 0.02) and in patients who used vasopressor drugs (p = 0.041). However, the comparison between subjects aged 60 years or older and those younger than 60 years indicated no significant differences in the loss of mobility (p = 0.332), reason for hospitalization (p = 0.265), SAPS 3 score (p = 0.224), use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.117), or hospital mortality (p = 0.063). Conclusion There was loss of mobility during hospitalization in the intensive care unit. This loss was greater in patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours and in those who used vasopressors; however, the causal and prognostic factors associated with this decline need to be elucidated. PMID:27410406

  18. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  19. Prediction and Outcome of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fan, Eddy; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Rios, Fernando; Nin, Nicolás; Thille, Arnaud W; González, Marco; Villagomez, Asisclo J; Davies, Andrew R; Du, Bin; Maggiore, Salvatore M; Matamis, Dimitrios; Abroug, Fekri; Moreno, Rui P; Kuiper, Michael A; Anzueto, Antonio; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired paresis (ICUAP) is associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate predictors for ICUAP and the short-term outcomes associated with this condition. A secondary analysis of a prospective study including 4157 mechanically ventilated adults in 494 intensive care units from 39 countries. After sedative interruption, patients were screened for ICUAP daily, which was defined as the presence of symmetric and flaccid quadriparesis associated with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. A multinomial logistic regression was used to create a predictive model for ICUAP. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the relationship between ICUAP and short-term outcomes (ie, weaning failure and intensive care unit [ICU] mortality). Overall, 114 (3%) patients had ICUAP. Variables associated with ICUAP were duration of mechanical ventilation (relative risk ratio [RRR] per day, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), steroid therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), insulin therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7), sepsis (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9), acute renal failure (RRR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and hematological failure (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Coefficients were used to generate a weighted scoring system to predict ICUAP. ICUAP was significantly associated with both weaning failure (paired rate difference of 22.1%; 95% CI 9.8-31.6%) and ICU mortality (paired rate difference 10.5%; 95% CI 0.1-24.0%). Intensive care unit-acquired paresis is relatively uncommon but is significantly associated with weaning failure and ICU mortality. We constructed a weighted scoring system, with good discrimination, to predict ICUAP in mechanically ventilated patients at the time of awakening.

  20. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-20

    Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  1. Optimal margin and edge-enhanced intensity maps in the presence of motion and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Timothy C Y; Tsitsiklis, John N; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In radiation therapy, intensity maps involving margins have long been used to counteract the effects of dose blurring arising from motion. More recently, intensity maps with increased intensity near the edge of the tumour (edge enhancements) have been studied to evaluate their ability to offset similar effects that affect tumour coverage. In this paper, we present a mathematical methodology to derive margin and edge-enhanced intensity maps that aim to provide tumour coverage while delivering minimum total dose. We show that if the tumour is at most about twice as large as the standard deviation of the blurring distribution, the optimal intensity map is a pure scaling increase of the static intensity map without any margins or edge enhancements. Otherwise, if the tumour size is roughly twice (or more) the standard deviation of motion, then margins and edge enhancements are preferred, and we present formulae to calculate the exact dimensions of these intensity maps. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to include scenarios where the parameters of the motion distribution are not known with certainty, but rather can take any value in some range. In these cases, we derive a similar threshold to determine the structure of an optimal margin intensity map.

  2. The snoring spectrum: acoustic assessment of snoring sound intensity in 1,139 individuals undergoing polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K; Stoohs, R A; Mulrooney, T F; Johnson, L J; Guilleminault, C; Huang, Z

    1999-03-01

    To quantify the snoring sound intensity levels generated by individuals during polysomnographic testing and to examine the relationships between acoustic, polysomnographic, and clinical variables. The prospective acquisition of acoustic and polysomnographic data with a retrospective medical chart review. A sleep laboratory at a primary care hospital. All 1,139 of the patients referred to the sleep laboratory for polysomnographic testing from 1980 to 1994. The acoustic measurement of snoring sound intensity during sleep concurrent with polysomnographic testing. Four decibel levels were derived from snoring sound intensity recordings. L1, L5, and L10 are measures of the sound pressure measurement in decibels employing the A-weighting network that yields the response of the human ear exceeded, respectively, for 1, 5, and 10% of the test period. The Leq is a measure of the A-weighted average intensity of a fluctuating acoustic signal over the total test period. L10 levels above 55 dBA were exceeded by 12.3% of the patients. The average levels of snoring sound intensity were significantly higher for men than for women. The levels of snoring sound intensity were associated significantly with the following: polysomnographic testing results, including the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), sleep latency, and the percentage of slow-wave sleep; demographic factors, including gender and body mass; and clinical factors, including snoring history, hypersomnolence, and breathing stoppage. Men with a body mass index of > 30 and an average snoring sound intensity of > 38 dBA were 4.1 times more likely to have an RDI of > 10. Snoring sound intensity levels are related to a number of demographic, clinical, and polysomnographic test results. Snoring sound intensity is closely related to apnea/hypopnea during sleep. The noise generated by snoring can disturb or disrupt a snorer's sleep, as well as the sleep of a bed partner.

  3. Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Mike; Lázaro, J; Olm, Josep

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts outlining selected talks and other selected presentations given by participants throughout the "Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics 2016", held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona from February 1st to April 29th, 2016. They include brief research articles reporting new results, descriptions of preliminary work or open problems, and outlines of prominent discussion sessions. The articles are all the result of direct collaborations initiated during the research program. The topic is the theory and applications of Nonsmooth Dynamics. This includes systems involving elements of: impacting, switching, on/off control, hybrid discrete-continuous dynamics, jumps in physical properties, and many others. Applications include: electronics, climate modeling, life sciences, mechanics, ecology, and more. Numerous new results are reported concerning the dimensionality and robustness of nonsmooth models, shadowing variables, numbers of limit...

  4. Dose profile analysis of small fields in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medel B, E.; Tejeda M, G.; Romero S, K.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Small field dosimetry is getting a very important worldwide task nowadays. The use of fields of few centimeters is more common with the introduction of sophisticated techniques of radiation therapy, as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). In our country the implementation of such techniques is just getting started and whit it the need of baseline data acquisition. The dosimetry under small field conditions represents a challenge for the physicists community. In this work, a dose profile analysis was done, using various types of dosimeters for further comparisons. This analysis includes the study of quality parameters as flatness, symmetry, penumbra, and other in-axis measurements. (Author)

  5. Low-intensity shockwave therapy for erectile dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Hatzichristodoulou, Georgios; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects ∼30% of all men above the age of 40 years and its prevalence steadily increases with age. Current nonsurgical treatment options, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I), provide temporary relief but have failed to provide a permanent improvement...... of the condition. Low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) is noninvasive and uses acoustic waves, which can pass through tissue and be focussed to target specific areas or organs to induce the desired effects. The use of Li-ESWT has previously been described in other disease contexts...

  6. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  7. Intensities of decimetric-wavelength radio recombination lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, A.; Pankonin, V.

    1975-01-01

    We summarize the intensity results of some of the 221 and 248α recombination-line observations taken with the Arecibo telescope, and report additional results including 166α observations from the NRAO 300-foot (91 m) telescope. The brightness temperatures of these lines increase sharply with wavelength. We show that these results require that the upper levels of the recombining atoms be overpopulated with respect to LTE conditions. The most reasonable interpretation of the results is that the line emission at these decimetric wavelengths is stimulated by a background source of continuum radiation

  8. Plasma-Immersion Formation of High-Intensity Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, A. I.; Anan'in, P. S.; Dektyarev, S. V.; Sivin, D. O.; Shevelev, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time, the possibility of forming high-intensity beams of low-energy metal and gas ions is demonstrated experimentally. The use of a hybrid system for ion-beam formation including plasmaimmersion extraction and ion acceleration and their subsequent ballistic focusing in an equipotential space with neutralization of the space charge of the beam made possible the pulse-periodic formation of titanium and nitrogen ion beams with an ion-current density of more than 1 A/cm2 and a pulsed power density of 2.6 kW/cm2.

  9. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,ω). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating

  10. Position Detection Based on Intensities of Reflected Infrared Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    measurements of reflected light intensities, and includes easy calibration. The method for reconstructing 3D positions has been implemented in a prototype of a “non-Touch Screen” for a computer, so that the user can control a cursor in three dimensions by moving his/hers hand in front of the computer screen....... The 2D position reconstruction method is mplemented in a prototype of a human-machine interface (HMI) for an electrically powered wheelchair, such that the wheelchair user can control the movement of the wheelchair by head movements. Both “non-Touch Screen” prototype and wheelchair HMI has been tested...

  11. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  12. Dose profile analysis of small fields in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel B, E. [IMSS, Centro Medico Nacional Manuel Avila Camacho, Calle 2 Nte. 2004, Barrio de San Francisco, 72090 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tejeda M, G.; Romero S, K., E-mail: romsakaren@gmail.com [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla, Pue.(Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Small field dosimetry is getting a very important worldwide task nowadays. The use of fields of few centimeters is more common with the introduction of sophisticated techniques of radiation therapy, as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). In our country the implementation of such techniques is just getting started and whit it the need of baseline data acquisition. The dosimetry under small field conditions represents a challenge for the physicists community. In this work, a dose profile analysis was done, using various types of dosimeters for further comparisons. This analysis includes the study of quality parameters as flatness, symmetry, penumbra, and other in-axis measurements. (Author)

  13. Segmentation and intensity estimation of microarray images using a gamma-t mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jangsun; Son, Young Sook; McLachlan, Geoffrey J

    2007-02-15

    use of the bivariate t distribution for the foreground intensity provides a model that is less sensitive to extreme observations; (5) as a consequence of the aforementioned properties, it allows segmentation to be undertaken for a wide range of spot shapes, including doughnut, sickle shape and artifacts. We apply our method for gridding, segmentation and estimation to cDNA microarray real images and artificial data. Our method provides better segmentation results in spot shapes as well as intensity estimation than Spot and spotSegmentation R language softwares. It detected blank spots as well as bright artifact for the real data, and estimated spot intensities with high-accuracy for the synthetic data. The algorithms were implemented in Matlab. The Matlab codes implementing both the gridding and segmentation/estimation are available upon request. Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Umamaheswari; Vasudevan, Kavita; Balasubramaniam, Kavita; Yerrabelli, Dhanalakshmi; Shanmugavel, Karthik; John, Nitin Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Exercise is a lifestyle change that has been recommended for lowering atherogenic index in adults. The intensity and duration of exercise to bring about a change in the lipid parameters are yet to be determined. Previous studies examining the effects of exercise intensity on lipid and lipoprotein levels have reported conflicting findings. Thus we aimed at determining the changes in lipid profile in sedentary obese adults influenced by different intensity of exercise. Study included 51 obese adults with sedentary lifestyle. Participants performed exercise of moderate intensity (n=22) and high intermittent intensity (n=29) for a duration of 40min/day for 5 days/week and 20 min/day for 3 days/week respectively on bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 weeks. Pretesting and post testing included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. RESULTS were analysed using the Paired and Unpaired samples t-test. Postexercise revealed significant reduction in the LDL-C and diastolic blood pressure (plife. High intermittent intensity can be considered for individuals who have time constraints and lead a sedentary life style and moderate intensity exercise advised for individuals who are willing to create time for their health benefits. A programmed protocol of exercise will help in reduction of lipid parameters.

  15. A systematic review found no consistent difference in effect between more and less intensive placebo interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fässler, Margrit; Meissner, Karin; Kleijnen, Jos; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Linde, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that some placebo interventions might be associated with larger clinical effects than others. In a systematic review, we investigated whether there is evidence from direct comparisons in randomized clinical trials including two or more placebo groups supporting this hypothesis. Eligible trials were identified through electronic database searches and citation tracking up to February 2013. Placebo interventions in a trial were categorized into a more intense and a less intense intervention based on complexity, invasiveness, or route of administration and time needed for application. Twelve studies with 1,059 patients receiving placebo met the eligibility criteria. Studies were highly heterogeneous regarding patients, interventions, outcomes, and risk of bias. Seven studies did not find any significant differences between the more intense and the less intense placebo intervention, four studies found differences for single outcomes, and one study consistently reported significantly larger effects of the more intense placebo. An explorative meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference -0.22 (95% confidence interval: -0.46, 0.02; P = 0.07; I(2) = 68%). In the studies included in this review, more intense placebos were not consistently associated with larger effects than less intense placebos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensity stability improvements for the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauchas, A.; Gunderson, G.; Zolecki, R.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system consists of a 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton preaccelerator, 50 MeV linear accelerator and a 500 MeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). The accelerator system accelerates over 2.5 x 10 12 protons per pulse at a 30 Hz rate to strike a depleted uranium target for producing neutrons (which are used for neutron scattering research.) Since beginning operation in 1977, the beam intensity has been steadily increasing with improvements in various systems, such as a new H - source, improved correction magnet systems, etc. Instabilities created by the higher intensities have also been under control

  17. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A.; Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Lovberg, R.H.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. A 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 μs duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator is being developed to address these applications. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs

  18. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Doctors usually diagnose Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, infection ...

  19. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  20. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  1. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  2. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  3. Energy intensity, target level of energy intensity, and room for improvement in energy intensity: An application to the study of regions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2014-01-01

    While the previous literature shows that a decline in energy intensity represents an improvement in energy use efficiency, it does not provide a target level of energy intensity, nor what room for improvement in terms of energy intensity could entail. This study establishes an indicator of such room for improvement in terms of energy intensity by measuring the difference between the target level of energy intensity and the actual energy intensity and thereby monitors energy use efficiency. The traditional indicator of energy intensity, defined as energy use over GDP, mainly estimates energy use efficiency, but is a partial effect between the energy input and GDP output. However, our proposed indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity is the total-factor effects based on the multiple-inputs model. By taking the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency using the indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity, this study concludes that an improvement in energy intensity does not fully depend on a decline in energy intensity, and we instead need to confirm whether the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity decreases. This finding is particularly relevant for energy policy-makers. - Highlights: • This paper establishes an indicator for the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity. • This study takes the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency. • A different result appears by using our proposed indicator

  4. Intensive Measurement Designs for Research on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Philippe; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Intensive measurement burst designs permit analysis of behavioral and biological processes as they unfold over short and long periods of time and providing the opportunity to identify change from an individual's normative level of functioning. The measurement burst design permits statistical decomposition of short-term variation and learning effects that overlay normative aging and provide stronger bases for detecting accelerated change due to pathological processes. We provide an overview of design features and analysis of measurement burst data in Project MIND. The objective of intensive measurement designs is to obtain greater resolution of processes of interest that permit reliable and sensitive assessments of functioning and change in functioning and of key determinants underlying short-term variation and long-term aging and health-related change.

  5. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XII

    CERN Document Server

    Roso, Luis; Li, Ruxin; Mathur, Deepak; Normand, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This  volume covers a broad range of topics focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field, laser induced filamentation, and laser plasma interaction and application. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. .

  6. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Bandrauk, André D

    2010-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction.

  7. Funneling in LANL high intensity linac designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Subrata

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos design approach to Accelerator driven transmutation applications is based on high power proton linacs. Most of the accelerators that have been studied have one important element in common. That component is a funnel, where beams from two separate but identical front end linac systems are merged to form a collinear beam of twice the initial beam intensity. The nominal linac design for Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) consists of an ion source-injector/Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)/Drift Tube Linac (DTL) combination operating at 350 MHz. The output beam at 20 MeV from each of the DTLs is then funneled to a single high energy linac operating at 700 MHz which accelerates the beam to 800 MeV. In this paper, we present the rationale behind the choice of funneling to achieve higher beam intensity, a beam dynamics design, and simulation results through the funnel section, together with the present experimental status of funneling

  8. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  9. Resolving Tropical Cyclone Intensity in Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, global weather forecast models and global climate models have begun to depict intense tropical cyclones, even up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. In light of the limitation of horizontal resolution in such models, the author performs calculations, using the extended Best Track data for Atlantic tropical cyclones, to estimate the ability of models with differing grid spacing to represent Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity statistically. Results indicate that, under optimistic assumptions, models with horizontal grid spacing of one fourth degree or coarser should not produce a realistic number of category 4 and 5 storms unless there are errors in spatial attributes of the wind field. Furthermore, the case of Irma (2017) is used to demonstrate the importance of a realistic depiction of angular momentum and to motivate the use of angular momentum in model evaluation.

  10. The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment is aimed at surveying the northern sky 21cm intensity at mid-redshifts, thus map out the neutral hydrogen distribution. The experiment is named "Tianlai" which means "heavenly sound" in classic Chinese, because its ultimate goal is to use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the correlation function or power spectrum of large scale structure to constrain the cosmic expansion rate, and determine the nature of dark energy.The pathfinder experiment consists three cylinder reflectors of 15m wide x 40m long, and 16 dishes of 6 meter aperture, for testing the basic principle and key technologies. A radio-quiet site in Hongliuxia, Xinjiang of north-west China is selected, currently the facilities are under construction, and the prototype is expected to start commissioning later this year. The experiment is run by NAOC, with members from France, USA and Canada.

  11. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows

  12. Funneling in LANL high intensity linac designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos design approach to Accelerator driven transmutation applications is based on high power proton linacs. Most of the accelerators that have been studied have one important element in common. That component is a funnel, where beams from two separate but identical front end linac systems are merged to form a collinear beam of twice the initial beam intensity. The nominal linac design for Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) consists of an ion source-injector/Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)/Drift Tube Linac (DTL) combination operating at 350 MHz. The output beam at 20 MeV from each of the DTLs is then funneled to a single high energy linac operating at 700 MHz which achieve higher beam intensity, a beam dynamics design, and simulation results through the funnel section, together with the present experimental status of funneling

  13. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  14. Radiation control through licensing and intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-H.; Yang, Y.-C.; Wu, T.-Y.; Weng, P.-S.

    1982-01-01

    Various types of intensive training courses to suit radiation workers in different fields were sponsored by both the Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan and the National Health Administration of Executive Yuan, Republic of China during the past seven years. During the years 1974-79, the number of radiation workers attending each training course, their age, sex and educational background are presented in detail. The typical course contents for both medical and non-medical radiation workers are given. A summary of the percentage of passes and failures of the final examination given at the end of each training course is also given. The present status of licensing for radiation facilities and workers is described, and its results are indicated. The successful control of ionizing radiation through this kind of intensive training and licensing is evidenced in the film badge records given by a centralized service laboratory located at the National Tsing Hua University. (author)

  15. Environmental issues for intensive biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall Smith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.2 'Environmental Issues' was to evaluate environmental sustainability of intensive biomass systems and develop guidelines to ensure environmental soundness of such systems. Eight countries participated in the work: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, U.S.A. and U.K. During the period 1995-1997, collaborators have: evaluated environmental sustainability of intensive biomass production systems; assessed environmental sustainability of utilizing biosolids, e.g., wastewater sludge and wood ash, and effluents, to increase productivity of conventional and short rotation forestry systems; and evaluated and developed environmental guidelines for deployment of bioenergy production systems. The forestry and bioenergy industrial sectors were active participants in all Activity field study tours and workshops. This paper reviews achievements of Task XII Activity 4.2 and suggests where future international collaboration is required to achieve sustainable forestry bioenergy production systems 62 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  16. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII

    CERN Document Server

    Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III

    2012-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.

  17. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Li, Ruxin; Chin, See Leang

    2009-01-01

    The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This fourth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on strong field ionization of atoms; excitation, ionization and fragmentation of molecules; nonlinear intense optical phenomena and attosecond pulses; and laser - solid interactions and photoemission.

  18. Intensive integrated therapy of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The macro- and microvascular burden of type 2 diabetes is well established. A number of recent single risk factor intervention trials targeting hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulation, microalbumuria, and existing cardiovascular disorders have, however, shown major beneficial...... effects on long-term outcome. The results from these studies are anticipated to change the future management of type 2 diabetes, and most of the updated national guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes recommend a multipronged approach driven by ambitious treatment targets. The outcome...... of this intensive integrated therapy has, however, only been investigated in a few studies of patients with type 2 diabetes. One of these trials, the Steno-2 Study, showed that intensive intervention for an average of 7.8 years cuts cardiovascular events as well as nephropathy, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy...

  19. ARRONAX, a high intensity cyclotron in Nantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Guertin, A.; Martino, J. [Nantes Univ., SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Barbet, J.; Chatal, J.F. [Nantes Univ., Dept. de Recherche en Cancerologie, Inserm, U601, 44 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A cyclotron named ARRONAX is being built in Nantes (France). It is mainly devoted to radiochemistry and nuclear medicine research and will be operational during the last quarter of 2008. This machine will accelerate both protons and {alpha}-particles at high energy (up to 70 MeV) and high intensity (2 simultaneous proton beams with intensity up to 350 {mu}A). In nuclear medicine, these characteristics will allow the cyclotron to produce a large variety of radionuclides on a regular schedule and in sufficient amount to perform clinical trials. A priority list of 12 radioisotopes, which contains isotopes for therapeutic use as well as for PET imaging, has been established by an international scientific committee. In radiochemistry, a vertical pulsed {alpha}-beam will allow fundamental studies of radiolysis in aqueous media, which is of great interest for radiobiology and for nuclear waste management. (authors)

  20. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XIII

    CERN Document Server

    III, Wendell; Paulus, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This thirteenth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field and high-order harmonics generation and their applications. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, the interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries.   .

  1. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  2. Fast Hugs with Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Şenoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mnemonics are commonly used in medical procedures as cognitive aids to guide clinicians all over the world. The mnemonic ‘FAST HUG’ (Feeding, Analgesia, Sedation, Thromboembolic prophylaxis, Head-of-bed elevation, stress Ulcer prevention, and Glycemic control was proposed almost ten years ago for patient care in intensive care units and have been commonly used worldwide. Beside this, new mnemonics were also determined for improving routine care of the critically ill patients. But none of this was accepted as much as “FAST HUGS”. In our clinical practice we delivered an another mnemonic as FAST HUGS with ICU (Feeding, Analgesia, Sedation, Thromboembolic prophylaxis, Head-of-bed elevation, Stress ulcer prevention, and Glucose control, Water balance, Investigation and Results, Therapy, Hypo-hyper delirium, Invasive devices, Check the daily infection parameters, Use a checklist for checking some of the key aspects in the general care of intensive care patients. In this review we summarized these mnemonics.

  3. Intensive integrated therapy of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    effects on long-term outcome. The results from these studies are anticipated to change the future management of type 2 diabetes, and most of the updated national guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes recommend a multipronged approach driven by ambitious treatment targets. The outcome...... of this intensive integrated therapy has, however, only been investigated in a few studies of patients with type 2 diabetes. One of these trials, the Steno-2 Study, showed that intensive intervention for an average of 7.8 years cuts cardiovascular events as well as nephropathy, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy...... by about half when compared with a conventional multifactorial treatment. The challenge for now is to ensure that the trial experiences are widely adopted in daily clinical practice....

  4. IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL INTENSITY IN HORTICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Stefko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although horticulture is an integral part of agriculture it has several distinguishing characteristics resulting from its potentially higher profitability and different use of the basic production factors, such as land, labour and capital. The common features of horticultural farms are the high level of real fixed assets in the structure of assets and high capital intensity of production. Therefore, the main goal of the article is to define the importance of the capital intensity in horticulture production. An effective tool to calculate the suitable for the individual needs of real fixed assets level should facilitate permanent monitoring of the production in terms of the economic calculation in order to optimize the range of the producers’ investment so that they could avoid a financial loss.

  5. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western ...

  6. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, O Peter

    2013-01-01

    O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief ...

  7. Comparison of High-Intensity Laser Therapy and Ultrasound Treatment in the Patients with Lumbar Discopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Boyraz, Ismail; Yildiz, Ahmet; Koc, Bunyamin; Sarman, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of high intensity laser and ultrasound therapy in patients who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation and who were capable of performing physical exercises. 65 patients diagnosed with lumbar disc were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 received 10 sessions of high intensity laser to the lumbar region, Group 2 received 10 sessions of ultrasound, and Group 3 received medical therapy...

  8. Intensity noise properties of Nd:YVO 4 microchip lasers pumped with an amplitude squeezed diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, C.; Boller, K.-J.

    1998-02-01

    We report on intensity noise measurements of single-frequency Nd:YVO 4 microchip lasers optically pumped with amplitude squeezed light from an injection-locked diode laser. Calibrated homodyne measurements show a minimum intensity noise of 10.1 dB above the SQL at a frequency of 100 kHz. The measured intensity noise spectra are described with high accuracy by a theoretical model based on the quantum mechanical Langevin rate equations, including classical and quantum noise sources.

  9. Comunicación para la ciencia, una ruta hacia la visibilidad en la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (UNAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerly Carolina Ariza Zabala

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saber cómo llegar y para quién se escribe sin perder el nivel de complejidad, sacándolo del metalenguaje científico y haciéndolo comprensible, es una ardua tarea que aprovecha las plataformas tecnológicas y diferentes estrategias de comunicación para lograr el acceso al conocimiento, de esta forma y siendo coherentes con la responsabilidad social que tienen las Instituciones de Educación Superior de llevar la educación a todas partes, y en congruencia con su función sustantiva y sus ejes misionales: docencia, investigación y extensión; con miras a cumplir el objetivo, las instituciones gestionan procesos editoriales con el fin de consolidar y potenciar una propuesta de visibilidad Institucional, más que de rentabilidad.

  10. Frontiers of particle beams: Intensity limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, M.; Month, M.; Turner, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present volume is the proceedings of the latest of these joint schools, held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, in 1990. This course dealt with intensity limitations and was centered on a series of lectures which could be divided into the following main categories: Self and environmental fields, Coherent instabilities and their simulation, Beam-beam interaction, Other multiparticle effects, Beam source limitations, Engineering limitations. (orig.)

  11. Intensive Measurement Designs for Research on Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rast, Philippe; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive measurement burst designs permit analysis of behavioral and biological processes as they unfold over short and long periods of time and providing the opportunity to identify change from an individual’s normative level of functioning. The measurement burst design permits statistical decomposition of short-term variation and learning effects that overlay normative aging and provide stronger bases for detecting accelerated change due to pathological processes. We provide an overview of...

  12. Trade Exposure of Energy Intensive Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteland, M.H.; Nelissen, D.; De Bruyn, S.M.

    2010-04-01

    In this report we analysed the origin and destinations of trade flows between EU and non-EU countries with respect to eight industrial sectors. In addition we looked at the political pledges made during the Copenhagen negotiations last December. If we combine these two types of insights, we get an idea of the risk of carbon leakage due to EU climate policies. Our analysis shows that the EU often trades with countries that have climate policy in place. As these major trading partners of the EU can be expected to adopt similar stringent climate policies, CO2 might get a price in these markets as well and the risk of carbon leakage is reduced/absent. Trade intensities should be corrected for that. In case the EU will adopt a -30% emission reduction target, trade with Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, Brazil and Mexico, need to be excluded from the calculation of trade intensities since those countries will adopt comparable climate policies. The average downward correction on trade intensities is 3%. If the EU eventually decides to adopt a -20% reduction scenario, trade flows with Russia, Canada and the USA should also be excluded. Those countries will then have policies of similar stringency. The average correction on trade intensities is then -8,5%. These findings have direct consequences on the allocation mechanism for some sectors, which will no longer receive free emission rights as they do not qualify as 'exposed' to international competition anymore. These sectors are listed in Table 4 (-30% scenario) and Table 5 (-20% scenario) on page 31. Yet, those sectors that are expected to face large cost increases (>5%) due to EU ETS, will still receive free allocation.

  13. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  14. American Values versus Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    revolutionary power, not to raffle off power, because the people (already) have power through their van- guard, the Sandanista Front of National Liberation...popular support. The U.S. Army’s new Joint Readiness Training Center, though advertising training in both low and mid intensity conflict, does not...history in our dealings with Nicaragua--as meddlesome big brother or greedy uncle--seems to argue for a wholly local initiative toward promoting peace

  15. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Sant’Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Cunha, Amanda Carneiro da; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated ...

  16. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  17. Accelerators for Driving Intense spallation Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilad, P.

    2002-01-01

    A worldwide trend to replace aging research reactors with accelerator driven neutron sources is currently underway. The ''SARAF'' program at Soreq NRC is a notable example. Setting the background to this trend, a review of the history of accelerator based spallation neutron sources is presented. We follow the evolution of ideas and projects for intense spallation neutron sources. The survey is mainly focused on the properties of the accelerators chosen as drivers throughout the evolution of spallation neutron sources. Since the late 1940s, high-energy proton and deuteron accelerators were developed in view of producing intense neutron sources for various applications related to the nuclear industry, i.e. breeding fissile isotopes, driving nuclear reactors using alternative fuels (like the 'Energy Amplifier') and nuclear waste incineration. However, these projects never progressed beyond the R and D stage. In recent years there is a trend to replace aging reactor-based strong cw neutron sources by pulsed intense spallation sources. Their main applications are in the fields of physics research, material sciences, biology and medicine. Prominent examples of successful projects are ISIS at RAL in Great Britain and SINQ at PSI in Switzerland. Other successful projects are noted in Japan and the US. The clear success of these spallation sources prompted the development of a new generation of more intense spallation neutron sources, notably in Europe (ESS), US (SNS) and Japan (JAERI). Generally, the pulsed spallation neutron sources are based on high-energy proton accelerators. Initially, the proton accelerators were room temperature linacs. In view of the progress relating to properties of RF superconducting resonators and the excellent accumulated experience with cryogenic accelerators, future accelerators for spallation sources will be mostly cryogenic linacs

  18. Burnout Among Anesthetists and Intensive Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalauskas, Audrius; Benetis, Rimantas; Širvinskas, Edmundas; Andrejaitienė, Judita; Kinduris, Šarūnas; Macas, Andrius; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overall, 34% anesthetists and intensive care physicians indicated high levels of emotional exhaustion, 25% indicated high levels of depersonalization, and 38% showed low personal accomplishment. Burnout was found more frequent among subjects with problem drinking (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8), depressiveness (OR 10.2, 95% CI 4.6-22.6), cardiovascular disorders (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and digestive disorders (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Some favorite after-work activities positively correlated with burnout, such as sedative medications abuse (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.5), alcohol abuse (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5), eating more than usual (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), and transferring the accumulated stress to relatives (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5). In contrast, reading of non-medical literature seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Burnout was highly prevalent among anesthetists and intensive care physicians with two fifths of them meeting diagnostic criteria. It was strongly correlated with problem drinking, depressiveness, cardiovascular and digestive disorders, use of sedatives and overeating.

  19. Statistics of spatially integrated speckle intensity difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Yura, Harold

    2009-01-01

    We consider the statistics of the spatially integrated speckle intensity difference obtained from two separated finite collecting apertures. For fully developed speckle, closed-form analytic solutions for both the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived h...... here for both arbitrary values of the mean number of speckles contained within an aperture and the degree of coherence of the optical field. Additionally, closed-form expressions are obtained for the corresponding nth statistical moments....

  20. Antimicrobial therapy in neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Tzialla, C.; Borghesi, A.; Serra, G.; Stronati, M.; Corsello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and in industrialized countries about 1% of neonates are exposed to antibiotic therapy. Sepsis has often nonspecific signs and symptoms and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated in high risk of sepsis or symptomatic infants. However continued us...

  1. Intense X-ray and EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Joshua; Ekdahl, Carl; Oertel, John

    2017-06-20

    An intense X-ray or EUV light source may be driven by the Smith-Purcell effect. The intense light source may utilize intense electron beams and Bragg crystals. This may allow the intense light source to range from the extreme UV range up to the hard X-ray range.

  2. Intense beam dynamics in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of the trajectory of an intense charged-particle beam in a magnetic field presents many challenges. A major problem of the analysis is that the magnetic fields induced by the intense beam currents can significantly modify the pre-existing magnetic fields. A model is presented which suggests that single-particle analysis can be used to predict the self-consistent trajectory of an intense particle beam in a magnetized plasma when the particle velocity is much greater than the Alfven velocity. A relativistic Lagrangian formalism is used to calculate single-particle trajectories in magnetic fields. An experiment was constructed which investigated a region of parameter space where the theory was valid. A 1-MeV, 50-kA, 50-ns rotating electron beam was used to compare the theory with experiment. A technique is described which determines magnetic field magnitudes necessary for single particle trajectories to produce toroidal and poloidal currents. These are the required currents for producing compact-torus magnetic-confinement geometries. The trapping of relativistic-beam electrons in a plasma is reported

  3. LHC Report: Intensity ramp-up

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The first stable beams at 4 TeV were declared on Thursday, 5 April with 3 bunches per beam. This marked the start of the intensity ramp-up, which aims to get back up to 1380 bunches per beam as quickly as is safely possible.   The next couple of days saw fills with 47, 84 and 264 bunches per beam and on Sunday, 8 April the move was made to 624 bunches. With the squeeze to 60 cm in place, 624 bunches with reasonably high bunch intensities of around 1.3 to 1.4 x1011 protons per bunch have already yielded respectable peak luminosities of up to 2.5 x1033 cm-2s-1. Following a lot of hard work during the Christmas technical stop, machine availability is very good at the moment. The ramp-up in the number of bunches is accompanied by a series of checks aimed to make sure the machine protection systems and operational procedures are in a good enough shape to safely deal with the beam intensity. 624 bunches at 4 TeV already represents an energy over 50 MJ and serious damage potential. The next few days sh...

  4. Wavefront reconstruction from three dimensional intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Roberts, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that is is possible to use intensity measurements taken in a series of planes perpendicular to some axis to produce full four-dimensional information about the cross spectral density function. This measurement of the intensity in any given plane gives a series of slices thorough the four-dimensional Fourier transform of the Brightness function. For a coherent field, this information also enables us to calculate the phase and amplitude of the electric field in any given plane. If a finite measurement range is taken, the resolution of the reconstructed field is degraded, but in the limit of measurements taken over an infinite range, the full Fresnel field can be calculated. When considering the practical application of this technique to real data, the delta function definition needs to be redefined in terms of a 'top-hat' function. This does not alter any of the central conclusions obtained using delta functions, but enables the production of an algorithm for the reconstruction of the electric field from real intensity measurements. This was applied to a simulation of the simple case of a Gaussian beam. The reconstructed phase and amplitude of the electric field so obtained were in good agreement with assumed values. 14 refs., 5 figs

  5. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  6. Spectral intensities in trivalent lanthanide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Roberto [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Mayor, Avenida Manuel Montt 367, Postal code 7500994, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: roberto.acevedo@umayor.cl; Soto-Bubert, Andres; Bosch, Paul [Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejercito 441, Casilla 298-V, Santiago (Chile); Strek, Wieslaw [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okoelna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2008-08-11

    The main goal of this research work is to rationalize the rich vibronic structure of lanthanide type crystals, such as Cs{sub 2}NaDyCl{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}NaHoCl{sub 6}, in the space group Fm3m(O{sub h}{sup 5}). These systems are known to be highly relativistic and as a consequence, major corrections to previous model calculations should be taken into account so as to explain from a semi-quantitative viewpoint, the observed spectral intensities. We have decided to tackle this study taking special care, of both the physics and the chemistry involved with special emphasis on the theoretical model to be employed as well as, in the strategy to be followed to rationalize the available experimental data. This paper aims to advance our understanding of the intensity mechanisms, associated with observed radiative transitions, say for complex highly relativistic systems, in the solid state physics. The spectral intensities associated with superpositions (juxtapositions) of peaks and/or bands in the absortion and emission spectra are considered in detail and a preliminary working methodology is put forward with reference to the Cs{sub 2}NaDyCl{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}NaHoCl{sub 6} crystals.

  7. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Häggström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients’ transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient’s care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  8. Organizing safe transitions from intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients' transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU) to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient's care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  9. Sweetness intensity in low-carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odake, S

    2001-05-01

    The carbonation perception and sweetness perception were investigated under the presence of low level of carbondioxide less than 1.0 gas volume. Carbonation perception decreased linearly as carbonation level decreased. Sweetness perception showed inconsistency by means of evaluation methods: Triangle difference test led the result showing carbonation became a hindrance for sweetness perception. However, the measurement for the sweetness degree expressed by panellists in four categories 'not sweet', 'perhaps sweet', 'probably sweet' and 'definitely sweet', and the measurement for the points of subjective equality revealed that carbonation had no influence on sweetness perception. Commercially produced beverages whose irritation stimuli were stronger showed almost the same sweetness intensities (= perceived concentration of sucrose/actual concentration of sucrose) at approximately 0.7 regardless of various flavours. A weaker stimulus beverage, without strong flavour, showed higher sweetness intensity at 0.9. Some weaker stimuli beverages, which contained strong lemon flavour and soluble fibre, showed less sweetness intensities of 0.62-0.68 than the high-stimuli products.

  10. Inflammatory biomarkers and prediction for intensive care unit admission in severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Paula; Ferrer, Miquel; Martí, Verónica; Reyes, Soledad; Martínez, Raquel; Menéndez, Rosario; Ewig, Santiago; Torres, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    Increased inflammatory response is related to severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia, but the role of inflammatory biomarkers in deciding intensive care unit admission is unknown. We assessed the relationship between inflammatory response, prediction for intensive care unit admission, delayed intensive care unit admission, and outcome in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Prospective clinical study. Intensive care units of two university hospitals. We included 627 ward and 58 intensive care unit patients with community-acquired pneumonia, 36 with direct and 22 with delayed intensive care unit admission. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 at admission. We assessed the prediction for intensive care unit admission of biomarkers and the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines minor criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Procalcitonin (p=.001), C-reactive protein (p=.005), tumor necrosis factor-α (p=.042), and interleukin-6 (p=.003) levels were higher in intensive care unit-admitted patients; however, the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines minor severity criteria predicted better intensive care unit admission (odds ratio, 12.03; 95% confidence interval, 5.13-28.20; pintensive care unit admission compared with 14 (23%) with levels above the cutoff (p=.032). In patients initially admitted to wards, procalcitonin (p=.012) and C-reactive protein (p=.039) were higher in those 22 patients subsequently transferred to the intensive care unit after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class. Despite initially admitted to wards, 14 (64%) patients with delayed intensive care unit admission had already criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia at admission compared with 73 (12%) ward patients (pintensive care unit admission

  11. The Selection of Trade Integration Indicators: Intraregional Share, Intensity, Homogeneous Intensity, and Introversion Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a clear and comprehensive picture of trade integration in Asia, using a trade linkage diagram. The paper reviews four types of indicators (share, intensity, homogeneous intensity, and introversion index) and argues that the introversion index is the most suitable indicator for the comparison of the level of trade integration, both in terms of cross-regional comparisons and time series analyses. Next, since Asia is a group of heterogeneous economies and the level...

  12. Provincial energy intensity in China: The role of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese policymakers have attached great importance to energy intensity reduction. However, the unprecedented urbanization process exercises additional pressure on the realization of energy intensity reduction targets. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization is necessary for designing effective policies aimed at reaching the next energy intensity reduction targets. This paper empirically investigates the impacts of urbanization on China's aggregate and disaggregated energy intensities using a balanced panel dataset of 30 provinces covering the period from 2000 to 2012 and panel estimation techniques. The results show that urbanization significantly increases aggregate energy intensity, electricity intensity and coal intensity. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the determinants of China's energy intensity. • Urbanization is responsible for the increase in China's energy intensity. • The fluctuation in China's energy intensity is also affected by other key factors.

  13. Evidence for abrupt geomagnetic field intensity changes in Europe between 200 and 1400 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Available archaeomagnetic data indicate that during the past 2500 yr there have been periods of rapid geomagnetic field intensity fluctuations interspersed with periods of almost constant field strength. Despite Europe being the most widely covered region in terms of archaeomagnetic data the occurrence and the behaviour of these rapid geomagnetic field intensity changes is under discussion and the challenge now is to precisely describe them. Here we present an improved description of the sharp intensity change that took place in Europe around 800 AD. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, four archaeological French kilns and three collections of bricks used for the construction of different French historical buildings with ages ranging between 335 and 1260 AD have been studied. Classical Thellier experiments performed on 164 specimens, and including anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation and cooling rate corrections, gave 119 reliable results. The 10 new high-quality mean archaeointensities obtained confirm the existence of an intensity maximum of about 85 μT (at the latitude of Paris) centred at ~800 AD and suggest that a previous abrupt intensity change occurred around 600 AD. Western European data also suggest the occurrence of abrupt geomagnetic field intensity changes during the 12th century AD and around the second half of the 13th century AD. Reliable selected eastern European data show a similar variation of geomagnetic field intensity with the occurrence of two intensity bumps (up to 75 μT at the latitude of Sofia) at ages around 650 and 950 AD and two periods of rapid intensity changes during the 12th century AD and 1300 AD. The results suggest that the described features of the geomagnetic field are observed at a continental scale and that very rapid intensity changes (of at least of 20 μT/century) took place in the recent history of the Earth's magnetic field.

  14. Intensive Versus Distributed Aphasia Therapy: A Nonrandomized, Parallel-Group, Dosage-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade; Copland, David; McKinnon, Eril; Burfein, Penni; O'Brien, Kate; Farrell, Anna; Rodriguez, Amy D

    2015-08-01

    Most studies comparing different levels of aphasia treatment intensity have not controlled the dosage of therapy provided. Consequently, the true effect of treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation remains unknown. Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy is an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program. We investigated the efficacy of a dosage-controlled trial of Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy, when delivered in an intensive versus distributed therapy schedule, on communication outcomes in participants with chronic aphasia. Thirty-four adults with chronic, poststroke aphasia were recruited to participate in an intensive (n=16; 16 hours per week; 3 weeks) versus distributed (n=18; 6 hours per week; 8 weeks) therapy program. Treatment included 48 hours of impairment, functional, computer, and group-based aphasia therapy. Distributed therapy resulted in significantly greater improvements on the Boston Naming Test when compared with intensive therapy immediately post therapy (P=0.04) and at 1-month follow-up (P=0.002). We found comparable gains on measures of participants' communicative effectiveness, communication confidence, and communication-related quality of life for the intensive and distributed treatment conditions at post-therapy and 1-month follow-up. Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy resulted in superior clinical outcomes on measures of language impairment when delivered in a distributed versus intensive schedule. The therapy progam had a positive effect on participants' functional communication and communication-related quality of life, regardless of treatment intensity. These findings contribute to our understanding of the effect of treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation and have important clinical implications for service delivery models. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. An analysis of patients transferred to a tertiary oncological intensive care unit for defined procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Sunil; Chawla, Sanjay; Rajendram, Prabalini; Pastores, Stephen M; Kostelecky, Natalie; Halpern, Neil A

    2015-05-01

    Up to 50 000 intensive care unit interhospital transfers occur annually in the United States. To determine the prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of cancer patients transferred from an intensive care unit in one hospital to another intensive care unit at an oncological center and to evaluate whether interventions planned before transfer were performed. Data on transfers for planned interventions from January 2008 through December 2012 were identified retrospectively. Demographic and clinical variables, receipt of planned interventions, and outcome data were analyzed. Of 4625 admissions to an intensive care unit at the oncological center, 143 (3%) were transfers from intensive care units of other hospitals. Of these, 47 (33%) were transfers for planned interventions. Patients' mean age was 57 years, and 68% were men. At the time of intensive care unit transfer, 20 (43%) were receiving mechanical ventilation. Interventions included management of airway (n = 19) or gastrointestinal (n = 2) obstruction, treatment of tumor bleeding (n = 12), chemotherapy (n = 10), and other (n = 4). A total of 37 patients (79%) received the planned interventions within 48 hours of intensive care unit arrival; 10 (21%) did not because their signs and symptoms abated. Median intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay at the oncological center were 4 and 13 days, respectively. Intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates were 11% and 19%, respectively. Deaths occurred only in patients who received interventions. Interhospital transfers of cancer patients to an intensive care unit at an oncological center are infrequent but are most commonly done for direct interventional care. Most patients received planned interventions soon after transfer. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  17. Precipitation intensity probability distribution modelling for hydrological and construction design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshinchanov, Georgy; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of rainfall intensity are important for many purposes, including design of sewage and drainage systems, tuning flood warning procedures, etc. Those estimates are usually statistical estimates of the intensity of precipitation realized for certain period of time (e.g. 5, 10 min., etc) with different return period (e.g. 20, 100 years, etc). The traditional approach in evaluating the mentioned precipitation intensities is to process the pluviometer's records and fit probability distribution to samples of intensities valid for certain locations ore regions. Those estimates further become part of the state regulations to be used for various economic activities. Two problems occur using the mentioned approach: 1. Due to various factors the climate conditions are changed and the precipitation intensity estimates need regular update; 2. As far as the extremes of the probability distribution are of particular importance for the practice, the methodology of the distribution fitting needs specific attention to those parts of the distribution. The aim of this paper is to make review of the existing methodologies for processing the intensive rainfalls and to refresh some of the statistical estimates for the studied areas. The methodologies used in Bulgaria for analyzing the intensive rainfalls and produce relevant statistical estimates: - The method of the maximum intensity, used in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology to process and decode the pluviometer's records, followed by distribution fitting for each precipitation duration period; - As the above, but with separate modeling of probability distribution for the middle and high probability quantiles. - Method is similar to the first one, but with a threshold of 0,36 mm/min of intensity; - Another method proposed by the Russian hydrologist G. A. Aleksiev for regionalization of estimates over some territory, improved and adapted by S. Gerasimov for Bulgaria; - Next method is considering only

  18. SU-E-J-267: Change in Mean CT Intensity of Lung Tumors During Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, R; Tennyson, N; Weiss, E; Hugo, G [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate CT intensity change of lung tumors during radiation therapy. Methods: Repeated 4D CT images were acquired on a CT simulator during the course of therapy for 27 lung cancer patients on IRB approved protocols. All subjects received definitive radiation treatment ± chemotherapy. CT scans were completed prior to treatment, and 2–7 times during the treatment course. Primary tumor was delineated by an experienced Radiation Oncologist. Contours were thresholded between −100 HU and 200 HU to remove airways and bone. Correlations between the change in the mean tumor intensity and initial tumor intensity, SUVmax, and tumor volume change rate were investigated. Reproducibility was assessed by evaluating the variation in mean intensity over all phases in 4DCT, for a subgroup of 19 subjects. Results: Reproducibility of tumor intensity between phases as characterized by the root mean square of standard deviation across 19 subjects was 1.8 HU. Subjects had a mean initial tumor intensity of 16.5 ± 11.6 HU and an overall reduction in HU by 10.3 ± 8.5 HU. Evaluation of the changes in tumor intensity during treatment showed a decrease of 0.3 ± 0.3 HU/day for all subjects, except three. No significant correlation was found between change in HU/day and initial HU intensity (p=0.53), initial PET SUVmax (p=0.69), or initial tumor volume (p=0.70). The rate of tumor volume change was weakly correlated (R{sup 2}=0.05) with HU change (p=0.01). Conclusion: Most lung cancer subjects showed a marked trend of decreasing mean tumor CT intensity throughout radiotherapy, including early in the treatment course. Change in HU/day is not correlated with other potential early predictors for response, such as SUV and tumor volume change. This Result supports future studies to evaluate change in tumor intensity on CT as an early predictor of response.

  19. A Methodological Approach to Quantifying Plyometric Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark M; Graham-Smith, Phil; Comfort, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Jarvis, MM, Graham-Smith, P, and Comfort, P. A Methodological approach to quantifying plyometric intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2522-2532, 2016-In contrast to other methods of training, the quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a range of neuromuscular and mechanical variables to describe the intensity of plyometric exercises. Seven male recreationally active subjects performed a series of 7 plyometric exercises. Neuromuscular activity was measured using surface electromyography (SEMG) at vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Surface electromyography data were divided into concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases of movement. Mechanical output was measured by ground reaction forces and processed to provide peak impact ground reaction force (PF), peak eccentric power (PEP), and impulse (IMP). Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability intraclass correlation coefficient and sensitivity smallest detectable difference of all variables. Mean values of SEMG demonstrate high reliability (r ≥ 0.82), excluding ECC VL during a 40-cm drop jump (r = 0.74). PF, PEP, and IMP demonstrated high reliability (r ≥ 0.85). Statistical power for force variables was excellent (power = 1.0), and good for SEMG (power ≥0.86) excluding CON BF (power = 0.57). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in CON SEMG between exercises. Eccentric phase SEMG only distinguished between exercises involving a landing and those that did not (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [%MVIC] = no landing -65 ± 5, landing -140 ± 8). Peak eccentric power, PF, and IMP all distinguished between exercises. In conclusion, CON neuromuscular activity does not appear to vary when intent is maximal, whereas ECC activity is dependent on the presence of a landing. Force characteristics provide a reliable and sensitive measure enabling precise description of intensity

  20. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage