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Sample records for included terms related

  1. Experimental study of the relative efficiency of nonlinear and restricted selection indices for ratios including quadratic and cubic terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Jorquera, M J

    1994-01-12

    respuesta obtenida para el cociente en el experimento 2 fue debida a la disminución de ambos caracteres componentes. Los resultados de estos experimentos mostraban que los indices no lineales incrementaban cocientes que incluían en el denominador términos cuadráticos o cúbicos. Los índices lineales con restricción para el denominador del cociente eran una alternativa menos eficiente. RÉSUMÉ: Etude expérimentale de l'efficacité relative des indices de sélection non linéares y avec restriction pour des quotients qui comportent des carrés et des cubes Nous avons comparé un index non linéaire de sélection (NL) avec un index linéaire avec restriction (RI) à Tribolium, on utilisant deux expériences de sélection en faveur du quotient poids/(Longueur)(n) . La première expérience fut conçue pour augmenter le poids de la pupe/(Longueur de pupe)(2) , tandis que la deuxième expérience essayait d'améliorer le poids de la larve/(Longueur de larve)(3) . Les caractères de larve et de pupe furent mesurés au bout de 14 et de 21 jours respectivement. Il y avait quatre générations de sélection dans chacune des trois répétitions et la proportion choisie fut celle de 20 %. On prit (m(1) + Ĝ(1) )/(m(2) + Ĝ(2) )(n) come critére de sélection dans les lignes NL, m(1) et m(2) étant les moyennes pour les caractères numérateur et dénominateur, Ĝ(1) et Ĝ(2) les valeurs additives estimées et n étant 2 (expérience 1) ou 3 (expérience 2). Le index avec restriction employé comme critère de sélection dans les lignes RI a été calculé pour augmenter le numérateur et maintenir le dénominateur constant. Les réponses obtenues pour le quotient étaient significativement différentes entre les lignes (P < .05) dans les deux expériences, la réponse plus grande étant celle de la ligne NL. Dans l'expérience 1, la réponse observée dans le numérateur fût significative dans la ligne NL, tandis qu'elle fut positive et significative pour les deux caracteres

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  3. Quasilinear problems with two parameters including superlinear and gradient terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela C. Rezende

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we establish conditions for the existence of solutions for a quasilinear elliptic two-parameter problem with dependence on the gradient term in smooth bounded domains or in the whole space R^N. We consider superlinear and asymptotically linear terms. Estimates on the values of two parameters for which the problem have solutions are provided.

  4. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  5. Glossary of CERCLA-related terms and acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA-related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, related federal rulemakings (e.g., 40 CFR 300, National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan), assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and DOE Order 5400.4. The source of each term is noted after the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before June 1, 1991. 20 refs

  6. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  7. Radiation therapy-related toxicity (including pneumonitis and fibrosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rahul R; Bogart, Jeffrey A

    2009-05-01

    In the modern age of cancer therapy, advances in the multidisciplinary management of cancer have resulted in increased rates of survivorship. Radiation therapy (RT) toxicity must be tempered with the desire to achieve dose escalation to provide the best chance of long-term cure. This article is designed to acquaint emergency medicine physicians with common, expected, and potential acute and late complications of RT.

  8. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  9. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  10. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  11. Short-term antioxidative responses of 15 microalgae exposed to excessive irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Paul J.; De Graaff, C. Marco; Van De Poll, Willem H.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Rijstenbil, Jan W.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term photosensitivity and oxidative stress responses were compared for three groups of marine microalgae: Antarctic microalgae, temperate diatoms and temperate flagellates. In total, 15 low-light-acclimated species were exposed to simulated surface irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

  12. Short term optimization of electric power plants production including pumped storage and nuclear modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourez, M.; Jussiant, C.; Roubens, M.; Trecat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Short term optimization, including start-up costs, pumped storage, constraints on shut-off time and run-time is a classical problem solved by dynamic programming. However when minimum base production is covered only by nuclear plants and is greater then minimum load demand, some sort of optimal modulation of these plants must be taken into account. The program developed deals with this constraint in a quasi-optimal way, and allows also energy exchanges based on short term contracts. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified at the Belgian utility where this program was developed

  13. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993

  14. Three-dimensional free electron laser dispersion relation including betatron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.H.; Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1991-08-01

    We have developed a 3-D FEL theory based upon the Maxwell-Vlasov equations including the effects of the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam, and of betatron oscillations. The radiation field is expressed in terms of the Green's function of the inhomogeneous wave equation and the distribution function of the electron beam. The distribution function is expanded in terms of a set of orthogonal functions determined by the unperturbed particle distribution. The coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations are then reduced to a matrix equation, from which a dispersion relation for the eigenvalues is derived. In the limit of small betatron oscillation frequency, the present dispersion relation reduces to the well-known cubic equation of the one-dimensional theory in the limit of large beam size, and it gives the correct gain in the limit of small beam size. Comparisons of our numerical results with other approaches show good agreement. We present a handy empirical formula for the FEL gain of a 3-D Gaussian beam, as a function of the scaled parameters, that can be used for a quick estimate of the grain. 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2018-03-01

    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  16. Source terms in relation to air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are two sets of source terms for consideration in air cleaning, those for routine releases and those for accident releases. With about 1000 reactor years of commercial operating experience in the US done, there is an excellent data base for routine and expected transient releases. Specifications for air cleaning can be based on this body of experience with confidence. Specifications for air cleaning in accident situations is another matter. Recent investigations of severe accident behavior are offering a new basis for source terms and air cleaning specifications. Reports by many experts in the field describe an accident environment notably different from previous models. It is an atmosphere heavy with aerosols, both radioactive and inert. Temperatures are sometimes very high; radioiodine is typically in the form of cesium iodide aerosol particles; other nuclides, such as tellurium, are also important aerosols. Some of the present air cleaning requirements may be very important in light of these new accident behavior models. Others may be wasteful or even counterproductive. The use of the new data on accident behavior models to reevaluate requirements promptly is discussed

  17. Long-Term Aripiprazole in Youth with Developmental Disabilities Including Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Boehm, Danna; Yeh, Hung Wen; Butler, Merlin G.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed clinic charts of 21 children and adolescents with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated consecutively with aripiprazole (ARI) for irritability and severe challenging behaviors. Data extracted include age, sex, and race; level of intellectual disability (ID); "Diagnostic and…

  18. Strategy and issues for the LHC upgrades and fair, including longer-term prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the time line, goals and key ingredients for the next ten years of LHC operation, including injector upgrade, for the following High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), and for the FAIR project. Results from pertinent EuCARD-WP4 workshops on optics, space charge, crab cavities, crystal collimation, and electron cloud are summarized in this context. A Large Hadron electron Collider, LHeC, would be an additional upgrade, further expanding the physics scope of the LHC, to eventually include both ep and γγ Higgs factories (LHeC-HF and SAPPHiRE). Results from relevant topical WP4 workshops are highlighted. The development of magnet and cable technology based on Nb3Sn, and HTS, for the HL-LHC prepares the ground for a future higher-energy hadron collider, either in the LHC tunnel, “HELHC” (33 TeV c.m.), or in a new 80- or 100-km tunnel, “VHE-LHC” (100 TeV c.m.). A large new tunnel could also host an ultimate highest-precision e+e- Higgs factory collider, “TLEP,” exhibiting many synergies an...

  19. Expansion of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation including non-linear terms and a non-Maxwellian background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkarofsky, I.P.

    1997-01-01

    The relativistic Fokker-Planck collision term in Braams and Karney [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1355 (1989)] is expanded using Cartesian tensors (equivalent to associated Legendre spherical harmonics) retaining all non-linear terms and an arbitrary zeroth order distribution background. Expressions are given for collision terms between all harmonics and the background distribution in terms of the j and y functions in Braams and Karney. The results reduce to Braams and Karney for the first order harmonic term with a Maxwellian background and to those given by Shkarofsky [Can. J. Phys. 41, 1753 (1963)] in the non-relativistic limit. Expressions for the energy and momentum transfer associated with relativistic Coulomb collisions are given. The fast two dimensional Fokker-Planck solver in Shoucri and Shkarofsky [Comput. Phys. Commun. 82, 287 (1994)] has been extended to include the second order harmonic term. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  1. PRINCIPLES OF REPRESENTATING THE DICTIONARY OF INVESTOR RELATIONS TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarangova Tatiana Apolinarievna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article treats the problems of identification of principles of representing the vocabulary of banking terms in the field Investor Relations. The main methods of the research are literary analysis and the statistic method. The research defines term and specifics “Investor Relations”, provides a clear demarcation of terms terminography and lexicography, describes the principles of representing the vocabulary of IR terms. Results of the research can be used by IR managers, employees of finance and investment companies and banks, interpreters, teachers, postgraduates and students of economy faculties in different courses of teaching.

  2. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Leffler, Daniel A; Bai, Julio; Biagi, Federico; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter HR; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Kelly, Ciaran; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut E; Murray, Joseph A; Sanders, David S; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature suggests a lack of consensus on the use of terms related to coeliac disease (CD) and gluten. Methods A multi-disciplinary task force of 16 physicians from 7 countries used the electronic database PubMed to review the literature with regards to CD-related terms up to January 2011. Teams of physicians then suggested a definition for each term, followed by feedback of these definitions through a web survey on definitions, discussions during a meeting in Oslo, and phone conferences. We evaluated the following terms (in alphabetical order): Coeliac disease and the following descriptors of CD: asymptomatic, atypical, classical, latent, non-classical, overt, paediatric classical, potential, refractory, silent, subclinical, symptomatic, typical, CD serology, CD autoimmunity, genetically at risk of CD, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten, gluten ataxia, gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and gliadin-specific antibodies. Results CD was defined as “a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals”. Classical CD was defined as “CD presenting with signs and symptoms of malabsorption. Diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, weight loss or growth failure is required.” We suggest that “gluten-related disorders” is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten and that the term gluten intolerance is not to be used. Other definitions are presented in the paper. Conclusion This paper presents the Oslo definitions for CD-related terms. PMID:22345659

  3. Semantic Relations between Legal Terms. A Case Study of the Intralingual Relation of Synonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matulewska Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to present a possibility of parametrising legal terminology in order to reveal semantic and systemic relations at the intralingual and interlingual levels. The scope of the research comprises selected legal terminology from the following legal systems: Polish, British, American and European Union. The research methods used include: (i the analysis of comparable texts, (ii the method of parametrisation of the legal linguistic reality, (iii the concept of adjusting translation to the communicative needs and requirements of the recipient community. The research hypothesis is that parametrisation of legal terminology in respect of semantic and systemic relations may be a useful tool in organising and comparing terminology for the purpose of legal translation. First the relation of synonymy binding terms at the intralingual and interlingual levels in the light of systemic and genre-related relations is discussed. The proposal is illustrated with examples of legal terms and the networks of relations binding them in English and Polish. The conclusions are that such an approach is systematic and provides a translator with information necessary to render communicatively efficient translations.

  4. An example of short-term relative arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Fernholz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term relative arbitrage exists in markets where the excess growth rate of the market portfolio is bounded away from zero. Here it is shown that under a time-homogeneity hypothesis this condition will also imply the existence of relative arbitrage over arbitrarily short intervals.

  5. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in ...

  6. Entanglement entropy from surface terms in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Sinha, Aninda

    2013-01-01

    Entanglement entropy in local quantum field theories is typically ultraviolet divergent due to short distance effects in the neighbourhood of the entangling region. In the context of gauge/gravity duality, we show that surface terms in general relativity are able to capture this entanglement entropy. In particular, we demonstrate that for 1+1 dimensional CFTs at finite temperature whose gravity dual is the BTZ black hole, the Gibbons-Hawking-York term precisely reproduces the entanglement ent...

  7. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    special focus is on the production stage but upstream emissions assessed to be of possible significant importance are included (e.g. estimated emissions from pigment production) or handled in the sensitivity analysis. The functional unit is 1 ton of sheet feed offset produced printed matter, i.e. printed......Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  8. A reinterpretation of transparency perception in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2013-03-01

    Classical approaches to transparency perception assume that transparency constitutes a perceptual dimension corresponding to the physical dimension of transmittance. Here I present an alternative theory, termed gamut relativity, that naturally explains key aspects of transparency perception. Rather than being computed as values along a perceptual dimension corresponding to transmittance, gamut relativity postulates that transparency is built directly into the fabric of the visual system's representation of surface color. The theory, originally developed to explain properties of brightness and lightness perception, proposes how the relativity of the achromatic color gamut in a perceptual blackness-whiteness space underlies the representation of foreground and background surface layers. Whereas brightness and lightness perception were previously reanalyzed in terms of the relativity of the achromatic color gamut with respect to illumination level, transparency perception is here reinterpreted in terms of relativity with respect to physical transmittance. The relativity of the achromatic color gamut thus emerges as a fundamental computational principle underlying surface perception. A duality theorem relates the definition of transparency provided in gamut relativity with the classical definition underlying the physical blending models of computer graphics.

  9. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments c...

  10. HIV-related politics in long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S R

    1998-06-01

    Some long-term, large-scale socio-economic changes may affect the politics of HIV and other emerging viruses such as hepatitis C. It is useful to ask why the potential peace dividend of the early 1990s failed to provide adequate resources for HIV-related social and medical service delivery in developed or developing nations. This failure can be understood by looking at long-term global economic trends and the pressures they put on governments and corporations. They have produced a period in which fundamental issues of political and economic structure are at stake and, often, the response is a divide-and-rule politics to promote stability. National politics differ in terms of the extent to which such a 'politics of scapegoating' is institutionalized and in terms of which groups are scapegoated. Groups such as drug injectors, gay and bisexual men and sex traders are particularly likely to be targeted both by the scapegoaters and by HIV. Given this framework, how should public health professionals and activists engaged in HIV-related issues respond? Under what circumstances should we orient efforts upwards towards corporate, political or bureaucratic leaders? Under what circumstances, and how, should we orient towards popular forces? Relatedly, we need to consider an issue we often ignore: What do we have to offer potential allies? That is, in terms of their goals, philosophies and needs, why should they ally with us?

  11. An Asset Pricing Approach to Testing General Term Structure Models including Heath-Jarrow-Morton Specifications and Affine Subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel

    We develop a new empirical approach to term structure analysis that allows testing for time-varying risk premia and for the absence of arbitrage opportunities based on the drift restriction within the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework. As in the equity case, a zero intercept condition...... of the risk premium is associated with the slope factor, and individual risk prices depend on own past values, factor realizations, and past values of other risk prices, and are significantly related to the output gap, consumption, and the equity risk price. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is strongly...

  12. Related General-Vocabulary Knowledge Transfers to Learning Technical Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2015-01-01

    In a classroom experiment during the first week of an introductory psychology course, randomly assigned students received a pretest and then a brief training on the definitions of general-vocabulary words either related (e.g., "facilitation") or unrelated (e.g., "rendition") to 16 technical terms (e.g., "social…

  13. 9 CFR 101.3 - Biological products and related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as required by the regulations. (e) Released product. A finished product released for marketing after... total quantity of completed product which has been thoroughly mixed in a single container and identified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products and related terms...

  14. Memory for relations in the short term and the long term after medial temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R

    2017-05-01

    A central idea about the organization of declarative memory and the function of the hippocampus is that the hippocampus provides for the coding of relationships between items. A question arises whether this idea refers to the process of forming long-term memory or whether, as some studies have suggested, memory for relations might depend on the hippocampus even at short retention intervals and even when the task falls within the province of short-term (working) memory. The latter formulation appears to place the operation of relational memory into conflict with the idea that working memory is independent of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. In this report, the concepts of relational memory and working memory are discussed in the light of a simple demonstration experiment. Patients with MTL lesions successfully learned and recalled two word pairs when tested directly after learning but failed altogether when tested after a delay. The results do not contradict the idea that the hippocampus has a fundamental role in relational memory. However, there is a need for further elaboration and specification of the idea in order to explain why patients with MTL lesions can establish relational memory in the short term but not in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Volatile anaesthetics enhance the metastasis related cellular signalling including CXCR2 of ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masae; Zhao, Hailin; Jaffer, Tanweer; Unwith, Sandeep; Benzonana, Laura; Lian, Qingquan; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro; Ma, Daqing

    2016-05-03

    The majority of ovarian cancer patients relapse after surgical resection. Evidence is accumulating regarding the role of surgery in disseminating cancer cells; in particular anaesthesia may have an impact on cancer re-occurrence. Here, we have investigated the metastatic potential of volatile anaesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on ovarian cancer cells. Human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3) were exposed to isoflurane (2%), sevoflurane (3.6%) or desflurane (10.3%) for 2 hours. Metastatic related gene expression profiles were measured using the Tumour Metastasis PCR Array and qRT-PCR. Subsequently vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) proteins expression were determined using immunofluorescent staining. The migratory capacities of SK-OV3 cells were assessed with a scratch assay and the potential role of CXCR2 in mediating the effects of volatile anaesthetics on cancer cell biology were further investigated with CXCR2 knockdown by siRNA. All three volatile anaesthetics altered expression of 70 out of 81 metastasic related genes with significant increases in VEGF-A, MMP-11, CXCR2 and TGF-β genes and protein expression with a magnitude order of desflurane (greatest), sevoflurane and isoflurane. Scratch analysis revealed that exposure to these anesthetics increased migration, which was abolished by CXCR2 knockdown. Volatile anaesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations have strong effects on cancer cell biology which in turn could enhance ovarian cancer metastatic potential. This work raises the urgency for further in vivo studies and clinical trials before any conclusions can be made in term of the alteration of clinical practice.

  16. Cyclic nucleotide metabolism including nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase-related targets in the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A

    2011-01-01

    The clinical data on the use of the orally active phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitors sildenafil (VIAGRA™), vardenafil (LEVITRA™), and tadalafil (CIALIS™) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction have boosted research activities on the physiology and pharmacology of the organs of the lower urinary tract (LUT). This includes both intracellular signal transduction in the prostate, urinary bladder (detrusor), and urethra, as well as central brain and spinal cord pathways controlling the function of the LUT. Such efforts provided the basis for the development of new therapeutic modalities into the management of dysfunctions/ syndromes of the LUT, some of which are already offered to the patients. The pharmacological treatment of the overactive bladder and the so-called benign prostatic syndrome, including LUT symptomatology and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic enlargement, has primarily focused on selective, orally available drugs acting by influencing intracellular regulatory mechanisms. These agents are regarded efficacious, have a fast onset of drug action in the target tissue and an improved effect-to-side-effect ratio. Better understanding of the functional significance of proteins related to cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathways, such as nitric oxide synthase, cytosolic and membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases, PDE isoenzymes and cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases, the relative distribution in tissues of the LUT, and the consequences for urogenital function, seems to be of particular interest in order to identify new or more selective pharmacological approaches to manage disorders of the LUT. The present review focuses on cyclic nucleotide-related targets involved in the control of the function of the bladder, prostate, and urethra and the significance of those proteins in the process of evolving new pharmacological options for the treatment of LUT symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as

  17. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  18. Some Mathematical Structures Including Simplified Non-Relativistic Quantum Teleportation Equations and Special Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woesler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The computations of the present text with non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity are totally speculative, physically correct computations can be done using quantum field theory, which remain to be done in future. Proposals for what might be called statistical time loop experiments with, e.g., photon polarization states are described when assuming the simplified non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity. However, a closed time loop would usually not occur due to phase incompatibilities of the quantum states. Histories with such phase incompatibilities are called inconsistent ones in the present text, and it is assumed that only consistent histories would occur. This is called an exclusion principle for inconsistent histories, and it would yield that probabilities for certain measurement results change. Extended multiple parallel experiments are proposed to use this statistically for transmission of classical information over distances, and regarding time. Experiments might be testable in near future. However, first a deeper analysis, including quantum field theory, remains to be done in future

  19. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping

    2017-11-01

    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  20. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    - orientate to new tourism market opportunities, but over the long-term, contributes to stronger, more competitive, innovative and resilient destinations. The discussion paper explores examples of policy inter-linkages between tourism and land use planning, transport and emergency management and takes......Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus...... long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments can strengthen their support for tourism growth and development by taking an integrated cross...

  1. Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio: a review including the related basal body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessman Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to

  2. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993.

  3. Local Staff (LS) - Proposal by the Management, Including related Modifications to the Staff Rules And Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The issue of Local Staff (LS) has been discussed since May 2002 at successive meetings of TREF and the Committees, leading to a proposal document by the Management, which was examined at TREF last November. As reported by the Chairman of TREF to the Finance Committee in December, the Management has now revised its proposal in the light of discussions at the Forum. This document summarises the background, the main aims, scope and features of LS, as well as estimated consequences of implementing the Management's proposal, including those indicated in the Human Resources Plan submitted last December. Related modifications of the Staff Rules and Regulations required to implement the Management's proposal are set out in Annex 8. After discussion at TREF in February 2003, the Management hereby submits its proposal for approval by the Finance Committee and the Council, for entry into force as of 1 April 2003. This time-scale would permit gradual implementation of LS starting this year, which is consistent with the f...

  4. 42 CFR 137.410 - For the purposes of section 110 of the Act [25 U.S.C. 450m-1] does the term contract include...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....C. 450m-1] does the term contract include compacts, funding agreements, and construction project... the term contract include compacts, funding agreements, and construction project agreements entered into under Title V? Yes, for the purposes of section 110 of the Act [25 U.S.C. 450m-1] the term...

  5. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Completion of the universal I-Love-Q relations in compact stars including the mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Borja; Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Vera, Raül; Font, José A.

    2017-09-01

    In a recent paper, we applied a rigorous perturbed matching framework to show the amendment of the mass of rotating stars in Hartle's model. Here, we apply this framework to the tidal problem in binary systems. Our approach fully accounts for the correction to the Love numbers needed to obtain the universal I-Love-Q relations. We compute the corrected mass versus radius configurations of rotating quark stars, revisiting a classical paper on the subject. These corrections allow us to find a universal relation involving the second-order contribution to the mass δM. We thus complete the set of universal relations for the tidal problem in binary systems, involving four perturbation parameters, namely I, Love, Q and δM. These relations can be used to obtain the perturbation parameters directly from observational data.

  8. A Content Analysis on Management and Terms related with Management in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat ÖZDAŞLI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines and principles feeding the system of belief have the power of diverting behaviors of an individual included in that system as well as being able to affect the management style of managers. Therefore, use of the term of management by basic sources of Islamic belief and which other sources it refers to along with the term of management will be helpful in understanding the holistic message given in terms of management in Islamic style, and approaching from a different aspect to the management literature. This study aims to reveal characteristics of management and related terms in basic Islamic sources, and with which words and in what aspects they are associated and used, and to see the perception of the religion of Islam on management. The content analysis conducted in this context included examination of the verses containing the terms of management, administration, leader, directing and steering

  9. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related... that was indicated is the estimated annualized cost to the respondents for the hour burden for... additional 30-days for public comments and to correct the cost from $236,253.00 to zero. DATES: Comments are...

  11. Long-term memory of relative reward values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Francesca; Burman, Oliver H P; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Long-term memory can be adaptive as it allows animals to retain information that is crucial for survival, such as the appearance and location of key resources. This is generally examined by comparing choices of stimuli that have value to the animal with those that do not; however, in nature choices are rarely so clear cut. Animals are able to assess the relative value of a resource via direct comparison, but it remains unclear whether they are able to retain this information for a biologically meaningful amount of time. To test this, captive red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria) were first trained to associate visual cues with specific qualities and quantities of food, and their preferences for the different reward values determined. They were then retested after an interval of 18 months. We found that the tortoises were able to retain the information they had learned about the cues as indicators of relative reward values over this interval, demonstrating a memory for the relative quantity and quality of food over an extended period of time. This is likely to impact directly on an animal's foraging decisions, such as the exploitation of seasonally varying resources, with obvious fitness implications for the individual; however, the implications may also extend to the ecological interactions in which the animal is involved, affecting processes such as herbivory and seed dispersal. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Differential age-related effects on conjunctive and relational visual short-term memory binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Christine

    2017-12-28

    An age-related associative deficit has been described in visual short-term binding memory tasks. However, separate studies have suggested that ageing disrupts relational binding (to associate distinct items or item and context) more than conjunctive binding (to integrate features within an object). The current study directly compared relational and conjunctive binding with a short-term memory task for object-colour associations in 30 young and 30 older adults. Participants studied a number of object-colour associations corresponding to their individual object span level in a relational task in which objects were associated to colour patches and a conjunctive task where colour was integrated into the object. Memory for individual items and for associations was tested with a recognition memory test. Evidence for an age-related associative deficit was observed in the relational binding task, but not in the conjunctive binding task. This differential impact of ageing on relational and conjunctive short-term binding is discussed by reference to two underlying age-related cognitive difficulties: diminished hippocampally dependent binding and attentional resources.

  13. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  14. The relation of breech presentation at term to cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Topp, M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between breech delivery and cerebral palsy, considering the influence of intrauterine growth, low Apgar score at birth, and mode of delivery. DESIGN: Register-based, case-control study. POPULATION: A cohort of infants with cerebral palsy born between 1979 and 1986...... in East Denmark, identified by linkage of the cerebral palsy register with the national birth register. Discharge letters from births of breech infants with cerebral palsy were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presentation, mode of delivery, gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score, type of cerebral...... palsy, severity of handicap. RESULTS: Breech presentation at term was associated with a borderline significantly higher risk of cerebral palsy than vertex presentation (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.9-2.4). Breech presentation infants more often had a lower Apgar score (

  15. Carbonation-Related Microstructural Changesin Long-Term Durability Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Rigo da Silva

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of carbonation on the microstructure of Portland cement concrete for long-term durability applications. A class C40 concrete (characteristic compression strength between 40 MPa and 44 MPa on the 28th day, according to Brazilian standard NBR 8953 was chosen for the experimental study of the carbonation effects, from which test samples were molded for accelerated test under a 100%-CO2 atmosphere after physical and mechanical characterization. It was observed that carbonation provoked a reduction of 5% to 12% of the concrete open porosity accessible to water. Flexural strength values obtained after the carbonation tests revealed a decrease of 12% and 25% in relation to the values obtained before tests on the 28th and 91st days, respectively.

  16. Olfactory exposure to males, including men, causes stress and related analgesia in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Robert E; Martin, Loren J; Isbester, Kelsey A; Sotocinal, Susana G; Rosen, Sarah; Tuttle, Alexander H; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Acland, Erinn L; Dokova, Anastassia; Kadoura, Basil; Leger, Philip; Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; McPhail, Martina; Delaney, Ada; Wigerblad, Gustaf; Schumann, Alan P; Quinn, Tammie; Frasnelli, Johannes; Svensson, Camilla I; Sternberg, Wendy F; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    We found that exposure of mice and rats to male but not female experimenters produces pain inhibition. Male-related stimuli induced a robust physiological stress response that results in stress-induced analgesia. This effect could be replicated with T-shirts worn by men, bedding material from gonadally intact and unfamiliar male mammals, and presentation of compounds secreted from the human axilla. Experimenter sex can thus affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing.

  17. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  18. The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in peripheral and central pain mechanisms including migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Smriti; Ossipov, Michael H; Johnson, Kirk W

    2017-04-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found primarily in the C and Aδ sensory fibers arising from the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as the central nervous system. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was found to play important roles in cardiovascular, digestive, and sensory functions. Although the vasodilatory properties of CGRP are well documented, its somatosensory function regarding modulation of neuronal sensitization and of enhanced pain has received considerable attention recently. Growing evidence indicates that CGRP plays a key role in the development of peripheral sensitization and the associated enhanced pain. Calcitonin gene-related peptide is implicated in the development of neurogenic inflammation and it is upregulated in conditions of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. It is most likely that CGRP facilitates nociceptive transmission and contributes to the development and maintenance of a sensitized, hyperresponsive state not only of the primary afferent sensory neurons but also of the second-order pain transmission neurons within the central nervous system, thus contributing to central sensitization as well. The maintenance of a sensitized neuronal condition is believed to be an important factor underlying migraine. Recent successful clinical studies have shown that blocking the function of CGRP can alleviate migraine. However, the mechanisms through which CGRP may contribute to migraine are still not fully understood. We reviewed the role of CGRP in primary afferents, the dorsal root ganglion, and in the trigeminal system as well as its role in peripheral and central sensitization and its potential contribution to pain processing and to migraine.

  19. Relation between generalized Bogoliubov and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches including Nambu-Goldstone mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, M.; Okumura, M.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The two approaches of consistent quantum field theory for systems of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates are known, one is the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach and the other is the generalized Bogoliubov approach. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the two approaches and show that they are formally equivalent to each other. To do this one must carefully treat the Nambu-Goldstone mode which plays a crucial role in the condensation. It is emphasized that the choice of vacuum is physically relevant

  20. Possible Simple Structures of the Universe to Include General Relativity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The general relativity describes the universe properties, the gravity playing a fundamental role. One uses a metric tensor in a Riemann space, g  , which should be in agreement with a mass (or energy tensor in order to satisfy the Einstein equation of the general relativity [1]. This equation contains the Ricci curvature as well. In general, applications are done considering that a chosen metric is valid without region limits. In fact, the density of the energy whose distribution is however unknown is variable in universe; therefore, the metrics need to be adapted to different regions. For this reason one suggests to start with a simple, average mass-energy distribution that could represent in a first step the actual universe. This suggestion is in agreement with the symmetrical distribution of equal spheres existing in a model of the early universe given by one of the authors. Two kinds of distribution are given. The possibility of black holes formation is studied and a criterion is given.

  1. [Hernia recurrence long term follow-up after open procedures of abdominal wall plasty-prospective study including 142 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Mircea; Mureşan, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Neagoe, Radu; Sala, Daniela; Suciu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The incisional hernia continues to be a frequent complication of laparotomies. The purpose of study is the analysis of hernia disease relapse after one year after different open plasties methods of the abdominal wall. A prospective longitudinal study was performed that included 142 patients. An analysis was performed on the individual data, the level of obesity, intra-surgical variations in intra-abdominal pressure, the intensity of post-surgical pain, the post-surgical complications, and the types of plasties of abdominal wall, simple and with polypropylene mesh. The analysis of studied group showed a general rate of relapse of 16.9%, and within the 4 procedures, 40.74% in the case of simple plasties, of 16.07% after the only plasties, 6.97% after the retro-muscular plasties, and 6.25% after the full substitution of parietal defect. On analysing the collected, hernia relapse was statistically significantly related to the level of obesity, variations in intra-abdominal pressure, post-surgical pain, and the type of procedure performed. Hernia is a frequent complication of laparotomies. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of simple plasties. Among the mesh procedures, the onlay plasty showed a higher rate of relapse and post-surgical complications. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of variations of intra-abdominal pressure, and with increased post-surgical pain. The use of an echography examination may increase the accuracy of the presence of hernia disease. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. All rights reserved.

  2. The contribution of CT to perinatal intracranial hemorrhage including that accompanying apparently uncomplicated delivery at full term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleriaux, D.; Ticket, L.; Dony, D.; Jeanmart, L.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and CT evolution of intracranial bleeding in six neonates (four full-term and two premature) has been followed. Clinical symptoms, risk factors, evolution, sequellae and prognostic factors of intracranial hemorrhage in the newborn are reviewed. The routine use of CT for detection and survey of perinatal hemorrhage and its sequellae is recommended. (orig.)

  3. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  4. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in several organisms including humans from Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S. [Siena Univ. (Italy); Kannan, K. [New York State Univ., Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, extremely resistant to environmental degradation and is ubiquitous in the environment. Traditional monitoring studies for persistent chemicals failed to identify this contaminant for a long time because of its unique physicochemical properties and its tendency to bind to proteins instead of accumulating in fatty tissues. PFOS is known to be toxic in laboratory animals (rats, mice, monkeys) at levels close to the range already found in organisms and people. PFOS has been commercially produced by an electrochemical fluorination process for over 40 years. Perfluorooctane sulfonylfluoride (POSF; C{sub 8}F{sub 17}SO{sub 2}F) is used as a building block for further reactions that produce several other sulfonated fluorinated compounds, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}SO{sub 3}{sup -}) and other precursor molecules such as n-ethyl or n-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol. POSF-based fluorochemicals have been used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products, including protective coatings for carpets and apparel, paper coatings, insecticide formulations, and surfactants. These compounds repel water and oil, reduce surface tension, catalyze oligomerization and polymerization, and maintain their properties under extreme conditions. Depending upon the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, POSF-based chemicals may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, which is known to be the final metabolite of POSF-based fluorochemicals. PFOS is stable, chemically inert, and non-reactive and has the potential to bioaccumulate. It has been found in polar bears from the Arctic, albatross and other fish-eating water birds in the mid-Pacific, and aquatic organisms11 and people world-wide. PFOS and other perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been detected in human blood. In

  5. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg Woods, Leah C; Holl, Katie L; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D.

  6. Education outcomes related to including genomics activities in nursing practice in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.

  7. Short-term Variability of Vitamin D-Related Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Parrinello, Christina M; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Hoofnagle, Andy N; Henderson, Clark M; Laha, Thomas J; Michos, Erin D; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the variability of biomarkers is important, as high within-person variability can lead to misclassification of individuals. Short-term variability of important markers of vitamin D metabolism is relatively unknown. A repeatability study was conducted in 160 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (60% female, 28% black, mean age 76 years). Fasting serum was drawn at 2 time points, a median of 6 (range 3-13) weeks apart. Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by LC-MS, fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and calcium and phosphorus by Roche Cobas 6000. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated. We calculated the within-person CV (CV W ), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r), and percent reclassified. The CV W was lowest for calcium (2.0%), albumin (3.6%), 25(OH)D (6.9%), VDBP (7.0%) and phosphorus (7.6%); intermediate for free 25(OH)D (9.0%) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (9.9%); and highest for PTH (16.7%) and FGF23 (17.8%). Reclassification was highest for PTH, VDBP, and phosphorus (all 7.5%). The ICC and r were highest (≥0.80) for 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and PTH, but somewhat lower (approximately 0.60-0.75) for the other biomarkers. Six-week short-term variability, as assessed by CV W , was quite low for VDBP, calcium and phosphorus, but fairly high for FGF23 and PTH. As such, multiple measurements of FGF23 and PTH may be needed to minimize misclassification. These results provide insight into the extent of potential misclassification of vitamin D markers in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16... included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? (a) Any advertisement or application for attendance at a conference described in § 301-74.14 must include: (1) Notice of...

  10. Corals record long-term Leeuwin current variability including Ningaloo Niño/Niña since 1795

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Rountrey, A.; Feng, M.; Xie, S.-P.; Dissard, D.; Rankenburg, K.; Lough, J. M.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2014-04-01

    Variability of the Leeuwin current (LC) off Western Australia is a footprint of interannual and decadal climate variations in the tropical Indo-Pacific. La Niña events often result in a strengthened LC, high coastal sea levels and unusually warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs), termed Ningaloo Niño. The rarity of such extreme events and the response of the southeastern Indian Ocean to regional and remote climate forcing are poorly understood owing to the lack of long-term records. Here we use well-replicated coral SST records from within the path of the LC, together with a reconstruction of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation to hindcast historical SST and LC strength from 1795 to 2010. We show that interannual and decadal variations in SST and LC strength characterized the past 215 years and that the most extreme sea level and SST anomalies occurred post 1980. These recent events were unprecedented in severity and are likely aided by accelerated global ocean warming and sea-level rise.

  11. Randomized Comparison of Isosorbide Mononitrate and PGE2 Gel for Cervical Ripening at Term including High Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Prostaglandin E2 is the most commonly used drug for cervical ripening prior to labour induction. However, there are concerns regarding uterine tachysystole and nonreassuring fetal heart (N-RFH. Isosorbide mononitrate (IMN has been used successfully for cervical ripening. The present study was conducted to compare the two drugs for cervical ripening at term in hospital. Methods. Two hundred women with term pregnancies referred for induction of labour with Bishop score less than 6 were randomly allocated to receive either 40 mg IMN tablet vaginally (n=100 or 0.5 mg PGE2 gel intracervically (n=100. Adverse effects, progress, and outcomes of labour were assessed. Results. PGE2 group had significantly higher postripening mean Bishop score, shorter time from start of medication to vaginal delivery (13.37 ± 10.67 hours versus 30.78 ± 17.29 hours, and shorter labour-delivery interval compared to IMN group (4.53 ± 3.97 hours versus 7.34 ± 5.51 hours. However, PGE2 group also had significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole (15% and N-RFH (11% compared to none in IMN group, as well as higher caesarean section rate (27% versus 17%. Conclusions. Cervical ripening with IMN was less effective than PGE2 but resulted in fewer adverse effects and was safer especially in high risk pregnancies.

  12. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  13. Successful weight loss maintenance includes long-term increased meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    at week 52. Glucagon levels were unaffected by weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 remained increased 1 year after weight maintenance, whereas ghrelin and GIP reverted toward before-weight loss values. Thus, an increase in appetite inhibitory mechanisms and a partly decrease...... in appetite-stimulating mechanisms appear to contribute to successful long-term weight loss maintenance.......-week very low-calorie diet (800kcal/day). After weight loss, participants entered a 52-week weight maintenance protocol. Plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY3-36, ghrelin, GIP and glucagon during a 600-kcal meal were measured before weight loss, after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance. Area...

  14. Rifaximin and midodrine improve clinical outcome in refractory ascites including renal function, weight loss, and short-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Amr S; Hassaneen, Ahmad M

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of refractory ascites in nearly 17% of patients with decompensated cirrhosis is an unresolved issue. Advanced liver disease, functional renal impairment, and vascular insensitivity to vasopressors are the main causes of its refractoriness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on diuresis, weight loss, and short-term survival if midodrine and rifaximin were added to the diuretic therapy (DT). The study evaluated the eligibility of 650 patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites who were selected during the period from November 2011 to May 2015. A total of 50 patients were excluded and finally 600 were selected and divided into the following groups: patients exposed to DT (n=200) as a control group, or DT with midodrine and rifaximin group (n=400). Body weight, mean arterial pressure, and glomerular filtration rate were determined. Plasma renin and aldosterone were also determined. Follow-up was performed after 2, 6, and 12 weeks, and then every 2 months for 24 months. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the midodrine and rifaximin group (P=0.000), and there was a highly significant weight loss after 12 weeks (12.5 kg) (P=0.000), a highly significant increase in serum sodium, urine output, and urinary sodium excretion (P=0.000), and creatinine clearance was more reduced in the control group. With rifaximin and midodrine, a complete response occurred in 310 (78%) patients, a partial response in 72 (18%), and no response in 18 (4%) versus 30 (15%), 110 (55%), and 60 (30%) in the control group, respectively (P=0.000). Midodrine and rifaximin significantly reduced paracentesis needs when compared with the controls (18 study patients vs. 75 DT-only patients, P=0.000). Adding rifaximin and midodrine to DT enhanced diuresis in refractory ascites with improved systemic, renal hemodynamics and short-term survival.

  15. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  16. Long-term creep properties, including irradiation effects, of DIN 1.4948 steel from SNR-300 primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    1986-01-01

    Since 1968, the ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft warmfeste Staehle in VDEH'', sponsored by KfK/PSB, performs creep tests on austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948. Wrought materials both in the solution-annealed condition and in weldments are investigated. The DIN 1.4948 steel was finally chosen for the permanent primary structures of the SNR-300, such as the reactor vessel, the grid plate and the primary piping. The chemical specification of DIN 1.4948 steel has been narrowed for application in the SNR-300. The long-term programme at KfK on SNR-300 heats has reached times to rupture of up to 90,000 h for parent metal. At 823 K, the operating temperature of the SNR-300, the mean creep rupture strengths of standard DIN 1.4948 and SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 are equal, but the scatter of data for standard DIN 1.4948 parent metal is twice as large as that for SNR-300-grade parent metal. The strength of SNR-300 weldments falls within the scatter band for parent metal. At times to rupture of more than 10 4 h, all parent metals have ductilities of between 10% and 20%, whereas the welded joints show ductilities below 1%. The neutron irradiation effects on SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 heats and weldments have been studied with times to rupture of up to 10,000 h in the range from 723 K to 923 K. After irradiation the creep strength is reduced to values below the minimum stress rupture values according to the ASME B + PV Code. The ductility values of parent metal after irradiation are in the range of 4% to 10%. The ductility of welded joints is sometimes below 1%. With increasing Larson-Miller parameter the reduction in creep strength decreases. Therefore, long-term post-irradiation creep tests have been started at KfK and ECN in order to verify experimentally the creep strength reduction factor due to irradiation, for times to rupture of between 10 4 and 5x10 4 h. (author)

  17. Tree bark suber-included particles: A long-term accumulation site for elements of atmospheric origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Spadini, Lorenzo; Boudouma, Omar; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Ravanel, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    The deposition of atmospheric elements on and into the bark of 4-year-old Fraxinus excelsior L. was studied. The elemental composition of the suber tissue was established through ICP-MS analysis and the presence of solid mineral particles included in this suber was established and described through SEM-EDX. Fractionation of the suber elements mixture was obtained after ashing at 550 °C through successive water (C fraction) and HNO 3 2 M (D fraction) extraction, leading to an insoluble residue mainly composed of the solid mineral particles (E fraction). The triplicated % weight of C, D and E were respectively 34.4 ± 2.7, 64.8 ± 2.7 and 0.8 ± 0.1% of the suber ashes weight. The main component of C was K, of D was Ca. Noticeable amounts of Mg were also observed in D. The E fraction, composed of insoluble particles, was mostly constituted of geogenic products, with elements such as Si, Al, K, Mg, representing primary minerals. E also contained Ca 3(PO 4) 2 and concentrated the main part of Pb and Fe. Moreover, The SEM-EDX analysis evidenced that this fraction also concentrated several types of fly ashes of industrial origin. The study of the distribution between C, D and E was analysed through ICP-MS with respect to their origin. The origin of the elements found in such bark was either geogenic (clay, micas, quartz…), anthropogenic or biogenic (for instance large amounts of solid Ca organic salts having a storage role). As opposed to the E fraction, the C fraction, mainly composed of highly soluble K+ is characteristic of a biological pool of plant origin. In fraction D, the very high amount of Ca++ corresponds to two different origins: biological or acid soluble minerals such as calcite. Furthermore, the D fraction contains the most part of pollutants of anthropic origin such as Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd. As a whole, the fractionation procedure of the suber samples allows to separate elements as a function of their origin but also gives valuable information on

  18. [Issues related to long-term asbestos use and manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosić, Ivancica

    2009-11-01

    Extensive measures to ban mining, manufacture, use, and trade of asbestos and asbestos materials have been taken worldwide. In this century asbestos will continue to be an economic, industrial, health, social, and environmental issue. Five thousand products that are still in use have been inherited from a century of asbestos processing. In 1999, the EU member states decided to take steps that would eventually terminate the use of asbestos. At the same time, about 4000 t of asbestos had been imported to Croatia every year. EU member states started to enforce asbestos ban in 2005. This encouraged the Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare to issue a list of toxicants whose manufacture, trade, and use were banned, and which included asbestos and asbestos products. In 2007, several national acts came to force regulating protection of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is ubiquitous in the environment. It has been released from construction materials during renovations, demolitions, maintenance, and other building activities. It is released by drilling, blowing, demolishing, loading, transport, and improper storage of asbestos materials. Asbestos was often used for insulation. It was favoured for its resistance to heat, fire, moisture, noise, electricity, friction, and fraying. Materials used for firefighting, insulation, protection from noise, and construction frequently contain one or more types of asbestos. Landfills present a particular problem, since asbestos materials can not be recognised macroscopically. Asbestos can be identified by standardised polarising microscopy. This raises the need for education, because human exposure should be kept as low as possible to prevent the development of asbestos-related diseases.

  19. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  20. Glossary of ALS-Related Medical and Scientific Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fibers. Back to Top electrodiagnostic tests Studies including electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity ( NCV), that evaluate ... muscle weakness Loss of muscle strength with increased fatigue, loss of coordination, difficulty with motor skills and ...

  1. The translational signal database, TransTerm, is now a relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalphin, M E; Brown, C M; Stockwell, P A; Tate, W P

    1998-01-01

    TransTerm-97 contains more than 97 500 non-redundant coding-sequence initiation and termination contexts compiled from GenBank, release 101 (15-June-1997). In addition, several coding sequence parameters are available: coding sequence length, Nc, GC3, and, when it is computable, codon adaptation index (CAI). Codon usage tables and summaries of start and stop codon contexts are also included. The information covers more than 325 species and organelles, including seven complete bacterial genomes and one complete eukaryotic genome. To promote research in translational control of protein synthesis, TransTerm has been converted into a relational database to ease the process of making queries. The relational database manager, Postgresql, gives access to the database using SQL (Structured Query Language). A World Wide Web interface using forms is being completed to allow the casual user access to the database. Extensions are planned to include the full 5'-UTR, full coding sequence and 3'-UTR. TransTerm-97 is available on the World Wide Web at:http://biochem. otago.ac.nz:800/Transterm/homepage.html

  2. UNFAIR CONTRACTUAL TERMS AND PRACTICES IN RELATION BETWEEN PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Chiocaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the main elements of novelty brought by the transposition of the Directive 2011/7/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating late payment in commercial transactions in the Romanian national legislation by Law no. 72/2013 on the measures for combating late payment of a certain amounts of money resulting from the agreements concluded between the professionals and between professionals and contracting authorities. The current analysis is based on the interpretation of the legal previsions of the above mentioned acts as well as on the related secondary legislation. It is important to underline that at the moment of this study there is few court practice on this subject matter at the national level as well as of the European community level. Further more, considering the relatively new presence of the Law no. 72/2013 in the national legislation, albeit this law is adopting certain elements from the existent legislation, there is a lack of substantial doctrine in this respect. Starting form the considerations expressed above, we intend by this article to underline the main measures to be take into consideration by the professionals in the commercial relations established between them as well as in the commercial relations established with contracting authorities.

  3. The Treatment of Terms Relating to Islam and the Arab World in English Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashan Al-Ajmi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article investigates the treatment of vocabulary items relating to Islam and the Arab world in three major English dictionaries: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. The three dictionaries are compared with regard to their inclusion of 73 Arabic items (including loanwords used in texts on Islam and the Middle East at the Google news file. With religion as theme, eight of these terms have been examined and compared across their entries in these three dictionaries to determine the closeness of the lexicographic description of these terms to their original meanings among native speakers of Arabic and to detect, from these speakers' viewpoint, any deficiencies in the defining language of their respective entries. The examination of the definitions of terms relating to Islam and the Arab world in the three dictionaries has revealed a number of pitfalls that may require editorial reconsideration. These include circularity, insufficient information, negative contexts, very general definitions, ambiguity, incomplete information, narrow definitions and encyclopedic re-dundancy.

    Keywords: ARABIC LOANWORDS, CULTURAL TERMS, DEFINITION, ISLAM, REPRE-SENTATION, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Die behandeling van terme betreffende Islam en die Arabie-se wêreld in Engelse woordeboeke. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die behandeling van woordeskatitems betreffende Islam en die Arabiese wêreld in drie vooraanstaande Engelse woor-deboeke: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, en Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Die drie woordeboeke word vergelyk met betrekking tot hul opname van 73 Arabiese items (insluitende leenwoorde wat in tekste oor Islam en die Midde-Ooste in die Google-nuuslêers gebruik word. Met godsdiens as tema, is agt van hierdie terme ondersoek en vergelyk met hul inskrywing in dié drie woordeboeke om

  4. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. As used throughout this chapter, the following basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities have the meanings...

  5. Some comments on misuse of terms related to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complet text of publication follows. I have been involved in scientific studies involving chemical analysis for more than 49 years. Over this period I have observed an increasing tendency to incorrect use of terms 'analysis' and 'determination' and the corresponding verbum forms. According to correct terminology in English, samples are analyzed, analytes (e.g., trace elements) are determined. However, too often expressions such as 'analysis of copper in blood' are seen in the literature, especially in papers written by non-chemists. The reason why I am raising this point at the present time in that I observed the problem in several recent titles of papers published over the last few years in the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry: Preconcentration and neutron activation analysis of thorium and uranium in natural waters. Use of activated carbon as pre-separation agent in NAA of selenium, cobalt and iodine. Recent developments in the analysis of transuranics (Np, Pu, Am) in sea water. Automated radiochemical analysis of total 99 Tc in aged nuclear waste processing streams. Photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11 C. Preconcentration neutron activation analysis of lanthanides by cloudpoint extraction using PAN. Analysis of the chemical elements in leaves infected by fumagina by X-ray fluorescence technique. Rapid method for 226 Ra and 228 Ra analysis in water samples. The above list is far from exhaustive. I believe that this incorrect use of terminology should be avoided at least in the titles of scientific papers, in Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry as well as in other scientific journals. In some of the above cases replacing 'of' with 'for the determination of', or just with 'for', would have solved the problem. In other cases it would be preferable to reverse the order of words in the sentence, such as e.g., 'Determination of selenium, cobalt and

  6. Severe Osteomalacia Related to Long-Term Intravenous Drug Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Gamache MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective . We present the clinical, biochemical, and imaging findings of a woman with vitamin D deficiency and severe osteomalacia related to intravenous heroin addiction. Results . A 54-year-old woman with a medical history significant for long-standing heroin abuse presented with complaints of bone pain, muscle cramping, and a left hip ulcer. She had been bed bound for approximately 1 year secondary to pain of uncertain etiology, and her husband was bringing her both food and drugs. She was admitted to the hospital for debridement of a right ischial ulcer. Further workup revealed osteomyelitis of the left hip and severe vitamin D deficiency. Radiologic evaluation demonstrated diffuse osteopenia with pseudofractures, as well as true fractures. Conclusion . This is the first case reported in the English literature of advanced osteomalacia resulting from a debilitating narcotic dependency. Vitamin D deficiency should be considered in patients with poor nutrition and prolonged sunlight deprivation from any cause.

  7. Feeding tube-related complications and problems in patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Alivizatos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term complications and problems related to gastrostomy and jejunostomy feeding tubes used for home enteral nutrition support and the effect these have on health care use. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 31 patients having gastrostomy (27 patients and jejunostomy (4 feeding tubes inserted in our Department were retrospectively studied. All were discharged on long-term (>3 months enteral nutrition and followed up at regular intervals by a dedicated nurse. Any problem or complication associated with tube feeding as well as the intervention, if any, that occurred, was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were followed up for a mean of 17.5 months (4-78. The most frequent tube-related complications included inadvertent removal of the tube (broken tube, plugged tube; 45.1%, tube leakage (6.4%, dermatitis of the stoma (6.4%, and diarrhea (6.4%. There were 92 unscheduled health care contacts, with an average rate of such 2.9 contacts over the mean follow-up time of 17.5 months. Conclusion: In patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition, feeding tube-related complications and problems are frequent and result in significant health care use. Further studies are needed to address their optimal prevention modalities and management.

  8. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  9. Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Relatives Identified by Cascade Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kasper Aalbæk; Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Schmidt, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Whether affected relatives of probands are at increased risk remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the long-term cardiovascular risk in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia relatives....... CONCLUSION: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia relatives with an LDLR mutation had an increased long-term risk of adverse cardiovascular events....

  10. Some Aspects of Holst and Nieh-Yan Terms in General Relativity with Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Kinjal

    2010-01-01

    We explore the relation of the Holst term with the Nieh-Yan term in terms of metric variables. We show that the Holst term indeed affects the classical equations of motion in the presence of matter with spin. Therefore the correct term to add to the Einstein-Hilbert action such that the equations of motion are not affected is the Nieh-Yan term. We then calculate the torsion charge due to this term in the context of a perfect fluid sphere with torsion and show that it vanishes once a horizon i...

  11. IMA: Identifying disease-related genes using MeSH terms and association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Bang, Changbae; Hwang, Hyeonseo; Kim, Doyoung; Park, Chihyun; Park, Sanghyun

    2017-12-01

    Genes play an important role in several diseases. Hence, in biology, identifying relationships between diseases and genes is important for the analysis of diseases, because mutated or dysregulated genes play an important role in pathogenesis. Here, we propose a method to identify disease-related genes using MeSH terms and association rules. We identified genes by analyzing the MeSH terms and extracted information on gene-gene interactions based on association rules. By integrating the extracted interactions, we constructed gene-gene networks and identified disease-related genes. We applied the proposed method to study five cancers, including prostate, lung, breast, stomach, and colorectal cancer, and demonstrated that the proposed method is more useful for identifying disease-related and candidate disease-related genes than previously published methods. In this study, we identified 20 genes for each disease. Among them, we presented 34 important candidate genes with evidence that supports the relationship of the candidate genes with diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Semantic Association to Extend and Infer Literature-Oriented Relativity Between Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Jie; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Yongzhuang; Chu, Yanshuo; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Relative terms often appear together in the literature. Methods have been presented for weighting relativity of pairwise terms by their co-occurring literature and inferring new relationship. Terms in the literature are also in the directed acyclic graph of ontologies, such as Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology. Therefore, semantic association between terms may help for establishing relativities between terms in literature. However, current methods do not use these associations. In this paper, an adjusted R-scaled score (ARSS) based on information content (ARSSIC) method is introduced to infer new relationship between terms. First, set inclusion relationship between terms of ontology was exploited to extend relationships between these terms and literature. Next, the ARSS method was presented to measure relativity between terms across ontologies according to these extensional relationships. Then, the ARSSIC method using ratios of information shared of term's ancestors was designed to infer new relationship between terms across ontologies. The result of the experiment shows that ARSS identified more pairs of statistically significant terms based on corresponding gene sets than other methods. And the high average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.9293) shows that ARSSIC achieved a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Data is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/ARSSIC/.

  13. Mapping the structure and dynamics of genomics-related MeSH terms complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueiros-García, Jesús M; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; García-Herrera, Rodrigo; Robina-Galatas, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that the history and evolution of scientific ideas may reflect certain aspects of the underlying socio-cognitive frameworks in which science itself is developing. Systematic analyses of the development of scientific knowledge may help us to construct models of the collective dynamics of science. Aiming at scientific rigor, these models should be built upon solid empirical evidence, analyzed with formal tools leading to ever-improving results that support the related conclusions. Along these lines we studied the dynamics and structure of the development of research in genomics as represented by the entire collection of genomics-related scientific papers contained in the PubMed database. The analyzed corpus consisted in more than 49,000 articles published in the years 1987 (first appearance of the term Genomics) to 2011, categorized by means of the Medical Subheadings (MeSH) content-descriptors. Complex networks were built where two MeSH terms were connected if they are descriptors of the same article(s). The analysis of such networks revealed a complex structure and dynamics that to certain extent resembled small-world networks. The evolution of such networks in time reflected interesting phenomena in the historical development of genomic research, including what seems to be a phase-transition in a period marked by the completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Project. We also found that different disciplinary areas have different dynamic evolution patterns in their MeSH connectivity networks. In the case of areas related to science, changes in topology were somewhat fast while retaining a certain core-structure, whereas in the humanities, the evolution was pretty slow and the structure resulted highly redundant and in the case of technology related issues, the evolution was very fast and the structure remained tree-like with almost no overlapping terms.

  14. Mapping the structure and dynamics of genomics-related MeSH terms complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M Siqueiros-García

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the history and evolution of scientific ideas may reflect certain aspects of the underlying socio-cognitive frameworks in which science itself is developing. Systematic analyses of the development of scientific knowledge may help us to construct models of the collective dynamics of science. Aiming at scientific rigor, these models should be built upon solid empirical evidence, analyzed with formal tools leading to ever-improving results that support the related conclusions. Along these lines we studied the dynamics and structure of the development of research in genomics as represented by the entire collection of genomics-related scientific papers contained in the PubMed database. The analyzed corpus consisted in more than 49,000 articles published in the years 1987 (first appearance of the term Genomics to 2011, categorized by means of the Medical Subheadings (MeSH content-descriptors. Complex networks were built where two MeSH terms were connected if they are descriptors of the same article(s. The analysis of such networks revealed a complex structure and dynamics that to certain extent resembled small-world networks. The evolution of such networks in time reflected interesting phenomena in the historical development of genomic research, including what seems to be a phase-transition in a period marked by the completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Project. We also found that different disciplinary areas have different dynamic evolution patterns in their MeSH connectivity networks. In the case of areas related to science, changes in topology were somewhat fast while retaining a certain core-structure, whereas in the humanities, the evolution was pretty slow and the structure resulted highly redundant and in the case of technology related issues, the evolution was very fast and the structure remained tree-like with almost no overlapping terms.

  15. A systematic review of potential long-term effects of sport-related concussion

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, Geoff; Gardner, Andrew J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Castellani, Rudolph J; Turner, Michael; Jordan, Barry D; Randolph, Christopher; Dvořák, Jiří; Hayden, K. Alix; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Data sources Ten electronic databases. Study selection Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as >10 years after the injury. Data extraction Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinica...

  16. Viral eradication reduces all-cause mortality, including non-liver-related disease, in patients with progressive hepatitis C virus-related fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kiriyama, Seiki; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Akira; Kitabatake, Shusuke; Yama, Tsuyoki; Tanaka, Junko

    2017-03-01

    Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been reported to reduce all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV infection. However, the impact of HCV eradication on non-liver-related mortality and causes of death has not been sufficiently investigated in patients with progressive HCV-related fibrosis. We enrolled 784 chronic HCV patients with progressive liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index >1). Cause of death, incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and all-cause mortality including non-liver-related mortality were analyzed. Of these 784 patients, 170 achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (eradication of HCV) with IFN-based therapy (IFN-SVR), and 614 did not receive IFN-based therapy (non-IFN patients, chronic HCV infection). The median follow-up duration was 10.3 years. Two hundred seventy-three patients died during follow-up (liver-related death, n = 171; non-liver-related death, n = 102). The mortality rate from non-liver-related disease was 63.6% (7/11) in IFN-SVR patients and 36.3% (95/262) in non-IFN patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the eradication of HCV associated with not only hepatocellular carcinoma incidence (hazard ratio (HR), 0.162; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.092-0.284), and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.094; 95% CI, 0.047-0.187), but non-liver-related mortality (HR, 0.286; 95% CI, 0.127-0.644) as well. Eradication of HCV reduced both liver-related and non-liver-related mortality in patients with progressive HCV-related fibrosis. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. What is the best term in Spanish to express the concept of cancer-related fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carlos; Portela Tejedor, María Angustias; Carvajal, Ana; San Miguel, Maria Teresa; Urdiroz, Julia; Ramos, Luis; De Santiago, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with cancer. No adequate term in Spanish has been defined to describe the English concept of fatigue. To identify the most suitable Spanish words that define the concept of fatigue and to check psychometric characteristics. Consensus with professional experts on Spanish words that best suit the English concept of fatigue. A prospective study on oncologic patients was also undertaken, which included an evaluation of the intensity of fatigue through visual numeric scales (VNS) where the words had been previously selected. The fatigue subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) questionnaire was taken as a reference. The experts highlighted the words cansancio, agotamiento, and debilidad (tiredness, exhaustion, and weakness) as the terms that best defined the concept of fatigue. In the psychometric assessment study, 100 patients were included, of which 61 (61%) presented diagnostic values for cancer-related fatigue in the FACT-F fatigue subscale (score 34/52 or lower). The VNS for the chosen terms obtained a high correlation with the FACT-F fatigue subscale results: cansancio (tiredness) r = -0.71, agotamiento (exhaustion) r = -0.74, debilidad (weakness) r = -0.74, with no statistical differences between them. For the detection of fatigue by means of the VNS, tiredness (cutoff point > or =4/10) gave sensitivity (S) 0.90 and specificity (E) 0.72; exhaustion (cutoff point > or =3/10) S 0.95 and E 0.90 and weakness (cutoff point > or =4/10) S 0.92 and E 0.72. The ROC curve was 0.88 for tiredness, 0.94 for exhaustion, and 0.92 for weakness, with no significant difference between the areas mentioned. The terms cansancio, agotamiento, and debilidad (tiredness, exhaustion, and weakness) are suitable for defining the English concept of fatigue in Spanish, and should be the preferred option for inclusion in evaluation tools.

  18. Observables of a Test Mass along an Inclined Orbit in a Post-Newtonian-Approximated Kerr Spacetime Including the Linear and Quadratic Spin Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergt, Steven; Shah, Abhay; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The orbital motion is derived for a nonspinning test mass in the relativistic, gravitational field of a rotationally deformed body not restricted to the equatorial plane or spherical orbit. The gravitational field of the central body is represented by the Kerr metric, expanded to second post-Newtonian order including the linear and quadratic spin terms. The orbital period, the intrinsic periastron advance, and the precession of the orbital plane are derived with the aid of novel canonical variables and action-based methods.

  19. Some aspects of Holst and Nieh-Yan terms in general relativity with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Kinjal, E-mail: kinjal@iucaa.ernet.i [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411 007 (India)

    2010-07-07

    We explore the relation of the Holst term with the Nieh-Yan term in terms of metric variables. We show that the Holst term indeed affects the classical equations of motion in the presence of matter with spin. Therefore, the correct term to add to the Einstein-Hilbert action such that the equations of motion are not affected is the Nieh-Yan term. We then calculate the torsion charge due to this term in the context of a perfect fluid sphere with torsion and show that it vanishes once a horizon is formed but not otherwise. We also show that on adding torsion to general relativity Einstein's equations are no longer holographic in torsion although they continue to be so for the metric.

  20. A Feature Selection Approach Based on Interclass and Intraclass Relative Contributions of Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection plays a critical role in text categorization. During feature selecting, high-frequency terms and the interclass and intraclass relative contributions of terms all have significant effects on classification results. So we put forward a feature selection approach, IIRCT, based on interclass and intraclass relative contributions of terms in the paper. In our proposed algorithm, three critical factors, which are term frequency and the interclass relative contribution and the intraclass relative contribution of terms, are all considered synthetically. Finally, experiments are made with the help of kNN classifier. And the corresponding results on 20 NewsGroup and SougouCS corpora show that IIRCT algorithm achieves better performance than DF, t-Test, and CMFS algorithms.

  1. The elicitation step of nickel allergy is promoted in mice by microbe-related substances, including some from oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Kinbara, Masayuki; Funayama, Hiromi; Takada, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2011-11-01

    Microbial components activate the host's innate immunity via interactions with molecules including TLRs and NODs. We previously reported that in mice (i) Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4 agonist) promotes Ni-allergy even in T-cell-deficient mice, (ii) E. coli LPS reduces the minimum allergy-inducing concentrations of Ni at both the sensitization and elicitation steps, and (iii) various microbe-related substances promote sensitization to Ni. Here, we examined the effects of microbe-related substances at the elicitation step. Mice (except for TLR4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice) were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of NiCl(2) + E. coli LPS. Ten days later their ear-pinnas were challenged with 1 μM NiCl(2) with or without a test substance. Although NiCl(2) alone at this concentration does not induce Ni-allergy, its combination with the following substances induced Ni-allergy in BALB/c mice: LPS preparations from oral gram-negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis), a mannan preparation from a fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and synthetic NOD2 and TLR2 agonists. The effect of the mannan preparation was small in C3H/HeJ mice (sensitized with NiCl(2) + the P. intermedia preparation). The P. intermedia preparation promoted Ni-allergy in C3H/HeJ and nude mice, but not in mice deficient in either TLR2 or histidine decarboxylase. Intragingival injection of the P. intermedia preparation and later challenge with NiCl(2) alone to ear-pinnas also promoted Ni-allergy. These results indicate that (i) in Ni-allergy, a microbial milieu or innate immunity is important at the elicitation step, too, and (ii) some oral bacteria may promote Ni-allergy via TLR2-stimulant(s) production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Atypical onset of therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia after combined modality therapy including (89)Sr for metastatic breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsu, Yoshikazu; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Masuda, Shinichi; Matsuura, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Hisashi

    2013-08-01

    A 51-year-old woman diagnosed as having left breast cancer with axillary lymph node and liver metastases seven years earlier was seen in our office because of severe pancytopenia. She had received chemotherapy including several cycles of doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide and docetaxel followed by hormone therapy containing leuprorelin and tamoxifen over four years. For management of bone pain due to metastasis, she had also undergone stereotaxic radiation therapy of the neck one and a half years earlier and unsealed internal radiation therapy with (89)Sr injection five months prior to the current presentation, Subsequently, myelosuppression progressively worsened and she finally required a blood transfusion. Although bone marrow examination showed severe hypoplasia, but neither blastic nor dysplastic, a test for PML-RARA fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive. After administration of all-trans retinoic acid, hematogenesis improved within three weeks. Neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor retinoic acid syndrome was observed during the course of her illness. This is the first report describing acute promyelocytic leukemia after administration of (89)Sr, to our knowledge, and with an atypical onset and progression. As the number of cancer survivors increases due to improvements in medical intervention, clinicians must take more notice of special characteristics of therapy-related leukemia modified by previous treatments.

  3. 17 CFR 247.700 - Defined terms relating to the networking exception from the definition of “broker.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... overall profitability or revenue of: (i) The bank, either on a stand-alone or consolidated basis; (ii) Any... THE EXCEPTIONS FOR BANKS FROM THE DEFINITION OF BROKER § 247.700 Defined terms relating to the... by the bank or broker or dealer for customer referrals, including such criteria as minimum assets...

  4. Long-term pain relief with optimized medical treatment including antioxidants and step-up interventional therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalimar; Midha, Shallu; Hasan, Ajmal; Dhingra, Rajan; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal pain is difficult to treat in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Medical therapy including antioxidants has been shown to relieve pain of CP in the short-term. Our aim was to study the long-term results of optimized medical and interventional therapy for pain relief in patients with CP with a step-up approach. All consecutive patients with CP were included prospectively in the study. They were treated medically with a well-balanced diet, pancreatic enzymes, and antioxidants (9000 IU beta-carotene, 0.54 g vitamin C, 270 IU vitamin E, 600 µg organic selenium, and 2 g methionine). Endoscopic therapy and/or surgery were offered if medical therapy failed. Pain relief was the primary outcome measure. A total of 313 patients (mean age 26.16 ± 12.17; 244 males) with CP were included; 288 (92%) patients had abdominal pain. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 224 (71.6%) and alcohol in 82 (26.2%). At 1-year follow-up, significant pain relief was achieved in 84.7% of patients: 52.1% with medical therapy, 16.7% with endoscopic therapy, 7.6% with surgery, and 8.3% spontaneously. The mean pain score decreased from 6.36 ± 1.92 to 1.62 ± 2.10 (P pain free at those follow-up periods. Significant pain relief is achieved in the majority of patients with optimized medical and interventional treatment. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. The WECHSL-Mod2 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, M.; Stiefel, S.

    1989-06-01

    The WECHSL-Mod2 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten LWR reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. The code assumes that the metallic phases of the melt pool form a layer at the bottom overlayed by the oxide melt atop. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA experiments. The test samples include a typical BETA post test calculation and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  6. Does retrieval practice enhance learning and transfer relative to restudy for term-definition facts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C; Rickard, Timothy C

    2017-09-01

    In many pedagogical contexts, term-definition facts that link a concept term (e.g., "vision") with its corresponding definition (e.g., "the ability to see") are learned. Does retrieval practice involving retrieval of the term (given the definition) or the definition (given the term) enhance subsequent recall, relative to restudy of the entire fact? Moreover, does any benefit of retrieval practice for the term transfer to later recall of the definition, or vice versa? We addressed those questions in 4 experiments. In each, subjects first studied term-definition facts and then trained on two thirds of the facts using multiple-choice tests with feedback. Half of the test questions involved recalling terms; the other half involved recalling definitions. The remaining facts were either not trained (Experiment 1) or restudied (Experiments 2-4). A 48-hr delayed multiple-choice (Experiments 1-2) or short answer (Experiments 3a-4) final test assessed recall of all terms or all definitions. Replicating and extending prior research, retrieval practice yielded improved recall and positive transfer relative to no training. Relative to restudy, however, retrieval practice consistently enhanced subsequent term retrieval, enhanced subsequent definition retrieval only after repeated practice, and consistently yielded at best minimal positive transfer in either direction. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Methods: Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12–14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Results: Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R2 = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R2 = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Conclusions: Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration Citation: Tellez HF, Morrison SA, Neyt X, Mairesse O, Piacentini MF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Pangerc A, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Pattyn N, Mekjavic IB, Meeusen R. Exercise during short-term and long-term

  8. Long-term efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with persistent allergic rhinitis due to multiple allergens including house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Long, J; Wang, T; Xie, J; Wang, M; Tan, G

    2018-03-01

    To observe the five-year efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for house dust mite allergy in monosensitised and polysensitised children with persistent allergic rhinitis. From January 2007 to August 2009, 236 children with persistent allergic rhinitis were divided into 2 groups: 1 group received standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract; the other received pharmacotherapy with intranasal corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. A total of 193 patients (106 in the immunotherapy group and 87 in the pharmacotherapy group) completed treatment. Scores for symptoms, total medication and quality of life were evaluated. The subcutaneous immunotherapy group demonstrated a significant reduction in visual analogue scale scores, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores and total medication scores (p 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred. Standardised subcutaneous immunotherapy has long-term efficacy for children with persistent allergic rhinitis. Single-allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy was appropriate for allergic rhinitis caused by multiple allergens, including house dust mites, in the paediatric population.

  9. Neoadjuvant twice daily chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Samuels, MD, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant twice-daily chemoradiation for esophageal cancer is a safe and effective alternative to daily fractionation with low treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes similar to standard fractionation courses.

  10. Expert consensus document: Mind the gaps—advancing research into short-term and long-term neuropsychological outcomes of youth sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.

  11. Evidence for two distinct sleep-related long-term memory consolidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Monika; Grätsch, Melanie; Gais, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies examine the effect of a night's sleep on memory consolidation, but few go beyond this short time-scale to test long-lasting effects of sleep on memory. We investigated long-term effects of sleep on typical memory tasks. During the hours following learning, participants slept or stayed awake. We compared recall performance between wake and sleep conditions after delays of up to 6 days. Performance develops in two distinct ways. Word pair, syllable, and motor sequence learning tasks benefit from sleep during the first day after encoding, when compared with daytime or nighttime wakefulness. However, performance in the wake conditions recovers after another night of sleep, so that we observe no lasting effect of sleep. Sleep deprivation before recall does not impair performance. Thus, fatigue cannot adequately explain the lack of long-term effects. We suggest that the hippocampus might serve as a buffer during the retention interval, and consolidation occurs during delayed sleep. In contrast, a non-hippocampal mirror-tracing task benefits significantly from sleep, even when tested after a 4-day delay including recovery sleep. This indicates a dissociation between two sleep-related consolidation mechanisms, which could rely on distinct neuronal processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders Of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long- term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries. (author)

  13. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12-14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R(2) = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R(2) = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  15. The WECHSL-Mod3 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior. Model description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.; Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.; Stiefel, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WECHSL-Mod3 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional as well as in a one-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. It is assumed that an underlying metallic layer exists covered by an oxidic layer or that only one oxidic layer is present which can contain a homogeneously dispersed metallic phase. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The CALTHER code (developed at CEA, France) which models the radiative heat transfer from the upper surface of the corium melt to the surrounding cavity is implemented in the present WECHSL version. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA, ACE and SURC experiments. The test samples include a BETA and the SURC2 post test calculations and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  16. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  18. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frequency, number of times per week/month and intensity, amount of times each day) and the extent to which... school activities, including meals and recess periods, with students who do not have a disability. E...

  19. Long-term hepatic consequences of chemotherapy-related HBV reactivation in lymphoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Pin; Wen, Chi-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Su, Ih-Jen; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Chang, Ming-Chih; Tsao, Chao-Jung; Kao, Woei-Yao; Uen, Wu-Ching; Hsu, Chiun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Lu, Yen-Shen; Tien, Hwei-Fan; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Chen, Li-Tzong; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term consequences of chemotherapy-related HBV reactivation in patients with lymphoma. METHODS: This study was based on the database of published prospective study evaluating HBV reactivation in HBV lymphoma patients during chemotherapy. Deteriorated liver reserve (DLR) was defined as development of either one of the following conditions during follow-up: (1) newly onset parenchyma liver disease, splenomegaly or ascites without evidence of lymphoma involvement; (2) decrease of the ratio (albumin/globulin ratio) to less than 0.8 or increase of the ratio of INR of prothrombin time to larger than 1.2 without evidence of malnutrition or infection. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by imaging studies. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were included. The median follow-up was 6.2 years (range, 3.9-8.1 years). There were 31 patients with and 18 patients without HBV reactivation. Although there was no difference of overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy response rate between the two groups, DLR developed more frequently in patients with HBV reactivation (48.4% vs 16.7%; P = 0.0342). Among the HBV reactivators, HBV genotype C was associated with a higher risk of developing DLR (P = 0.0768) and liver cirrhosis (P = 0.003). Four of five patients with sustained high titer of HBV DNA and two of three patients with multiple HBV reactivation developed DLR. Further, patients with a sustained high titer of HBV DNA had the shortest OS among the HBV reactivators (P = 0.0000). No patients in the non-HBV reactivation group developed hepatic failure or liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy-related HBV reactivation is associated with the long-term effect of deterioration of hepatic function. PMID:16149133

  20. Validation of traffic-related air pollution exposure estimates for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosbroeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of studies that investigate the validity of using outdoor concentrations and/or traffic-related indicator exposure variables as a measure for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on the long-term effect of traffic-related air pollution. A pilot study was

  1. Analysis of FEV1 decline in relatively healthy heavy smokers: implications of expressing changes in FEV1 in relative terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Laura H; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B; Skovgaard, Lene T; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2014-02-01

    Progressive decline in lung function has been widely accepted as the hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, recent evidence indicates that the rate of decline measured as decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is higher in mild to moderate COPD than in severe COPD. Usually changes in FEV1 are measured in ml that is "absolute"; however, changes can also be measured "relative" as a percentage of the actual FEV1. We hypothesize that relative measurements could be more appropriate than absolute measurements for describing changes in lung function. We analyzed data from 3,218 relatively healthy heavy smokers who participated in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The influences of age, sex, height, body mass index, smoking, and severity of airflow limitation on FEV1 were analyzed in mixed effects models. In absolute terms those with the best lung function consistently showed the steepest decline, whereas in relative terms most fast decliners are found among those with low lung function. Measuring changes in relative terms implied statistically significant acceleration of decline with advancing age, smoking (pack-years) and severity of airflow limitation. Relative measurements may lead to a better understanding of changes in lung function. Smoking and severity of airflow limitation speed up the loss of lung function, and this emphasizes the importance of abstaining from smoking the sooner the better. Measuring changes in relative terms could have important implications for the interpretation of results from clinical trials where FEV1 is the primary outcome. DLCST; www.ClinicalTrials.org , registration number: NCT00496977.

  2. Arousal modulates activity in the medial temporal lobe during a short-term relational memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eThoresen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to measure the BOLD signal relative to task. Subjects’ own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  3. Arousal Modulates Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe during a Short-Term Relational Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Christian; Jensen, Jimmy; Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B; Bolstad, Ingeborg; Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal relative to task. Subjects' own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  4. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  5. Relative performance of different numerical weather prediction models for short term predition of wind wnergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Moennich, K.; Waldl, H.P. [Carl con Ossietzky Univ., Faculty of Physics, Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor, Oldenburg (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In several approaches presented in other papers in this conference, short term forecasting of wind power for a time horizon covering the next two days is done on the basis of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. This paper explores the relative merits of HIRLAM, which is the model used by the Danish Meteorological Institute, the Deutschlandmodell from the German Weather Service and the Nested Grid Model used in the US. The performance comparison will be mainly done for a site in Germany which is in the forecasting area of both the Deutschlandmodell and HIRLAM. In addition, a comparison of measured data with the forecasts made for one site in Iowa will be included, which allows conclusions on the merits of all three models. Differences in the relative performances could be due to a better tailoring of one model to its country, or to a tighter grid, or could be a function of the distance between the grid points and the measuring site. Also the amount, in which the performance can be enhanced by the use of model output statistics (topic of other papers in this conference) could give insights into the performance of the models. (au)

  6. Striving to Connect: Extending an Achievement Goal Approach to Teacher Motivation to Include Relational Goals for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were designed to extend Butler's (2007) model and measure of achievement goals for teaching, to recognize that teaching is an interpersonal endeavor, not just personal endeavor. In Study 1, results from 530 teachers in Israel confirmed the predicted 5-factor model comprising relational goals, whereby teachers aspire to create close and…

  7. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.242 What provisions relating to a... specific provisions of the Office of Federal Procurement and Policy Act and Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  8. Constitutive relation for rheological processes with known loading history. Creep and long-term strength curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, A. V.

    2008-04-01

    In the present paper, we propose and study a nonlinear constitutive relation for describing the one-dimensional isothermal rheological processes with monotone loading history in viscoelastoplastic materials. This relation presents the strain at any time moment in terms of the history of variations in the stress and its derivative by means of two integral operators and contains two material functions of the same real argument and ten material parameters determined by the results of tests on material creeping, long-term strength, and strain at a constant loading rate. Under minimal a priori restrictions on the material parameters of the model, we derive the equations of strain, creep, relaxation, and long-term strength curves, analytically study the dependencies of their properties on parameters, and find necessary restrictions on the material parameters and functions ensuring an adequate description of the mechanical behavior of materials (the typical qualitative properties of experimental strain, creep, relaxation, and long-term strength curves). To model the long-term strength in creeping, we propose two parametric families of fracture criteria under monotone uniaxial strain, which are related to the strain criterion but take into account the history of the strain increase by means of special integral operators relating this history to the damage measure. We prove that the constitutive relation thus constructed, along with the proposed fracture criteria, leads to theoretical long-term strength curves with the same qualitative properties as the experimental curves of a majority of metals. Thus, an analysis of the properties of the proposed constitutive relation shows that it allows one to perform an adequate simulation not only of several effects of rheological behavior of viscoelastoplastic materials but of the entire complex of effects such as the strain dependence on the stress and the stress rate, relaxation, creeping, the creep rate dependence on the stress

  9. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  10. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  11. Data Mining of Web-Based Documents on Social Networking Sites That Included Suicide-Related Words Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included

    OpenAIRE

    Bountziouka, V. (Vassiliki); Bathrellou, E. (Eirini); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Ezquer, L. (Leyre); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Panagiotakos, D.B. (Demosthenes B.)

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of a measurement is a cornerstone in research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. Objective: To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of responses of consumption included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. Methods: During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, 37±13 yrs, 34% males and 150 participants from Spain, 39±17 yrs, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11-items a...

  13. Google Trends terms reporting rhinitis and related topics differ in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Agache, I; Anto, J M

    2017-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim...... was to assess whether the same terms could be used to report the seasonal variations of allergic diseases. Using the Google Trend 5-year graph, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all countries apart from Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta. Different terms were found to demonstrate...

  14. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Bathrellou, Eirini; Zazpe, Itziar; Ezquer, Leyre; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2012-12-01

    Accuracy of measurement is a cornerstone of research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of consumption responses (the coding used to measure the frequency of consumption) included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, mean age 37 +/- 13 years, 34% males, and 150 from Spain, mean age 39 +/- 17 years, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/ no) responses, a diet index with 11 items and 6-scale responses, and 36-item and 76-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) with 6-scale responses. The participants completed these tools twice, with 15 days between the two administrations of the tools. The Spearman-Brown coefficient (r(sb)), Kendall's tau coefficients, and the Bland-Altman method were applied to answer the research hypothesis. The highest repeatability coefficient was observed for the diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/no) responses (r(sb) = 0.948, p tools (p > .23), whereas these three tools had significantly higher repeatability coefficients than the 76-item FFQ (p = .002). Subgroup analyses by sex, education, smoking, and clinical status confirmed these results. Repeatability was found for all food frequency assessment tools used, irrespective of the number of items or the number of responses included.

  15. Gender-related differences of inguinal hernia and asymptomatic patent processus vaginalis in term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Christine; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Schier, Felix

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the gender-related differences of inguinal hernia (IH) and patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in term and preterm infants. Over a nine-year-period 411 infants underwent laparoscopic herniorrhaphy within the first six months of life. 246 term (191 male; 55 female) and 165 preterm (118 male; 47 female) infants were included in this retrospective study. Initial presentation of IH and intraoperative anatomical findings of PPV were reviewed. We found that term boys (58.6%) and girls (58.2%) predominantly presented with right-sided IH whereas preterm boys (36.4%) and girls (44.7%) mostly presented with bilateral IH. Female babies had a higher incidence of initial left-sided IH. Term and preterm girls with initial left-sided hernia were found to have highest incidence of PPV. Male term babies with initial left-sided IH were found to have the lowest incidence of PPV (25.0%). The highest incidence of PPV in male was found in preterm boys with either left- or right-sided IH. Incidence and laterality of IH and PPV differ between term and preterm girls and boys. In open hernia repair decision concerning contralateral groin exploration should consider term/preterm birth as well as gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accidental hypothermia: factors related to long-term hospitalization. A retrospective study from northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnes, Jari; Ala-Kokko, Tero

    2017-12-01

    Accidental hypothermia has a low incidence, but is associated with a high mortality rate. Knowledge about concomitant factors, complications, and length of hospital stay is limited. A retrospective cohort study on patients with accidental hypothermia admitted to Oulu University Hospital in Finland, over a 5-year period. Patients were categorized as short-stay patients (7 days or less) and long-stay patients (more than 7 days) according to their length of stay in hospital. From a total of 105 patients, 67 patients were included in the analyses. Alcohol abuse was the most common concomitant factor (54 %). Median length of hospital stay was 4 days, and 16 patients (24 %) stayed in hospital over 7 days (median 15 days). Thirty-day mortality was low (14/105, 13 %). Patients with long-term hospitalization had a lower initial temperature (28.4 versus 31.2 °C, p = 0.011), a lower level of consciousness (GCS score 8.4 versus 12.8, p = 0.003), more severe acidosis (pH 7.08 versus 7.28, p = 0.005, and lactate 7.2 versus 3.9, p = 0.043), and a lower level of platelets (183 versus 242, p = 0.041) on admission compared with short-stay patients. Thirty-six patients (54 %) had at least one complication, and this prolonged median hospital treatment for 2.5 days (p hospital. Long-term hospitalization is related to a lower core temperature, lower consciousness, more severe lactic acidosis, lower platelet level and infections, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure.

  17. Problems Related to Use of Some Terms in System Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Hanusova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using dependability terms, defined in actual standard STN IEC 50 (191: International electrotechnical dictionary, chap. 191: Dependability and quality of service (1993, in a technical systems dependability analysis. The goal of the paper is to find a relation between terms introduced in the mentioned standard and used in the technical systems dependability analysis and rules and practices used in a system analysis of the system theory. Description of a part of the system life cycle related to reliability is used as a starting point. The part of a system life cycle is described by the state diagram and reliability relevant therms are assigned.

  18. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  19. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  20. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  2. Pediatric Cancer Patients' Treatment-Related Distress and Longer-Term Anxiety: An Individual Differences Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Harper, Felicity W K; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    Although distress during treatment procedures and longer-term treatment-related anxiety are among the most common cancer-related stressors for children and their families, they are not invariant. This study examined whether individual differences in temperament and personality play a role in how children respond to treatment procedures. Attention control, a facet of the effortful control dimension of temperament, and the personality attribute ego-resilience were hypothesized to predict lower levels of distress during procedures. Moreover, ego-resilience and distress during procedures were hypothesized to account for indirect associations between attention control and longer-term treatment-related anxiety. Child gender was examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Participants were 147 children undergoing treatment for pediatric cancer and their parents. At baseline, parents reported on children's effortful control and ego-resilience. Multiple raters assessed children's distress during multiple cancer-related procedures. Treatment-related anxiety was measured 3 and 9 months after the last assessed treatment procedure. Attention control was linked to ego-resilience and lower levels of distress, and these variables, in turn, accounted for indirect associations between attention control and treatment-related anxiety. Associations involving ego-resilience were stronger for boys than girls. Attention control plays an important role in children's immediate and longer-term responses to cancer-related medical procedures. Medical staff should consider individual differences in child temperament and personality when considering the nature and extent of support to provide to pediatric cancer patients and their families.

  3. A carpal tunnel grading system including combined sensory index-diagnosed mild cases: Relation to presenting features and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Pandey, Dilip K

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated superiority of the combined sensory index (CSI) algorithm in diagnosing mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and have compared presenting symptoms to CTS grade. However, CTS symptoms, signs, and outcomes, including CSI-diagnosed cases, have not been compared with CTS grade. We retrospectively studied 294 CTS hands from 2010 to 2013; stratified them into mild, moderate, and severe grades; and analyzed the association between CTS grade and presenting symptoms/signs and outcomes. Sensorimotor symptoms (P = 0.017) and signs (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with CTS grade. Regardless of CTS grade, 94% of hands improved with surgery compared with 42% with conservative treatment (P < 0.001). Even in mild CTS, 100% improved with surgery vs. 33% with conservative management (P = 0.011). These results corroborate prior studies that compared symptoms to CTS grade and suggest that more objective signs associate even better. CTS grades associate with outcomes, but additional studies are required. Muscle Nerve 57: 45-48, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Google Trends terms reporting rhinitis and related topics differ in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Agache, I; Anto, J M; Bergmann, K C; Bachert, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Bousquet, P J; D'Amato, G; Demoly, P; De Vries, G; Eller, E; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Haahtela, T; Hellings, P W; Just, J; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Kuna, P; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Mösges, R; Murray, R; Nekam, K; Onorato, G; Papadopoulos, N G; Samolinski, B; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Thibaudon, M; Tomazic, P; Triggiani, M; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Eerd, M; Wickman, M; Zuberbier, T; Sheikh, A

    2017-08-01

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim was to assess whether the same terms could be used to report the seasonal variations of allergic diseases. Using the Google Trend 5-year graph, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all countries apart from Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta. Different terms were found to demonstrate seasonality depending on the country - namely 'hay fever', 'allergy' and 'pollen' - showing cultural differences. A single set of terms cannot be used across all European countries, but allergy seasonality can be compared across Europe providing the above three terms are used. Using longitudinal data in different countries and multiple terms, we identified an awareness-related spike of searches (December 2016). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Event-related cortical processing in neuropathic pain under long-term spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Capelle, H Holger; Flor, Herta; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms were suggested in the past to explain the beneficial effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Little is known about potential supraspinal mechanisms. In this study cortical signaling of patients with neuropathic pain and successful long-term treatment with SCS was analyzed. Observational study. University hospital, neurosurgical department, outpatient clinic for movement disorders and pain, institute for cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Nine patients with neuropathic pain of a lower extremity with a lasting response to chronic SCS were included. Cortical activity was analyzed using event-related potentials of the electroencephalogram after non-painful and painful stimulation. Each patient was tested under the effect of long-term SCS and 24 hours after cessation of SCS. Cortical areas involved in the peaks of evoked potentials were localized using a source localization method based on a fixed dipole model. Detection threshold and intensity of non-painful stimulation did not differ significantly on both sides. Pain threshold was significantly lower on the neuropathic side under the effect of SCS (P = 0.03). Bilateral pain thresholds were significantly lower (P = 0.03 healthy side, P = 0.003 neuropathic side) in 5 patients with increased pain after cessation of SCS. Under the effect of SCS cortical negativities (N1, N2, N3) and positivities (P1) demonstrated bilaterally comparable amplitudes. After cessation of SCS, decreased threshold for peripheral stimulation resulted in lowered negativities on both sides. The positivity P1 was differentially regulated and was reduced more contralateral to the unaffected side. N2 was localized at the sensory representation of the leg within the homunculus. The main vector of P1 was localized within the cingular cortex (CC) and moved more anteriorly under the effect of SCS. The exact time span that SCS continues to have an effect is not known. However, due to patient

  6. Long-term tricuspid valve prosthesis-related complications in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slooten, Ymkje J; Freling, Hendrik G; van Melle, Joost P; Mulder, Barbara J M; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A; Pieper, Petronella G

    2014-01-01

    In patients with acquired valvar disease, morbidity and mortality rates after tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) are high. However, in adult patients with congenital heart disease, though data concerning outcome after TVR are scarce, even poorer results are suggested in patients with Ebstein anomaly. To investigate the applicability of these results to a broader array of congenital heart disease patients, we report the long-term follow-up of prosthesis-related complications, including re-replacement of patients with a tricuspid valve prosthesis and congenital heart disease. From the Dutch Congenital Corvitia (CONCOR) registry, we identified 20 patients with a biological or mechanical tricuspid valve prosthesis implanted between 1977 and 2012 (total of 31 prostheses). We analysed the tricuspid valve-related complications and mortality. Ten patients with a median age of 16.2 years at the time of surgery (interquartile range 13.2-28.2 years) received a bioprosthesis while 10 patients with a median age of 36.4 years (interquartile range 14.0-47.0) at the time of surgery received a mechanical prosthesis (P = 0.28). During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 50% needed a re-replacement because of valve-related complications (e.g. valve degeneration or valve thrombosis). The yearly percentage of patients with valve-related complications was 4.2% in patients with a bioprosthesis and 2.7% in those with a mechanical prosthesis. Within 20 years of implantation, the median duration of event-free survival was significantly shorter in 3 patients with a prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM; 1.0 year; interquartile range 0.01-2.6), compared with 7 without mismatch (8.0 years; interquartile range 5.1-12.3; P = 0.02). Compared with previous literature on acquired valvar disease, we found a higher incidence of valve-related complications in patients with congenital heart disease that was unrelated to prosthesis material. Our data suggest that PPM may have a negative effect on the event

  7. Relation between source term and emergency planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Yang Ling

    1992-01-01

    Some background information of the severe accidents and source terms related to the nuclear power plant emergency planning are presented. The new source term information in NUREG-0956 and NUREG-1150, and possible changes in emergency planning requirements in U.S.A. are briefly provided. It is suggested that a principle is used in selecting source terms for establishing the emergency planning policy and a method is used in determining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) size in China. Based on the research results of (1) EPZ size of PWR nuclear power plants being built in China, and (2) impact of reactor size and selected source terms on the EPZ size, it is concluded that the suggested principle and the method are suitable and feasible for PWR nuclear power plants in China

  8. Gene Ontology Terms and Automated Annotation for Energy-Related Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Tyler, Brett M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Setubal, Joao [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Murali, T. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Gene Ontology (GO) is one of the more widely used functional ontologies for describing gene functions at various levels. The project developed 660 GO terms for describing energy-related microbial processes and filled the known gaps in this area of the GO system, and then used these terms to describe functions of 179 genes to showcase the utilities of the new resources. It hosted a series of workshops and made presentations at key meetings to inform and train scientific community members on these terms and to receive inputs from them for the GO term generation efforts. The project has developed a website for storing and displaying the resources (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/). The outcome of the project was further disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and poster and seminar presentations.

  9. Chronic cancer-related fatigue in long-term survivors of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orre, Ingrid J; Fosså, Sophie D; Murison, Robert; Bremnes, Roy; Dahl, Olav; Klepp, Olbjørn; Loge, Jon H; Wist, Erik; Dahl, Alv A

    2008-04-01

    High prevalence of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has been reported among many groups of cancer survivors when compared to the general population. However, this topic has rarely been studied in long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs). The present multi-centre study examines the prevalence of chronic CRF in Norwegian TCSs compared to chronic general fatigue (GF) in the Norwegian general population, and associations between a variety of relevant variables and CRF in TCSs. Participants were 1431 TCSs, aged 18-75, at an average of 11 years posttreatment (range 4.5-21 years), and a sample of 1080 age-matched men from the general Norwegian population (GenPop). The participants responded to a mailed questionnaire that included the Fatigue Questionnaire for the assessment of chronic CRF and chronic GF. The prevalence of chronic CRF was 17.1% (95% CI 15.2-19.1%) among TCSs compared to 9.7% of chronic GF in GenPop (95% CI 8.0-11.5%). Regression analyses showed that poor quality of life (QOL), various psychosocial and somatic problems, and neuroticism were highly associated with presence of chronic CRF in TCSs. Chronic CRF is far more common among TCSs than chronic GF in the general population and is associated with poor QOL and multiple psychological and somatic health problems. As a consequence, fatigue should be in focus during routine follow-ups as well as later in the general medical care of TCSs.

  10. [Questionnaire about the intake of and hypersensitivity to fruits, vegetables and nuts including birch pollen related foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2013-07-01

    In Hokkaido and Scandinavia, birch pollen allergic persons are common and they often report oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables (oral allergy syndrome, OAS), because of immunological cross-reactivity. In Scandinavia, nuts as well as Rosaceae fruits such as apples were the foods most often reported to elicit symptoms. On the other hand, nuts are minor foods causing hypersensitivity in Japan. Even in Japan, regional differences of foods causing hypersensitivity have been reported, which may be related to the regional differences of elementary habit and pollen dispersion. In the present study, we evaluated the intake history of the foods and the frequency of food hypersensitivity in adults from the general population. Three hundreds and thirty nine subjects (20-67 years old) took part in the study. With a questionnaire survey, we asked them about their intake history and hypersensitive symptoms for 33 kinds of fruit, vegetables, and nuts. 30% of subjects had eaten Brazil nuts, 80% had eaten pomegranates, and 81% had eaten hazelnuts. And over 95% of subjects had eaten the other 30 foods. Those who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years had a higher frequency of plum consumption than the others. Those who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years had a lower frequency of loquat, fig and pomegranate consumption than the others. Food hypersensitivity was found in 52 subjects (15.3%). The most common symptom was OAS (46 subjects, 13.6%), and foods most frequently causing OAS were peach (21 subjects, 6.2%), cherry (19 subjects, 5.6%) and apple (17 subjects, 5.0%). 26 subjects (7.7%) reported OAS to Rosaceae fruits. The ratio of having OAS to consuming Rosaceae fruits was 11.0% in the group who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years, which was higher than the group who has lived in Hokkaido for less than 20 years. The intake history of hazelnuts and Brazil nuts was very low, with a correspondingly low frequency of food

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicates a positive association, though not consistently....... OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of traffic-related air pollution on incidence of atrial fibrillation in the general population. METHODS: In the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2,700 cases...... tendencies regarding effect modification of the association between NO2 and atrial fibrillation by sex, smoking, hypertension or myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: We found long-term residential traffic-related air pollution to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation. Accordingly, the present...

  12. Google Trends terms reporting rhinitis and related topics differ in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, Jean; Agache, Ioana; Anto, Josep M.; Bergmann, Karl C.; Bachert, Claus; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Bousquet, Philippe J.; D'Amato, Gennaro; Demoly, Pascal; de Vries, Govert; Eller, Esben; Fokkens, Wytske; Fonseca, Joao; Haahtela, Tari; Hellings, Peter W.; Just, Jocelyne; Keil, Thomas; Klimek, Ludger; Kuna, Piotr; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Mösges, Ralf; Murray, Ruth; Nekam, Kristof; Onorato, Gabrielle; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Thibaudon, Michel; Tomazic, Peter; Triggiani, Massimo; Valiulis, Arunas; Valovirta, Erkka; van Eerd, Michiel; Wickman, Magnus; Zuberbier, Torsten; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim was

  13. Psychosocial work environment and mental health-related long-term sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corné A.M.; van Hoffen, Marieke F.A.; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Ståle

    Purpose: We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. Methods: The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role

  14. Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke M.; de Groot, Maartje H.; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    Background: Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and

  15. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  16. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  17. The Place of Assisted Living in Long-Term Care and Related Service Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robyn I.; Reinhard, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe how assisted living (AL) fits with other long-term-care services. Design and Methods: We analyzed the evolution of AL, including the populations served, the services offered, and federal and state policies that create various incentives or disincentives for using AL to replace other forms of care…

  18. The effect of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Lisa; Rollo, Megan; Hauck, Yvonne; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Wood, Lisa; Hutchesson, Melinda; Giglia, Roslyn; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2015-01-01

    What are the effects of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women?The primary objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions which include a diet component and are aimed at limiting gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women.The second objective of this systematic review is to investigate included intervention components with respect to effect on weight-related outcomes. This may include, but is not limited to: length of intervention, use of face-to-face counselling, group or individual consultations, use of other interventions components including exercise, use of goals and use of support tools like food diaries, coaching, including email or text message support. Around half of all women of reproductive age are either overweight or obese, with women aged 25-34 years having a greater risk of substantial weight gain compared with men of all ages. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) may play a significant role in long term obesity. Having one child doubles the five- and 10-year obesity incidence for women, with many women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy remaining obese permanently. Excessive GWG and/or PPWR can also significantly contribute to short- and long-term adverse health outcomes for mother, baby and future pregnancies.Maternal obesity increases the risk of pregnancy related complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, stillbirth and the rate of caesarean section. Childhood obesity is a further long term complication of maternal obesity for offspring, which may persist in to adulthood. Excess GWG is also a risk factor for PPWR both in the short and long-term. Nehring et al. conducted a meta-analysis with over 65,000 women showing that, compared to women who gained weight within recommendations during pregnancy, women with GWG

  19. [Relations between hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and subsequent risk of early-term birth: a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F Y; Yan, S Q; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Ge, X; Han, Y; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To evaluate the relations between hypertensive disorders (HDP) in pregnancy and early-term birth. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women were consecutively recruited. Demographic information was collected in early pregnancy. HDP was diagnosed in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. On the basis of precise evaluation on gestation age, early-term birth was defined as gestational age of 37-38 weeks+6 days. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between HDP and early-term birth. Results: The current study included 3 260 pregnant women, with the rates of HDP, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and pre-eclampsia as 6.0% ( n =194), 4.2% ( n =137) and 1.8% ( n =57), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences between pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and earlyterm birth ( OR =1.49, 95% CI : 0.94-2.36) were found. Pre-eclampsia appeared to have increased the risk of early-term birth ( OR =4.46, 95% CI : 2.09-9.54). Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia could significantly increase the risk of early-term birth. This finding suggested that early detection and intervention programs were helpful in reducing the risk of early-term birth.

  20. Health related quality of life of long-term kidney transplantation recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Yuan Wei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL is an important issue for long-term kidney transplantation (KT patients. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on long-term HRQOL in KT recipients with a functional graft. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the long-term (10-year HRQOL of KT recipients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and correlational design. The Medical Outcome Survey (MOS SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect data on HRQOL. The data were collected from November 2009 to September 2010 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. Results: A total of 88 patients were interviewed. The mean years after transplantation was 14.48 (SD = 3.9. The mean score of each of the HRQOL subscales ranged from 59.4 to 82.5. The mean scores on the bodily pain (BP subscale were the highest and, on the general health (GH subscale, the lowest. Compared to the general population, with the exception of the BP subscale, long-term KT patients had a lower mean score (poorer HRQOL on all subscales. Age, gender, serum creatinine level, and employment status were significantly related to HRQOL. Conclusion: HRQOL of long-term KT patients was, overall, poorer than that of the general population. When comparing the HRQOL of KT patients with that of the general population, one should take into account age and gender. Finally, the physical, psychological, and social adjustment domains of HRQOL of KT patients warrant further attention.

  1. Factors related to intention to stay in the current workplace among long-term care nurses: A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltaybani, Sameh; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Igarashi, Ayumi; Saito, Yumiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2018-02-03

    Keeping long-term care nurses employed is necessary to sustain the current and future demand for high-quality long-term care services. Understanding the factors relating to intention to stay among long-term care nurses is limited by the scarcity of studies in long-term care settings, lack of investigation of multiple factors, and the weakness of existing explanatory models. To identify the factors associated with long-term care nurses' intention to stay in their current workplace. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two hundred and fifty-seven hospitals with long-term care wards across Japan. A total of 3128 staff nurses and 257 nurse managers from the long-term care wards of the participating hospitals. The questionnaire assessed nurses' intention to continue working in the current workplace as well as potential related factors, including individual factors (demographic data, reason for choosing current workplace, burnout, work engagement, somatic symptom burden) and unit factors (unit size, nurse-manager-related data, patients' medical acuity, average number of overtime hours, recreational activities, social support, perceived quality of care process, educational opportunities, feeling of loneliness, and ability to request days off). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine which variables best explained nurses' intention to stay in their workplace. Only 40.1% of the respondents reported wanting to continue working at their current workplace. The regression analysis revealed that long-term care nurses' intention to stay was positively associated with nurses' age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [1.01-1.03]), work engagement (1.24 [1.14-1.35]), getting appropriate support from nurse managers (2.78 [1.60-4.82]), perceived quality of care process (1.04 [1.01-1.06]), educational opportunities (1.06 [1.0-1.13]), and various specific reasons for choosing their workplace (e.g., a good workplace atmosphere, being interested in

  2. Creating long-term relations in travel agencies within partnership marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowier-Kasprzyk Izabella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the opportunities of applying the partnership marketing in the tourism have been shown. The advantages of creating, enriching and maintaining long-term and individualised relations have been presented. The importance of the mutual relations in the partnership marketing concept in the tourism has been shown. Moreover the satisfaction and trust among customers and organisers have been pointed out. The last important matter which has been presented was the tightening relations by the use of the loyalty programmes in tourism.

  3. Health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, Vera; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS) in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2,000 female BCS > or = 5 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn...... from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, which is representative regarding long-term BCS in Denmark, and compared with 3,104 women of the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2000. The Short Form-36 questionnaire assessed HRQOL and its association with BCS...... health" (P mental health" (P

  4. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  5. Relational and conjunctive binding functions dissociate in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Cubelli, Roberto; Hernandez Valdez, Maria; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Remembering complex events requires binding features within unified objects (conjunctions) and holding associations between objects (relations). Recent studies suggest that the two functions dissociate in long-term memory (LTM). Less is known about their functional organization in short-term memory (STM). The present study investigated this issue in patient AE affected by a stroke which caused damage to brain regions known to be relevant for relational functions both in LTM and in STM (i.e., the hippocampus). The assessment involved a battery of standard neuropsychological tasks and STM binding tasks. One STM binding task (Experiment 1) presented common objects and common colors forming either pairs (relations) or integrated objects (conjunctions). Free recall of relations or conjunctions was assessed. A second STM binding task used random polygons and non-primary colors instead (Experiment 2). Memory was assessed by selecting the features that made up the relations or the conjunctions from a set of single polygons and a set of single colors. The neuropsychological assessment revealed impaired delayed memory in AE. AE's pronounced relational STM binding deficits contrasted with his completely preserved conjunctive binding functions in both Experiments 1 and 2. Only 2.35% and 1.14% of the population were expected to have a discrepancy more extreme than that presented by AE in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Processing relations and conjunctions of very elementary nonspatial features in STM led to dissociating performances in AE. These findings may inform current theories of memory decline such as those linked to cognitive aging.

  6. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  7. Long-term health-related and economic consequences of short-term outcomes in evaluation of perinatal interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Margreet J.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Opmeer, Brent C.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: : Many perinatal interventions are performed to improve long-term neonatal outcome. To evaluate the long-term effect of a perinatal intervention follow-up of the child after discharge from the hospital is necessary because serious sequelae from perinatal complications

  8. Long-Term Outcome of Catheter-Related Arterial Thrombosis in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Mattia; Kroiss, Sabine; Kretschmar, Oliver; Forster, Ishilde; Brotschi, Barbara; Albisetti, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the long-term outcome of catheter-related arterial thrombosis in children. Data from clinical and radiologic long-term follow-up of infants with congenital heart disease developing arterial thrombosis following femoral catheterization are presented. Ninety-five infants with radiologically proven arterial thrombosis because of cardiac catheter (n = 52; 55%) or indwelling arterial catheter (n = 43; 45%) were followed for a median time of 23.5 months (IQR 13.3-47.3). Overall, radiologic complete thrombus resolution was observed in 64 (67%), partial resolution in 8 (9%), and no resolution in 23 (24%) infants. Complete resolution was significantly more frequent in infants with indwelling arterial catheter-related thrombosis compared with cardiac catheter-related thrombosis (P = .001). Patients with complete resolution had a significantly lower blood pressure difference and increased ankle-ankle index compared with patients with partial or no resolution (P < .0001). However, symptoms of claudication were present only in 1 case and clinical significant legs growth retardation (≥ 15 mm) was present in 1%. A significant percentage of persistent occlusion is present in children with arterial catheter-related thrombosis on long-term follow-up. In these children, the magnitude of leg growth retardation is small and possibly not clinically relevant. However, in children with congenital heart disease, the high prevalence of persistent arterial occlusion may hamper future diagnostic and/or interventional catheterization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric Cancer Patients’ Treatment-Related Distress and Longer-Term Anxiety: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Harper, Felicity W. K.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although distress during treatment procedures and longer-term treatment-related anxiety are among the most common cancer-related stressors for children and their families, they are not invariant. This study examined whether individual differences in temperament and personality play a role in how children respond to treatment procedures. Attention control, a facet of the effortful control dimension of temperament, and the personality attribute ego-resilience were hypothesized to predict lower levels of distress during procedures. Moreover, ego-resilience and distress during procedures were hypothesized to account for indirect associations between attention control and longer-term treatment-related anxiety. Child gender was examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Method Participants were 147 children undergoing treatment for pediatric cancer and their parents. At baseline, parents reported on children’s effortful control and ego-resilience. Multiple raters assessed children’s distress during multiple cancer-related procedures. Treatment-related anxiety was measured 3 months and 9 months after the last assessed treatment procedure. Results Attention control was linked to ego-resilience and lower levels of distress, and these variables, in turn, accounted for indirect associations between attention control and treatment-related anxiety. Associations involving ego-resilience were stronger for boys than girls. Conclusion Attention control plays an important role in children’s immediate and longer-term responses to cancer-related medical procedures. Medical staff should consider individual differences in child temperament and personality when considering the nature and extent of support to provide to pediatric cancer patients and their families. PMID:27802258

  10. Impulse control disorder related behaviours during long-term rotigotine treatment: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, A; Chaudhuri, K R; Boroojerdi, B; Asgharnejad, M; Bauer, L; Grieger, F; Weintraub, D

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and other compulsive behaviours (together called ICD behaviours). The frequency of ICD behaviours reported as adverse events (AEs) in long-term studies of rotigotine transdermal patch in PD was evaluated. This was a post hoc analysis of six open-label extension studies up to 6 years in duration. Analyses included patients treated with rotigotine for at least 6 months and administered the modified Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview. ICD behaviours reported as AEs were identified and categorized. For 786 patients, the mean (±SD) exposure to rotigotine was 49.4 ± 17.6 months. 71 (9.0%) patients reported 106 ICD AEs cumulatively. Occurrence was similar across categories: 2.5% patients reported 'compulsive sexual behaviour', 2.3% 'buying disorder', 2.0% 'compulsive gambling', 1.7% 'compulsive eating' and 1.7% 'punding behaviour'. Examining at 6-month intervals, the incidence was relatively low during the first 30 months; it was higher over the next 30 months, peaking in the 54-60-month period. No ICD AEs were serious, and 97% were mild or moderate in intensity. Study discontinuation occurred in seven (9.9%) patients with ICD AEs; these then resolved in five patients. Dose reduction occurred for 23 AEs, with the majority (73.9%) resolving. In this analysis of >750 patients with PD treated with rotigotine, the frequency of ICD behaviour AEs was 9.0%, with a specific incidence timeline observed. Active surveillance as duration of treatment increases may help early identification and management; once ICD behaviours are present rotigotine dose reduction may be considered. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  11. Long-term results after external radiotherapy in age-related macular degeneration. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettenhofer, U.; Mayer, R.; Stranzl, H.; Oechs, A.; Hackl, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria); Haas, A. [Dept. of Opthalmology, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria)

    2004-02-01

    Purpose: to prospectively evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy of external radiotherapy (RT) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by comparing two different dose schedules. Patients and methods: in this prospective, nonrandomized, comparative study including 80 patients, the efficacy of external RT with a total dose of 14.4 Gy (group A, n = 40) and 25.2 Gy (group B, n = 40) was compared. Patients of group a were irradiated between September 1995 and July 1996, patients of group b between August 1996 and November 1997. 67 patients presented with occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 13 with classic subfoveal lesions. Complete ophthalmologic investigation was performed before RT, at intervals of 3 months during the 1st year after RT, and of 6 months thereafter. Results: 12 months after RT, vision deteriorated in 85% (14.4 Gy) and 65% (25.2 Gy) of patients. Central visual field decreased with both dose schedules. There was no morphological benefit in neovascular changes. After 48 months, complete follow-up was possible in 46 patients who showed a significant loss of vision similar to the natural course of AMD. Conclusion: external RT of AMD with 14.4 Gy as well as with the escalated dose of 25.2 Gy showed a poor beneficial outcome after 6 and 12 months, respectively. After a follow-up of 4 years, visual outcome in irradiated patients was similar to the natural course of the disease. A conspicuous efficacy of RT in prevention of blindness could not be demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Genetic predisposition, dietary restraint and disinhibition in relation to short and long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2014-04-10

    Interindividual differences in response to weight loss and maintenance thereafter are ascribed to genetic predisposition and behavioral changes. To examine whether body weight and short and long-term body weight loss were affected by candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and changes in eating behavior or by an interaction between these genetic and behavioral factors. 150 healthy subjects (39 males, 111 females) aged 20-50 y with a BMI of 27-38 kg/m(2) followed a very low energy diet for 8-weeks, followed by a 3-month weight maintenance period. SNPs were selected from six candidate genes: ADRB2, FTO, MC4R, PPARG, PPARD, and PPARGC1A. Changes in eating behavior were determined with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. A high genetic predisposition score was associated with a high body weight at baseline and more short-term weight loss. From the six selected obesity-related SNPs, FTO was associated with increased body weight at baseline, and the effect allele of PPARGC1A was positively associated with short-term weight loss, when assessed for each SNP separately. Long-term weight loss was associated with a larger increase in dietary restraint and larger decrease in disinhibition. During long-term weight loss, genetic effects are dominated by changes in eating behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A unified account of gloss and lightness perception in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2013-08-01

    A recently introduced computational theory of visual surface representation, termed gamut relativity, overturns the classical assumption that brightness, lightness, and transparency constitute perceptual dimensions corresponding to the physical dimensions of luminance, diffuse reflectance, and transmittance, respectively. Here I extend the theory to show how surface gloss and lightness can be understood in a unified manner in terms of the vector computation of "layered representations" of surface and illumination properties, rather than as perceptual dimensions corresponding to diffuse and specular reflectance, respectively. The theory simulates the effects of image histogram skewness on surface gloss/lightness and lightness constancy as a function of specular highlight intensity. More generally, gamut relativity clarifies, unifies, and generalizes a wide body of previous theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding how the visual system parses the retinal image into layered representations of surface and illumination properties.

  14. Short term change in relative humidity during the festival of Diwali in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Nandita D.

    2015-07-01

    The changes in humidity levels during the Diwali festivities have been examined over a period of 13 years at three Indian metro cities: Ahmedabad, New Delhi and Kolkata. A small short term increase in relative humidity even in the absence of transport of humid air from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been observed. The relative humidity levels were found to be exceeding the ambient levels during night and lying below the ambient levels during morning hours, indicating an increase in the survival rates of viruses responsible for the transmission of viral infections, as well as triggering immune-mediated illnesses such as asthma during Diwali.

  15. Self-reported activity in tortured refugees with long-term sequelae including pain and the impact of foot pain from falanga - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Karen; Persson, Ann L; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe activity limitations in tortured refugees referred for rehabilitation, particularly the impact of neuropathic pain resulting from falanga (beatings under the feet). Methods. Physiotherapists assessed 103 consecutively referred torture victims with a long history of sequelae......, among them pain and mobility problems. All had been subjected to various forms of physical and psychological torture and 71 victims had also suffered falanga. Main outcome measures used were: the Disability Rating Index (DRI; 12 items) to assess self-reported capacity to carry out daily activities...... of victims who had chronic pain for at least 5 years after torture, all perceived activity limitations, but pain from falanga had a greater overall impact on disability assessed in terms of daily activities....

  16. Evaluating Abstract Art: Relation between Term Usage, Subjective Ratings, Image Properties and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyssenko, Nathalie; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in experimental aesthetics is the uncertainty of the terminology used in experiments. In this study, we recorded terms that are spontaneously used by participants to describe abstract artworks and studied their relation to the second-order statistical image properties of the same artworks (Experiment 1). We found that the usage frequency of some structure-describing terms correlates with statistical image properties, such as PHOG Self-Similarity, Anisotropy and Complexity. Additionally, emotion-associated terms correlate with measured color values. Next, based on the most frequently used terms, we created five different rating scales (Experiment 2) and obtained ratings of participants for the abstract paintings on these scales. We found significant correlations between descriptive score ratings (e.g., between structure and subjective complexity), between evaluative and descriptive score ratings (e.g., between preference and subjective complexity/interest) and between descriptive score ratings and statistical image properties (e.g., between interest and PHOG Self-Similarity, Complexity and Anisotropy). Additionally, we determined the participants' personality traits as described in the 'Big Five Inventory' (Goldberg, 1990; Rammstedt and John, 2005) and correlated them with the ratings and preferences of individual participants. Participants with higher scores for Neuroticism showed preferences for objectively more complex images, as well as a different notion of the term complex when compared with participants with lower scores for Neuroticism. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association between objectively measured image properties and the subjective terms that participants use to describe or evaluate abstract artworks. Moreover, our results suggest that the description of abstract artworks, their evaluation and the preference of participants for their low-level statistical properties are linked to personality traits.

  17. Long-term health-related quality of life in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjolainen, Veera; Koponen, Salla; Räsänen, Pirjo; Roine, Risto P; Sintonen, Harri; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-09-01

    There is limited evidence on the long-term development of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in eating disorders and its relation to eating disorder symptoms. Our objective was to measure long-term change in the HRQoL of eating disorder patients and compare it to normal population. Fifty-four bulimia nervosa (BN) and forty-seven anorexia nervosa (AN) patients (ICD-10 diagnosis) entering treatment completed the 15D HRQoL questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) before and approximately 8 years after the start of treatment. Baseline HRQoL was severely impaired in the patients. During follow-up, mean HRQoL, body mass index (BMI) and EDI improved statistically significantly in both groups. BMI of AN patients reached normal values, but HRQoL was still severely impaired in both AN and BN compared to general population. The long-term HRQoL after treatment continues to improve, but is still after 8 years poor. Eating disorders are very serious conditions with long-lasting impact on quality of life even after symptom remission.

  18. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon Lm; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterward, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch-based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  19. Long-Term Forecasting the Development of Relations Between Local Human Civilizations: Conclusions and Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei I. Podberezkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the form of scientific report on the results of three year long project on methodology of long term forecasting the development of the system of international relations. The methodology is based on the following assumptions: input information is accurate and complete; international relations constitute a system, scenarios for different levels of international relations development are hierarchically interdependent; the speed of development is different on various levels of international relations; various national capabilities affect the development; elites affect international relations; civil society affect international relations. Based on this assumption the author builds the most probable scenario of intercivilizational relations which is military coercive interaction. The role of soft power will increase its share in the toolkit of the confrontational politics. To win in this confrontation it is necessary to review the current practices of strategic forecasting and planning and to rebuild the entire military organization of the Russian army. The principal condition for the victory is development of national human capital, as well as the formation of the national ideology.

  20. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  1. Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors of testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Philip Blach; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    patients with TC treated at Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1990 and 2000 was conducted. A total of 401 survivors (response rate, 66%) completed questionnaires concerning QOL (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30), depression (Beck......PURPOSE: A growing number of patients with testicular cancer (TC) become long-term survivors. As a consequence, quality-of-life (QOL) issues become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to investigate QOL among Danish TC survivors. METHODS: A long-term follow-up assessment of all...... Depression Inventory-II), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20), and health-related issues such as neurotoxic symptoms and Raynaud-like phenomena. On the basis of their treatment, participants were categorized as having received surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. RESULTS: QOL among...

  2. Short- and medium-term efficacy of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults including cognitive and environmental feedback: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math J J M; Oenema, Anke

    2015-01-19

    Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=-0.30; T2: ES=-0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=-0.29; T2: ES=-0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in

  3. Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosse, Nienke M; de Groot, Maartje H; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2015-05-01

    Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia. Twenty long-term care residents with dementia (80 ± 11 years; 60% male) participated. Falls were recorded on a standardized form, concerning fall injuries, time and place of fall and if the fall was witnessed. Patient characteristics (66 variables) were extracted from medical records and classified into the domains: demographics, activities of daily living, mobility, cognition and behavior, vision and hearing, medical conditions and medication use. We used partial least squares (PLS) regression to determine the relationship between patient characteristics and fall rate. A total of 115 falls (5.1 ± 6.7 falls/person/year) occurred over 19 months, with 85% of the residents experiencing a fall, 29% of falls had serious consequences and 28% was witnessed. A combination of impaired mobility, indicators of disinhibited behavior, diabetes, and use of analgesics, beta blockers and psycholeptics were associated with higher fall rates. In contrast, immobility, heart failure, and the inability to communicate were associated with lower fall rates. Falls are frequent and mostly unwitnessed events in long-term care residents with dementia, highlighting the need for more effective and individualized fall prevention. Our analytical approach determined the relationship between a high fall rate and cognitive impairment, related to disinhibited behavior, in combination with mobility disability and fall-risk-increasing-drugs (FRIDs).

  4. Color relations increase the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Do color relations such as similarity or harmony influence the ease with which colored patterns can be perceived and held in mind? We tested the influence of a relation supported in research on color harmony--similarity of hue--on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for colors in patterns. Palettes of 4 similar-hue colors were rated as more pleasant (harmonious) than dissimilar-color palettes. The palettes were used in a VSTM color task. Patterns of 9 to 15 colored squares were presented, and accuracy of color change detection was measured. Memory performance was higher overall for similar-color palettes than for dissimilar-color palettes (experiments 1 and 3). Is this due to color similarity per se, or due to the harmony between colors in similar palettes? A final experiment provided strong support for the importance of color similarity as opposed to harmony. Overall, the advantages for color similarity, in terms of number of color squares held in memory (memory capacity) were 26% to 45% over dissimilar colors. The results indicate that color relations can have a strong impact on the capacity for perceiving and retaining color patterns.

  5. Immunoblot analysis of the seroreactivity to recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato antigens, including VlsE, in the long-term course of treated patients with erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Fingerle, Volker; Wilske, Bettina; Ambros-Rudolph, Christina; Kerl, Helmut; Müllegger, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated whether immunoblotting is capable of substantiating the posttreatment clinical assessment of patients with erythema migrans (EM), the hallmark of early Lyme borreliosis. In 50 patients, seroreactivity to different antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was analyzed by a recombinant immunoblot test (IB) in consecutive serum samples from a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Antigens in the IgG test were decorin-binding protein A, internal fragment of p41 (p41i), outer surface protein C (OspC), p39, variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE), p58 and p100; those in the IgM test were p41i, OspC and p39. Immune responses were correlated with clinical and treatment-related parameters. Positive IB results were found in 50% before, in 57% directly after therapy and in 44% by the end of the follow-up for the IgG class, and in 36, 43 and 12% for the IgM class. In acute and convalescence phase sera, VlsE was most immunogenic on IgG testing (60 and 70%), and p41i (46 and 57%) and OspC (40 and 57%) for the IgM class. By the end of the follow-up, only the anti-p41i IgM response was significantly decreased to 24%. No correlation was found between IB results and treatment-related parameters. Thus, immunoblotting does not add to the clinical assessment of EM patients after treatment. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. A systematic review of potential long-term effects of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Geoff; Gardner, Andrew J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Castellani, Rudolph J; Turner, Michael; Jordan, Barry D; Randolph, Christopher; Dvořák, Jiří; Hayden, K Alix; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-06-01

    Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Ten electronic databases. Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as > 10 years after the injury. Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinical data, neurological examination findings, cognitive assessment, neuroimaging findings and neuropathology results. Risk of bias and level of evidence were evaluated by two authors. Following review of 3819 studies, 47 met inclusion criteria. Some former athletes have depression and cognitive deficits later in life, and there is an association between these deficits and multiple prior concussions. Former athletes are not at increased risk for death by suicide (two studies). Former high school American football players do not appear to be at increased risk for later life neurodegenerative diseases (two studies). Some retired professional American football players may be at increased risk for diminishment in cognitive functioning or mild cognitive impairment (several studies), and neurodegenerative diseases (one study). Neuroimaging studies show modest evidence of macrostructural, microstructural, functional and neurochemical changes in some athletes. Multiple concussions appear to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment and mental health problems in some individuals. More research is needed to better understand the prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurological conditions and diseases, and the extent to which they are related to concussions and/or repetitive neurotrauma sustained in sports. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Prostate cancer-related anxiety in long-term survivors after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Valentin H; Herkommer, Kathleen; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Dinkel, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the psychological distress of long- and very long-term (>10 years) prostate cancer (PC) survivors is limited. This study intended to examine the parameters influencing anxiety related to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PC in long-term survivors after radical prostatectomy. We surveyed 4719 PC survivors from the German multicenter prospective database "Familial Prostate Cancer." We evaluated the association of PC-related anxiety (MAX-PC) with sociodemographic characteristics, family history of PC, global health status/quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30), depression and anxiety (PHQ-2; GAD-2), latest PSA level, time since radical prostatectomy, and current therapy. The survey participants' mean age was 75.2 years (SD = 6.5). Median follow-up was 11.5 years, and 19.5% of participants had survived more than 15 years since the initial treatment. The final regression analysis found that younger age, lower global health status/quality of life, higher depression and anxiety scores, higher latest PSA level, and shorter time since radical prostatectomy predicted increased PSA-related anxiety and PC anxiety. Familial PC was predictive only of PSA anxiety (all p anxiety and 24% for PC anxiety. PC-related anxiety remained relevant many years after prostatectomy and was influenced by younger age, psychological status, rising PSA level, and shorter time since initial treatment. Survivors with these characteristics are at increased risk of PC-related anxieties, which should be considered by the treating physician during follow-up.

  8. Bounds on Cubic Lorentz-Violating Terms in the Fermionic Dispersion Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolami, O.; Rosa, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    We study the recently proposed Lorentz-violating dispersion relation for fermions and show that it leads to two distinct cubic operators in the momentum. We compute the leading order terms that modify the non-relativistic equations of motion and use experimental results for the hyperfine transition in the ground state of the ${}^9\\textrm Be^+$ ion to bound the values of the Lorentz-violating parameters $\\eta_1$ and $\\eta_2$ for neutrons. The resulting bounds depend on the value of the Lorenz-...

  9. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (Pankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (Pankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismic response trends evaluation via long term monitoring and finite element model updating of an RC building including soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, F.; Omenzetter, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model updating of a reinforced concrete building monitored for a period of more than two years. The three storey reinforced concrete building is instrumented with five tri-axial accelerometers and a free-field tri-axial accelerometer. The time domain N4SID system identification technique was used to obtain the frequencies and damping ratios considering flexible base models taking into account the soil-structure-interaction (SSI) using 50 earthquakes. Trends of variation of seismic response were developed by correlating the peak response acceleration at the roof level with identified frequencies and damping ratios. A general trend of decreasing frequencies was observed with increased level of shaking. To simulate the behavior of the building, a three dimensional finite element model (FEM) was developed. To incorporate real in-situ conditions, soil underneath the foundation and around the building was modeled using spring elements and non-structural components (claddings and partitions) were also included. The developed FEM was then calibrated using a sensitivity based model updating technique taking into account soil flexibility and non-structural components as updating parameters. It was concluded from the investigation that knowledge of the variation of seismic response of buildings is necessary to better understand their behavior during earthquakes, and also that the participation of soil and non-structural components is significant towards the seismic response of the building and these should be considered in models to simulate the real behavior.

  11. Information visualization and retrieval using stereoscopic display of document and term relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Richard H.; Lawrence Fowler, Wendy A.

    1998-04-01

    Scientific visualization brings human perceptual processes to bear in organizing and understanding data about physical phenomena. Information visualization has a similar goal for elements in often semantic domains. Document Explorer is an information visualization and retrieval system that displays 3D associative network representations of document and term relations. The system's networks of documents can be constructed from existing measures of association, e.g., link structure in hypertexts, or derived by the system using content similarity among documents. The system also maintains a network of terms which is available to the user for query formulation. Recently, we have added stereoscopic display of the system's several networks to enhance users' perception of structure. Additionally, users' head movements are tracked and used to change point and angle of view to further enhance structure perception and allow additional user interface mechanisms for navigation in three dimensions. By viewing and interacting with these networks using head-tracked stereoscopic display the user is better able to perceive relationships in the networks and, thus, better able to distinguish clusters of documents and categories of terms during the information retrieval process.

  12. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

        The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated...... related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...

  13. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. Objectives: To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. Participants: A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Outcome Measures: Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. Results: The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20–30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%–70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9–24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4–1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7–3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2–2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent

  14. Frontal cortex control dysfunction related to long-term suicide risk in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler A; Niendam, Tara A; Yoon, Jong H; Rhoades, Remy N; Carter, Cameron S

    2014-08-01

    Suicide is highly-prevalent and the most serious outcome in schizophrenia, yet the disturbances in neural system functions that confer suicide risk remain obscure. Circuits operated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in psychotic disorders, and various PFC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of completed suicide. We tested whether PFC activity during goal-representation (an important component of cognitive control) relates to long-term suicide risk in recent-onset schizophrenia. 35 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined schizophrenia (SZ) were evaluated for long-term suicide risk (using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale) and functional MRI during cognitive control task performance. Group-level regression models associating control-related brain activation with suicide risk controlled for depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Within this group, past suicidal ideation was associated with lower activation with goal-representation demands in multiple PFC sectors. Among those with past suicidal ideation (n=18), reported suicidal behavior was associated with lower control-related activation in premotor cortex ipsilateral to the active primary motor cortex. This study provides unique evidence that suicide risk directly relates to PFC-based circuit dysfunction during goal-representation, in a major mental illness with significant suicide rates. Among those with suicidal ideation, the overt expression in suicidal behavior may stem from impairments in premotor cortex support of action-planning as an expression of control. Further work should address how PFC-based control function changes with risk over time, whether this brain-behavior relationship is specific to schizophrenia, and address its potential utility as a biomarker for interventions to mitigate suicide risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Do Disordered Eating Behaviours Have Long-term Health-related Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Long-term health-related consequences of disordered eating behaviours of young adults remain poorly understood. We examined whether disordered eating behaviours in mid-20s are associated with physical and mental health 10 years later. Women (n = 2631) and men (n = 2394) from a population-based FinnTwin16 cohort were assessed using three subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 at age 24. Self-rated health, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and psychological distress were assessed at age 24 and reassessed 10 years later. In crude models, disordered eating behaviours at age 24 were associated cross-sectionally and prospectively with poor self-rated health, higher BMI, larger waist circumference and psychological distress in both sexes. In models adjusted for baseline BMI and potential confounders, disordered eating behaviours predicted increased psychological distress in both sexes and poor self-rated health in men. Among young adults, disordered eating behaviours are associated with long-term health-related consequences, particularly psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Long-term health-related quality of life for disease-free esophageal cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been studied extensively during the first year following esophagectomy, but little is known about HRQL in long-term survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate HRQL in patients alive at least 1 year after surgical resection for esophageal cancer using validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life (QOL) questionnaires (QLQ). METHODS: Eligible patients, without known disease recurrence and at least 1 year after esophagectomy, were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients completed general (QLQ-C30) and esophageal cancer-specific (QLQ-OES18, OG25) questionnaires. A numeric score (0-100) was computed in each conceptual area and compared with validated cancer (n = 1031) and age-matched (n = 7802) healthy populations using two-tailed unpaired t-tests. A cohort of 80 patients had pretreatment scores recorded. RESULTS: Altogether, 132 of 156 eligible patients (84%) completed the self-rated questionnaire, 105 (67.3%) were men, and the mean age was 62 years (range 29-84 years). The mean time since esophagectomy was 70.3 months (12-299 months). Global health status was significantly reduced at least 1 year after esophagectomy (mean +\\/- SD score 48.4 +\\/- 18.6) when compared with patients with esophageal cancer prior to treatment (55.6 +\\/- 24.1) and the general population (71.2 +\\/- 22.4) (p < 0.0001). In a prospective cohort of eighty patients, symptoms related to swallowing difficulty, reflux, pain, and coughing significantly decreased in the long term (p < 0.0001). The degree of subjective swallowing dysfunction was highly correlated with a poor QOL (Spearman\\'s rho = 0.508, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Global health status remains significantly reduced in long-term survivors after esophagectomy compared with population controls, and swallowing dysfunction is highly associated with this compromised QOL.

  17. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary

  18. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  19. Long-term disability associated with war-related experience among Vietnam veterans: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A

    2015-05-01

    Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20-30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%-70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9-24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4-1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7-3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2-2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long-term health

  20. Concurrent and Short-Term Prospective Relations among Neurocognitive Functioning, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lindsay D; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The present short-term longitudinal study examined the concurrent and prospective relations among executive functioning (i.e., working memory and cognitive flexibility), coping (primary and secondary control coping), and depressive symptoms in children. Participants were 192 children between 9 and 15 years old (M age = 12.36 years, SD = 1.77) recruited from the community. Youth were individually administered neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and intelligence and completed self-report measures of executive dysfunction, coping, and depressive symptoms in small groups; the latter two measures were completed again 4 months later (Time 2 [T2]). Linear regression analyses were used to examine direct associations among executive functions, coping, and depressive symptoms, and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test indirect effects of executive functioning on depressive symptoms through coping. Significant prospective relations were found between working memory measured at Time 1 (T1) and both primary and secondary control coping measured at T2, controlling for T1 coping. T1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted T2 secondary control coping, controlling for T1 coping. Working memory deficits significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms 4 months later, controlling for T1 depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses revealed that primary and secondary control coping each partially mediated the relation between working memory and depressive symptoms; secondary control coping partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and depressive symptoms. Coping may be one pathway through which deficits in executive functioning contribute to children's symptoms of depression.

  1. Blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupational short-term exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Czuba, Zenon P.; Birkner, Ewa; Chwalba, Artur; Hudziec, Edyta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a short-term exposure to lead on the blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupationally exposed workers. The study population included 37 males occupationally exposed to lead for 36 to 44 days. Their blood lead level raised from 10.7 ± 7.67 μg/dl at baseline to the level of 49.1 ± 14.1 μg/dl at the end of the study. The level of hemoglobin and values of MCH and MCHC were decreased due to a short-term exposure to lead by 2%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The counts of WBC, LYM, and MXD increased significantly by 5%, 7%, and 35%. Similarly, the count of PLT increased by 7%, while PDW, MPV, and P-LCR decreased by 6%, 3%, and 9%, respectively. The levels of IL-7, G-CSF, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, SCF, and PECAM-1, decreased significantly by 30%, 33%, 8%, 30%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. A short-term occupational exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level and increased counts of WBC and PLT. Changes in counts and proportions of different types of leukocytes and decreased values of PLT indices, such as PDW, MPV, and P-LCR, due to the subacute lead-exposure may be associated with lead-induced decreased levels of cytokines related to hematopoiesis, including SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF. - Highlights: • Subacute exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level. • Subacute exposure to lead results in increased counts of WBC and PLT. • Subacute exposure to lead decreases the levels of SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF.

  2. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypothalamus-Related Resting Brain Network Underlying Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Primary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore modulated hypothalamus-seeded resting brain network underlying the cardiovascular system in primary hypertensive patients after short-term acupuncture treatment. Thirty right-handed patients (14 male were divided randomly into acupuncture and control groups. The acupuncture group received a continuous five-day acupuncture treatment and undertook three resting-state fMRI scans and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM as well as SF-36 questionnaires before, after, and one month after acupuncture treatment. The control group undertook fMRI scans and 24-hour ABPM. For verum acupuncture, average blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR decreased after treatment but showed no statistical differences. There were no significant differences in BP and HR between the acupuncture and control groups. Notably, SF-36 indicated that bodily pain (P = 0.005 decreased and vitality (P = 0.036 increased after acupuncture compared to the baseline. The hypothalamus-related brain network showed increased functional connectivity with the medulla, brainstem, cerebellum, limbic system, thalamus, and frontal lobes. In conclusion, short-term acupuncture did not decrease BP significantly but appeared to improve body pain and vitality. Acupuncture may regulate the cardiovascular system through a complicated brain network from the cortical level, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem.

  4. Quantifying long-term impact of zoo and aquarium visits on biodiversity-related learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric A; Moss, Andrew; Gusset, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Zoos and aquariums aim to achieve lasting impact on their public audiences' awareness of biodiversity, its value, and the steps they can take to conserve it. Here, we evaluate the long-term educational impact of visits to zoos and aquariums on biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity. A minimum of two years after completing a repeated-measures survey before and after visiting a zoo or aquarium, the same participants were invited to take part in a follow-up online survey. Despite the small number of respondents (n = 161), our study may still represent the best available quantitative evidence pertaining to zoo and aquarium visits' long-term educational impact. We found that improvements in respondents' biodiversity understanding from pre- to post-visit leveled off, staying unchanged in the follow-up survey. In contrast, the improved knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity from pre- to post-visit showed further improvement from post-visit to delayed post-visit follow-up survey. These results suggest that the immediate positive effects of a zoo or aquarium visit on biodiversity-related learning outcomes may be long lasting and even help lay the groundwork for further improvements over an extended period of time following the visit. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Young Adults Treated for Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip, Alveolus, and Palate by a Treatment Protocol Including Two-Stage Palatoplasty: Speech Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Isabelle Francisca Petronella Maria; Bittermann, Dirk; Janssen, Laura; Bittermann, Gerhard Koendert Pieter; Boonacker, Chantal; Haverkamp, Sarah; de Wilde, Hester; Van Der Heul, Marise; Specken, Tom Fjmc; Koole, Ron; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan Cornelis; Mink van der Molen, Aebele Barber

    2017-05-01

    No consensus exists on the optimal treatment protocol for orofacial clefts or the optimal timing of cleft palate closure. This study investigated factors influencing speech outcomes after two-stage palate repair in adults with a non-syndromal complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). This was a retrospective analysis of adult patients with a UCLP who underwent two-stage palate closure and were treated at our tertiary cleft centre. Patients ≥17 years of age were invited for a final speech assessment. Their medical history was obtained from their medical files, and speech outcomes were assessed by a speech pathologist during the follow-up consultation. Forty-eight patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 21 years (standard deviation, 3.4 years). Their mean age at the time of hard and soft palate closure was 3 years and 8.0 months, respectively. In 40% of the patients, a pharyngoplasty was performed. On a 5-point intelligibility scale, 84.4% received a score of 1 or 2; meaning that their speech was intelligible. We observed a significant correlation between intelligibility scores and the incidence of articulation errors (Pspeech assessment, and 11%-17% of the patients exhibited increased nasalance scores, assessed through nasometry. The present study describes long-term speech outcomes after two-stage palatoplasty with hard palate closure at a mean age of 3 years old. We observed moderate long-term intelligibility scores, a relatively high incidence of persistent hypernasality, and a high pharyngoplasty incidence.

  6. Radiation therapy for wet type age-related macular degeneration. Long term follow-up results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mandai, Michiyo; Takahashi, Masayo; Honda, Yoshihito [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    Between April, 1994 and July, 1995, 33 patients with occult type choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with or without the classical type CNV of the wet type age-related macular degeneration ARMD were treated with radiation therapy (10 Gy/5 fx/1 week or 20 Gy/10 fx/2 weeks). This phase I/II study showed that radiation therapy seems to be useful for CNV during the first 12 months. Some eyes which initially showed good response to irradiation began to lose their visual acuity. However, the dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions seemed useful to maintain the visual acuity better than 0.1 in this long term follow-up study (24 months). (author)

  7. Projected Source Terms for Potential Sabotage Events Related to Spent Fuel Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Vigil, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Two major studies, one sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, were conducted in the late 1970s and early 1980s to provide information and source terms for an optimally successful act of sabotage on spent fuel casks typical of those available for use. This report applies the results of those studies and additional analysis to derive potential source terms for certain classes of sabotage events on spent fuel casks and spent fuel typical of those which could be shipped in the early decades of the 21st century. In addition to updating the cask and spent fuel characteristics used in the analysis, two release mechanisms not included in the earlier works were identified and evaluated. As would be expected, inclusion of these additional release mechanisms resulted in a somewhat higher total release from the postulated sabotage events. Although health effects from estimated releases were addressed in the earlier study conducted for U.S. Department of Energy, they have not been addressed in this report. The results from this report maybe used to estimate health effects

  8. Film Grain-Size Related Long-Term Stability of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-22

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cell is high enough to be commercially viable. The next important issue is the stability of the device. This article discusses the effect of the perovskite grain-size on the long-term stability of inverted perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films composed of various sizes of grains were prepared by controlling the solvent annealing time. The grain-size related stability of the inverted cells was investigated both in ambient atmosphere at relative humidity of approximately 30-40 % and in a nitrogen filled glove box (H 2 Operovskite film having the grain size larger than 1 μm (D-10) decreases less than 10 % with storage in a glove box and less than 15 % when it was stored under an ambient atmosphere for 30 days. However, the cell using the perovskite film composed of small (∼100 nm) perovskite grains (D-0) exhibits complete loss of PCE after storage under the ambient atmosphere for only 15 days and a PCE loss of up to 70 % with storage in the glove box for 30 days. These results suggest that, even under H 2 O-free conditions, the chemical- and thermal-induced production of pin holes at the grain boundaries of the perovskite film could be the reason for long-term instability of inverted perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; Gonz?lez-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. Methods We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15?years who were interviewed in 2014 (n?=?2732) and 2015 (n =3005). Demographic information and diag...

  10. Sleep quality and health-related quality of life among long-term survivors of (non-) Hodgkin lymphoma in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersen, Friederike; Lewin, Philip; Gebauer, Judith; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Brabant, Georg; Katalinic, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among long-term survivors of Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim was to explore the impact of personal and health-related factors on sleep quality as well as associations between sleep quality and HRQOL. For the postal survey, participants with a minimum age of 18 years initially treated between 1998 and 2008 were recruited via the population-based cancer registry in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Questionnaires included amongst others the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36v1). Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Additionally, a regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of sleep quality. In total, we recruited 515 participants (398 NHL, 117 HL) with a mean age of 63.1 years. Approximately half of the survivors were classified as good sleepers. HRQOL scores differed between good and poor sleepers with lower scores in poor sleepers. In a prediction model, self-reported depression, exhaustion, higher age, inability to work, endocrinological disorders and female gender classified as predictors of sleep quality. This study highlights the impact of sleep quality on HRQOL in long-term survivors of NHL and HL. Thus, sleep quality should be routinely assessed during follow-up of cancer survivors with special attention to patients with potential risk factors.

  11. Sleep quality and health-related quality of life among long-term survivors of (non- Hodgkin lymphoma in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hammersen

    Full Text Available This study investigated sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL among long-term survivors of Hodgkin (HL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. The aim was to explore the impact of personal and health-related factors on sleep quality as well as associations between sleep quality and HRQOL. For the postal survey, participants with a minimum age of 18 years initially treated between 1998 and 2008 were recruited via the population-based cancer registry in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Questionnaires included amongst others the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36v1. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Additionally, a regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of sleep quality. In total, we recruited 515 participants (398 NHL, 117 HL with a mean age of 63.1 years. Approximately half of the survivors were classified as good sleepers. HRQOL scores differed between good and poor sleepers with lower scores in poor sleepers. In a prediction model, self-reported depression, exhaustion, higher age, inability to work, endocrinological disorders and female gender classified as predictors of sleep quality. This study highlights the impact of sleep quality on HRQOL in long-term survivors of NHL and HL. Thus, sleep quality should be routinely assessed during follow-up of cancer survivors with special attention to patients with potential risk factors.

  12. The RELATionship Evaluation (RELATE) with therapist-assisted interpretation: short-term effects on premarital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H; Vatter, Rebekka S; Galbraith, Richard C; Holman, Thomas B; Stahmann, Robert F

    2007-07-01

    This study assessed participant satisfaction with two interpretation formats and the effects of taking the RELATionship Evaluation (RELATE) on single young adults' premarital relationships. Thirty-nine engaged or seriously dating couples were assigned to one of three groups: (a) those who took RELATE and interpreted the results themselves, (b) those who took RELATE and participated in an interpretation session with a therapist, or (c) a control group. Results showed that taking RELATE with therapist assistance had a significant positive effect on perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, opinions about marriage, feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. Positive effects also included increased awareness of strengths and challenges, improved couple communication, and the expectation of the prevention of future relationship problems. Taking RELATE without therapist assistance produced a small initial drop in relationship satisfaction followed by a marked improvement over time. Both genders approved of two interpretation formats-self-interpretation and therapist-assisted interpretation-with males slightly preferring therapist assistance. These results add to the literature on the usefulness of brief assessment techniques as effective interventions with premarital couples.

  13. Self-concept and quality of object relations as predictors of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa

    2014-01-01

    Quality of object relations and self-concept reflect clinically relevant aspects of personality functioning, but their prediction as suitability factors for psychotherapies of different lengths has not been compared. This study compared their prediction on psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- and long-term psychotherapy. Altogether 326 patients, 20-46 years of age, with mood and/or anxiety disorder, were randomized to short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) psychotherapy and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The Quality of Object Relations Scale (QORS) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) self-concept questionnaire were measured at baseline, and their prediction on outcome during the 3-year follow-up was assessed by the Symptom Check List Global Severity Index and the Anxiety Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and by the Work Ability Index, Social Adjustment Scale work subscale and the Perceived Psychological Functioning scale. Negative self-concept strongly and self-controlling characteristics modestly predicted better 3-year outcomes in long-term therapy, after faster early gains in short-term therapy. Patients with a more positive or self-emancipating self-concept, or more mature object relations, experienced more extensive benefits after long-term psychotherapy. The importance of length vs. long-term therapy technique on the differences found is not known. Patients with mild to moderate personality pathology, indicated by poor self-concept, seem to benefit more from long-term than short-term psychotherapy, in reducing risk of depression. Long-term therapy may also be indicated for patients with relatively good psychological functioning. More research is needed on the relative importance of these characteristics in comparison with other patient-related factors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development of efficient time-evolution method based on three-term recurrence relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of the real-time (RT) propagation method is a direct solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation which describes frequency properties as well as all dynamics of a molecular system composed of electrons and nuclei in quantum physics and chemistry. Its applications have been limited by computational feasibility, as the evaluation of the time-evolution operator is computationally demanding. In this article, a new efficient time-evolution method based on the three-term recurrence relation (3TRR) was proposed to reduce the time-consuming numerical procedure. The basic formula of this approach was derived by introducing a transformation of the operator using the arcsine function. Since this operator transformation causes transformation of time, we derived the relation between original and transformed time. The formula was adapted to assess the performance of the RT time-dependent Hartree-Fock (RT-TDHF) method and the time-dependent density functional theory. Compared to the commonly used fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, our new approach decreased computational time of the RT-TDHF calculation by about factor of four, showing the 3TRR formula to be an efficient time-evolution method for reducing computational cost

  15. Realization of a service for the long-term risk assessment of diabetes-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagani, Vincenzo; Chiarugi, Franco; Manousos, Dimitris; Verma, Vivek; Fursse, Joanna; Marias, Kostas; Tsamardinos, Ioannis

    2015-07-01

    We present a computerized system for the assessment of the long-term risk of developing diabetes-related complications. The core of the system consists of a set of predictive models, developed through a data-mining/machine-learning approach, which are able to evaluate individual patient profiles and provide personalized risk assessments. Missing data is a common issue in (electronic) patient records, thus the models are paired with a module for the intelligent management of missing information. The system has been deployed and made publicly available as Web service, and it has been fully integrated within the diabetes-management platform developed by the European project REACTION. Preliminary usability tests showed that the clinicians judged the models useful for risk assessment and for communicating the risk to the patient. Furthermore, the system performs as well as the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine when both systems are tested on an independent cohort of UK diabetes patients. Our work provides a working example of risk-stratification tool that is (a) specific for diabetes patients, (b) able to handle several different diabetes related complications, (c) performing as well as the widely known UKPDS Risk Engine on an external validation cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term catheterization: current approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of port-related infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cesar Bustos,1 Aitziber Aguinaga,1 Francisco Carmona-Torre,2 Jose Luis Del Pozo1,3 1Department of Clinical Microbiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain Abstract: Since the first description in 1982, totally implanted venous access ports have progressively improved patients' quality of life and medical assistance when a medical condition requires the use of long-term venous access. Currently, they are part of the standard medical care for oncohematologic patients. However, apart from mechanical and thrombotic complications, there are also complications associated with biofilm development inside the catheters. These biofilms increase the cost of medical assistance and extend hospitalization. The most frequently involved micro-organisms in these infections are gram-positive cocci. Many efforts have been made to understand biofilm formation within the lumen catheters, and to resolve catheter-related infection once it has been established. Apart from systemic antibiotic treatment, the use of local catheter treatment (ie, antibiotic lock technique is widely employed. Many different antimicrobial options have been tested, with different outcomes, in clinical and in in vitro assays. The stability of antibiotic concentration in the lock solution once instilled inside the catheter lumen remains unresolved. To prevent infection, it is mandatory to perform hand hygiene before catheter insertion and manipulation, and to disinfect catheter hubs, connectors, and injection ports before accessing the catheter. At present, there are still unresolved questions regarding the best antimicrobial agent for catheter-related bloodstream infection treatment and the duration of concentration stability of the antibiotic solution within the lumen of the port. Keywords: catheter-related infection, bacteremia, biofilm

  17. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford

    2008-01-01

    As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agr...

  18. Short-term mortality and prognostic factors related to status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gustavo Stelzer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Status epilepticus (SE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and there is some controversy concerning predictive indicators of outcome. Our main goal was to determine mortality and to identify factors associated with SE prognosis. Method This prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital, included 105 patients with epileptic seizures lasting more than 30 minutes. Mortality was defined as death during hospital admission. Results The case-fatality rate was 36.2%, which was higher than in previous studies. In univariate analysis, mortality was associated with age, previous epilepsy, complex focal seizures; etiology, recurrence, and refractoriness of SE; clinical complications, and focal SE. In multivariate analysis, mortality was associated only with presence of clinical complications. Conclusions Mortality associated with SE was higher than reported in previous studies, and was not related to age, specific etiology, or SE duration. In multivariate analysis, mortality was independently related to occurrence of medical complications.

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  20. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Reschke, K.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive

  1. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and

  2. Association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and subclinical atherosclerosis: the REGICOR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, Marcela; Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Agis, David; de Groot, Eric; Perez, Laura; Mendez, Michelle A.; Bouso, Laura; Targa, Jaume; Ramos, Rafael; Sala, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on the chronic processes of atherogenesis is limited. We investigated the association of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness

  3. Long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent work-related impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather K; Tompa, Emile; Wang, Ying; Liao, Qing

    2014-07-11

    Recent estimates indicate that at least one in five activity-limiting injuries occurs at work. Of individuals who suffer these injuries approximately 10% experience some degree of functional impairment. We were interested in investigating long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent impairment from work injury and to examine whether work disability is a significant explanatory factor. We used a retrospective matched cohort methodology to examine differences in mortality rates between individuals with permanent impairment from a work injury and a group of non-injured controls over a 19-year period. We used a sample of impaired workers to investigate the impact of work disability on mortality risk using percentage of earnings recovery after injury as the key proxy measure. All analyses were stratified by sex. Permanent impairment from a work injury was predictive of premature mortality in both male and female claimants, though the risk was slightly higher among women. Work disability was a key explanatory factor in the rate of death among impaired workers, the effects being more pronounced in men. We also found that higher impairment level was associated with mortality in men but not in women. The study demonstrates the impact of permanent work-related impairment on longevity and identifies work disability as an important determinant of mortality risk. Given the disconnect between impairment ratings derived from standard diagnostic tools and labour-market activity after accident, more research is needed on the specific factors that contribute to work disability, particularly those related to psycho-social health and well-being.

  4. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna eZhalnina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use.

  5. Long-Term Mortality of Patients with an Alcohol-Related Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Fuster, Daniel; Rivas, Inmaculada; Tor, Jordi; Marcos, Miguel; Chamorro, Antonio J; Muga, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    To characterize a series of contemporary patients with alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) or Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and to update the current prognosis of disease. Retrospective and prospective study of patients diagnosed with an alcohol-related WE or KS between 2002 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. Socio-demographic, alcohol use characteristics, signs and symptoms, co-morbidity and blood parameters were obtained at admission. Patients were followed up until 2013 and causes of death were ascertained through the review of charts. Sixty-one patients were included (51 with WE and 10 with KS). Among patients with WE, 78% were men and age at diagnosis was 57 years (interquartile range (IQR): 49-66). Twenty-three percent fulfilled the classic WE triad. Regarding Caine's criteria for WE, 70.6% presented with at least two out of four signs or symptoms. Median follow-up of patients with WE syndrome was 5.3 years (IQR: 2.6-8.8), the cumulated mortality was 45% and death rate of 7.4 × 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.8-10.9). Overall, 50% of patients would be expected to die within 8 years of WE episode and main causes of death included serious bacterial infections (44.5%) and cancer (33.3%). Survival of patients with an alcohol-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is poor; pursuing treatment of alcohol use disorder and early diagnosis of thiamine deficiency is a priority for improving clinical outcomes. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of two mammographic density related features in predicting near-term breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Wang, Xingwei; Klym, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2012-02-01

    In order to establish a personalized breast cancer screening program, it is important to develop risk models that have high discriminatory power in predicting the likelihood of a woman developing an imaging detectable breast cancer in near-term (e.g., BIRADS), and computed mammographic density related features we compared classification performance in estimating the likelihood of detecting cancer during the subsequent examination using areas under the ROC curves (AUC). The AUCs were 0.63+/-0.03, 0.54+/-0.04, 0.57+/-0.03, 0.68+/-0.03 when using woman's age, BIRADS rating, computed mean density and difference in computed bilateral mammographic density, respectively. Performance increased to 0.62+/-0.03 and 0.72+/-0.03 when we fused mean and difference in density with woman's age. The results suggest that, in this study, bilateral mammographic tissue density is a significantly stronger (p<0.01) risk indicator than both woman's age and mean breast density.

  7. Long Term Follow-Up of Sulfur Mustard Related Bronchiolitis Obliterans Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Hamidreza; Peiman, Soheil; Foroumandi, Morteza; Safavi, Enayat

    2016-09-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the most remarkable pulmonary sequels of war-related sulfur mustard inhalation. There is little if any data about long-term efficacy of associated BO treatment. Five years spirometric records of three groups of patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases (asthma, COPD, BO) and documented sulfur mustard inhalation were evaluated. The BO patients were treated with inhaled Seretide 125-250/25 (2 puffs BID), azithromycin (250 mg, three times/week) and N-acetylcysteine (1200-1800/day). Asthma and COPD patients were treated according to existing guidelines. Seventy-three (38 asthma, 16 COPD and 19 BO) patients completed the 5 years follow-up. Basal and final FEV1 in BO patients (2.69±0.81 and 2.39±0.65 respectively) were not significantly different from COPD patients (2.46±0.56 and 1.96±0.76 respectively). There was also no significant difference between the yearly FEV1 decline in BO patients compared to COPD patients (60±84 cc vs. 99±79 cc respectively, P=0.163). The non-significant difference of FEV1 decline in BO compared to COPD patients suggests the effectiveness of azithromycin, inhaled steroid and N-acetyl cysteine in BO patients. Considering safety and possible effectiveness, this treatment is recommended until more data is available from controlled clinical studies.

  8. Long Term Follow-Up of Sulfur Mustard Related Bronchiolitis Obliterans Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abtahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is the most remarkable pulmonary sequels of war-related sulfur mustard inhalation. There is little if any data about long-term efficacy of associated BO treatment. Five years spirometric records of three groups of patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases (asthma, COPD, BO and documented sulfur mustard inhalation were evaluated. The BO patients were treated with inhaled Seretide 125-250/25 (2 puffs BID, azithromycin (250 mg, three times/week and N-acetylcysteine (1200-1800/day. Asthma and COPD patients were treated according to existing guidelines. Seventy-three (38 asthma, 16 COPD and 19 BO patients completed the 5 years follow-up. Basal and final FEV1 in BO patients (2.69±0.81 and 2.39±0.65 respectively were not significantly different from COPD patients (2.46±0.56 and 1.96±0.76 respectively. There was also no significant difference between the yearly FEV1 decline in BO patients compared to COPD patients (60±84 cc vs. 99±79 cc respectively, P=0.163. The non-significant difference of FEV1 decline in BO compared to COPD patients suggests the effectiveness of azithromycin, inhaled steroid and N-acetyl cysteine in BO patients. Considering safety and possible effectiveness, this treatment is recommended until more data is available from controlled clinical studies.

  9. Long-term forecasting of international relations as strategic planning of national security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary transformation and chaos in international relations reduce its predictability, which must be compensated by strengthening the normative content of its analysis that is in fact strategic planning. The deepening of international relations in recent years allows one to make a pessimistic conclusion about the most likely and dangerous scenario for the development of international relations - «the strengthening of military power struggles among the major local human civilizations» and they represent a militarypolitical coalitions and power centers. It should be noted that an effective tool for the implementation of this confrontation is the system of military and civilian instruments used to provide comprehensive multi-factor and multi-dimensional effect on an object. Today, the most striking example of such an integrated infl uence policy is the new public diplomacy. For implementation of such an integrated approach Russia needs to reform the system of national security to include in it not only the traditional enforcement agencies, but also the organizations of business and civil society, as well as to improve coordination between its individual parts. However, the implementation of such a reform is impossible without national ideology that forms the regulatory priorities of national development and national security

  10. Geographic variation in long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark : factors related to adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas Jørgen; Lange, Peter; Viskum, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate regional differences in adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in Denmark and to determine factors related to compliance with these guidelines. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study and analysis of a nationwide database (Danish Oxygen Register). SETTING:...... organizations responsible for treatment should play a more forceful role in implementing the guidelines. This could be done by enhanced educational efforts, by monitoring of adherence, or even by centralizing the prescription right to departments with pulmonary physicians....

  11. Defining relative humidity in terms of water activity. Part 1: definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, Rainer; Lovell-Smith, Jeremy W.

    2017-08-01

    Relative humidity (RH) is a quantity widely used in various fields such as metrology, meteorology, climatology or engineering. However, RH is neither uniformly defined, nor do some definitions properly account for deviations from ideal-gas properties, nor is the application range of interest fully covered. In this paper, a new full-range definition of RH is proposed that is based on the thermodynamics of activities in order to include deviations from ideal-gas behaviour. Below the critical point of pure water, at pressures p  definition is consistent with de-facto standard RH definitions published previously and recommended internationally. Virial approximations are reported for estimating small corrections to the ideal-gas equations.

  12. Fall-Related Hospitalization and Facility Costs among Residents of Institutions Providing Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Norman V.; Delafuente, Jeffrey C.; Cox, Fred M.; Narayanan, Siva

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate hospital and long-term-care costs resulting from falls in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs). Design and Methods: The study used a retrospective, pre/post with comparison group design. We used matching, based on propensity scores, to control for baseline differences between fallers and non-fallers.…

  13. The Relation between Children's Conceptual Functioning with Color and Color Term Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt; Zimiles, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Young children experience considerable difficulty in learning their first few color terms. One explanation for this difficulty is that initially they lack a conceptual representation of color sufficiently abstract to support word meaning. This hypothesis, that prior to learning color terms children do not represent color as an abstraction, was…

  14. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, A.S.; van Elburg, R.M.; Kostense, P.J.; van Geijn, H.P.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births

  15. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Kostense, Pieter J.; van Geijn, Herman P.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births admitted to the NICU

  16. Long-term Effects of Relative Humidity on Properties of Microwave Hardened Moulding Sand with Sodium Silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moulding sands containing sodium silicate (water-glass belong to the group of porous mixture with low resistance to increased humidity. Thanks to hydrophilic properties of hardened or even overheated binder, possible is application of effective methods of hydrous reclamation consisting in its secondary hydration. For the same reason (hydrophilia of the binder, moulds and foundry cores made of high-silica moulding sands with sodium silicate are susceptible to the action of components of atmospheric air, including the contained steam. This paper presents results of a research on the effect of (relative humidity on mechanical and technological properties of microwave-hardened moulding mixtures. Specimens of the moulding sand containing 1.5 wt% of sodium water-glass with module 2.5 were subjected, in a laboratory climatic chamber, to long-term action of steam contained in the chamber atmosphere. Concentration of water in atmospheric air was stabilized for 28 days (672 h according to the relative humidity parameter that was ca. 40%, 60% and 80% at constant temperature 20 °C. In three cycles of the examinations, the specimens were taken out from the chamber every 7 days (168 h and their mechanical and technological parameters were determined. It was found on the grounds of laboratory measurements that moulds and cores hardened with microwaves are susceptible to action of atmospheric air and presence of water (as steam intensifies action of the air components on glassy film of sodium silicate. Microwave-hardened moulding sands containing sodium silicate may be stored on a long-term basis in strictly determined atmospheric conditions only, at reduced humidity. In spite of a negative effect of steam contained in the air, the examined moulding mixtures maintain a part of their mechanical and technological properties, so the moulds and foundry cores stored in specified, controlled conditions could be still used in manufacture.

  17. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space-related

  18. CRP on Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage Systems beyond the Long Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    At the initial Coordinated Research Project (CRP) planning meeting held in August 2011, international experts in spent fuel performance confirmed the value of further coordination and development of international efforts to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and related storage system components as durations extend. Furthermore, in recognition that the Extended Storage Collaboration Program (ESCP) managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, from now on ESCP, provided a broad context for the research and development work to be performed in the frame of this CRP, it was agreed that its objectives should target specific ESCP needs in order to make a relevant contribution. Accordingly, the experts examined on-going gap analyses - gaps between anticipated technical needs and existing technical data - for identify the specific research objectives. Additionally, during the planning meeting it was pointed out the need to coordinate and cooperate with the OECD/NEA counterparts involved in the organization of the International Workshop planned in autumn 2013 and with the on-going third phase of the CRP on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III). Given the importance to assess the performance of spent fuel and related important storage system components in order to confirm the viability of very long term storage for supporting the need to extend or renew licenses for storage facilities the CRP was approved by the IAEA in November 2011. While a full range of spent fuel types and storage conditions are deployed around the world, this CRP is focused on existing systems and, more specifically, water reactor fuel in dry storage with the overall research objective to support the technical basis for water reactor spent fuel management as dry storage durations extend. In March 2012 the group of international experts who participated at the initial CRP planning meeting in August 2011 evaluated and recommended for approval 9 research

  19. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  20. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after long- term resistance training and ginger supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashak, Sirvan; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Stannard, Stephen Robert; Haghighi, Marjan Mosalman

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI ≥ 30) were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8); ginger group (GI, n = 8) that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8); and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8). Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG), systemic inflammation (CRP), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05). Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required. Key points Long- term resistance training reduced cardiovascular risk factors in obese men

  1. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents' birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. In this paper, I will focus on some potential benefits of leave. I investigate the long-term effects on children of increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave using a natural...... and educational outcomes at ages 15 and 21. A population sample of Danish children born in the months around implementation of the reform and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect...... on children's long-term cognitive outcomes....

  2. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient′s treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  3. Expressions For Total Energy And Relativistic Kinetic Energy At Low Speeds In Special Relativity Must Include Rotational And Vibrational As Well As Linear Kinetic Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Stewart

    2017-09-01

    Einstein calculated the total energy at low speeds in the Special Theory of Relativity to be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 . However, the total energy must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies. If 1 / 2 Iω2 is the expression for the rotational kinetic energy of mass and 1 / 2 kx02 is the vibrational kinetic energy expression of a typical mass, the expression for the total energy of a mass at low speeds must be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 . If this expression is correct, the relativistic kinetic energy of a mass. at low speeds must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies since according to Einstein K = (m -m0) c2 and therefore, K = 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 .

  4. [Experimental Approach to Analysis of the Relationship between Food Environments and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Including Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fatty Liver, and Fatigue Symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakakuma, Miwa; Arimura, Emi; Ushikai, Miharu; Yoshida, Goichiro

    2015-01-01

    The food habit is involved in the onset and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this review I would like to describe a historical case of vitamin B1 deficiency, as well as our case study of fatty acid metabolism abnormality due to carnitine deficiency. In history, the army and navy personnel in Japan at the end of the 19th century received food rations based on a high-carbohydrate diet including white rice, resulting in the onset of beriberi. An epidemiological study by Kenkan Takaki revealed the relationship between the onset of beriberi and rice intake. Then, Takaki was successful in preventing the onset of beriberi by changing the diet. However, the primary cause had yet to be elucidated. Finally, Christian Eijkman established an animal model of beriberi (chickens) showing peripheral neuropathy, and he identified the existence of an anti-beriberi substance, vitamin B1. This is an example of the successful control of a disease by integrating the results of epidemiological and experimental studies. In our study using a murine model of fatty acid metabolism abnormality caused by carnitine deficiency, cardiac abnormality and fatty liver developed depending on the amount of dietary fat. In addition, the mice showed disturbance of orexin neuron activity related to the sleep-arousal system, which is involved in fatigue symptoms under fasting condition, one of the states showing enhanced fatty acid metabolism. These findings suggest that fatty acid toxicity is enhanced when the mice are more dependent on fatty acid metabolism. Almost simultaneously, a human epidemiological study showed that narcolepsy, which is caused by orexin system abnormality, is associated with the polymorphism of the gene coding for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, which is involved in carnitine metabolism. To understand the pathological mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, not only an experimental approach using animal models, but also an epidemiological approach is necessary. The

  5. Factors Related to Healthcare Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals in South Korea: A Mixed-methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu

    2017-10-01

    The environment of long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) is critical to the management of the quality of their services and to patient safety, as highlighted by international studies. However, there is a lack of evidence on this topic in South Korea. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting healthcare quality in LTCHs and to explore the effectiveness of their quality management. This study used a mixed methods approach with quantitative data collected in a national survey and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with practice-based managers. The samples included 725 nationally representative LTCHs in South Korea for the quantitative analysis and 15 administrators for the in-depth interviews. A higher installation rate of patient-safety and hygiene-related facilities and staff with longer-tenures, especially nurses, were more likely to have better healthcare quality and education for both employees and patients. The need for patient-safety- and hygiene-related facilities in LTCHs that serve older adults reflects their vulnerability to certain adverse events (e.g., infections). Consistent and skillful nursing care to improve the quality of LTCHs can be achieved by developing relevant educational programs for staff and patients, thereby strengthening the relationships between them.

  6. Long-term improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relations in children with cochlear implants: parental testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Imperatore, L

    2014-11-01

    Few research studies have examined longitudinal improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships of children with implants. Moreover, although the emerging literature suggests that improvement in social functioning follows improvement in oral communication, it is still unknown what factors enhance or impede the relations between these constructs. Based on parent interviews, the current study examined the long-term improvements in speech and oral language skills and relationships with hearing peers in 19 implanted children. Results demonstrate that on average, children continue to improve in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships even years after implantation, especially those with initial poorer skills. While oral communication ability and quality of peer relationships are strongly associated at each time point, gains in these two variables are associated only for some of the children. Other factors, including self-confidence and peer acceptance, seem to moderate this relationship. Qualitative data are presented to illustrate these relations among variables and to assist in theory building. The results highlight the need for more specific examination of various developmental periods in combination with the progress of oral communication and peer relationships among children with implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Definitions of Terms Related to Polymer Blends, Composites, and Multiphase Polymeric Materials, VII.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković, R.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The document defines the terms most commonly encountered in the field of polymer blends and composites. The scope has been limited to mixtures in which the components differ in chemical composition or molar mass and in which the continuous phase is polymeric. Incidental thermodynamic descriptions are mainly limited to binary mixtures although, in principle, they could be generalized to multicomponent mixtures. The document is organized into three sections. The first defines terms basic to the description of polymer mixtures. The second defines terms commonly encountered in descriptions of phase domain behavior of polymer mixtures. The third defines terms commonly encountered in the descriptions of the morphologies of phase-separated polymer mixtures.

  8. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Reported material is a result of activity accomplished in the framework of cooperation program between Kazakhstan and Norway within 2009-2012. This work was divided into three distinctive parts, as follows: 1. Analysis of existing threats associated with radioactive wastes in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objective of this part of the work was to reveal the most important threats in the sphere of radioactive waste management in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which require an increased regulatory attention. Threat assessment needed to identify: main radiological threats both for people who work with radioactive wastes and for population living near the radioactive waste storage places now and in the long term which require an increased regulatory attention; problems that need urgent and detailed analysis; and main problems in the realization of regulatory process in Kazakhstan including weakness in the regulatory and legal framework. Threat assessment analysis showed that in order to reduce the level of threats it was necessary to begin developing a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management which need to be approved by the Government, to develop proposals for Radioactive Wastes new classification, including identification of relevant categories of Radioactive Wastes, as well as criteria for their disposal in accordance with IAEA recommendations and experience from other countries. 2. Development of new classification system for radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan. Following the results of threat assessment performed within the first stage, the objective of the second part of work was to develop a proposal to adopt a new Radioactive Wastes classification in Kazakhstan in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, including implementation of new categories, taking into account international experience and current situation in Kazakhstan. The result of this stage of work was a proposal for a new Radioactive Wastes classification and

  9. Land use regression models as a tool for short, medium and long term exposure to traffic related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Van Poppel, Martine; Int Panis, Luc; De Prins, Sofie; Berghmans, Patrick; Koppen, Gudrun; Matheeussen, Christine

    2014-04-01

    In the HEAPS (Health Effects of Air Pollution in Antwerp Schools) study the importance of traffic-related air pollution on the school and home location on children's health was assessed. 130 children (aged 6 to 12) from two schools participated in a biomonitoring study measuring oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular markers. Personal exposure of schoolchildren to black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using both measured and modeled concentrations. Air quality measurements were done in two seasons at approximately 50 locations, including the schools. The land use regression technique was applied to model concentrations at the children's home address and at the schools. In this paper the results of the exposure analysis are given. Concentrations measured at school 2h before the medical examination were used for assessing health effects of short term exposure. Over two seasons, this short term BC exposure ranged from 514 ng/m(3) to 6285 ng/m(3), and for NO2 from 11 μg/m(3) to 36 μg/m(3). An integrated exposure was determined until 10 days before the child's examination, taking into account exposures at home and at school and the time spent in each of these microenvironments. Land use regression estimates were therefore recalculated into daily concentrations by using the temporal trend observed at a fixed monitor of the official air quality network. Concentrations at the children's homes were modeled to estimate long term exposure (from 1457 ng/m(3) to 3874 ng/m(3) for BC; and from 19 μg/m(3) to 51 μg/m(3) for NO2). The land use regression technique proved to be a fast and accurate means for estimating long term and daily BC and NO2 exposure for children living in the Antwerp area. The spatial and temporal resolution was tailored to the needs of the epidemiologists involved in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Rai, Bhavana; Cooper, Rachel; Dörr, Wolfgang; Nout, Remi A.; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Cancer Centre, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dörr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle; and others

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  12. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Each nation's laws should prohibit development, acquisition, or transfer of WMD-critical items and should make it a crime to violate that prohibition for hostile purposes. Thus, WMD proliferation should be illegal everywhere, powerfully reinforcing the norm against acquisition of such weapons as well as facilitating law enforcement and trans-national legal cooperation. Provisions applicable to threats should be harmonized. National laws should address threats and should ensure prosecution of offenders or extradition to another State for prosecution. The scope of legal jurisdiction over such crimes should broadly reach the behaviour of legal entities in trans-national smuggling and weapons development conspiracies. A priority question is precisely which activity should constitute a criminal offence. It is relatively straightforward to make the use of WMD a crime; but it will be necessary to reach preparatory steps that can encompass innocent behaviour or even legitimate scientific inquiry. Bio-terror preparations, for example, may employ the same materials, equipment and techniques as undertaking legitimate disease research. Standards must be developed to instruct law enforcers as to what behaviour merits criminal investigation to prevent a hostile attack. Similarly, legal measures must define 'WMD' items, including chemical and biological agents that are non-lethal but incapacitating to humans as well as agents that are lethal as to animal or plant life. If WMD proliferation is criminalized, each State's law enforcement officials must work jointly with their counterparts in other States by sharing information, conducting investigations, and prosecuting apprehended terrorists. State cooperation both in gathering intelligence and using that information to prevent criminal activity is undermined, however, by lack of coherent legal instruments. Currently, there is no integrated database of State laws concerning production or use of WMD; it is difficult to know what

  13. Establishing research priorities relating to the long-term impact of TIA and minor stroke through stakeholder-centred consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Grace M; Backman, Ruth; McMullan, Christel; Mathers, Jonathan; Marshall, Tom; Calvert, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    What is the problem and why is this important? Mini-strokes are similar to full strokes, but symptoms last less than 24 h. Many people (up to 70%) have long-term problems after a mini-stroke, such as anxiety; depression; problems with brain functioning (like memory loss); and fatigue (feeling tired). However, the current healthcare pathway only focuses on preventing another stroke and care for other long-term problems is not routinely given. Without proper treatment, people with long-term problems after a mini-stroke could have worse quality of life and may find it difficult to return to work and their social activities. What is the aim of the research? We wanted to understand the research priorities of patients, health care professionals and key stakeholders relating to the long-term impact of mini-stroke. How did we address the problem? We invited patients, clinicians, researchers and other stakeholders to attend a meeting. At the meeting people discussed the issues relating to the long-term impact of mini-stroke and came to an agreement on their research priorities. There were three stages: (1) people wrote down their individual research suggestions; (2) in smaller groups people came to an agreement on what their top research questions were; and (3) the whole group agreed final research priorities. What did we find? Eleven people attended who were representatives for patients, GPs, stroke consultants, stroke nurses, psychologists, the Stroke Association (charity) and stroke researchers, The group agreed on eleven research questions which they felt were the most important to improve health and well-being for people who have had a mini-stroke.The eleven research questions encompass a range of categories, including: understanding the existing care patients receive (according to diagnosis and geographical location); exploring what optimal care post-TIA/minor stroke should comprise (identifying and treating impairments, information giving and support groups) and how

  14. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15 years who were interviewed in 2014 ( n  = 2732) and 2015 ( n =3005). Demographic information and diagnostic features of DSM-5 eating disorders were asked including the occurrence of regular (at least weekly over the past 3 months) objective binge eating with levels of distress, extreme dietary restriction/fasting for weight/shape control, purging behaviors, overvaluation of shape and/or weight, and the presence of an avoidant/restrictive food intake without overvaluation of shape and/or weight. In 2014 functional impact or role performance was measured with the 'days out of role' question and in 2015, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Short Form -12 item questionnaire (SF-12v1). The 2014 and 2015 3-month prevalence of eating disorders were: anorexia nervosa-broad 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7) and 0.5% (0.3-0.9); bulimia nervosa 1.1% (0.7-1.5) and 1.2% (0.9-1.7); ARFID 0.3% (0.1-0.5) and 0.3% (0.2-0.6). The 2015 3-month prevalence rates were: BED-broad 1.5% (1.1-2.0); Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) 3.2 (2.6-3.9); and Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (UFED) 10.4% (0.9-11.5). Most people with OSFED had atypical anorexia nervosa and majority with UFED were characterised by having recurrent binge eating without marked distress. Eating disorders were represented throughout sociodemographic groups and those with bulimia nervosa and BED-broad had mean weight (BMI, kg/m 2 ) in the obese range. Mental HRQoL was poor in all eating disorder groups but particularly poor for those with BED-broad and ARFID. Individuals with bulimia nervosa, BED

  15. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2, a single-marker model (CGWAS, and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs. After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced of ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These finding emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to

  16. Long-Term Normal Renal Function after Drastic Weight Reduction in Patients with Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpta Serra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: No long-term studies of renal function evolution in morbidly obese (MO patients after weight loss are available. The aim of our work was to ascertain the long-term influence of drastic weight reduction on renal function in MO patients with obesity-related glomerular lesions. Methods: 92 MO patients with normal renal function and biopsy evidence of mild obesity-related glomerulopathy underwent bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent drastic weight loss. A long-term prospective follow-up (mean duration: 76 ± 42 months was carried out. Basal renal biopsies and basal and long-term metabolic and renal function studies were performed in all cases. Linear mixed models were applied. Results: Blood pressure dropped early after BS and remained stable thereafter. Creatinine clearance and BMI fell in the first 2 years, rose slightly after 5 years and then remained stable. Serum creatinine and albuminuria decreased throughout the follow-up period. Renal function and albuminuria evolution showed non-significant differences in relation to the number of glomerular lesions. Conclusions: Drastic weight loss in BS-treated MO patients with pre-surgical normal renal function and mild obesity-related glomerular lesions is associated with short- and long-term maintenance of normal renal function and improvement in both arterial hypertension and albuminuria.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Porcine PBMCs Reveals the Immune Cascade Response and Gene Ontology Terms Related to Cell Death and Fibrosis in the Progression of Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiMin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The key gene sets involved in the progression of acute liver failure (ALF, which has a high mortality rate, remain unclear. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs following ALF. Methods. ALF was induced by D-galactosamine (D-gal in a porcine model. PBMCs were separated at time zero (baseline group, 36 h (failure group, and 60 h (dying group after D-gal injection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using RNA sequencing and analysed using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Results. Compared with the baseline group, 816 and 1,845 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in the failure and dying groups, respectively. A total of five and two gene ontology (GO term clusters were enriched in 107 GO terms in the failure group and 154 GO terms in the dying group. These GO clusters were primarily immune-related, including genes regulating the inflammasome complex and toll-like receptor signalling pathways. Specifically, GO terms related to cell death, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy, and those related to fibrosis, coagulation dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy were enriched. Seven Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, hematopoietic cell lineage, lysosome, rheumatoid arthritis, malaria, and phagosome and pertussis pathways were mapped for DEGs in the failure group. All of these seven KEGG pathways were involved in the 19 KEGG pathways mapped in the dying group. Conclusion. We found that the dramatic PBMC transcriptome changes triggered by ALF progression was predominantly related to immune responses. The enriched GO terms related to cell death, fibrosis, and so on, as indicated by PBMC transcriptome analysis, seem to be useful in elucidating potential key gene sets in the progression of ALF. A better understanding of these gene sets might be of preventive or

  18. Altered functional connectivity links in neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated patients with schizophrenia, and their relation to symptoms including volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidan Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS, 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC. Reductions were found in untreated and treated patients in the functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and this was correlated with the reduction in volition from the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, that is in the willful initiation, sustenance, and control of thoughts, behavior, movements, and speech, and with the general and negative symptoms. In addition in both patient groups interhemispheric functional connectivity was weaker between the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and temporal pole. These functional connectivity changes and the related symptoms were not treated by the neuroleptics. Differences between the patient groups were that there were more strong functional connectivity links in the NNS patients (including in hippocampal, frontal, and striatal circuits than in the NTS patients. These findings with a whole brain analysis in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia provide evidence on some of the brain regions implicated in the volitional, other general, and negative symptoms, of schizophrenia that are not treated by neuroleptics so have implications for the development of other treatments; and provide evidence on some brain systems in which neuroleptics do alter the functional connectivity.

  19. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  20. Predictors of long-term treatment outcome in combat and peacekeeping veterans with military-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J Don; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie; St Cyr, Kate; Elhai, Jon D; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant psychiatric condition that may result from exposure to combat; it has been associated with severe psychosocial dysfunction. This study examined the predictors of long-term treatment outcomes in a group of veterans with military-related PTSD. The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 151 consecutive veterans treated at an outpatient clinic for veterans with psychiatric disorders resulting from their military operations between January 2002 and May 2012. The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. As part of treatment as usual, all patients completed the PTSD Checklist-Military version and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at intake and at each follow-up appointment, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at intake, and either the SF-36 or the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey at follow-up. All patients received psychoeducation about PTSD and combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Analyses demonstrated a significant and progressive improvement in PTSD severity over the 2-year period ([n = 117] Yuan-Bentler χ²40 = 221.25, P < .001). We found that comorbid depressive symptom severity acted as a significant predictor of PTSD symptom decline (β = -.44, SE = .15, P = .004). However, neither alcohol misuse severity nor the number of years with PTSD symptoms (chronicity) was a significant predictor of treatment response. This study highlights the importance of treating comorbid symptoms of depression aggressively in veterans with military-related PTSD. It also demonstrates that significant symptom reduction, including loss of probable PTSD diagnosis, is possible in an outpatient setting for veterans with chronic military-related PTSD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Efficacy of Short-Term Spinal Cord Stimulation in Acute/Subacute Zoster-Related Pain: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dao-Song; Yu, Xue; Wan, Cheng-Fu; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Lin; Xi, Qi; Cui, Wen-Yao; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a refractory condition that impairs the patient's quality of life (QoL), it develops secondary to herpes zoster infection. Therefore, it's important to prevent the transition of acute/subacute zoster-related pain to PHN. Despite of numerous studies, the optimal intervention that reduces PHN incidence is still unknown. We evaluate the efficacy of short-term spinal cord stimulation (stSCS) in patients with refractory acute/subacute zoster-related pain. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center/teaching hospital. A total of 46 patients who presented with acute/subacute zoster-related pain, and had previously failed conventional therapies, underwent stSCS treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form Health Survey 12 items (SF-12), and analgesic consumptions were recorded before stSCS, post-stSCS, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after stimulation. The VAS scores at post-stSCS, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after stSCS treatment were significantly decreased compared with the baseline score (P < 0.001). Thirty-two patients (69.6%, 32/46) achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), including 18 patients (39.1%, 18/46) who achieved complete pain relief (VASless than orequal to2). During the follow-up period, the efficacy of stSCS didn't decrease and VAS scores were declining. Similarly, SF-12 scores and analgesic consumptions improved after stSCS treatment. The efficacy of stSCS did not differ significantly among patients with different durations of acute/subacute zoster-related pain starting from the onset of rash. No serious adverse effects were observed in the entire follow-up period. This study was not a randomized prospective controlled study. We did not compare the outcomes with patients presenting with mild or moderate pain, and did not compare the efficacy of stSCS treatment with conventional therapies. stSCS is a safe, effective, and less invasive analgesic method for patients with refractory

  2. Morning–evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test...... was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than...

  3. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  4. Treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity in long-term survivors of testicular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugic Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men. Considering increasing incidence, exceptionally high cure rate, as well as long life expectancy, assessment of long term toxicity in testicular cancer survivors is of great importance. In the last decades a major effort has been made in order to reduce toxicity of treatment, while maintaining its high effectiveness.

  5. The relation of breech presentation at term to epilepsy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2006-01-01

    with epilepsy until year 1996. For each case delivered in breech presentation (n = 290), the two subsequent deliveries of non-malformed, singleton infants delivered in breech presentation at term at the same hospital were selected as controls (n = 580). RESULTS: Breech presentation was a risk factor...

  6. Relations among Acute and Chronic Nicotine Administration, Short-Term Memory, and Tactics of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample…

  7. 76 FR 81432 - Revision of Patent Term Adjustment Provisions Relating to Appellate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... INFORMATION: The Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) amended 35 U.S.C. 154 to provide that the term of a... result in an annual effect on the economy of 100 million dollars or more, a major increase in costs or...

  8. 76 FR 18990 - Revision of Patent Term Extension and Adjustment Provisions Relating to Appellate Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... the patent term extension provisions of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) each provide for... expected to result in an annual effect on the economy of 100 million dollars or more, a major increase in... Uruguay Round Agreements Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995...

  9. Long-term data series relating to Southern Africa's renewable natural resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macdonald, IAW

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available agricultural and veterinary data series. The remaining five chapters are of a more synthetic nature and examine the topics of palaeoenvironmental changes, environmental-forcing mechanisms, linkages between ecosyterns, the analysis and storage of long-term data...

  10. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: the case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Bashir, Sultana; Maddox, Thomas; Laurenson, M Karen

    2007-06-01

    Although detailed, long-term scientific studies provide potentially crucial information for conservation, they are rare. Moreover, there is often a disjunction between scientists and managers that can affect whether scientific results are applied to help solve conservation problems. Long-term studies can promote increased communication between scientists and managers and hence offer an opportunity for constructive engagement between the two groups. We examined direct and indirect impacts of a 30-year study, the Serengeti Cheetah Project (SCP). Much of what is currently known about wild cheetahs comes from the SCP. In particular, the SCP has demonstrated that cheetahs have a combination of semisociality and ranging patterns that is unique among mammals. This system arises because cheetahs need to be mobile to avoid predators and competitors, yet maintain access to prey; this results in densities much lower than for other large carnivores and a requirement for large areas of heterogenous and connected habitat. The SCP started as a research project, but expanded into a national program, developing capacity for carnivore conservation within Tanzania. Long-term studies such as the SCP are uniquely placed to establish effective working relationships between scientists and managers, engage local and national institutions, and strengthen national capacity for biodiversity conservation. This process is best realized through the establishment of frameworks for conservation that seek to align scientific research with management needs. Long-term studies also play an important role in identifying international priorities for conservation. Nonetheless, the integration of science and management in conservation is a two-way process that requires concerted efforts by both sides to improve and maintain dialogue. Ultimately, conservation depends on people, and maintaining a commitment to a particular area over many years-such as through implementation of a long-term research project

  11. Examining the themes of STD-related Internet searches to increase specificity of disease forecasting using Internet search terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy K; Mikati, Tarek; Mehta, Supriya D

    2016-11-09

    US surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is often delayed and incomplete which creates missed opportunities to identify and respond to trends in disease. Internet search engine data has the potential to be an efficient, economical and representative enhancement to the established surveillance system. Google Trends allows the download of de-identified search engine data, which has been used to demonstrate the positive and statistically significant association between STD-related search terms and STD rates. In this study, search engine user content was identified by surveying specific exposure groups of individuals (STD clinic patients and university students) aged 18-35. Participants were asked to list the terms they use to search for STD-related information. Google Correlate was used to validate search term content. On average STD clinic participant queries were longer compared to student queries. STD clinic participants were more likely to report using search terms that were related to symptomatology such as describing symptoms of STDs, while students were more likely to report searching for general information. These differences in search terms by subpopulation have implications for STD surveillance in populations at most risk for disease acquisition.

  12. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender-related Histological Changes in the Thymus Gland After Pinealectomy and Short-term Melatonin Treatment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Irfan; Alicelebic, Selma; Cosovic, Esad; Sahinovic, Maida; Kapic, Dina; Custovic, Samra; Muzika, Visnja

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment on the rat thymus gland characteristics, taking into consideration possible gender differences. Thirty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into three groups. Group C and group PX served as control groups and included sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized animals that were treated with 10% ethanol solution (0,1ml/daily, subcutaneous). Animals from third group (group PXM) underwent pinealectomy and seven days after surgery started receiving melatonin dissolved in 10% ethanol solution (3mg/kg/daily, subcutaneous). All animals were treated for 4 weeks. Volume density of the thymus cortex showed statistically significant (pthymus medulla was increased in the pinealectomized compared to the sham-pinealectomized female rats. Numerical density of macrophages as well as the distribution of blood vessels showed no gender differences. The numerical density of lymphocytes was statistically significantly decreased in female in comparison to the male pinealectomized rats. Melatonin treatment was proved to cause reverse effects in the sense that the results from the melatonin treated group corresponded to the results obtained from the control group of animals. The results of this study suggest that the pinealectomy causes gender-related changes in the rat thymus. Short-term melatonin treatment showed reverse effect, equally in both sexes.

  14. Cost of presumptive source term Remedial Actions Laboratory for energy-related health research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Josephson, G.B.; Lanigan, D.C.; Liikala, T.L.; Newcomer, D.R.; Pearson, A.W.; Teel, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is in progress at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis. The purpose of the RI/FS is to gather sufficient information to support an informed risk management decision regarding the most appropriate remedial actions for impacted areas of the facility. In an effort to expedite remediation of the LEHR facility, the remedial project managers requested a more detailed evaluation of a selected set of remedial actions. In particular, they requested information on both characterization and remedial action costs. The US Department of Energy -- Oakland Office requested the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to prepare order-of-magnitude cost estimates for presumptive remedial actions being considered for the five source term operable units. The cost estimates presented in this report include characterization costs, capital costs, and annual operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs. These cost estimates are intended to aid planning and direction of future environmental remediation efforts

  15. Long-term prairie falcon population changes in relation to prey abundance, weather, land uses, and habitat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Carpenter, L.B.; Lehman, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    We studied a nesting population of Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) from 1974-1997 to identify factors that influence abundance and reproduction. Our sampling period included two major droughts and associated crashes in Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) populations. The number of Prairie Falcon pairs found on long-term survey segments declined significantly from 1976-1997. Early declines were most severe at the eastern end of the NCA, where fires and agriculture have changed native shrubsteppe habitat. More recent declines occurred in the portion of canyon near the Orchard Training Area (OTA), where the Idaho Army National Guard conducts artillery firing and tank maneuvers. Overall Prairie Falcon reproductive rates were tied closely to annual indexes of ground squirrel abundance, but precipitation before and during the breeding season was related inversely to some measures of reproduction. Most reproductive parameters showed no significant trends over time, but during the 1990s, nesting success and productivity were lower in the stretch of canyon near the OTA than in adjacent areas. Extensive shrub loss, by itself, did not explain the pattern of declines in abundance and reproduction that we observed. Recent military training activities likely have interacted with fire and livestock grazing to create less than favorable foraging opportunities for Prairie Falcons in a large part of the NCA. To maintain Prairie Falcon populations in the NCA, managers should suppress wildfires, restore native plant communities, and regulate potentially incompatible land uses.

  16. Long-term health-related quality of life and psychological adjustment in children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Helene; Buder, Kathrin; Landolt, Markus A; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Laube, Guido F; Spartà, Giuseppina

    2017-05-01

    In children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), little is known about long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological adjustment as defined by behavioural problems, depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Sixty-two paediatric patients with a history of HUS were included in this study. Medical data of the acute HUS episode were retrieved retrospectively from hospital records. Data on the clinical course at study investigation were assessed by clinical examination and laboratory evaluation. HRQoL and psychological adjustment data were measured by standardised, parent- and self-reported questionnaires. Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome was diagnosed at a mean of 6.5 years before the initiation of the study (standard deviation 2.9, range 0.1-15.7) years. Among the preschool children, parents reported that their child was less lively and energetic (HRQoL emotional dimension), while no increased behavioural problems were reported. In the school-age children, self- and proxy-reported HRQoL was well within or even above the norms, while increased total behavioural problems were found. The school-age children reported no increased depression scores. Also none of the children met the criteria for full or partial HUS-associated posttraumatic stress disorder. Healthcare providers should be particularly alert to behavioural problems in school-age children with a history of HUS and to lower HRQoL in preschool children.

  17. Cranial computed tomography in infantile spasms. Findings related to etiology, treatment and long-term developmental outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Mitsuaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained from 40 pediatric patients with infantile spasms were assessed in relation to the presumed etiology, ACTH therapy, and long-term mental outcome. Fifty-five percent (22/40) of cases had abnormal findings on CT scans. The major structural changes on CT scans were generalized brain atrophy (type I with 5 subtypes) and ependymal calcifications (type II). A wide diversity of etiologic factors including structural anomalies, tuberous sclerosis, and perinatal and postnatal brain damage were identified. Six patients, on whom serial CT-scannings were performed before and after ACTH therapy, had worsening of cerebral atrophy which was reversible in all but one patient after stopping the ACTH therapy. No clear correlation was found between findings on CT scans and seizure outcome. Ninety-two percent of the cases showed some degree of mental and developmental retardation; 67 percent (12/18) of the patients with severe mental retardation had abnormal findings on CT scans. CT-scanning of the brain was found to be a valuable tool for the examination of the underlying structural abnormalities in children with infantile spasms. The data presented may also be useful for the design and interpretation of therapeutic drug trials in patients with infantile spasms. (author).

  18. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Alfred I

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (~99% of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase, or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days. These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. Results A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Conclusion Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve

  19. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaodan; Geller, Alfred I

    2009-06-16

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (approximately 99%) of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase), or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex) supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days). These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve long-term expression are discussed

  20. Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, Y.L.; Peeters, D.G.A.; Boulle, F.; Hove, D.L. van den; Bokhoven, H. van; Zhou, Huiqing; Homberg, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is widely prescribed for the treatment of symptoms related to a variety of psychiatric disorders. After chronic SSRI treatment, some symptoms remediate on the long term, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here we

  1. The health-related quality of life of long-term survivors of melanoma treated with isolated limb perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, E. M.; van Kreij, R. H. J.; Vrouenraets, B. C.; Nieweg, O. E.; Muller, M.; Kroon, B. B. R.; Aaronson, N. K.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the generic and condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) of long-term survivors of extremity melanoma treated with isolated limb perfusion (ILP). METHODS: Between 1978 and 2001, 292 patients with melanoma of the limbs underwent ILP in our institution. Of these

  2. 12 CFR 218.700 - Defined terms relating to the networking exception from the definition of “broker.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... overall profitability or revenue of: (i) The bank, either on a stand-alone or consolidated basis; (ii) Any... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defined terms relating to the networking exception from the definition of âbroker.â 218.700 Section 218.700 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  3. Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression and Deception during Early Childhood: A Multimethod, Multi-Informant Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Ries, Emily E.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study examined relational and physical aggression and deceptive behavior among 120 preschool-aged children (M = 44.36 months old, SD = 11.07). Multiple informants and methods (i.e., observational, teacher reports) were used. Evidence for discriminant validity of the observations of aggression subtypes was found. For…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Child Death on Parents' Health-Related Quality of Life: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Floyd, Frank J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of child death on bereaved parents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we compared 233 bereaved couples and 229 comparison couples (mean age = 65.11 years) and examined the life course effects of child death on parents' HRQoL. Variations in bereavement…

  5. Health-related quality-of-life measures for long-term follow-up in children after major trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, L.; Gorter, J.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Kramer, W.L.M.; Holtslag, H.R.

    Objective: Our objective was to review measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for long-term follow up in children after major trauma and to determine the measures that are suitable for a large age range, reliable and valid, and cover a substantial amount of the domains of functioning

  6. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M Heid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2 in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345, including general population (GP studies, population-based studies with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP, and obesity studies (OB. We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213 combining the different study designs did not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27. The I(2 measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015 indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2 measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33 and an OR of 1.10 (p-value = 0.015. Regarding the five hypotheses, our data showed (a some difference between GP and HP studies (p-value = 0.012 and (b an association in extreme comparisons (BMI> or =32.5, 35.0, 37.5, 40.0 kg/m(2 versus BMI<25 kg/m(2 yielding ORs of 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, or 1.27 (p-values 0.001 to 0.003, which was also underscored by significantly increased CC-genotype frequencies across BMI categories (10.4% to 12.5%, p-value for trend = 0.0002. We did not find evidence for differential ORs (c among studies with higher than average obesity prevalence compared to lower, (d among studies with BMI assessment after the year 2000 compared to those before, or (e among studies from older populations compared to younger. Analysis of non-Caucasian adults (n = 4889 or children (n = 3243 yielded ORs of 1.01 (p-value = 0.94 or 1.15 (p-value = 0.22, respectively. There was no evidence for overall association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity. Our data suggested an association with extreme degrees of obesity, and consequently heterogeneous effects from different study designs may

  7. Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development

  8. Relation of increased short-term variability of QT interval to congenital long-QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinterseer, Martin; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Thomsen, Morten B

    2009-01-01

    Apart from clinical symptoms the diagnosis and risk stratification in long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is usually based on the surface electrocardiogram. Studies have indicated that not only prolongation of the QT interval but also an increased short-term variability of QT interval (STV(QT)) is a marker...... that an STV(QT) of 4.9 ms was the optimal cut-off value to predict mutation carriers. When incorporating an STV(QT) >4.9 ms for those whose QTc interval was within the normal limits, sensitivity to distinguish mutation carriers increased to 83% with a specificity of 68%, so that another 15 mutation carriers...

  9. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean.......3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration...

  10. The sunspot cycle no. 24 in relation to long term solar activity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komitov, Boris; Kaftan, Vladimir

    2013-05-01

    The solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 during the period 2007-2009 has been the longest and deepest one at least since for the last 100 years. We suggest that the Sun is going to his next supercenturial minimum. The main aim of this paper is to tell about arguments concerning this statement. They are based on series of studies, which have been provided during the period since 1997 up to 2010. The progress of solar cycle 24 since its minimum at the end of 2008 up to the end of October 2011 in the light of long term solar activity dynamics is analyzed.

  11. Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nysom, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To identify predictors for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in survivors of childhood brain tumors and its relationship to cognitive function. PROCEDURE: One hundred twenty-six consecutive Danish childhood brain tumor patients treated 1970-1997 and being 7.9-40.4 years at follow...... functioning, cognitive functioning, body image, outlook of life, and intimate relations were significantly related to RT. Tumor location in the posterior fossa was associated with lower scores for physical functioning and energy, and tumor site in the third ventricle region was associated with lower scores...... while tumor location in the third ventricle region remained significant for body image, younger age at diagnosis for social functioning and intimate relations, and younger age at follow-up for physical symptoms. In contrasts, neither gender nor presence of hydrocephalus requiring shunt inserted...

  12. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents. birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. I investigate the long-term e¤ects on children of increasing the length of parents.birth-related leave using a natural experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased from 14......¤ect on childrens long-term cognitive outcomes....... to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal e¤ect of the reform. A population sample of children born in 1984 and a dataset with PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents. access to birth-related leave has no measurable e...

  13. Interpreting the Fuzzy Semantics of Natural-Language Spatial Relation Terms with the Fuzzy Random Forest Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Naïve Geography, intelligent geographical information systems (GIS, and spatial data mining especially from social media all rely on natural-language spatial relations (NLSR terms to incorporate commonsense spatial knowledge into conventional GIS and to enhance the semantic interoperability of spatial information in social media data. Yet, the inherent fuzziness of NLSR terms makes them challenging to interpret. This study proposes to interpret the fuzzy semantics of NLSR terms using the fuzzy random forest (FRF algorithm. Based on a large number of fuzzy samples acquired by transforming a set of crisp samples with the random forest algorithm, two FRF models with different membership assembling strategies are trained to obtain the fuzzy interpretation of three line-region geometric representations using 69 NLSR terms. Experimental results demonstrate that the two FRF models achieve good accuracy in interpreting line-region geometric representations using fuzzy NLSR terms. In addition, fuzzy classification of FRF can interpret the fuzzy semantics of NLSR terms more fully than their crisp counterparts.

  14. Long-Term, Supplemental, One-Carbon Metabolism-Related Vitamin B Use in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; White, Emily; Chen, Chi-Ling

    2017-10-20

    Purpose Inconsistent findings have been reported of a link between the use of one-carbon metabolism-related B vitamins and lung cancer risk. Because of the high prevalence of supplemental vitamin B use, any possible increased association warrants further investigation. We examined the association between long-term use of supplemental B vitamins on the one-carbon metabolism pathway and lung cancer risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort, which was designed specifically to look at supplement use relative to cancer risk. Methods A total of 77,118 participants of the VITAL cohort, 50 to 76 years of age, were recruited between October 2000 and December 2002 and included in this analysis. Incident, primary, invasive lung cancers (n = 808) were ascertained by prospectively linking the participants to a population-based cancer registry. The 10-year average daily dose from individual and multivitamin supplements were the exposures of primary interest. Results Use of supplemental vitamins B 6 , folate, and B 12 was not associated with lung cancer risk among women. In contrast, use of vitamin B 6 and B 12 from individual supplement sources, but not from multivitamins, was associated with a 30% to 40% increase in lung cancer risk among men. When the 10-year average supplement dose was evaluated, there was an almost two-fold increase in lung cancer risk among men in the highest categories of vitamin B 6 (> 20 mg/d; hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.65) and B 12 (> 55µg/d; hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.97) compared with nonusers. For vitamin B 6 and B 12 , the risk was even higher among men who were smoking at baseline. In addition, the B 6 and B 12 associations were apparent in all histologic types except adenocarcinoma, which is the type less related to smoking. Conclusion This sex- and source-specific association provides further evidence that vitamin B supplements are not chemopreventive for lung cancer and may be harmful.

  15. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-06-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Sleep laboratory. Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Approximately 24 hours of total SD. SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact.

  16. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... than 13 ppt. Mortality at 12 ppt was significantly faster at 18 degrees C than 10 or 14 degrees C. Moreover, mortality was higher and faster for large than for small pike fry at 12 ppt and 14 degrees C. These results imply that pike raised in fresh water can survive stocking into brackish waters below...

  17. Long-term cadmium exposure accelerates age-related mitochondrial changes in renal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Aya; Jimi, Shiro; Segawa, Masaru; Hisano, Satoshi; Takebayashi, Shigeo; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Long-term cadmium exposure leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Mitochondrial DNA deletion may contribute to the pathogenesis of cadmium-induced nephropathy. The aim of our study is to clarify the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletion and mitochondrial dysfunction in the renal cortex of rats injected three times/week with 1 ml of 1 mM CdCl 2 or saline for 80 weeks. After 40-week cadmium injection, mitochondrial number diminished, and cadmium in the renal cortex reached a saturation level. At this time interval, nearly 30% of cadmium in the whole cell fraction was found in the mitochondria. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in the proximal tubular epithelial cells decreased after 40-week exposure of cadmium. Oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPC) started to accumulate in the cytochrome c-positive mitochondria in some tubular epithelial cells after 80-week exposure. After 40 weeks, accumulation of the 4834-bp deletion in mitochondrial DNA was evident in both control and cadmium-treated groups. However, the amount of accumulated mitochondrial DNA deletion tended to increase after 40-week exposure, and was significantly greater after 80 weeks of exposure, compared to the control. Our results indicate that long-term cadmium exposure in rats accelerates accumulation of 4834-bp mitochondrial DNA deletions and impairment of mitochondrial function associated with accumulation of oxidized product

  18. Improved derivation of the modified BGK collision term and applications to the Hall effect and cold plasma dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, M.

    1983-01-01

    A derived addition to the BGK collision term,is improved and expressed in simple form. The collision frequency for scattering depends anisotropically on the velocity vector. The improved macroscopic equation of momentum flow is applied to the Hall effect, the cold plasma dispersion relation and the cyclotron resonance. The Hall coefficient which is constant in the case of the BGK collision term now depends on the magnetic field. It is also shown that, compared with the almost symmetric classical curves of cyclotron resonance, the new curves are considerably asymmetric and their half-widths are about 3/2 times the classical ones. (autho)

  19. THE TERMS OF INHERITANCE LAW IN RUSSIA-BYZANTIUM TREATIES AND RUSSKAYA PRAVDA: THE PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS AND DERIVATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirzhaeva Vera Petrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the functional-and-semantic and derivational relations of the inheritance law terms in the Russia-Byzantium treaties and in Russkaya Pravda Legal Code as well as in the wide-spread Church Slavonic law regulators that appeared in Rus after adoption of Christianity. The research results attest that the inheritance law terminology in treaties includes designation of inheritance, will and heirs. There is a special term chast ('part' that denotes a share of inheritance in the Russkaya Pravda and Church Slavonic legal texts. However, chast as a 'part' (share is a characteristic of the Russkaya Pravda legal texts only. In Church Slavonic it is used in treaties for nominating the property in general. A similar lack of strict distribution between inheritance law terms zadnitsa and dom, presented in Old Russian texts, was noted in Church Slavonic treaties. Various derivatives of the root *rÌd- are used to denote the will in all texts under analysis; the terms pisati employed only in treaties and church law regulators to denote a written will or procedures of its preparation. The derivatives of the root *bliz- nominate the heirs in both text systems. A loan translation of the terminological word group malye / milye blizhnie / blizhiki dated to the year 911 is not viewed as a translators' experiment with the Greek terms, because it reflects a steady lexical distribution of adjectives malye / milye and the terms of relations in the Russian language. The results of the study testify some inheritance law terms correlation between Russia-Byzantium treaties, Russkaya Pravda and Church Slavonic legal texts, their translation in the treaties was not entirely artificial. The Church Slavonic and Old Russian terminological systems were open to these interferences in some ways.

  20. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Lankveld, W.G. van; Vonk, M.C.; Becker, E.S.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. METHODS: In total,

  1. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Vonk, M.C.; Becker, E.S.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. Methods: In total,

  2. Physical and Psychological Distress Are Related to Dying Peacefully in Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Maaike L; Albers, Gwenda; Deliens, Luc; de Vet, Henrica C W; Francke, Anneke L; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Van den Block, Lieve

    2015-07-01

    Although dying peacefully is considered an important outcome of high-quality palliative care, large-scale quantitative research on dying peacefully and the factors associated with a peaceful death is lacking. To gain insight into how many residents with dementia in long-term care facilities die peacefully, according to their relatives, and whether that assessment is correlated with observed physical and psychological distress. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of deceased nursing home residents in a representative sample of long-term care facilities in Flanders, Belgium (2010). Structured post-mortem questionnaires were completed by relatives of the resident, who were asked to what extent they agreed that the resident "appeared to be at peace" during the dying process. Spearman correlation coefficients gave the correlations between physical and psychological distress (as measured using the Symptom Management at the End of Life with Dementia and Comfort Assessment in Dying at the End of Life with Dementia scales) and dying peacefully (as measured using the Quality of Dying in Long Term Care instrument). The sample comprised 92 relatives of deceased residents with dementia. In 54% of cases, relatives indicated that the resident died peacefully. Weak-to-moderate correlations (0.2-0.57) were found between dying peacefully and physical distress in the last week of life. Regarding psychological distress, weak-to-moderate correlations were found for both the last week (0.33-0.44) and last month of life (0.28-0.47). Only half of the residents with dementia died peacefully as perceived by their relatives. Relatives' assessment of whether death was peaceful is related to both physical and psychological distress. Further qualitative research is recommended to gain more in-depth insights into the aspects on which relatives base their judgment of dying peacefully. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Adiabatic energization in the ring current and its relation to other source and loss terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Kozyra, J. U.; Clauer, C. R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2002-04-01

    The influence of adiabatic energization and deenergization effects, caused by particle drift in radial distance, on ring current growth rates and loss lifetimes is investigated. Growth and loss rates from simulation results of four storms (5 June 1991, 15 May 1997, 19 October 1998, and 25 September 1998) are examined and compared against the y component of the solar wind electric field (Ey,sw). Energy change rates with and without the inclusion of adiabatic energy changes are considered to isolate the influence of this mechanism in governing changes of ring current strength. It is found that the influence of adiabatic drift effects on the energy change rates is very large when energization and deenergization are considered separately as gain and loss mechanisms, often about an order of magnitude larger than all other source or loss terms combined. This is true not only during storm times, when the open drift path configuration of the hot ions dominates the physics of the ring current, but also during quiet times, when the small oscillation in L of the closed trajectories creates a large source and loss of energy each drift orbit. However, the net energy change from adiabatic drift is often smaller than other source and loss processes, especially during quiet times. Energization from adiabatic drift dominates ring current growth only during portions of the main phase of storms. Furthermore, the net-adiabatic energization is often positive, because some particles are lost in the inner magnetosphere before they can adiabatically deenergize. It is shown that the inclusion of only this net-adiabatic drift effect in the total source rate or loss lifetime (depending on the sign of the net-adiabatic energization) best matches the observed source and loss values from empirical Dst predictor methods (that is, for consistency, these values should be compared between the calculation methods). While adiabatic deenergization dominates the loss timescales for all Ey,sw values

  4. EPR spectroscopy of MRI-related Gd(III) complexes: simultaneous analysis of multiple frequency and temperature spectra, including static and transient crystal field effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, S; Borel, A; Helm, L; Belorizky, E; Fries, P H; Merbach, A E

    2001-03-21

    For the first time, a very general theoretical method is proposed to interpret the full electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at multiple temperatures and frequencies in the important case of S-state metal ions complexed in liquid solution. This method is illustrated by a careful analysis of the measured spectra of two Gd3+ (S = 7/2) complexes. It is shown that the electronic relaxation mechanisms at the origin of the EPR line shape arise from the combined effects of the modulation of the static crystal field by the random Brownian rotation of the complex and of the transient zero-field splitting. A detailed study of the static crystal field mechanism shows that, contrarily to the usual global models involving only second-order terms, the fourth and sixth order terms can play a non-negligible role. The obtained parameters are well interpreted in the framework of the physics of the various underlying relaxation processes. A better understanding of these mechanisms is highly valuable since they partly control the efficiency of paramagnetic metal ions in contrast agents for medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  5. Analysis of near-term production and market opportunities for hydrogen and related activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, R.; Leach, S. [National Hydrogen Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes current and planned activities in the areas of hydrogen production and use, near-term venture opportunities, and codes and standards. The rationale for these efforts is to assess industry interest and engage in activities that move hydrogen technologies down the path to commercialization. Some of the work presented in this document is a condensed, preliminary version of reports being prepared under the DOE/NREL contract. In addition, the NHA work funded by Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation (WSRC) to explore the opportunities and industry interest in a Hydrogen Research Center is briefly described. Finally, the planned support of and industry input to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel (HTAP) on hydrogen demonstration projects is discussed.

  6. Walrus history around the North Water: Human-animal relations in a long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotfredsen, Anne Birgitte; Appelt, Martin; Hastrup, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    This article highlights the relationship between walruses and humans in and around the North Water polynya in a long-term perspective. The present study draws on a combination of biological, archaeological, archaeo-zoological, historical, and ethnographic sources covering the period from the 8th century AD to the late 20th century. The study demonstrates that the walrus was an important resource of meat, blubber, and other products throughout all the studied periods, if always supplemented by other kinds of game. It is suggested that walrus distribution and behaviour, as well as hunting strategies and technologies historically constituted a powerful component not only in forming human action and social life in the region but also in serving as an imaginative resource. It is further argued that the walrus and the walrus hunt still play a significant role in the present community living on the edge of the North Water, even if the hunt is increasingly circumscribed due to changing ice conditions.

  7. THE EMPLOYMENT – PRODUCTIVITY – SALARY RELATION, A CONDITION FOR ACHIEVING LONG - TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment-productivity-salary correlation is essential towards setting up conditions for economic growth andlasting social stability. An influence exists from technological changes, current stage of economic development,peculiarities of labour offer, employers – trade-unions interaction, etc. The analysis covers long-term and short-termcycles. In keeping with specificity of development stages, national economy witnesses an interval of productivitygrowth facilitating maximized employment and a rise in salary too. A lower growth rate indicates difficulties inassimilating new technologies; a higher growth rate generates instability in employing labour. Thus, the exercise ofstrong pressure is shown to exist on economic and technological structures. Likewise, this is what happens whenproductivity goes ahead of the separate analyses of the correlations between employment and productivity, on theone hand, and productivity and salary, on the other.

  8. Does osteoprotegerin relate to micro- and macrovascular complications in long-term type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars M; Green, Anders

    2010-01-01

    in 2007-2008, and OPG was measured and correlated to diabetes-associated complications: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and macrovascular disease. Results. Median age and duration of diabetes was 58.7 years (range 37.7-84.4 years) and 43 years (range 34-70 years), respectively. Median level of OPG......% confidence interval 1.09-5.90 for third vs. first tertile). Statistical significance was, however, lost in a multivariate model, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and macrovascular disease was not associated with OPG in either model. Conclusions. Some associations of OPG and nephropathy were...... found in a long-term type 1 diabetic cohort. Prospective studies are needed in order to determine whether OPG can be used to predict nephropathy....

  9. Let me Google that for you: a time series analysis of seasonality in internet search trends for terms related to foot and ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of internet search traffic may present the opportunity to gain insights into general trends and patterns in information seeking behaviour related to medical conditions at a population level. For prevalent and widespread problems such as foot and ankle pain, this information has the potential to improve our understanding of seasonality and trends within these conditions and their treatments, and may act as a useful proxy for their true incidence/prevalence characteristics. This study aimed to explore seasonal effects, general trends and relative popularity of internet search terms related to foot and ankle pain over the past decade. We used the Google Trends tool to obtain relative search engine traffic for terms relating to foot and ankle pain and common treatments from Google search and affiliated pages for major northern and southern hemisphere English speaking nations. Analysis of overall trends and seasonality including summer/winter differences was carried out on these terms. Searches relating to general foot pain were on average 3.4 times more common than those relating to ankle pain, and twice as common as searches relating to heel pain. Distinct seasonal effects were seen in the northern hemisphere, with large increases in search volumes in the summer months compared to winter for foot (p = 0.004, 95 % CI [22.2-32.1]), ankle (p = 0.0078, 95 % CI [20.9-35.5]), and heel pain (p = 0.004, 95 % CI [29.1-45.6]). These seasonal effects were reflected by data from Australia, with the exception of ankle pain. Annual seasonal effects for treatment options were limited to terms related to foot surgery and ankle orthoses (p = 0.031, 95 % CI [3.5-20.9]; p = 0.004, 95 % CI [7.6-25.2] respectively), again increasing in the summer months. A number of general trends and annual seasonal effects were found in time series internet search data for terms relating to foot and ankle pain. This data may provide insights into these conditions at

  10. Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Y; Peeters, D; Boulle, F; Pawluski, J L; van den Hove, D L A; van Bokhoven, H; Zhou, H; Homberg, J R

    2015-09-22

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is widely prescribed for the treatment of symptoms related to a variety of psychiatric disorders. After chronic SSRI treatment, some symptoms remediate on the long term, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here we studied the long-term consequences (40 days after treatment) of chronic fluoxetine exposure on genome-wide gene expression. During the treatment period, we measured body weight; and 1 week after treatment, cessation behavior in an SSRI-sensitive anxiety test was assessed. Gene expression was assessed in hippocampal tissue of adult rats using transcriptome analysis and several differentially expressed genes were validated in independent samples. Gene ontology analysis showed that upregulated genes induced by chronic fluoxetine exposure were significantly enriched for genes involved in myelination. We also investigated the expression of myelination-related genes in adult rats exposed to fluoxetine at early life and found two myelination-related genes (Transferrin (Tf) and Ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf)) that were downregulated by chronic fluoxetine exposure. Cntf, a neurotrophic factor involved in myelination, showed regulation in opposite direction in the adult versus neonatally fluoxetine-exposed groups. Expression of myelination-related genes correlated negatively with anxiety-like behavior in both adult and neonatally fluoxetine-exposed rats. In conclusion, our data reveal that chronic fluoxetine exposure causes on the long-term changes in expression of genes involved in myelination, a process that shapes brain connectivity and contributes to symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Stressing Memory: Long-Term Relations among Children's Stress, Recall and Psychological Outcome following Hurricane Andrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Fivush, Robyn; Parker, Janat; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    We examined relations among stress, children's recall, and psychological functioning following Hurricane Andrew. Thirty-five children from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds were divided into low-, moderate-, and high-stress groups and were interviewed about the hurricane immediately after the storm and 6 years later. Our primary interest, stemming…

  12. The treatment of terms relating to Islam and the Arab World in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the treatment of vocabulary items relating to Islam and the Arab world in three major English dictionaries: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. The three dictionaries are compared with regard to their inclusion ...

  13. Maternal thyrotropin is independently related to Small for Gestational Age neonates at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monen, L.; Kuppens, S.M.; Hasaart, T.H.; Oosterbaan, H.P.; Oei, S.G.; Wijnen, H.; Hutton, E.K.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute still a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Overt thyroid disease is a known cause of preterm birth and low birthweight but in its untreated condition it is rare today. In this study, we investigated the possible relation

  14. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palascha, A.; Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body

  15. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  16. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  17. An event-related brain potential correlate of visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Peter; Talsma, D.; Wijers, Albertus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Mulder, Gijsbertus

    1999-01-01

    EVENT-RELATED potentials (ERPs) were recorded as 12 subjects performed a delayed matching to sample task. We presented two bilateral abstract shapes and cued spatially which had to be memorized for a subsequent matching task: left, right or both. During memorization a posterior slow negative ERP

  18. Long-term epidemiological observation of asbestos-related diseases in Poland, 1970-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, B; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos constitutes a major public health concern. Despite this in many countries, data and registration systems for occupational asbestos-related diseases are non-existent or poorly developed. To analyse the incidence of occupational asbestos-related diseases in Poland between the years 1970 and 2015, with particular emphasis on the periods after introduction of a ban on asbestos and following introduction of a surveillance programme. Analysis based on all medically recognized cases, certified as occupational diseases and reported obligatorily from all over the country to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. During the period 1970-2015, 4983 cases were reported as asbestos-related diseases. The most prevalent were asbestosis, lung cancer, diseases of pleura or pericardium and mesothelioma. A considerable increase in the number of such cases from the beginning of their registration until 2004 occurred after introduction of the Amiantus programme, a nationwide programme of periodic medical examinations for former asbestos workers. Introduction of a medical surveillance programme improved case recognition and allowed a more reliable estimate of the number of reported asbestos-related diseases.

  19. Long-term longitudinal study of patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Sander, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    poorly to the treatment, and 20% obtain a condition with inactivity and good results. The majority of patients will need continuous active treatment. Long-term decline of visual acuity reflects the natural progression of the disease, however, insufficient treatment cannot be excluded leaving a potential...... of patients with nv-AMD can preserve visual acuity and expect long-term treatment beyond 2 years. Ocular complications and systemic adverse events remain few.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature regarding long-term treatment beyond 2 years with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nv-AMD). RECENT FINDINGS: Only few studies of anti-VEGF treatment for nv-AMD exist beyond...

  20. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  1. Implant rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla including immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting: a review of 1-year outcome data from a long-term prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljanic, Joseph A; Baer, Russell A; Ekstrand, Karl; Thor, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The literature suggests that predictable integration can be achieved when dental implant placement is combined with immediate fixed provisional restoration in a variety of clinical situations. Fewer data are available, however, regarding outcomes for immediate provisional restoration of implants in the edentulous maxilla. This report presents 1-year data acquired from a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to assess outcomes following the immediate provisional fixed restoration of implants in the atrophic edentulous maxilla without the use of bone augmentation. Fifty-one subjects diagnosed with an atrophic edentulous maxilla received a total of 306 implants (six implants per subject) followed by fixed provisional restoration within 24 hours of implant placement. No subjects underwent grafting to enhance bone volume in preparation for implant treatment. Data acquired included bone quantity and quality, implant dimensions, implant locations, and implant placement stability. Subjects returned for 1-year follow-up examinations to assess implant integration and restoration function. Periapical radiographs were obtained and compared to baseline images to assess marginal bone height maintenance. At the 3-month follow-up examination, 294 of 306 implants placed in 51 subjects were found to be integrated. This represents a cumulative implant survival rate of 96%. At the 1-year follow-up examination, mean marginal bone loss of 0.5 mm was noted, with no further loss of implants. These results support the contention that predictable long-term outcomes may be obtained for the atrophic edentulous maxilla when treated with an implant rehabilitation protocol that includes immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting. This strategy offers a promising treatment alternative for the patient with an atrophic edentulous maxilla.

  2. A Mouse Model that Recapitulates Cardinal Features of the 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome Including Schizophrenia- and Epilepsy-Related Alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejgin, Kim; Nielsen, Jacob; Birknow, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    to develop myoclonic and absence-like seizures but decreased propensity for clonic and tonic seizures. Furthermore, they had impaired long-term spatial reference memory and a decreased theta frequency in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Electroencephalogram characterization revealed auditory processing...... deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Gamma band power was increased during active state, but evoked gamma power following auditory stimulus (40 Hz) was dramatically reduced, mirroring observations in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, Df(h15q13)/ mice showed schizophrenia......-like decreases in amplitudes of auditory evoked potentials. Although displaying a grossly normal behavior, Df(h15q13)/ mice are more aggressive following exposure to mild stressors, similar to what is described in human deletion carriers. Furthermore, Df(h15q13)/ mice have increased body weight, and a similar...

  3. Long-term outcome of patients with multiple [corrected] myeloma-related advanced renal failure following auto-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavey, S V; Gertz, M A; Dispenzieri, A; Kumar, S; Buadi, F; Lacy, M; Hayman, S R; Kapoor, P; Dingli, D; McCurdy, A; Hogan, W J; Gastineau, D A; Leung, N

    2013-11-01

    Renal failure commonly complicates multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with reduced survival. It is not clear whether auto-SCT results in improved renal function or attainment of independence from dialysis in patients with advanced renal impairment due to MM. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent auto-SCT for MM complicated by advanced renal failure at our institution over a 10-year period (2000-2010). We aimed to assess the association between auto-SCT and renal outcome in patients with serum creatinine (SCr) over 3 mg/dL, attributable to MM, including those who were dialysis dependent. Thirty patients (2.8% of all auto-SCT patients) met inclusion criteria. Fourteen of 15 patients who were dialysis dependent before auto-SCT remained dialysis dependent in the long term despite hematological response (HR). Of the remaining 15 patients with SCr >3 mg/dL, an improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 15 to 19.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was noted post auto-SCT (P=0.035); however, neither HR post auto-SCT or pre-existing renal function were independently associated with renal outcome. Auto-SCT was not associated with independence from dialysis in patients with renal failure due to MM at our institution. Although auto-SCT was associated with an improvement in GFR in patients with SCr >3 mg/dL, this improvement was not related to HR.

  4. Long-term Progression of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, David; Dávila, Juan Pablo; Rahimi, Mansour; Rebhun, Carl B; Alibhai, A Yasin; Waheed, Nadia K; Sarraf, David

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the long-term growth patterns of type 1 neovascularization (NV) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Retrospective cohort study. Patients were enrolled from 2 eye centers and underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging with follow-up greater than 1 year. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was manually segmented on OCTA images and compared between time points. CNV growth was subdivided into 3 categories based on OCTA area measurement: CNV doubling, modest growth of less than 50%, and shrinkage. These growth rates were correlated with OCTA morphologic features. Forty-one eyes were analyzed. Mean CNV area was 1.60 ± 1.84 mm 2 at baseline and 1.80 ± 1.84 mm 2 at 1 year. Thirty-three eyes (80%) displayed an increase in CNV area at 1 year with a mean increase of 0.20 ± 0.38 mm 2 (P = .001). Eleven eyes (27%) underwent CNV doubling, 19 eyes (46%) illustrated modest growth, and 6 (15%) showed shrinkage. Anatomic features including a capillary fringe (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, P = .036) and immature lesion morphology (OR = 4.2, P = .015) were significantly associated with CNV doubling. CNV growth occurred in 3 predominant patterns: "symmetric" growth, "asymmetric" growth, and "finger-like projections," which reflected the orientation of expansion of CNV. "Symmetric" and "asymmetric" growth together correlated with greater frequency of CNV doubling (OR = 15, P = .0048). OCTA provides noninvasive measurement of the area of neovascular lesions in AMD. Sustained growth of type 1 NV can be identified in the majority of lesions (80%) that display characteristic patterns of progression despite ongoing anti-VEGF therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Lambert, M.I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Readhead, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Viljoen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design: Prospective. Setting: The South African

  6. Health-related quality of life and utility scores in short-term survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Litsenburg, Raphaële R L; Huisman, Jaap; Raat, Hein; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2013-04-01

    Increase of survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has made outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) and economic burden more important. To make informed decisions on the use of healthcare resources, costs as well as utilities need to be taken into account. Among the preference-based HRQL instruments, the Health Utilities Index (HUI) is the most employed in pediatric cancer. Information on utility scores during ALL treatment and in long-term survivors is available, but utility scores in short-term survivors are lacking. This study assesses utility scores, health state, and HRQL in short-term (6 months to 4 years) ALL survivors. Cross-sectional single-center cohort study of short-term ALL survivors using HUI3 proxy assessments. Thirty-three survivors (median 1.5 years off treatment) reported 14 unique health states. The majority of survivors (61 %) enjoyed a perfect health, but 21 % had three affected attributes. Overall, HRQL was nonsignificantly lower compared to the norm, although the difference was large and may be clinically relevant. Cognition was significantly impaired (p = 0.03). Although 61 % of short-term survivors of ALL report no impairment, the health status of the other patients lead to a clinically important impaired HRQL compared to norms. Prospective studies assessing utility scores associated with pediatric ALL should be performed, enabling valid and reliable cost-utility analyses for policy makers to make informed decisions.

  7. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Donoughe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.

  8. Road Short-Term Travel Time Prediction Method Based on Flow Spatial Distribution and the Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many short-term road travel time forecasting studies based on time series, but indeed, road travel time not only relies on the historical travel time series, but also depends on the road and its adjacent sections history flow. However, few studies have considered that. This paper is based on the correlation of flow spatial distribution and the road travel time series, applying nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression method to build a forecasting model. In aspect of spatial nearest neighbor search, three different space distances are defined. In addition, two forecasting functions are introduced: one combines the forecasting value by mean weight and the other uses the reciprocal of nearest neighbors distance as combined weight. Three different distances are applied in nearest neighbor search, which apply to the two forecasting functions. For travel time series, the nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression are applied too. Then minimizing forecast error variance is utilized as an objective to establish the combination model. The empirical results show that the combination model can improve the forecast performance obviously. Besides, the experimental results of the evaluation for the computational complexity show that the proposed method can satisfy the real-time requirement.

  9. Identification of anomalous ULF emission related to short term earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihotang, Bertalina; Ahadi, Suaidi

    2017-07-01

    The observation of ULF emission recorded in geomagnetic station is a powerful study of short term earthquake precursor. Anomalies that arise when there is no disturbance magnetic storm can be considered as precursors of the earthquake. Data used in this research were geomagnetic data recorded in LWA station as a main station, GSI station and TSI station as reference station and earthquake data. The earthquakes were on September 23, 2015 (Mw. 5.1), October 1, 2015 (Mw 5.4), and November 18, 2015 (Mw. 5.2). In determining onset time and lead time, polarization ratio Z/H at frequency of 0.012 Hz was used. Lead time detected were 4 days, 7 days, 4 days before the earthquakes respectively. The azimuth of anomalies ULF emission was investigated with Single Station Transfer Function (SSTF) that represent earthquake preparation zone. The azimuth of anomalous ULF emissions for each earthquakes were 217.3°, 208.5°, and 184.3°.

  10. Long-term structural retinal changes in patients with optic neuritis related to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Rene; Roar, Malte; Sejbaek, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term structural and functional outcome in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 82 patients diagnosed with MS between 2000 and 2006 from a tertiary hospital center...... in Denmark. Patients gave a self-reported history of ON, and functional (visual acuity and color vision) and structural (spectra domain optical coherence tomography) markers of vision were tested. RESULTS: Median age and MS duration at the time of the clinical examination were 49.9 years (range 30.......7-72.6 years) and 13 years (range 9-15 years), respectively. ON was not associated with impairment of visual acuity or color vision. Twenty-three patients had a history of ON in at least one eye. Compared to non-affected patients, these had a lower inferior (109 vs 113 μm, P=0.04) and temporal retinal nerve...

  11. Cranial computed tomography in infantile spasms; Primary findings related to long-term mental prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howitz, P. (Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Neergaard, K.; Pedersen, H. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-01-01

    Out of 109 children with infantile spasms (IS), prospectively tested during the years 1976 to 1979 in Denmark, 52 children were examined by cranial computed tomography (CT). The classification of IS into cryptogenic (CR), symptomatic (SY) and doubtful (DO) was done clinically without considering the CT-finding. Sixty per cent of the scannings were abnormal. Only 6/30 (20%) of the children in ACTH treatment were found to develop cerebral atrophy which means that this finding is not an obligatory side-effect of ACTH treatment of children with IS. Normal CT-findings were found in 50% of the CR and 50% of the SY + DO-groups, and could not be used as a prognostic tool for estimating the mental development. This was also the case for children with cerebral atrophy. Abnormal CT-findings (minus atrophy) were highly correlated to the group with clinical symptoms and indicate an extremely unsatisfying long-term mental prognosis. CT-scanning is a valuable tool for the examination of clearing children with infantile spasms. (authors).

  12. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history...... of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index...... birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes....

  13. Examining Long Term Climate Related Security Risks through the Use of Gaming and Scenario Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    nology to deal with rising temperatures and greenhouse gas emissions. The two dominant forms of technology across the games were nuclear energy and...nuclear energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The players in this game felt it was a viable alternative to fossil fuels. The European Union...Asia, and the United States devoted resources to regions in need, including the Andes, Indonesia , Mexico, and parts of Africa.19 The players felt

  14. Long-term testosterone treatment in elderly men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction reduces obesity parameters and improves metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Dany-Jan; Doros, Gheorghe; Hammerer, Peter G; Yassin, Aksam A

    2014-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is diagnosed when declining testosterone concentrations in the aging male cause unwanted symptoms such as erectile dysfunction (ED), reduced bone density and muscle strength, and increased visceral obesity. Testosterone deficiency is also associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Restoring testosterone to physiological concentrations has beneficial effects on many of these symptoms; however, it is not known whether these effects can be sustained in the long term. To investigate whether treatment with testosterone undecanoate (TU) has a long-term and sustained effect on parameters affected by the MetS in men with LOH and ED, to determine whether long-term testosterone treatment can improve the overall health-related quality of life in these men, and to establish the safety of long-term testosterone treatment. Two hundred sixty-one patients (mean age 59.5 ± 8.4 years) diagnosed with LOH and ED were treated with long-acting TU in a prospective, observational, and longitudinal registry study. Men received intramuscular injections of 1,000 mg TU at day 1, at week 6, and every 3 months thereafter. Parameters affected by the MetS, including obesity parameters (body weight, waist circumference, and body mass index [BMI]), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, glucose, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), and blood pressure, as well as total testosterone levels and health-related quality of life, were assessed. We found TU significantly improved obesity parameters (body weight, waist circumference, and BMI) and lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c , and blood pressure over the 5-year study. HDL cholesterol was increased. TU treatment resulted in a sustained improvement in erectile function and muscle and joint pain, which contributed to an improvement in long-term health-related quality of life. Furthermore

  15. Hamiltonian analysis of the double null 2 + 2 decomposition of general relativity expressed in terms of self-dual bivectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Inverno, R A; Lambert, P; Vickers, J A [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-07

    In this paper, we obtain a 2 + 2 double null Hamiltonian description of general relativity using only the (complex) SO(3) connection and the components of the complex densitized self-dual bivectors {sigma}{sub A}. We carry out the general canonical analysis of this system and obtain the first class constraint algebra entirely in terms of the self-dual variables. The first class algebra forms a Lie algebra and all the first class constraints have a simple geometrical interpretation.

  16. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Prospective. The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union ('rugby') players (population at risk). Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries-fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme.

  17. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Donoughe, Kelly; Katz, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fat...

  18. Long-term cosmetic and sexual outcome of hypospadias surgery: norm related study in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Kimihiko; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Furuno, Tsuyoshi; Higashiyama, Hiroshi; Sano, Hiroshi; Kitta, Takeya; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2006-10-01

    Even if performed early in life, hypospadias surgery may have a significant impact on self-esteem and sexual behavior in adolescence. We evaluated the long-term cosmetic and sexual outcomes of hypospadias surgery performed in childhood. A detailed questionnaire was mailed to 33 patients with hypospadias who were 18 to 26 years old and had undergone the first operation at age 6 years or younger. It was also mailed to 50 age matched controls. A total of 22 patients (66.7%) and 38 controls (76.0%) returned the questionnaire. Mean age in the hypospadias and control groups was 20.6 and 21.0 years, respectively. Eight of the 22 patients had mild hypospadias and 11 had severe hypospadias. Severity was unknown in 3 patients. Age at the first and final operations was 31 to 75 (mean 46) and 35 to 81 months (mean 53). The number of operation was 1 in 10 patients, 2 in 10 and 3 in 2. The rate of dissatisfaction with penile appearance was slightly higher in the hypospadias group than in the control group (40.9% vs 34.2%). The single reason for dissatisfaction in the hypospadias group was inadequate penile size, whereas in the control group penile size, phimosis and curvature were the major reasons for dissatisfaction (69.2%, 46.2% and 23.1%, respectively). Experience with masturbation (100% and 97.4%) and sexual intercourse (52.4% and 55.3%), and mean age at first masturbation (13.4 and 13.0 years) and first sexual intercourse (16.6 and 17.3 years) were similar in the hypospadias and control groups, respectively. Although patients with hypospadias had a slightly higher rate of dissatisfaction with penile size, their sexual behavior was not different from that in control subjects.

  19. EEG coherence related to fMRI resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that faulty co-activation or synchrony of multiple brain regions comprising “networks,” or an imbalance between opposing brain networks, is important in alcoholism. Previous studies showed higher fMRI resting state synchrony (RSS within the executive control (inhibitory control and emotion regulation networks and lower RSS within the appetitive drive network in long-term (multi-year abstinent alcoholics (LTAA vs. non substance abusing controls (NSAC. Our goal was to identify EEG networks that are correlated with the appetitive drive and executive function networks identified with fMRI in our previous alcohol studies. We used parallel ICA for multimodal data fusion for the 20 LTAA and 21 NSAC that had both usable fMRI and 64-channel EEG data. Our major result was that parallel ICA identified a pair of components that significantly separated NSAC from LTAA and were correlated with each other. Examination of the resting-state fMRI seed-correlation map component showed higher bilateral nucleus accumbens seed-correlation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally and lower seed-correlation in the thalamus. This single component thus encompassed both the executive control and appetitive drive networks, consistent with our previous work. The correlated EEG coherence component showed mostly higher theta and alpha coherence in LTAA compared to NSAC, and lower gamma coherence in LTAA compared to NSAC. The EEG theta and alpha coherence results suggest enhanced top-down control in LTAA and the gamma coherence results suggest impaired appetitive drive in LTAA. Our results support the notion that fMRI RSS is reflected in spontaneous EEG, even when the EEG and fMRI are not obtained simultaneously.

  20. Long term chemoradiotherapy-related dental and skeletal complications in a young female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou1, Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki2, Nikolaos Eleftheriadis3, Christos Papaloukas41Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 3Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: We describe the long-term complications six years after chemoradiotherapy in a 20-year old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We wanted to know whether the radiation dose was constant throughout the oral cavity, and thus uniformly affecting the corresponding dental and skeletal structures. Clinical and radiologic findings are described six years after chemoradiotherapy based on a two-dimensional computerized treatment planning system. This revealed radiation caries limited only to posterior teeth, proximal caries in the anterior teeth, limited but continuous salivary flow, mild periodontal infection, mild xerostomia, and a regenerative capacity of bones and the developmental process. The quantitative assessment of radiation delivered to the mandible revealed a high radiation dose in the posterior area and a minimal dose in the anterior area. This explains the differences in caries manifestation between the anterior and posterior teeth. According to the present study, individualized radiation fields, using a two-dimensional treatment planning system, result in restriction of severe damage of the dental and skeletal structures, which usually follows chemoradiotherapy. Orthodontic treatment could be initiated according to individual patient needs.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, adolescence, radiotherapy, dental and skeletal complications

  1. Persistent, long-term cerebral white matter changes after sports-related repetitive head impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Janigro, Damir; Rozen, Eric; Roberts, Andrew; Javien, Hannah; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Abar, Beau; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive head impacts (RHI) sustained in contact sports are thought to be necessary for the long-term development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Our objectives were to: 1) characterize the magnitude and persistence of RHI-induced white matter (WM) changes; 2) determine their relationship to kinematic measures of RHI; and 3) explore their clinical relevance. Prospective, observational study of 10 Division III college football players and 5 non-athlete controls during the 2011-12 season. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), physiologic, cognitive, and balance testing at pre-season (Time 1), post-season (Time 2), and after 6-months of no-contact rest (Time 3). Head impact measures were recorded using helmet-mounted accelerometers. The percentage of whole-brain WM voxels with significant changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from Time 1 to 2, and Time 1 to 3 was determined for each subject and correlated to head impacts and clinical measures. Total head impacts for the season ranged from 431-1,850. No athlete suffered a clinically evident concussion. Compared to controls, athletes experienced greater changes in FA and MD from Time 1 to 2 as well as Time 1 to 3; most differences at Time 2 persisted to Time 3. Among athletes, the percentage of voxels with decreased FA from Time 1 to 2 was positively correlated with several helmet impact measures. The persistence of WM changes from Time 1 to 3 was also associated with changes in serum ApoA1 and S100B autoantibodies. WM changes were not consistently associated with cognition or balance. A single football season of RHIs without clinically-evident concussion resulted in WM changes that correlated with multiple helmet impact measures and persisted following 6 months of no-contact rest. This lack of WM recovery could potentially contribute to cumulative WM changes with subsequent RHI exposures.

  2. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  3. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  4. Swedish children with celiac disease comply well with a gluten-free diet, and most include oats without reporting any adverse effects: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsas, Dimitrios; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Högberg, Lotta; Hammersjö, Jan-Åke; Hollén, Elisabet

    2014-05-01

    The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early hospital readmission for gastrointestinal-related complications predicts long-term mortality after pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Craig-Schapiro, Rebecca; Valero, Vicente; Cameron, John L; Eckhauser, Frederic E; Hirose, Kenzo; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M; Ahuja, Nita; Weiss, Matthew J; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of early (30-day) hospital readmission (EHR) on mortality after pancreatectomy. Using a prospectively collected institutional database linked with a statewide dataset, we evaluated the association between EHR and overall mortality in all patients undergoing pancreatectomy at our tertiary institution (2005 to 2010). Of 595 pancreatectomy patients, EHR occurred in 21.5%. Overall mortality was 29.4% (median follow-up 22.7 months). Patients with EHR had decreased survival compared with those who were not readmitted (P = .011). On multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline group differences, EHR for gastrointestinal-related complications was a significant independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.30, P = .001). In addition to known risk factors, 30-day readmission for gastrointestinal-related complications following pancreatectomy independently predicts increased mortality. Additional studies are necessary to identify surgical, medical, and social factors contributing to EHR, as well as interventions aimed at decreasing postpancreatectomy morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The risk for impaired learning-related abilities in childhood and educational attainment among adults born near-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Davey, Charles; Fifer, William P; Savitz, David A; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether near-term births (NTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at high risk for childhood learning-related problems and poor adult educational attainment, and whether poverty amplifies the adverse effects of NTB and SGA on those outcomes. A randomly selected birth cohort (n = 1,619) was followed into adulthood. IQ and learning abilities were measured in childhood and educational attainment was measured in adulthood. NTB (n = 226) and SGA (n = 154) were associated with lower educational attainment mediated through learning-related abilities at age 7. Childhood poverty moderated the impact of NTB on educational attainment both directly and mediated through lower learning-related abilities. Poverty did not moderate the effect of SGA. Poorer learning-related outcomes and educational attainment were not limited to children born very (learning during childhood among NTB in poor families may yield higher educational attainment.

  7. Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long-term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key microinvertebrates, 1994 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  8. Year 2000 status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key micro invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  9. 2002 Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  10. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rGIS-based regression models offer a promising approach to assess individual levels of

  11. Influence of advancing age on clinical presentation, treatment efficacy and safety, and long-term outcome of inducible paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia without pre-excitation syndromes: A cohort study of 1960 patients included over 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Sellal, Jean Marc; Olivier, Arnaud; Villemin, Thibaut; Beurrier, Daniel; Vincent, Julie; Manenti, Vladimir; de Chillou, Christian; Bozec, Erwan

    2018-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of increasing age on clinical presentation, treatment and long-term outcome in patients with inducible paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) without pre-excitation syndromes. Methods Clinical and electrophysiological study (EPS) data, as well as long-term clinical outcome (mean follow-up 2.4±4.0 years) were collected in patients referred for regular tachycardia with inducible SVT during EPS without pre-excitation. Results Among 1960 referred patients, 301 patients (15.4%) were aged ≥70 (70–97). In this subset, anticoagulants were prescribed in 49 patients following an erroneous diagnosis of atrial tachycardia and 14 were previously erroneously diagnosed with ventricular tachycardia because of wide QRS. Ablation was performed more frequently in patients ≥70 despite more frequent failure and complications. During follow-up, higher risks of AF, stroke, pacemaker implantation and death were observed in patients ≥70 whereas SVT recurrences were similar in both age groups. In multivariable analysis, age ≥70 was independently associated with higher risks of SVT-related adverse events prior to ablation (OR = 1.93, 1.41–2.62, pSVT without pre-excitation syndromes are elderly. These patients exhibit higher risks of erroneous tachycardia diagnosis prior to EPS as well as failure and/or complication of ablation, but similar risk of SVT recurrence. These results support performing transesophageal EPS in most patients and intracardiac EPS in selected patients. EPS may furthermore prove useful in elderly patients with regular tachycardia, mainly by avoiding treatment based on an erroneous diagnosis. PMID:29304037

  12. Psychological factors including sense of coherence and some lifestyles are related to general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) in elderly workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ichiyo; Sagara, Takiko; Ohshita, Yoshiko; Nagase, Hirofumi; Ogino, Keiki; Eboshida, Akira; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    The number of elderly workers has also been increasing and poor psychological well-being in elderly workers has been reported. The aim of this study is to elucidate the factors that are related to poor psychological well-being in elderly workers. We administered General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) as an indicator of psychological well-being to 330 male elderly workers in the age range of 50-69, and analyzed different psychological factors, namely sense of coherence (SOC), and physical and lifestyle variables such as blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, smoking frequency, alcohol intake, exercise frequency, and body mass index (BMI) that are related to GHQ-12. When the cut-off point of GHQ-12 was 2/3, 97 workers who showed high GHQ-12 score were classified as one group having poor psychological well-being. A statistically significantly lower SOC score, higher stress score, lower frequency of exercise, higher smoking score and higher BMI, but not longer working hours or higher shift work score in the workers with higher GHQ-12 scores were observed than in the workers with normal GHQ-12 scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the low SCO score, low frequency of exercise, high smoking frequency and high BMI significantly contributed to the high GHQ-12 score. A low SOC score in elderly workers is assumed to be directly related to poor psychological well-being, or via the development of lifestyle problems such as lack of exercise, obesity, and smoking in elderly workers. This assumption must be confirmed by conducting future intervention studies on lifestyle.

  13. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  14. Long-term relations among prosocial-media use, empathy, and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward; Lim, Kam Ming; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Jelic, Margareta; Krahé, Barbara; Liuqing, Wei; Liau, Albert K; Khoo, Angeline; Petrescu, Poesis Diana; Sakamoto, Akira; Tajima, Sachi; Toma, Roxana Andreea; Warburton, Wayne; Zhang, Xuemin; Lam, Ben Chun Pan

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent growth of research on the effects of prosocial media, processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Two studies explored theoretically relevant mediators and moderators of the effects of prosocial media on helping. Study 1 examined associations among prosocial- and violent-media use, empathy, and helping in samples from seven countries. Prosocial-media use was positively associated with helping. This effect was mediated by empathy and was similar across cultures. Study 2 explored longitudinal relations among prosocial-video-game use, violent-video-game use, empathy, and helping in a large sample of Singaporean children and adolescents measured three times across 2 years. Path analyses showed significant longitudinal effects of prosocial- and violent-video-game use on prosocial behavior through empathy. Latent-growth-curve modeling for the 2-year period revealed that change in video-game use significantly affected change in helping, and that this relationship was mediated by change in empathy.

  15. Strengthening the Relations with Indonesia – One of the EU’s Long Term Priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current level of trade and investment flows between the EU and Indonesia, ASEAN’s largest economy, does not represent a real proof of the bilateral relations strategic nature. The objective of our paper resides in the substantiation of the relevance of this relationship for each of the two partners in the long run. The strengths of our argumentation consists in emphasizing Indonesia’s gradual but obvious rise on the global stage, its complementarities with the EU economy and also the common efforts undertaken in order to stop the greenhouse gas emissions, taking into consideration the particular threats for an archipelago-country. Last but not least, the increasing separatist movements in Europe and other regions in the world bring the EU and Indonesia closer than ever. Our paper is structured in four sections, and the last one concludes.

  16. Modifications in food-group consumption are related to long-term body-weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Vicky; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Allard, Lucie; Fournier, Guy; Leblanc, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2004-07-01

    Dietary patterns play an important role in the control of body weight. The aim of this study was to verify whether changes in some dietary patterns over a 6-y follow-up period would be associated with weight changes. A sample of 248 volunteers of the Québec Family Study were measured twice (visit 1: 1989-1994; visit 2: 1995-2000). Body weight, percentage body fat, subcutaneous skinfold thicknesses, and waist circumference measurements as well as 3-d dietary and physical activity records were obtained at each visit. At visit 2, all participants filled out a food-based questionnaire examining changes in the consumption of 10 food categories. To further investigate the relation between changes in food-group consumption and body-weight changes, a total of 51 food subcategories were identified from dietary records. A self-reported decrease in the consumption of food in the fat group or an increase in consumption in the fruit group from the food-based questionnaire predicted a lower increase in body weight and adiposity indicators over time. A more detailed examination of the change in food groups between diet records revealed that increases in the consumption of whole fruit as well as skimmed milk and partly skimmed milk were the 2 food patterns that negatively correlated with the changes of each body weight-related indicator. These results show that changes in the consumption of some specific food groups are associated with body-weight changes. Such specific eating patterns could help to improve obesity treatment and prevention.

  17. Serum Magnesium and Related Factors in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N; Santana, A; Guerra, J; Neves, M; Nascimento, C; Gonçalves, J; da Costa, A G

    2017-05-01

    Low serum magnesium (MgS) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular and mineral bone disease. In renal transplant recipients (RTRs), low MgS levels have been related to higher glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and with calcineurin inhibitors, particularly tacrolimus. We aimed to evaluate MgS in renal transplant recipients with over 1 year of follow-up to establish related risk factors and the impact of the use of cyclosporine versus tacrolimus. Cross-sectional study of 94 RTRs with more than 12 months of follow-up. Hypomagnesemia was defined as serum magnesium level magnesium and phosphorus was found. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus analysis did not show a significant difference regarding MgS when considering all the population and the subgroup of patients with GFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . On the subgroup with GFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , those on tacrolimus had lower MgS than those on cyclosporine, but those same patients presented with significantly different GFR, higher in the tacrolimus subgroup. Hypomagnesemia has a low prevalence in RTRs with more than 1 year of follow-up. MgS levels evidenced a strong correlation with GFR. A significant difference on MgS levels between patients on tacrolimus and cyclosporine was found only when considering GFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , in which patients on tacrolimus had significantly higher GFR than patients on cyclosporine, which may explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  20. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Stein E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  1. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  2. Diverse Cone-Snail Species Harbor Closely Related Streptomyces Species with Conserved Chemical and Genetic Profiles, Including Polycyclic Tetramic Acid Macrolactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Quezada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using chromatographic, spectroscopic and bioassays methodology, we demonstrate that Streptomyces isolated from five different Conus species produce identical chemical and antifungal profiles – comprising a suite of polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (PTMs. To investigate possible ecological (and evolutionary relationships we used genome analyses to reveal a close taxonomic relationship with other sponge-derived and free-living PTM producing Streptomyces (i.e., Streptomyces albus. In-depth phylogenomic analysis of PTM biosynthetic gene clusters indicated PTM structure diversity was governed by a small repertoire of genetic elements, including discrete gene acquisition events involving dehydrogenases. Overall, our study shows a Streptomyces-Conus ecological relationship that is concomitant with specific PTM chemical profiles. We provide an evolutionary framework to explain this relationship, driven by anti-fungal properties that protect Conus snails from fungal pathogens.

  3. Water Relations, Gas Exchange, and Nutrient Response to a Long Term Constant Water Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Wade L.; Goldstein, Guillermo; Dreschel, Thomas W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.; Knott, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) were grown for 43 days in a micro-porous tube nutrient delivery system. Roots were unable to penetrate the microporous tube, but grew on the surface and maintained capillary contact with the nutrient solution on the inside of the tube through the 5-micron pores of the porous tube. Water potential in the system was controlled at -0.4, -0.8, and -3.0 kPa by adjusting the applied pressure (hydrostatic head) to the nutrient solution flowing through the microporous tubes. A relatively small decrease in applied water potential from -0.4 to -3.0 kPa resulted in a 34% reduction of shoot growth but only a moderate reduction in the midday leaf water potential from -1.3 to -1.7 MPa. Carbon dioxide assimilation decreased and water use efficiency increased with the more negative applied water potentials, while intercellular CO2 concentration remained constant. This was associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance to water vapor from 1.90 to 0.98 mol/(sq m sec) and a decrease in total apparent hydraulic conductance from 47 to 12 (micro)mol/(sec MPa). Although the applied water potentials were in the -0.4 to -3.0 kPa range, the actual water potential perceived by the plant roots appeared to be in the range of -0.26 to -0.38 MPa as estimated by the leaf water potential of bagged plants. The amount of K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, and B accumulated with each unit of transpired water increased as the applied water potential became less negative. The increase in accumulation ranged from 1.4-fold for K to 2.2-fold for B. The physiological responses observed in this study in response to small constant differences in applied water potentials were much greater than expected from either the applied water potential or the observed plant water potential. Even though the micro-porous tube may not represent natural conditions and could possibly introduce morphological and physiological artifacts, it enables a high degree of control of water potential that

  4. Figures of merit and constraints from testing general relativity using the latest cosmological data sets including refined COSMOS 3D weak lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological constraints from current data sets and a figure of merit approach in order to probe any deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales. The figure of merit approach is used to study and compare the constraining power of various combinations of data sets on the modified gravity (MG) parameters. We use the recently refined HST-COSMOS weak-lensing tomography data, the ISW-galaxy cross correlations from 2MASS and SDSS luminous red galaxy surveys, the matter power spectrum from SDSS-DR7 (MPK), the WMAP7 temperature and polarization spectra, the baryon acoustic oscillations from Two-Degree Field and SDSS-DR7, and the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae, in addition to other bounds from Hubble parameter measurements and big bang nucleosynthesis. We use three parametrizations of MG parameters that enter the perturbed field equations. In order to allow for variations of the parameters with the redshift and scale, the first two parametrizations use recently suggested functional forms while the third is based on binning methods. Using the first parametrization, we find that the CMB+ISW+WL combination provides the strongest constraints on the MG parameters followed by CMB+WL or CMB+MPK+ISW. Using the second parametrization or the binning methods, we find that the combination CMB+MPK+ISW consistently provides some of the strongest constraints. This shows that the constraints are parametrization dependent. We find that adding up current data sets does not improve consistently the uncertainties on MG parameters due to tensions between the best-fit MG parameters preferred by different data sets. Furthermore, some functional forms imposed by the parametrizations can lead to an exacerbation of these tensions. Next, unlike some studies that used the CFHTLS lensing data, we do not find any deviation from general relativity using the refined HST-COSMOS data, confirming previous claims in those studies that their result may have been due to some

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired...... treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema...

  6. Short-Term Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Aggression: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 minutes, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT, which is based on Taylor’s Aggression Paradigm and measures both reaction time and noise intensity preference as indices of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT (noise intensity preference. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  7. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  8. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  9. Semantic Network Analysis on Terms related Mantle in Earth Science 2 Textbooks of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; reum Cho, Ah; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1 in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science I fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth ScienceⅠ, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  10. Event-related potential correlates of long-term memory for briefly presented faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Carrie A; Kutas, Marta

    2005-05-01

    Electrophysiological studies have investigated the nature of face recognition in a variety of paradigms; some have contrasted famous and novel faces in explicit memory paradigms, others have repeated faces to examine implicit memory/priming. If the general finding that implicit memory can last for up to several months also holds for novel faces, a reliable measure of it could have practical application for eyewitness testimony, given that explicit measures of eyewitness memory have at times proven fallible. The current study aimed to determine whether indirect behavioral and electrophysiological measures might yield reliable estimates of face memory over longer intervals than have typically been obtained with priming manipulations. Participants were shown 192 faces and then tested for recognition at four test delays ranging from immediately up to 1 week later. Three event-related brain potential components (e.g., N250r, N400f, and LPC) varied with memory measures although only the N250r varied regardless of explicit recognition, that is, with both repetition and recognition.

  11. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  12. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  13. ANALYSIS OF RELATION TERM BETWEEN CUMMULATIVE PERFORMANCE INDEX AND SNMPTN DATA BASE USING APPRIORITY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswari Hernawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the university management, in addition to resources infrastructure, facilities and people, information systems is one of the resources that can be utilized to enhance the competitive advantage and provide accurate data for the benefit of policy makers, for example, information about the test scores SNMPTN, region of origin students, GPA student, students study duration. Yogyakarta State University to accept new students with an average of approximately 6,000 people annually, through the National Selection of State Universities Student (SNMPTN, SBMPTN (Joint Student Selection State University and the Independent Selection exam (SM. With the increasing number of prospective students through SBMPTN, then increasingly also the basic data in a database of prospective students annually. By utilizing basic data on SBMPTN students and grade point average (GPA, the study aims to apply data mining techniques using the association rule Apriori algorithm to look for patterns of association between baseline SBMPTN and UNY students GPA. Basic data to be processed SBMPTN mining student data origin include school, home school district data, earnings data parent, parental education level data, the average value data UAN, and data values academic potential test (TPA. The results obtained are no data in the data base SNMPTN that significantly affect the acquisition of GPA. This is evident from the association rules derived from the 50 best asosoasi rules not seen the emergence of itemset GPA accompanied by the emergence of other itemset.   Keywords: Data Mining, Association Rule, Algoritma Apriori, SNMPTN

  14. Trabeculectomy in Patients With Glaucoma Over 80 Years of Age: Relatively Short-term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Fulya; Waisbourd, Michael; Faria, Bruno; Addis, Victoria; Hsieh, Michael; Ekici, Feyzahan; Hark, Lisa A; Spaeth, George L

    2016-03-01

    To compare the surgical outcomes of trabeculectomy performed in elderly patients (above 80 y) with those of younger controls. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who underwent trabeculectomy from January 1, 2009 through April 30, 2011 at the Wills Eye Hospital. Patients over 80 years of age were compared with younger controls. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, number of glaucoma medications, surgical complications, and surgical failure. Surgical failure was defined as when IOP>21 mm Hg or <20% reduction below baseline or IOP<5 mm Hg or reoperation for glaucoma, or loss of light perception. Eighty-six eyes of patients over 80 years of age (range, 81 to 94 y) were compared with 86 eyes of younger controls (range, 22 to 79 y). Mean follow-up time was 23.9±8.0 and 25.1±8.0 months for each group, respectively. After 1 year, the failure rate was 31.3% in the elderly group, compared with 29.5% in the control group (P=0.98). At last follow-up visit, the rate of failure between the groups was similar (P=0.35). Postoperative complications were similar between the groups (P=0.25). The surgical outcomes of trabeculectomy in patients older than 80 years were found to be similar to those of younger controls. Taking into consideration elderly glaucoma patients' general health condition and life expectancy, age alone may not be a barrier to performing glaucoma filtration surgery.

  15. [Defense mechanisms as outcome measure in short-term psychotherapy related to symptoms, severity and overall functioning: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccanari de' Fornari, Maria Antonietta; Piccione, Michele; Maiello, Luca; Giampà, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of defense mechanisms in psychotherapy is currently one of the most used ways to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy. In literature there are few reports on defense mechanisms changes by short-term treatments. To determine whether the defense mechanisms are changed after twelve sessions of short-term psychotherapy related to psychopathological symptoms, severity and overall functioning. Twenty patients (12 F and 8 M; age 38.4) affected by anxiety and mood disorders were recruited to the study between November 2008 and July 2009 and were assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-88 (DSQ-88), scale Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), scale Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and scale Valutazione Globale del Funzionamento (VGF) at the beginning and after short-term psychotherapy. Half the sample also assumed drugs. The treatment was supportive-expressive psychotherapy of Luborsky, a short focal dynamic therapy, characterized by the integration of supportive and expressive techniques. Both patients showed a significant decrease in immature defenses and a significant-increase in mature defenses (p defenses were significantly correlated with severity (r = -0632; p = 0.003) and overall functioning (r = 0529; p = 0.01). Immature and mature defenses seem to be a useful outcome measure in short-term psychotherapy as well as severity and overall functioning and the combined treatment may be most effective in reducing immature defenses.

  16. Dry Needling Related Short-Term Vasodilation in Chronic Sciatica under Infrared Thermovision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorupska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasomotor responses to dry needling (DN of trigger points (TrPs under infrared thermovision (IRT camera control and TrPs coexistence in chronic sciatica patients have never been studied. Materials and Methods. Fifty consecutive chronic sciatica patients were enrolled in the study. DN under IRT control was performed for all patients regardless of gluteus minimus (GM active TrPs examination. Then, the vasomotor response and its agreement with TrPs examination were evaluated. Results. The prevalence of GM active TrPs was 32%. DN provokes intensive vasodilatation for TrPs-positive patients only, with the localization dependent on referred pain during the procedure (r=0.896;  P=0.000 not the daily complaint. The increase of vasodilatation was, for example, for thigh, TrPs-positive +30.29% (P<0.05 versus TrPs-negative +4.08%. Additionally, a significant skin temperature increase was observed for TrPs-positive only, for example, thigh +1.5 ± 1.3°C (maximum and +1.2 ± 1.0°C (average (both P<0.05. Conclusion. GM active TrPs prevalence among chronic sciatica patients was around one in three. Every TrPs-positive subject presented with vasodilatation under IRT in the area of DN related referred pain. Although TrPs involvement in chronic sciatica patients is possible, further studies on a bigger group of patients are still required.

  17. Long term health-related quality of life in survivors of sepsis in South West Wales: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; Davies, Gareth; Evans, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of sepsis report persistent problems that can last years after hospital discharge. The main aim of this study was to investigate long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of SIRS and sepsis compared with Welsh normative data, controlling for age, length of stay and pre-existing conditions. The second aim was to investigate any differences in long-term health-related quality of life specifically with the patients categorised into three groups; SIRS, uncomplicated sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock. A prospective study design was used in order to investigate all sepsis patients either presenting to the Emergency Department or admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a regional trauma centre. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and surviving patients were sent a SF-12v2 survey at between six months to two years post-hospital discharge. Quality of life was significantly reduced in all patients when compared to local normative data (all pquality of life were more pronounced in severe sepsis/septic shock patients when compared to uncomplicated sepsis and SIRS patients, when controlling for age, pre-existing conditions, hospital and ICU length of stay. This is the first observational study to specifically focus on the different groups of SIRS and sepsis patients to assess long-term quality of life. Local population norms were used for comparison, rather than UK-wide norms that fail to reflect the intricacies of a country's population.

  18. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  19. A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its Australasian relative, Lepilaena (Potamogetonaceae) - Evidence from DNA and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; García-Murillo, Pablo; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-05-01

    Althenia (Potamogetonaceae) is an aquatic plant genus disjunctly distributed in the southern- (South Africa's Cape Floristic Region: CFR) and northern- (Mediterranean Eurasia) hemispheres. This genus and its Australasian relative, Lepilaena, share similar floral characters yet have been treated as different genera or sections of Althenia sensu lato (s.l.) due to the isolated geographic distribution as well as the differences in sex expression, stamen construction, and stigma morphology. The diagnostic characters, however, need reevaluation over the boundaries between the entities. Here we tested the taxonomic delimitation between the entities, assessed synapomorphies for evolutionary lineages, and inferred biogeographic history in a phylogenetic framework. Our results indicated that Lepilaena was resolved as non-monophyletic in both plastid DNA and nuclear PhyC trees and Althenia was nested within it. As Althenia has nomenclatural priority, we propose a new delimitation to recognize Althenia s.l., which can be diagnosed by the female flowers with 3-segmented perianths and male flowers with perianths. The previously used diagnostic characters are either autapomorphies or synapomorphies for small lineages within Althenia s.l., and evolutionary transitions to sessile female flowers and narrow leaves characterize larger clades. Biogeographic analyses suggested a Miocene origin of Althenia s.l. in Australasia and indicated at least one inter- and one intra-specific inter-continental dispersal events among Australasia, Mediterranean Eurasia, and CFR need to be hypothesized to explain the current distribution patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  1. Drone Use in Monioring Open Ocean Surface Debris, Including Paired Manta and Tucker Trawls for Relateing Sea State to Vertical Debris Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, G.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring debris at sea presents challenges not found in beach or riverine habitats, and is typically done with trawl nets of various apertures and mesh sizes, which limits the size of debris captured and the area surveyed. To partially overcome these limitations in monitoring floating debris, a Quadcopter drone with video transmitting and recording capabilities was deployed at the beginning and the end of manta trawl transects within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre's eastern convergence zone. Subsurface tucker trawls at 10 meters were conducted at the same time as the manta trawls, in order to assess the effect of sea state on debris dispersal. Trawls were conducted on an 11 station grid used repeatedly since 1999. For drone observations, the operator and observer were stationed on the mother ship while two researchers collected observed debris using a rigid inflatable boat (RIB). The drone was flown to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the vessel in a zigzag or circular search pattern. Here we examine issues arising from drone deployment during the survey: 1) relation of area surveyed by drone to volume of water passing through trawl; 2) retrieval of drone-spotted and associated RIB spotted debris. 3) integrating post- flight image analysis into retrieved debris quantification; and 4) factors limiting drone effectiveness at sea. During the survey, debris too large for the manta trawl was spotted by the drone, and significant debris not observed using the drone was recovered by the RIB. The combination of drone sightings, RIB retrieval, and post flight image analysis leads to improved monitoring of debris at sea. We also examine the issue of the distribution of floating debris during sea states varying from 0-5 by comparing quantities from surface manta trawls to the tucker trawls at a nominal depth of 10 meters.

  2. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  4. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  5. Stuck in default mode: inefficient cross-frequency synchronization may lead to age-related short-term memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related decline in short-term memory capacity seems to be caused by deficient balancing of task-related and resting state brain networks activity; however, the exact neural mechanism underlying this deficit remains elusive. Here, we studied brain oscillatory activity in healthy young and old adults during visual information maintenance in a delayed match-to-sample task. Particular emphasis was on long range phase:amplitude coupling of frontal alpha (8-12 Hz) and posterior fast oscillatory activity (>30 Hz). It is argued that through posterior fast oscillatory activity nesting into the excitatory or the inhibitory phase of frontal alpha wave, long-range networks can be efficiently coupled or decoupled, respectively. On the basis of this mechanism, we show that healthy, elderly participants exhibit a lack of synchronization in task-relevant networks while maintaining synchronized regions of the resting state network. Lacking disconnection of this resting state network is predictive of aging-related short-term memory decline. These results support the idea of inefficient orchestration of competing brain networks in the aging human brain and identify the neural mechanism responsible for this control breakdown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The parietal cortices participate in encoding, short-term memory, and decision-making related to tactile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hortelano, Eduardo; Concha, Luis; de Lafuente, Victor

    2014-10-15

    We routinely identify objects with our hands, and the physical attributes of touched objects are often held in short-term memory to aid future decisions. However, the brain structures that selectively process tactile information to encode object shape are not fully identified. In this article we describe the areas within the human cerebral cortex that specialize in encoding, short-term memory, and decision-making related to the shape of objects explored with the hand. We performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects performing a shape discrimination task in which two sequentially presented objects had to be explored to determine whether they had the same shape or not. To control for low-level and nonspecific brain activations, subjects performed a temperature discrimination task in which they compared the temperature of two spheres. Our results show that although a large network of brain structures is engaged in somatosensory processing, it is the areas lining the intraparietal sulcus that selectively participate in encoding, maintaining, and deciding on tactile information related to the shape of objects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  8. The Risk for Impaired Learning-related Abilities in Childhood and Educational Attainment Among Adults Born Near-term

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yoko; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Davey, Charles; Fifer, William P.; Savitz, David A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine whether near-term births (NTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at high risk for childhood learning-related problems and poor adult educational attainment, and whether poverty amplifies the adverse effects of NTB and SGA on those outcomes. Methods A randomly selected birth cohort (n = 1,619) was followed into adulthood. IQ and learning abilities were measured in childhood and educational attainment was measured in adulthood. Results NTB (n = 226) and SGA (n...

  9. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old * alcohol consumption (light, moderate factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long–term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.

  10. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature A importância da inclusão do termo sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial nos descritores em ciências da saúde e na terminologia anatômica internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Massako Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. METHODS: Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4% and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%. CONCLUSION: The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.OBJETIVO: Investigar a relevância do termo sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial (SMAS para propor a sua indicação para indexação como palavra-chave e inclusão na Terminologia Anatômica Internacional. MÉTODOS: Termos relacionados ao SMAS foram recuperados de artigos originais identificados por mapeamento automático nas bases ISI Web Of Science e MEDLINE (PubMed. Os termos foram agrupados a fim de formar uma estratégia de busca de alta sensibilidade, limitada a periódicos exclusivos da especialidade de Cirurgia Plástica. Destes periódicos, foram selecionados artigos publicados de janeiro de 1996 a

  11. Age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of March 11, 2004 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Vallet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of the terrorist attacks that took place in Madrid (Spain on March 11, 2004. One hundred and ninety-six individuals participated in this experiment: 92 were 9.60 years old on average and 104 were 39.41 years old on average at the time of the event. To evaluate their real memories of the event twelve years later, the Phenomenological Questionnaire on Autobiographical Memory was used. Differences were shown between the two groups in terms of memory quality, emotions associated with the event, and accessibility of the information remembered. Results were also represented using high-dimensional visualization (HDV graphs, supporting the assertion that long-term event memories have different characteristics depending on the age of the individual at the time the event took place. Memories in adult people meet the criteria to be considered flashbulb memories, while in the case of the younger people this kind of memory does not seem to emerge. Young people are probably less capable of evaluating the consequences of an event which results in reduced emotional arousal and a different elaboration of the event memory in comparison to older adults.

  12. Defining Acquisition Related Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    technical or proprietary data, technical assistance. know-how, or any combination of these, granted by a U.S. finn to a fireign finn or government to...World Affairs , Spring 1985: 29.: 183-212. 56. Office of Management and Budget. Major System Acquisitions. OMB Circular A-I 09. Washington DC. 5 April

  13. Short-term verbal memory and psychophysiological response to emotion-related words in children who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a significant role in fluency disorders. In this research we wanted to examine immediate and delayed verbal recall for auditory presented words that carry information about different emotional state (emotion-related words and emotionally neutral words in children who stutter (N=35 and their peers (N=35. Using only word semantics, we wanted to eliminate emotional verbal expression of words as a factor that can influence memory abilities. In addition, we also wanted to examine skin conductance measure as an indicator of autonomic nervous system arousal during short-term memory task for emotion-related and emotionally neutral words. Parental questionnaire (Stuttering Intensity in Children Who Stutter in Positive and Negative Emotion-Related Everyday Situations was given to parents of children who stutter in order to collect data regarding stuttering severity in emotionally arousing situations in everyday life. Differences between the experimental and the control group in global memory capacity are highest in immediate recall (p=0,01 with the tendency for lowering statistical significance with prolongation of retention interval. According to the questionnaire results, children who stutter show a higher degree of stuttering in situations with positive emotional valence (p< 0.00. Skin conductance measurements showed higher autonomic nervous system arousal during perception and free recall of positive emotion-related words in children who stutter when compared to negative and emotionally neutral words. The results indicate higher emotional arousal to positive emotions in children who stutter (p=0.02, leading to either less fluent speech or suppression of verbal short-term memory capacity.

  14. Inter-pregnancy Weight Change and Risks of Severe Birth-Asphyxia-Related Outcomes in Singleton Infants Born at Term: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Martina; Johansson, Stefan; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. If a change of exposure (i.e., maternal body mass index [BMI]) over time influences risks, this would be consistent with a causal relationship between maternal BMI and offspring risks. Our objective was to investigate associations between changes in maternal BMI between consecutive pregnancies and risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes in the second offspring born at term. This study was a prospective population-based cohort study that included 526,435 second-born term (≥37 wk) infants of mothers with two consecutive live singleton term births in Sweden between January 1992 and December 2012. We estimated associations between the difference in maternal BMI between the first and second pregnancy and risks of low Apgar score (0-6) at 5 min, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration in the second-born offspring. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for BMI at first pregnancy, maternal height, maternal age at second delivery, smoking, education, mother´s country of birth, inter-pregnancy interval, and year of second delivery. Analyses were also stratified by BMI (neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration increased with inter-pregnancy weight gain. Compared with offspring of mothers with stable weight (BMI change of -1 to neonatal seizures and meconium aspiration were 1.42 (95% CI 1.00-2.02) and 1.78 (95% CI 1.19-2.68), respectively. The increased risk of neonatal seizures related to weight gain appeared to be restricted to mothers with BMI neonatal resuscitation efforts. Risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes increased with maternal weight gain between pregnancies. Preventing weight gain before and in between pregnancies may improve neonatal health.

  15. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  16. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  17. Investigation of nuclide importance to functional requirements related to transport and long-term storage of LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; DeHart, M.D.; Ryman, J.C.; Tang, J.S.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-06-01

    This study investigates the relative importances of the various actinide, fission-product, and light-element isotopes associated with LWR spent fuel with respect to five analysis areas: criticality safety (absorption fractions), shielding (dose rate fractions), curies (fractional curies levels), decay heat (fraction of total watts), and radiological toxicity (fraction of potential committed effective dose equivalent). These rankings are presented for up to six different burnup/enrichment scenarios and at decay times from 2 to 100,000 years. Ranking plots for each of these analysis areas are given in an Appendix for completeness, as well as summary tables in the main body of the report. Summary rankings are presented in terms of high (greater than 10% contribution to the total), medium (between 1% and 10% contribution), and low (less than 1% contribution) for both short- and long-term cooling. When compared with the expected measurement accuracies, these rankings show that most of the important isotopes can be characterized sufficiently for the purpose of radionuclide generation/depletion code validation in each of the analysis areas. Because the main focus of this work is on the relative importances of isotopes associated with L at sign spent fuel, some conclusions may not be applicable to similar areas such as high-level waste (HLW) and nonfuel-bearing components (NFBC)

  18. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P morning. During RSSJA, both best and mean sprint times were shorter in the evening compared to the morning (P morning (P = 0.026). However, there was no morning-evening difference in the best jump performance during RSSJA. Likewise, jump performance decrement was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  19. A descriptive study of culture related terms in translation of Harry Potter Novel from English to Urdu language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mansoor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of children fantasy novels and problems faced by translators in translating these novels into different languages is one of the core issues in the field of translation studies. This issue has got attention of many researchers and an extensive study has been carried out on various novels. The Harry Potter series of novels written by British author J.K. Rowling is one of the famous children fantasy novels that gained popularity worldwide and was translated into 73 languages. The use of various cultural terms and made up words in the novel has posed a great challenge for the translators. The purpose of the present study is to identify these cultural related terms and made up words in the novel “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets” and to investigate the strategies used by the translator in translating them into Urdu language. A descriptive analysis of the translation of culture related items and made up words was made using the strategies proposed by Davies (2003. The findings of this research showed that translator mostly emphasized and predominantly used localization and transformation strategies for food items, magical objects and imaginative words.

  20. Saturation of auditory short-term memory causes a plateau in the sustained anterior negativity event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Guimond, Synthia; Bermudez, Patrick; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-12-10

    The maintenance of information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) is accompanied by a sustained anterior negativity (SAN) in the event-related potential measured during the retention interval of simple auditory memory tasks. Previous work on ASTM showed that the amplitude of the SAN increased in negativity as the number of maintained items increases. The aim of the current study was to measure the SAN and observe its behavior beyond the point of saturation of auditory short-term memory. We used atonal pure tones in sequences of 2, 4, 6, or 8t. Our results showed that the amplitude of SAN increased in negativity from 2 to 4 items and then levelled off from 4 to 8 items. Behavioral results suggested that the average span in the task was slightly below 3, which was consistent with the observed plateau in the electrophysiological results. Furthermore, the amplitude of the SAN predicted individual differences in auditory memory capacity. The results support the hypothesis that the SAN is an electrophysiological index of brain activity specifically related to the maintenance of auditory information in ASTM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics and Structure of Dispute in Open Group of Facebook Social Networking Service in Terms of Teenagers’ Homosexual Relations Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Kharitonov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of discussions in the group of Facebook social networking service, dealing with the problem of teenagers’ homosexual relations education. The goal of the research is to study the dynamics of the dispute in Facebook social networking service on the example of the closed group “Teenagers’ Sexual Orientation”. As a whole, 72 people participated in the discussion, involving both representatives, sharing the views of the LGBT community, concerning homosexual relations and teenagers’ heterosexual parents. As a result of the dispute, conducted within Facebook website 230 comments were left. Resulting from the content analysis of the message texts, the estimation of a number of parameters was made. The estimation showed that the parties of the virtual discussion are in deficit of decisions in terms of virtual disputes conduct. The declared wish to argue out doesn’t lead to the real activity, relevant to evidence-based disputes. Thus, we can consider that the participants of the virtual discussion are in deficit of the decisions in terms of virtual disputes conduct.

  2. Dysphagia and health-related quality of life in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis: a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Helen; Bergman, Karin; Finizia, Caterina; Johansson, Leif; Bove, Mogens; Bergquist, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated disease, with dysphagia as the main symptom. The aim of this study was to survey symptoms and health-related quality of life in adult patients with EoE at least 1 year after diagnosis and a 2-month course of topical corticosteroids. Forty-seven consecutive patients [79 % males, mean age 49 years (range 18-90 years)] were evaluated using three different questionnaires at three different occasions: the Watson Dysphagia Scale (WDS), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Oesophageal Module 18 (EORTC QLQ-OES18) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). The median time from diagnosis to the long-term follow-up was 23 months (range 12-34 months). The WDS scores and the EORTC QLQ-OES18 Dysphagia and Eating scale scores were improved after 2 months of treatment (p = 0.00007, p = 0.01, p = 0.004, respectively), as were the long-term follow-up scores (p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.005, respectively), relative to the scores at diagnosis. In addition, the EORTC QLQ-OES18 Choking scores were improved after the steroid course (p = 0.003) but not after the long-term follow-up. No significant differences were detected with respect to the SF-36 scores. In summary, EoE seems to be associated with a substantial burden of symptoms that improve significantly after treatment. A partial remission persists more than 1 year after diagnosis and the discontinuation of medication. The WDS and the EORTC QLQ-OES18 appear to be sensitive instruments appropriate for surveillance in these patients.

  3. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  4. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons.

  5. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the urgent need to collect more country

  6. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter

  7. J-pouch vs. side-to-end anastomosis after hand-assisted laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer: A prospective randomized trial on short and long term outcomes including life quality and functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkabaz, Nuri; Haksal, Mustafa; Atici, Ali Emre; Altuntas, Yunus Emre; Gundogan, Ersin; Gezen, Fazli Cem; Oncel, Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the outcomes of j-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis in rectal cancer patients treated with laparoscopic hand-assisted low anterior resection. Prospective trial on cases randomized to have a colonic j-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis after low anterior resection. Demographics, characteristics of disease and treatment, perioperative results, and functional outcomes and life quality were compared between the groups. Seventy four patients were randomized. Reservoir creation was withdrawn in 17 (23%) patients, mostly related to reach problem (n = 11, 64.7%). Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly higher in j-pouch group (8 [27.6%] vs. 0, p = 0.004). Stoma closure could not be achieved in 16 (28.1%) patients. Life quality and functional outcomes, measured 4, 8 and 12 months after the stoma reversal, were similar. Colonic j-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis are similar regarding perioperative measures including operation time, rates of postoperative complications, reoperation and 30-day mortality, and hospitalization period except anastomotic leak rate, which is higher in j-pouch group. Postoperative aspects are not different in patients receiving either technique including functional outcomes and life quality for the first year after stoma closure. In our opinion, both techniques may be preferred during the daily practice while performing laparoscopic surgery; but surgeons may be aware of a possibly higher anastomotic leak rate in case of a j-pouch. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Osteoporosis-Related Fractures in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Long-Term Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ayami; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Akio; Minami, Chiaki; Tan, Motomu; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2018-04-05

    Patients with HIV infection may have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia, as well as an increased risk of bone fracture compared with non-HIV-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy is thought to be one of factors associated to osteoporosis-related bone fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on the cumulative risk of osteoporosis-related bone fractures in Japanese patients with HIV infection. This observational cohort study comprised a joint HIV-related drug survey of patients treated with TDF between April 2004 and March 2013. Thirty-five healthcare facilities in Japan participated in the survey. The incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures was extracted from all adverse events (AEs) using standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities queries, and used to calculate the fracture rate per 10,000 patient-years (PY). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the cumulative probability of fracture during the study period. A total of 3251 patients who received TDF or TDF/emtricitabine between April 2004 and March 2013 were analyzed in this study; 93.5% of patients were male. The fracture rate was 13.5 per 10,000 PY in males and 42.2 per 10,000 PY in females. The mean age for male patients with osteoporosis-related fracture was 43.2 years, whereas it was 65.7 years in female patients. The cumulative probability of osteoporosis-related fracture increased after ≥ 5 years of TDF exposure. The rate of hip fracture (95% confidence interval) was 7.2 (3.1-14.2) per 10,000 PY. Among HIV-infected patients in Japan, treatment with TDF for ≥ 5 years increases the risk of bone fractures in younger men, in addition to that seen in older post-menopausal women.

  9. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira TCG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Liliane Dias E Dias De Macedo,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço Diniz,1 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodgeneration and Infection, Biological Sciences Institute, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil Abstract: The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I] or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]. We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total. Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation, in the middle (after 24 sessions, and at the end (after 48 sessions of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion

  10. Health-related quality of life after induction of labor versus expectant monitoring in gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, Denise; Koopmans, Corine M; Birnie, Erwin; Mol, Ben-Willem J; van der Post, Joris A; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Scheepers, Hubertina C; Willekes, Christine; Kwee, Anneke; Heres, Marion H; Van Beek, Erik; Van Meir, Claudia A; Van Huizen, Marloes E; Van Pampus, Maria G; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2011-01-01

    Gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE) are major contributors to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In GH or PE, labor may be either induced or monitored expectantly. We studied maternal health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) after induction of labor versus expectant monitoring in GH or PE at term. We performed the HR-QoL study alongside a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing induction of labor to expectant monitoring in women with GH or PE after 36 weeks. We used written questionnaires, covering background characteristics, condition-specific issues, and validated measures: the Short-Form (SF-36), European Quality of Life (EuroQoL 6D3L), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). Measurements were at the following time points: baseline, 6 weeks postpartum, and 6 months postpartum. A multivariate mixed model with repeated measures was defined to assess the effect of the treatments on the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) of the SF-36. Analysis was by intention to treat. We analyzed the data of 491 randomized and 220 nonrandomized women. We did not find treatment effect on long-term HR-QoL (PCS: p = 0.09; MCS: p = 0.82). The PCS improved over time (p < 0.001) and was better in nonrandomized patients (p = 0.02). Despite a clinical benefit of induction of labor, long-term HR-QoL is equal after the induction of labor and expectant management in women with GH or PE beyond 36 weeks of gestation.

  11. [Long-Term Follow-up of Age-related Strabismus Patients 50 Years-old and Over].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohira, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    To characterize age-related strabismus by long term observation. Clinical Characteristics were collected at two institutions from patients 50 years-old and over with age-related strabismus, who complained of diplopia and were followed up longer than 2 years without surgical intervention. The cohort consisted of one case of near exotropia (convergence insufficiency, exotropia angle at near was 11.3 degrees), eight cases of distance esotropia (divergence insufficiency, average esotropia angle at distance was 5.8 degrees), and 15 cases of hypertropia (average hypertropia angle at distance was 3.6 degrees). In 14 patients more than one year passed from the onset of diplopia to date of visiting one of the two clinics. The strabismus angle slowly increased (0.3 per year in average; Wicoxon signed-rank test, p extorsion of the lower eye. Age-related strabismus eyes slowly develop diplopia and very slowly get worse in deviation angle. Prism incorporated glasses are useful in this condition.

  12. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Tucker, Susan; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2–15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  13. Effect of long-term treatment with rasagiline on cognitive deficits and related molecular cascades in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Orly; Badinter, Felix; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of prolonged treatment with the selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, novel anti-parkinsonian drug, rasagiline (Azilect) in aged animals. Our findings from behavioral experiments demonstrated that long-term treatment of aged mice with rasagiline (0.2 mg/kg) exerted significant beneficial effects on mood-related dysfunction and spatial learning and memory functions. At this dose of rasagiline, chronic drug administration significantly inhibited monoamine oxidase-B activity and caused an increase in striatal dopamine and serotonin levels, while decreasing their metabolism. In addition, rasagiline treatment elevated striatal mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors D1 and D2. Furthermore, we found that rasagiline upregulated expression levels of the synaptic plasticity markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase-B receptor, and synapsin-1, increased Bcl-2 to Bax antiapoptotic ratio and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase in brain of aged mice. The present study demonstrated that long-term treatment with rasagiline could affect behavioral deficits in aged mice and upregulate various neuroprotective parameters in the aging brain, indicating that the drug may have therapeutic potential for treatment of age-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000–250 μm; 250–53 μm; and soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000–250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture. PMID:26423355

  15. Long-term exposure models for traffic related NO 2 across geographically diverse areas over separate years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Liu, L.-J.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Keidel, Dirk; Gemperli, Armin; Ineichen, Alex; Hazenkamp-von Arx, Marianne; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Rochat, Thierry; Künzli, Nino; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Straehl, Peter; Schwartz, Joel; Schindler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Although recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have embraced land-use regression models for estimating outdoor traffic exposure, few have examined the spatio-temporal variability of traffic related pollution over a long term period and the optimal methods to take these factors into account for exposure estimates. We used home outdoor NO 2 measurements taken from eight geographically diverse areas to examine spatio-temporal variations, construct, and evaluate models that could best predict the within-city contrasts in observations. Passive NO 2 measurements were taken outside of up to 100 residences per area over three seasons in 1993 and 2003 as part of the Swiss cohort study on air pollution and lung and heart disease in adults (SAPALDIA). The spatio-temporal variation of NO 2 differed by area and year. Regression models constructed using the annual NO 2 means from central monitoring stations and geographic parameters predicted home outdoor NO 2 levels better than a dispersion model. However, both the regression and dispersion models underestimated the within-city contrasts of NO 2 levels. Our results indicated that the best models should be constructed for individual areas and years, and would use the dispersion estimates as the urban background, geographic information system (GIS) parameters to enhance local characteristics, and temporal and meteorological variables to capture changing local dynamics. Such models would be powerful tools for assessing health effects from long-term exposure to air pollution in a large cohort.

  16. Age-Related Changes in Insulin-like Signaling Lead to Intermediate-Term Memory Impairment in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kento; Itoh, Motoyuki; Tonoki, Ayako

    2017-02-14

    Insulin and insulin-growth-factor-like signaling (IIS) plays important roles in the regulation of development, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and aging, as well as in brain functions such as learning and memory. The temporal-spatial role of IIS in learning and memory and its effect on age-dependent memory impairment remain unclear. Here, we report that intermediate-term memory (ITM), but not short-term memory (STM), in Drosophila aversive olfactory memory requires transient IIS during adulthood. The expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 3 (Dilp3) in insulin-producing cells and insulin receptor function in the fat body are essential for ITM. Although the expression of dilp3 decreases with aging, which is unique among dilp genes, the transient expression of dilp3 in aged flies enhances ITM. These findings indicate that ITM is systemically regulated by communication between insulin-producing cells and fat body and that age-dependent changes in IIS contribute to age-related memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Caffeine prevents sleep loss-induced deficits in long-term potentiation and related signaling molecules in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    We have previously reported that caffeine prevented sleep deprivation-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) of area CA1 as well as hippocampus-dependent learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze. In this report we examined the impact of long-term (4-week) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on synaptic plasticity (Alhaider et al., 2010) deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) area of acutely sleep-deprived rats. The sleep deprivation and caffeine/sleep deprivation groups were sleep-deprived for 24 h by using the columns-in-water technique. We tested the effect of caffeine and/or sleep deprivation on LTP and measured the basal levels as well as stimulated levels of LTP-related molecules in the DG. The results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented the impairment of early-phase LTP (E-LTP) in the DG of sleep-deprived rats. Additionally, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the sleep deprivation-associated decreases in the basal levels of the phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as in the stimulated levels of P-CaMKII in the DG area. The results suggest that chronic use of caffeine prevented anomalous changes in the basal levels of P-CaMKII and BDNF associated with sleep deprivation and as a result contributes to the revival of LTP in the DG region.

  18. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure: relation to preserved and reduced left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Brendorp, Bente

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of left ventricular systolic function on the survival in a large consecutive cohort of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure and to determine how left ventricular systolic function interacts with co-morbid conditions...... in terms of prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of survival data from 5491 patients admitted for new or worsening heart failure to 34 departments of cardiology or internal medicine in Denmark from 1993-1996 was carried out. A standardized echocardiogram was available for 95% of the patients, and left...... (1 year mortality, 19%). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized heart failure patients, particularly in younger patients with ischemic heart disease, mortality risk is inversely related to left ventricular systolic function....

  19. Determining the long-term effects of H₂S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature on concrete sewer corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2014-11-15

    Many studies of sewer corrosion are performed in accelerated conditions that are not representing the actual corrosion processes. This study investigated the effects of various factors over 3.5 years under controlled conditions simulating the sewer environment. Concrete coupons prepared from precorroded sewers were exposed, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater, in laboratory controlled corrosion chambers. Over the 45 month exposure period, three environmental factors of H2S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature were controlled at different levels in the corrosion chambers. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the long term effects of these factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, corrosion layer sulfate levels and concrete loss. Corrosion rates were also determined for different exposure periods. It was found that the corrosion rate of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the H2S concentration in the gas phase. Relative humidity played also a role for the corrosion activity of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as the surfaces of these coupons were saturated due to capillary suction of sewage on the coupon surface. The effect of temperature on corrosion activity varied and possibly the acclimation of corrosion-inducing microbes to temperature mitigated effects of that factor. It was apparent that biological sulfide oxidation was not the limiting step of the overall corrosion process. These findings provide real insights into the long-term effects of these key environmental factors on the sewer corrosion processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Effect of Different Carbon Management Strategies on Water Flow and Related Processes for Three Loamy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2013-01-01

    The decline in organic matter of arable land, induced and accelerated by modern agriculture, has been identified as a threat to sustained soil quality. In this article, we studied strategies to counter this decrease by building up soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in the soils using several...... approaches. They included return of organic matter, such as straw, animal manure, and slurry, to the soil and diverse crop rotations with, for example, grass-clover leys. We used three field sites in Denmark with different C repletion strategies to assess and quantify the effect of these approaches...... on preferential flow and loss of colloids during heavy irrigation events. The field sites were all under long-term management and therefore represent up to 30 years of pairwise different management strategies. One field in each field pair was managed with a more C-repleting strategy (HighC) than the other (Low...

  1. Change Detection in Visual Short-Term Memory: The Relative Impact of Pairwise Switches and Identity Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous kinds of visual event challenge our ability to keep track of the objects that populate our visual environment from moment to moment. These include blinks, occlusion, shifting visual attention, and changes to object's visual and spatial properties over time. These visual events may lead to objects falling out of our visual awareness, but can also lead to unnoticed changes, such as undetected object replacements and positional exchanges. Current visual memory models do not predict which visual changes are likely to be the most difficult to detect. We examine the accuracy with which switches (where two objects exchange locations) and substitutions (where one or two objects are replaced) are detected. Inferior performance for one-object substitutions versus two-objects switches, along with superior performance for two-object substitutions versus two-object switches was found. Our results are interpreted in terms of object file theory, trade-offs between diffused and localized attention, and net visual change.

  2. Long-term health-related quality of life after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Ilkka; Remes, Ville; Lamberg, Tommi; Schlenzka, Dietrich; Poussa, Mikko

    2008-06-01

    The aim of surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is primarily to prevent progression and secondarily to correct the deformity, whereas the goal of surgical treatment of pediatric spondylolisthesis is mainly to relieve pain and, in patients with a high-grade slip, to prevent progression. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term health-related quality of life after surgery for idiopathic scoliosis and spondylolisthesis in adolescence. One hundred and ninety patients, with a mean age of fifteen years, who were treated surgically for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 270 patients, with a mean age of sixteen years, who were treated surgically for low-grade or high-grade spondylolisthesis participated in the present study. The mean duration of follow-up was 14.8 years for the scoliosis group and 17.0 years for the spondylolisthesis group. Radiographs were made preoperatively, at the time of the two-year follow-up, and at the time of the final follow-up. Additionally, a physical examination was performed, and the Scoliosis Research Society-24 and Short Form-36 questionnaires were completed at the final follow-up evaluation. The median total score on the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire was 102 (range, 63 to 118) for the scoliosis group and 95 (range, 42 to 115) for the spondylolisthesis group (p surgery, gender, and duration of follow-up, the patients with scoliosis had a significantly higher odds ratio for a good total score (> or = 90 points) on the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire than did patients with spondylolisthesis (odds ratio, 2.65 [95% confidence interval, 1.58 to 4.44]; p = 0.0002). Patients in the scoliosis group had better values for general self-image, postoperative self-image, and postoperative function than did patients in the spondylolisthesis group (p spondylolisthesis group (median, 53.4 points; range, 27 to 59 points) (p = 0.01). Patients have good long-term health-related quality of life after surgery for

  3. Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2011-03-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study.

  4. OUT OF THE COURT SETTLEMENT IN RELATION WITH THE CHALLENGING IN COURT OF THE UNFAIR CONTRACTUAL TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Chiocaru

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse the problem of concluding a transaction agreement (Romanian language ”contract de tranzacție” in relation with the unfair clauses which may occur in the contracts concluded between professionals and consumers. In this respect our purpose is to analyse, within this article, the current level of the doctrine in what concerns the transaction agreement, as this was regulated by the New Civil Code, as well as the possibility to conclude such contracts in relation with a contractual clause or a number of contractual clauses considered unfair. We will concentrate especially on the possibility to conclude a transaction agreement prior the identification of the clause subject to a possible dispute, which forms the object of the transaction agreement. The purpose of this analysis is to present an alternative method to safeguard the contract between the professional and consumer by the contracting parties themselves, contractual parties who better understand and represent the ways forward for the situations when unfair contractual terms occurs.

  5. Cardiac and mood-related changes during short-term abstinence from crack cocaine: the identification of possible withdrawal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdasz, D K; Moore, J W; Donepudi, H; Cochrane, C E; Malcolm, R J

    1999-11-01

    Studies assessing withdrawal phenomenon during short-term abstinence from chronic cocaine use have been limited. Although cocaine abusers are reported to be at increased risk for cardiac disorders, little research has assessed cardiac parameters in cocaine abusers and subsequent changes in these parameters that may be associated with the discontinuation of cocaine use. In this study, we categorize 441 chronic cocaine abusers into three groups based on self-reported length of abstinence from cocaine use at entry into a trial approved by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) assessing the use of pergolide mesylate in treating relapse and craving in crack cocaine abuse. Electrocardiogram (ECG) PR intervals were found to be correlated positively with length of abstinence, returning to normal population levels within 30 days. In addition, levels of generalized anxiety, nervousness, and heart racing were found to be correlated negatively with length of abstinence from crack cocaine. This work provides preliminary evidence of cardiac and mood-related parameters that are associated with cocaine abstinence and that may indicate specific withdrawal phenomena in chronic users. In addition, these results suggest that the risk of cardiomyopathies associated with abnormal atrial-ventricular polarization may dissipate relatively quickly in abusing individuals.

  6. Long term running biphasically improves methylglyoxal-related metabolism, redox homeostasis and neurotrophic support within adult mouse brain cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falone

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and neurotrophic support decline seem to be crucially involved in brain aging. Emerging evidences indicate the pro-oxidant methylglyoxal (MG as a key player in the age-related dicarbonyl stress and molecular damage within the central nervous system. Although exercise promotes the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, habitual exercise may retard cellular aging and reduce the age-dependent cognitive decline through hormetic adaptations, yet molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of exercise are still largely unclear. In particular, whereas adaptive responses induced by exercise initiated in youth have been broadly investigated, the effects of chronic and moderate exercise begun in adult age on biochemical hallmarks of very early senescence in mammal brains have not been extensively studied. This research investigated whether a long-term, forced and moderate running initiated in adult age may affect the interplay between the redox-related profile and the oxidative-/MG-dependent molecular damage patterns in CD1 female mice cortices; as well, we investigated possible exercise-induced effects on the activity of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF-dependent pathway. Our findings suggested that after a transient imbalance in almost all parameters investigated, the lately-initiated exercise regimen strongly reduced molecular damage profiles in brains of adult mice, by enhancing activities of the main ROS- and MG-targeting scavenging systems, as well as by preserving the BDNF-dependent signaling through the transition from adult to middle age.

  7. Modelling and forecasting long-term dynamics of Western Baltic macrobenthic fauna in relation to climate signals and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Joachim; Rumohr, Heye

    2006-05-01

    Long-term macrobenthos data from Kiel Bight in the Western Baltic collected between 1968 and 2000 have been correlated with the winter NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation Index) and other environmental data such as temperature, salinity and oxygen content in the bottom water in order to detect systematic patterns related to so far unexplained abiotic signals in the dynamics of zoobenthic species assemblages. The benthos data come from a cluster of five stations (Süderfahrt/ Millionenviertel) in Kiel Bay. Our investigations concentrated on the macrobenthic dynamics with a focus on the number of species m - 2 (species richness). Using logarithms and the time series analysis approach of Box/Jenkins (ARIMA modelling, transfer function modelling) it was shown that species richness was strongly influenced by the winter NAO (adjusted for a linear time trend within the 1968-2000 period) and salinity (with a shift/lag of four years). Bootstrapping experiments (i.e. sampling from the error process) and analysis of prediction power (by means of the one- or more-years leaving-out method) showed that the parameter estimates behaved in a stable way, leading to a relatively robust model.

  8. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.

  10. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E.; Lin, John C.; Bowling, David R.; Pataki, Diane E.; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J.; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E.; Stephens, Britton B.; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah’s metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine “excess” CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO2, implying a nonlinear relationship with CO2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  11. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E; Lin, John C; Bowling, David R; Pataki, Diane E; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E; Stephens, Britton B; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R; Ehleringer, James R

    2018-03-20

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO 2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO 2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO 2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO 2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO 2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO 2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO 2 , implying a nonlinear relationship with CO 2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO 2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  12. Health-related quality of life and self-reported long-term conditions: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan R. Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate and compare the effect of self-reported long-term health conditions and sociodemographic factors on perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Methods: A population-based survey of adults (18 to 65 years living in Brasilia, Brazil, was conducted in 2012. Descriptive and multivariate analyses using a Tobit model were performed with data on sociodemographic variables, self-reported conditions, and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D health states, providing utility scores (preferred health state between 0 and 1 for HRQoL estimates. Results: The mean utility of 1,820 adults interviewed (mean age: 38.4±12.6 years was 0.883 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.874-0.892, with 76.2% in the highest utility range (0.8 to 1.0. EQ-5D dimensions with moderate problems were pain/discomfort (33.8% and anxiety/depression (20.5%. Serious problems were reported by only 0.3% of the sample in the mobility and self-care domain and by 3.1% in the pain/discomfort domain. Multivariate analysis revealed reduced HRQoL in individuals with depression, diabetes, and hypertension. Living in satellite towns (outside the city core, belonging to a lower economic class, or not being formally employed were also associated with decreased HRQoL. Beta coefficients for these impacts ranged from -0.033 (not formally employed to -0.141 (depression, reflecting the strongest impact. Conclusion: Of the long-term health conditions studied, depression had the greatest impact on HRQoL. Social class, employment status, and place of residence also affected HRQoL.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen S

    2011-01-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood.......Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood....

  14. Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) Performance of Greek Preterm Infants: Comparisons With Full-Term Infants of the Same Nationality and Impact of Prematurity-Related Morbidity Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Manta, Vassiliki; Mellos, Stavros; Pons, Roser; Chrousos, George P; Siahanidou, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Only a few studies have been conducted with the objective of creating norms of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) for the assessment of gross motor development of preterm infants. The AIMS performance of preterm infants has been compared with that of the Canadian norms of full-term infants, but not with that of full-term infants of the same nationality. Moreover, the possible impact of prematurity-related morbidity factors on AIMS performance is unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate AIMS trajectory in a large population of Greek preterm infants and create norms, (2) to compare it with the AIMS trajectory of Greek full-term infants, and (3) to examine the possible influence of neonatal morbidity on AIMS scores in the preterm sample. This was a cross-sectional study. Mean AIMS scores were compared, per month (1-19), between 403 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of age, corrected for prematurity) and 1,038 full-term infants. In preterm infants, the association of AIMS scores with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade ≤III, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis was assessed by hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores were significantly lower in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Mean AIMS scores in preterm infants were significantly associated with RDS (b=-1.93; 95% CI=-2.70, -1.16), IVH (b=-0.97; 95% CI=-1.69, -0.25), and ROP (b=-1.12; 95% CI=-1.99, -0.24) but not with BPD or sepsis in hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale norms were created for Greek preterm infants. This study confirms that AIMS trajectories of preterm infants are below those of full-term infants of the same nationality. The influence of morbidity factors, including RDS, IVH, and ROP, should be taken into account when administering the AIMS in preterm infants. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Anti-Urokinase Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotide (uPAR-aODN) to Prevent and Cure Long-Term Space Exploration-Related Retinal Pathological Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarano, Stefano; Lulli, Matteo; Fibbi, Gabriella; Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Serrati, Simona; Witort, Ewa; Chilla, Anastasia; Lapucci, Andrea; Donnini, Martino; Quaglierini, Paolo; Romiti, Alice; Specogna, Rebecca; Del Rosso, Mario; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Angiogenesis underlies a variety of physiological processes and its possible deregulation during long term space exploration needs to be investigated. Angiogenesis is a multistep process of new blood capillary formation, where degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolytic enzymes, including uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) and opening the way to migration of endothelial cells (EC), is critical. Plasminogen activation system regulates angiogenesis by both uPA-driven ECM degradation and uPA receptor (uPAR). Microgravity and low dose irradiations promote tissue neoangiogeenesis and neovascularization is often common occurence in ophthalmologic pathologies. We have designed and patented the uPAR antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) and evaluated its antiangiogenetic activity by EC cellular migration and capillary morphogenesis assays. The uPAR aODN treatment caused a 75% inhibition of human microvascular EC migration and a complete inhibition of capillary morphogenesis, suggesting its therapeutic application to prevent neoangiogenesis-related ophthalmologic pathologies during space exploration.

  16. Long-term and storm-related shoreline change trends in the Florida Gulf Islands National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C.J.; Christiano, M.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal erosion on Northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands is an ongoing issue that was exacerbated by the storm seasons of 2004 and 2005 when several hurricanes made landfall in the Gulf of Mexico. Two units of the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS), located on Santa Rosa Island, a barrier island off the Panhandle coast of Florida, were highly impacted during the hurricanes of 2004 (Ivan) and 2005 (Cindy, Dennis, Katrina and Rita). In addition to the loss of or damage to natural and cultural resources within the park, damage to park infrastructure, including park access roads and utilities, occurred in areas experiencing rapid shoreline retreat. The main park road was located as close as 50 m to the pre-storm (2001) shoreline and was still under repair from damage incurred during Hurricane Ivan when the 2005 hurricanes struck. A new General Management Plan is under development for the Gulf Islands National Seashore. This plan, like the existing General Management Plan, strives to incorporate natural barrier island processes, and will guide future efforts to provide access to units of Gulf Islands National Seashore on Santa Rosa Island. To assess changes in island geomorphology and provide data for park management, the National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey are currently analyzing shoreline change to better understand long-term (100+ years) shoreline change trends as well as short-term shoreline impact and recovery to severe storm events. Results show that over an ~140-year period from the late 1800s to May 2004, the average shoreline erosion rates in the Fort Pickens and Santa Rosa units of GUIS were -0.7m/yr and -0.1 m/yr, respectively. Areas of historic erosion, reaching a maximum rate of -1.3 m/yr, correspond to areas that experienced overwash and road damage during the 2004 hurricane season. The shoreline eroded as much as ~60 m during Hurricane Ivan, and as much as ~88 m over the course of the 2005 storm season. The shoreline erosion rates in

  17. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray mass detection and 1H and 13C NMR characterization of new process-related impurities, including forced degradants of efavirenz: related substances correlated to the synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadapayale, Kamalesh; Kakde, Rajendra; Sarma, V U M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic electrospray mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of process-related impurities and forced degradants of Efavirenz in bulk drugs. Efavirenz was subjected to acid, alkaline hydrolysis, H2O2 oxidation, photolysis, and thermal stress. Significant degradation was observed during alkaline hydrolysis, and the degradants were isolated on a mass-based purification system and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Accurate mass measurement and NMR spectroscopy revealed the possible structure of process-related impurities and degradant under stress conditions. The acceptable separation was accomplished on Waters bondapak C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm), using 5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored by diode array detector at 247 nm and quantitation limits were obtained in the range of 0.1-2.5 μg/mL for Efavirenz, degradants, and process-related impurities. The liquid chromatography method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, and limits of detection and quantification as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Health-related quality of life among long-term (≥5 years) prostate cancer survivors by primary intervention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salome; Feller, Anita; Rohrmann, Sabine; Arndt, Volker

    2018-01-23

    Due to an improving prognosis, and increased knowledge of intervention effects over time, long-term well-being among prostate cancer (PC) survivors has gained increasing attention. Yet, despite a variety of available PC interventions, experts currently disagree on optimal intervention course based on survival rates. In January 2017, we searched multiple databases to identify relevant articles. Studies were required to assess at least two different dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PC survivors ≥5 years past diagnosis with validated measures. Identified studies (n = 13) were mainly observational cohort studies (n = 10), conducted in developed countries with a sample size below 100 per study arm (n = 6). External-beam radiation therapy was the most common intervention (n = 12), whereas only three studies included patients on active surveillance or on watchful waiting. Studies were largely heterogeneous in cancer stage at diagnosis, intervention groups and instruments. All identified studies either used the EORTC QLQ-C30 (n = 5) or the SF-36 (n = 7) to assess generic HRQoL, yet 11 different instruments were employed to assess PC specific urinary, bowel and sexual symptoms. Overall, no consistent pattern between intervention and HRQoL was observed. Results from two randomized-controlled-trials (RCTs) and one observational study, comparing HRQoL by primary intervention in localized PC survivors suggest that long-term HRQoL does not differ by intervention. However, observational studies that included a combination of localized and locally advanced stage PC survivors identified HRQoL differences for various scales including physical well-being, social and role function, vitality, and role emotional. This review reveals the number of publications comparing HRQoL by primary intervention in long-term PC survivors is currently limited. Robust data from two RCTs and one observational study suggest that HRQoL does not seem to differ by

  19. Long-term impact of endometrial cancer diagnosis and treatment on health-related quality of life and cancer survivorship : Results from the randomized PORTEC-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Stephanie M.; Nout, Remi A.; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Jobsen, Jan J.; Lutgens, Ludy C. H. W.; van der Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M.; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Slot, Annerie; Kroese, Marika C. Stenfert; Oerlemans, Simone; Putter, Hein; Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W.; Nijman, Hans W.; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC)

  20. Long-term impact of endometrial cancer diagnosis and treatment on health-related quality of life and cancer survivorship : Results from the randomized PORTEC-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Stephanie M.; Nout, Remi A.; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Jobsen, Jan J; Lutgens, Ludy C.H.W.; Van Der Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M.; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Slot, Annerie; Stenfert Kroese, Marika C.; Oerlemans, Simone; Putter, Hein; Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W.; Nijman, Hans W; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC)

  1. Long-term traffic air and noise pollution in relation to mortality and hospital readmission among myocardial infarction survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonne, Cathryn; Halonen, Jaana I; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Gulliver, John; Kelly, Frank J; Wilkinson, Paul; Anderson, H Ross

    2016-01-01

    There is relatively little evidence of health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution in susceptible populations. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic air and noise pollution was associated with all-cause mortality or hospital readmission for myocardial infarction (MI) among survivors of hospital admission for MI. Patients from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project database resident in Greater London (n = 1 8,138) were followed for death or readmission for MI. High spatially-resolved annual average air pollution (11 metrics of primary traffic, regional or urban background) derived from a dispersion model (resolution 20 m × 20 m) and road traffic noise for the years 2003-2010 were used to assign exposure at residence. Hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval (CI)) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Most air pollutants were positively associated with all-cause mortality alone and in combination with hospital readmission. The largest associations with mortality per interquartile range (IQR) increase of pollutant were observed for non-exhaust particulate matter (PM(10)) (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 1.1 μg/m(3)); oxidant gases (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.09), IQR = 3.2 μg/m(3)); and the coarse fraction of PM (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 0.9 μg/m(3)). Adjustment for traffic noise only slightly attenuated these associations. The association for a 5 dB increase in road-traffic noise with mortality was HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.99, 1.06) independent of air pollution. These data support a relationship of primary traffic and regional/urban background air pollution with poor prognosis among MI survivors. Although imprecise, traffic noise appeared to have a modest association with prognosis independent of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  2. A global, comprehensive review of literature related to paper recycling: A pressing need for a uniform system of terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-02-01

    A global, comprehensive review of terms and definitions related to paper recycling was conducted in this article. Terms and definitions related to paper recycling have varied in the course of time. Different terms and different definitions for the same thing are being used in different geographical regions and by different organizations. Definitions are different based on varying conceptions of waste paper as a raw material. Definitions of how to make various calculations related to paper recycling activity are inconsistent. Even such fundamental basic definitions like how to calculate recycling rate and paper consumption are not uniform. It could be concluded that there is no uniform system of terms and definitions related to paper recycling and the implications of this deficiency are profound. For example, it is difficult to reliably compare with each other statistics from different times and from different geographical regions. It is not possible to measure if targets for recycling activities are met if the terms describing the targets are not uniformly defined. In cases of reporting data for recycling targets, the lack of uniform terminology can, for example, impede the necessary transparency between different stakeholders and may allow for deception. The authors conclude there is a pressing need to develop a uniform system of terms and definition for terms related to paper recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities and their related healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ewan M; Ludden, Catherine; Brodrick, Hayley J; Blane, Beth; Brennan, Gráinne; Morris, Dearbháile; Coll, Francesc; Reuter, Sandra; Brown, Nicholas M; Holmes, Mark A; O'Connell, Brian; Parkhill, Julian; Török, M Estee; Cormican, Martin; Peacock, Sharon J

    2016-10-03

    Long-term care facilities (LTCF) are potential reservoirs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), control of which may reduce MRSA transmission and infection elsewhere in the healthcare system. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been used successfully to understand MRSA epidemiology and transmission in hospitals and has the potential to identify transmission between these and LTCF. Two prospective observational studies of MRSA carriage were conducted in LTCF in England and Ireland. MRSA isolates were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed using established methods. Genomic data were available for MRSA isolated in the local healthcare systems (isolates submitted by hospitals and general practitioners). We sequenced a total of 181 MRSA isolates from the two study sites. The majority of MRSA were multilocus sequence type (ST)22. WGS identified one likely transmission event between residents in the English LTCF and three putative transmission events in the Irish LTCF. WGS also identified closely related isolates present in colonized Irish residents and their immediate environment. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction, closely related MRSA clades were identified between the LTCF and their healthcare referral network, together with putative MRSA acquisition by LTCF residents during hospital admission. These data confirm that MRSA is transmitted between residents of LTCF and is both acquired and transmitted to others in referral hospitals and beyond. Our data present compelling evidence for the importance of environmental contamination in MRSA transmission, reinforcing the importance of environmental cleaning. The use of WGS in this study highlights the need to consider infection control in hospitals and community healthcare facilities as a continuum.

  4. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale district in Kenya using short term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Svaro, Miroslav; Bodo, Jan; Taylor, Mark; Muendo, Redempta Malinda

    2015-09-01

    Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass-related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and explore the feasibility of routine monitoring in Kwale district, Kenya. We sampled 125 rural houses using short-term monitoring for levels of CO, CO2 and TSP. Additional exposure information was obtained using a checklist. Respiratory health was also assessed using a questionnaire, and electronic spirometer in 172 inhabitants. The overall median levels of CO in the sampled houses on all study sites ranged from 5.9 (IQR 3-14.5) to 10 (5.5-21.2) mg/m3, levels of CO2 ranged from 774 (IQR 724-846) to 839 (IQR 749-961) mg/m3) and the levels of TSP ranged from 295 (IQR 79-853 to 1384 (IQR 557-3110) µg/m(3) which indicates that safe levels recommended by WHO and USEPA could be exceeded. Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to public health problems in rural regions of East Africa, such as Kwale in Kenya, our findings create grounds for more detailed investigations of the problem and may provide motivation for community based interventions.

  5. Metallic stent implantation in patients with iliac artery occlusion: long-term patency rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seok Kyun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Jeong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Choi, Soo JinNa

    2003-01-01

    To determine the long-term patency rate in 68 patients with iliac artery occlusion who underwent metallic stent implantation, and to analyze the factors related to recurrence. Sixty-eight patients with occlusive disease of the iliac artery underwent implantation of a self-expandable metallic stent. The clinical symptoms were intermittent claudication (n=48), resting pain (n=11), and gangrene (n=9). Stent patency was determined by follow-up angiography and color Doppler imaging, and the cumulative patency rate using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to analyse recurrence-related factors involving clinical symptoms (Fontaine stage), risk factors, and anatomical factors such as lesion location, length, and the development of collaterals. The duration of follow-up varied from 1 day to 73 months (mean, 23.8 months). Arterial occlusion recurred in 16 of 68 patients (23.5%), and the cumulative patency rate was as follows: 95.4% at one month, 93.2% at six months, 80.1% at one year, 73.2% at two years, 68.9% at three years, and 62% at five years. According to a statistical analysis of risk factors, the recurrence (p=0.04) than in those without it, but in patients who smoked, hypertension, DM, and previous cerebrovascular disease were not statistically significant. With regard to anatomical factors, the recurrent rate for lesions involving the external iliac artery was 6.5 times higher (p=0.02) than for those involving the common iliac artery. Variations in the fontaine stage were not statistically significant indicators of recurrence. The recurrence rate after implantation of an iliac artery stent is higher in patients with heart disease than in those without it, and higher for occlusive lesions involving the external iliac artery than for those of the common iliac artery

  6. Greenhouse gases reduction potential through consumer’s behavioral changes in terms of food-related product selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Naoki; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Nagata, Junko; Amano, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction potential by shopping behavior change is analyzed. • Four scenarios related to food consumption is evaluated using life cycle assessment. • Total GHG reduction potential by four scenarios in Japan is 1367 kt-CO 2 /year. • Potential reduces to 45% when considering feasible ratio of taking behavior change. • Contribution of seasonal production/consumption scenario is highest among scenarios. - Abstract: Sustainable consumption plays an important role in the mitigation of global warming and the conservation of energy. Promoting more environmentally responsible consumer behavior, especially through open communication between stakeholders, is one way to achieve low-carbon consumption. This study evaluates the potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through behavioral transformation of consumers in terms of their daily shopping habits. In this context, the behavioral transformative actions pertain to certain foods and daily necessities, and are analyzed from a life cycle assessment perspective. We developed multiple product-selection scenarios to evaluate GHG emissions related to the daily purchase of commodities. Based on the life cycle assessment, we estimated the GHG emissions that result from the production and distribution of these commodities, pertaining to both the current product selection and to a possibly improved selection. The results of our study show that because of seasonal consumption patterns and energy conversion, there is a substantial potential to reduce GHG emissions resulting from out-of-season produce cultivation. The GHG reduction potential is not high for each individual commodity because diverse commodities are needed on a daily basis. However, various actions in combination could have substantial potential for reducing emissions.

  7. Orbit-related long-term climate cycles revealed in a 12-Myr continental record from Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, K; Ochiai, S; Sakai, H; Kawai, T

    2001-03-01

    Quaternary records of climate change from terrestrial sources, such as lake sediments and aeolian sediments, in general agree well with marine records. But continuous records that cover more than the past one million years were essentially unavailable until recently, when the high-sedimentation-rate site of Lake Baikal was exploited. Because of its location in the middle latitudes, Lake Baikal is highly sensitive to insolation changes and the entire lake remained uncovered by ice sheets throughout the Pleistocene epoch, making it a valuable archive for past climate. Here we examine long sediment cores from Lake Baikal that cover the past 12 million years. Our record reveals a gradual cooling of the Asian continental interior, with some fluctuations. Spectral analyses reveal periods of about 400 kyr, 600 kyr and 1,000 kyr, which may correspond to Milankovitch periods (reflecting orbital cycles). Our results indicate that changes in insolation were closely related to long-term environmental variations in the deep continental interior, over the past 12 million years.

  8. Long-term outcome after radiation therapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandai, Michiko; Takahashi, Masayo; Miyamoto, Hideki; Hiroshiba, Naoko; Kimura, Hideya; Ogura, Yuichiro; Honda, Yoshihito; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of low-dose radiation therapy on subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration. The clinical course and visual outcome were compared retrospectively among two treated groups and a control group; 15 patients (15 eyes) received 10 Gy, another 15 patients (15 eyes) received 20 Gy. The control group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes) without treatment. All patients were followed up for at least 18 months, and most were followed up for 3 years. The macula was irradiated with either 10 Gy in 5 fractions or with 20 Gy in 10 fractions after computed tomography (CT) simulation enabled real-time treatment planning from multiple CT slices. During the 3 years of follow-up, the lesions became better in 5 eyes, unchanged in 1, and worse in 9 with 10 Gy radiation; better in 7 eyes, unchanged in 1, and worse in 7 eyes with 20 Gy; and better in 1 eye and worse in 14 with no treatment. The difference between the groups treated with radiation and the control was statistically significant (P<.05). Visual acuity was also significantly better in the group receiving 20 Gy than in the control group up to 2 years after radiation (P<.01). Radiation may extend the period of good visual function substantially by reducing subfoveal choroidal neovascularization activity. (author)

  9. Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Lodewijk; Dapper, Rob; Nauw, Janine J.; Tulp, Ingrid; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2017-09-01

    Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea were studied using a 53 year (1960-2013) high resolution time series of daily kom-fyke catches in spring and autumn. Trends in first appearance, last occurrence and peak abundance were analysed for the most common species in relation to mode of life (pelagic, demersal, benthopelagic) and biogeographic guild (northern or southern distribution). Climate change in the western Wadden Sea involved an increase in water temperature from 1980 onwards. The main pattern in first day of occurrence, peak occurrence and last day of occurrence was similar: a positive trend over time and a correlation with spring and summer water temperature. This is counterintuitive; with increasing temperature, an advanced immigration of fish species would be expected. An explanation might be that water temperatures have increased offshore as well and hence fish remain longer there, delaying their immigration to the Wadden Sea. The main trend towards later date of peak occurrence and last day of occurrence was in line with our expectations: a forward shift in immigration into the Wadden Sea implies also that peak abundance is delayed. As a consequence of the increased water temperature, autumn water temperature remains favourable longer than before. For most of the species present, the Wadden Sea is not near the edge of their distributional range. The most striking phenological shifts occurred in those individual species for which the Wadden Sea is near the southern or northern edge of their distribution.

  10. Long-term effects of consumption of a novel fat emulsion in relation to body-weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepvens, K; Soenen, S; Steijns, J; Arnold, M; Westerterp-Plantenga, M

    2007-06-01

    To assess weight maintenance after weight loss by consumption of yoghurt with a novel fat emulsion (Olibra) including effects on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation, hunger feelings and satiety hormones. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel design. A 6-week weight loss period (2.1 MJ/day) was followed by 18 weeks weight maintenance with test (Olibra) or placebo yoghurt. Fifty overweight women (age: 18-58 years, body mass index (BMI) 25-32 kg/m2). In weeks 1, 7 and 25, a satiety test with questionnaires and blood samples for analysis of satiety hormones. In weeks 2, 8 and 26, REE, body weight and body composition. During weight maintenance after significant body weight reduction, there was no significant increase in body weight in the test group (1.1+/-3.4 kg); the placebo group did gain weight (3.0+/-3.1 kg, Pweight maintenance compared to placebo, which can be explained by the relatively higher REE as a function of FFM, relatively higher decrease in FM and the relatively lower increase in hunger.

  11. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  12. Evidence that children born at early term (37-38 6/7 weeks) are at increased risk for diabetes and obesity-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Levy, Dorit; Sheiner, Eyal; Wainstock, Tamar; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniella; Walfisch, Asnat

    2017-11-01

    Prematurity is known to be associated with high rates of endocrine and metabolic complications in the offspring. Offspring born early term (37-38 6/7 weeks' gestation) were also shown to exhibit long-term morbidity resembling that of late preterm, in several health categories. We aimed to determine whether early term delivery impacts on the long-term endocrine and metabolic health of the offspring. A population-based cohort analysis was performed, including all term singleton deliveries occurring from 1991 through 2013 at a single regional tertiary medical center. Congenital malformations and multiple pregnancies were excluded. Gestational age upon delivery was subdivided into early term deliveries and deliveries occurring at full term and later (≥39 weeks' gestation, comparison group). Endocrine and metabolic morbidity (including diabetes, obesity, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypothyroidism) of the offspring, up to the age of 18 years, was evaluated according to hospitalization files. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare cumulative morbidity incidence. A Weibull parametric survival model was used to control for time to event, siblings, and other confounders. During the study period 225,260 term deliveries met the inclusion criteria. Of them, 24% (n = 54,073) occurred at early term. Endocrine and metabolic morbidity was significantly more common in the early term group (0.51% vs 0.41%, P = .003). Specifically, overweight and obesity were more common among the early term group (P = .002). Differences were more prominent among children >5 years, who exhibited higher rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus, as well as obesity, when born at early term (P term group. Using the Weibull parametric survival model, while controlling for siblings, maternal diabetes, hypertension, labor induction, and Apgar score, early term delivery exhibited an independent association with long-term childhood endocrine and metabolic morbidity of the offspring (adjusted

  13. Association of social network and social support with health-related quality of life and fatigue in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A; Biasoli, I; Scheliga, A; Baptista, R L; Brabo, E P; Morais, J C; Werneck, G L; Spector, N

    2013-08-01

    As the number of survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) increases, there has been a growing interest in long-term treatment-related side effects and their impact on the quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess the association of social network and social support with the QoL and fatigue among long-term HL survivors. A total of 200 HL survivors were included. The generic Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire, the QoL cancer survivor's questionnaire (QOL-CS), and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory were used to assess QoL and fatigue. Social network and social support were evaluated with the Social Support Survey. Social network and all social support measures were favorably associated with two or more SF-12 scales, mainly with physical functioning and the mental health scales. Social network and social support dimensions were also associated with better QOL-CS scores. Affective support, informational support, positive interaction, and emotional support were associated with less fatigue. Both social network and social support are associated with better QoL and lower levels of fatigue in HL survivors. This information may be useful to health professionals and community organizations in implementing effective interventions to improve these patients' quality of life.

  14. Long-Term Visual Outcomes for a Treat and Extend Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regimen in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mrejen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy, clinicians are now focused on various treatment strategies to better control neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with treatment-naïve NVAMD initially classified based on fluorescein angiography (FA alone or with an anatomic classification utilizing both FA and optical coherence tomography (OCT and correlated long-term visual outcomes of these patients treated with an anti-VEGF Treat-and-Extend Regimen (TER with baseline characteristics including neovascular phenotype. Overall, 185 patients (210 eyes were followed over an average of 3.5 years (range 1–6.6 with a retention rate of 62.9%, and visual acuity significantly improved with a TER that required a mean number of 8.3 (±1.6 (± standard deviation intravitreal anti-VEGF injections/year (range 4–13. The number of injections and the anatomic classification were independent predictors of visual acuity at 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Patients with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes and received more injections than the other neovascular subtypes. There were no serious adverse events. A TER provided sustained long-term visual gains. Eyes with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes than those with other neovascular subtypes.

  15. Maternal overweight and obesity and risks of severe birth-asphyxia-related complications in term infants: a population-based cohort study in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Persson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight and obesity increase risks of pregnancy and delivery complications and neonatal mortality, but the mechanisms are unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate associations between maternal body mass index (BMI in early pregnancy and severe asphyxia-related outcomes in infants delivered at term (≥37 weeks. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nation-wide Swedish cohort study based on data from the Medical Birth Register included all live singleton term births in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs with 95% CIs for Apgar scores between 0 and 3 at 5 and 10 minutes, meconium aspiration syndrome, and neonatal seizures, adjusted for maternal height, maternal age, parity, mother's smoking habits, education, country of birth, and year of infant birth. Among 1,764,403 term births, 86% had data on early pregnancy BMI and Apgar scores. There were 1,380 infants who had Apgar score 0-3 at 5 minutes (absolute risk  = 0.8 per 1,000 and 894 had Apgar score 0-3 at 10 minutes (absolute risk  = 0.5 per 1,000. Compared with infants of mothers with normal BMI (18.5-24.9, the adjusted ORs (95% CI for Apgar scores 0-3 at 10 minutes were as follows: BMI 25-29.9: 1.32 (1.10-1.58; BMI 30-34.9: 1.57 (1.20-2.07; BMI 35-39.9: 1.80 (1.15-2.82; and BMI ≥40: 3.41 (1.91-6.09. The ORs for Apgar scores 0-3 at 5 minutes, meconium aspiration, and neonatal seizures increased similarly with maternal BMI. A study limitation was lack of data on effects of obstetric interventions and neonatal resuscitation efforts. CONCLUSION: Risks of severe asphyxia-related outcomes in term infants increase with maternal overweight and obesity. Given the high prevalence of the exposure and the severity of the outcomes studied, the results are of potential public health relevance and should be confirmed in other populations. Prevention of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age is important

  16. Association of Bariatric Surgery vs Medical Obesity Treatment With Long-term Medical Complications and Obesity-Related Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Gunn Signe; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Sandbu, Rune; Nordstrand, Njord; Hofsø, Dag; Lindberg, Morten; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2018-01-16

    The association of bariatric surgery and specialized medical obesity treatment with beneficial and detrimental outcomes remains uncertain. To compare changes in obesity-related comorbidities in patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 or ≥35 and at least 1 comorbidity) undergoing bariatric surgery or specialized medical treatment. Cohort study with baseline data of exposures from November 2005 through July 2010 and follow-up data from 2006 until death or through December 2015 at a tertiary care outpatient center, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Norway. Consecutive treatment-seeking adult patients (n = 2109) with severe obesity assessed (221 patients excluded and 1888 patients included). Bariatric surgery (n = 932, 92% gastric bypass) or specialized medical treatment (n = 956) including individual or group-based lifestyle intervention programs. Primary outcomes included remission and new onset of hypertension based on drugs dispensed according to the Norwegian Prescription Database. Prespecified secondary outcomes included changes in comorbidities. Adverse events included complications retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry and a local laboratory database. Among 1888 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 43.5 (12.3) years (1249 women [66%]; mean [SD] baseline BMI, 44.2 [6.1]; 100% completed follow-up at a median of 6.5 years [range, 0.2-10.1]). Surgically treated patients had a greater likelihood of remission and lesser likelihood for new onset of hypertension (remission: absolute risk [AR], 31.9% vs 12.4%); risk difference [RD], 19.5% [95% CI, 15.8%-23.2%], relative risk [RR], 2.1 [95% CI, 2.0-2.2]; new onset: AR, 3.5% vs 12.2%, RD, 8.7% [95% CI, 6.7%-10.7%], RR, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.3-0.5]; greater likelihood of diabetes remission: AR, 57.5% vs 14.8%; RD, 42.7% [95% CI, 35.8%-49.7%], RR, 3.9 [95% CI, 2.8-5.4]; greater risk of new-onset depression: AR, 8.9% vs 6.5%; RD, 2.4% [95% CI, 1.3%-3.5%], RR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]; and

  17. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T F Wu

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age.This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment.The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range 6.70 (5.78-8.03 and 9.40 (8.10-11.3 µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ± SD 383 ± 98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142 ± 70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B=6.054, SE=2.283, p=0.009 and betaine (B=7.350, SE=1.933, p=0.0002 at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development.We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work is needed on the potential limitation of choline

  18. Long-term expression of Fos-related antigen and transient expression of delta FosB associated with seizures in the rat hippocampus and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, G; Wang, W; Qi, Q; Feng, Z; Hudson, P; Jin, L; Zhang, W; Bing, R; Hong, J S

    1997-01-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid (KA), an analogue of glutamic acid, causes limbic seizures and pathophysiological changes in adult rats that are very similar to human temporal lobe epilepsy. One of the earliest changes in gene expression after treatment with KA is the induction of immediate-early genes. The fos and jun families are frequently studied immediate-early genes that are induced by KA. Several groups, including ours, have recently reported that a 35-kDa Fos-related antigen (FRA) is induced for a protracted time by various stimuli. It has been suggested that this FRA is delta FosB, which has a molecular mass of approximately 35 kDa. The present study characterizes the long-term expression of FRA and delta FosB after systemic treatment with KA. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis using an antibody that cross-reacts with all known FRAs showed that a 35-kDa FRA was induced at high levels in both the hippocampus and striatum for up to 1 month by KA. A semiquantitative PCR analysis showed that delta FosB was induced by KA, but its expression lasted for only 6 h. This result was also verified by northern blot analysis. These results suggested that the 35-kDa FRA with long-term elevated levels seen with western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry is a new species of the FRA and not delta FosB. The long-term expression of FRA in both the hippocampus and striatum may be associated with the pathophysiological changes after KA administration.

  19. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  20. Mortality and life expectancy in relation to long-term cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking: The Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Ocké, M.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Study objective: To study the effect of long-term smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to estimate the effects of cigarette and cigar or pipe smoking on life expectancy. Design: A long-term prospective cohort study. Setting: Zutphen, The Netherlands. Participants: 1373 men from the

  1. Real time electromagnetic monitoring system used for short-term earthquakes forecast related to the seismic-active Vrancea zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanica, Dumitru; Armand Stanica, Dragos

    2016-04-01

    The existence of the pre-seismic electromagnetic signals related to the earthquakes is still under scientific debate and requires new reliable information about their possible inter-relationship. In this paper, to obtain new insights into the seismic active Vrancea zone (Romania), a 3-D magnetotelluric imaging has been used to strengthen the connection between the geodynamic model and a possible generation mechanism of the intermediate depth earthquakes. Consequently, it is considered that before an earthquake initiation, due to the torsion effect, a high stress reached inside the seismogenic volume that may generates dehydration and rupture processes of the rocks, associated with the fluid migration through the lithospheric faults system, what leads to the resistivity changes. These changes have been investigated by using ULF electromagnetic data recorded in real time at the Geodynamic Observatory Provita de Sus (GOPS), placed on the Carpathian Electrical Conductivity Anomaly (CECA) at about 100km far from the seismic active Vrancea zone. The daily mean distribution of the normalized function Bzn(f) = Bz(f)/Bperp(f) (where: Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to strike; f is frequency in Hz) and its standard deviation are performed by using a FFT band-pass filter analysis in the ULF range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz, for which a 2-D geoelectrical structure under GOPS has been identified. To provide reliable information in anticipating the likelihood occurrence of an earthquake of Mw higher than 4, a statistical analysis based on standardized random variable equation has been used to identify the anomalous intervals on the new time series (Bzn*) carried out in a span of three years (2013-2015). The final conclusion is that the Bzn* shows a significant anomalous effect some days (weeks) before an impending earthquake and it should be used for short-term earthquakes forecast.

  2. Combining serum cystatin C with total bilirubin improves short-term mortality prediction in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Wan

    Full Text Available HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF is a severe liver disease which results in a high mortality in China. To early predict the prognosis of the patients may prevent the complications and improve the survival. This study was aimed to develop a new prognostic index to estimate the survival related to HBV-ACLF.Consecutive patients with HBV-ACLF were included in a prospective observational study. Serum Cystatin C concentrations were measured by using the particle-enhanced immunonephelometry assay. All of the patients were followed for at least 3 months. Cox regression analysis was carried out to identify which factors were predictive of mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was used to evaluate the efficacy of the variates for early predicting mortality.Seventy-two patients with HBV-ACLF were recruited between January 2012 and January 2013. Thirty patients died (41.7% during 3-months followed up. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified serum cystatin C (CysC and total bilirubin (TBil were independent factors significantly (P < 0.01 associated with survival. Our results further showed that new prognostic index (PI combining serum CysC with TBil was a good indicator for predicting the mortality of patients with HBV-ACLF. Specifically, the PI had a higher accuracy than the CTP, MELD, or MELD-Na scoring for early prediction short-term survival of HBV-ACLF patients with normal levels of serum creatinine (Cr. The survival rate in low risk group (PI < 3.91 was 94.3%, which was markedly higher than those in the high-risk group (PI ≥ 3.91 (17.4%, P < 0.001.We developed a new prognostic index combining serum CysC with TBil which early predicted the short-term mortality of HBV-ACLF patients.

  3. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange F. Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001, the time of manipulation (p<0.001 and gross motor function (p<0.001 over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001 and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02 from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development.

  4. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F; Figueiredo, Elyonara M; Gonçalves, Rejane V; Mancini, Marisa C

    2015-01-01

    In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. RESULTS revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (pmotor function (pmotor function (R2=0.84; pmotor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development.

  5. Preterm brain injury on term-equivalent age MRI in relation to perinatal factors and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha J Brouwer

    Full Text Available First, to apply a recently extended scoring system for preterm brain injury at term-equivalent age (TEA-MRI in a regional extremely preterm cohort; second, to identify independent perinatal factors associated with this score; and third, to assess the prognostic value of this TEA-MRI score with respect to early neurodevelopmental outcome.239 extremely preterm infants (median gestational age [range] in weeks: 26.6 [24.3-27.9], admitted to the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2012 were included. Brain abnormalities in white matter, cortical and deep grey matter and cerebellum and brain growth were scored on T1- and T2-weighted TEA-MRI using the Kidokoro scoring system. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at two years corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. The association between TEA-MRI and perinatal factors as well as neurodevelopmental outcome was evaluated using multivariable regression analysis.The distribution of brain abnormalities and brain metrics in the Utrecht cohort differed from the original St. Louis cohort (p 7 days (β [95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.3 [.5; 2.0] and parenteral nutrition >21 days (2.2 [1.2; 3.2] were independently associated with higher global brain abnormality scores (p < .001. Global brain abnormality scores were inversely associated with cognitive (β in composite scores [95% CI]: -.7 [-1.2; -.2], p = .004, fine motor (β in scaled scores [95% CI]: -.1 [-.3; -.0], p = .007 and gross motor outcome (β in scaled scores [95% CI]: -.2 [-.3; -.1], p < .001 at two years corrected age, although the explained variances were low (R2 ≤.219.Patterns of brain injury differed between cohorts. Prolonged mechanical ventilation and parenteral nutrition were identified as independent perinatal risk factors. The prognostic value of the TEA-MRI score was rather limited in this well-performing cohort.

  6. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  7. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF LAND USE PLANNING LOCALLY IN TERMS OF NEW LAND RELATIONS AND DECENTRALIZATION OF POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary Fundamental changes of land relations that have been established for the period of land reform in the independent Ukraine and the new socio-economic and environmental problems identified new character and content of the land. During the land reform in Ukraine to land management encountered new challenges that focus on the implementation of land policy and land relations fundamental change. Accordingly, to land management faces new challenges. Today for events to decentralize power facilities, new land - the territory united local communities should determine for whom the prospect of organizing the use and protection of land and other natural resources. However, the current land law the answer to this problem does not. Instead, normalization is an attempt to issues related to improving the quality of drafting documentation spatial planning (urban planning documents establish procedures for integrated development plans of local communities, the introduction of rules regulating local area to establish procedures for planning, construction and other use areas and about objects, improving public hearings to address public interests and relieve tension in the planning and construction of the territories. However, planning documentation does not solve the problems of perspective development of the organization use and protection of land and other natural resources. There is a need to distinguish between objects of regional urban planning and land management. This is because the urban planning regulations covering mainly two categories of land (settlements, industry, transport, communications and other purposes, not including agricultural land, which houses objects of capital construction. However, they make up for Ukraine just 4.2% of the total area. For the remaining seven categories of land (agricultural land, forest and water resources, conservation, recreation, recreational purposes land use planning and their protection should be based on

  8. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, C; Lewis, C

    2011-05-01

    The slow discharge of long-term psychiatry patients from Weskoppies Hospital into the community has not matched the national and international drive towards deinstitutionalisation. This article investigates patient and social work factors related to successful community placement, in the context of limited community care facilities. Thirty-six long-term patients who were successfully placed outside of the hospital during a seven month period were compared to 235 unplaced long-term patients in terms of demographic and clinical variables. Social work services were analysed in terms of which patients received the most interventions, and the most common type of interventions. The most significant patient factors associated with successful placement were: female patients; medium-to-high level of functioning; having involved relatives living far away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness. These patient factors were mirrored in the social work services rendered to the long-term patients during the study period: The recipients were mostly female, in open wards (higher-functioning); and the social services utilised were mostly related to planning for placement and patient support. The lack of community care facilities in the Pretoria area that are able to care for the more difficult long-term psychiatry patients, limits successful placement and increases the burden of hospital based social workers. The problem cannot be resolved at a hospital level and needs to be addressed in the context of provincial and national health departments.

  9. Long-term trends in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay, USA, related to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert J.; Williams, Michael R.; Marion, Scott R.; Wilcox, David J.; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Moore, Kenneth A.; Kemp, W.M.; Dennison, William C.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Peter Bergstrom,; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay supports a diverse assemblage of marine and freshwater species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) whose broad distributions are generally constrained by salinity. An annual aerial SAV monitoring program and a bi-monthly to monthly water quality monitoring program have been conducted throughout Chesapeake Bay since 1984. We performed an analysis of SAV abundance and up to 22 environmental variables potentially influencing SAV growth and abundance (1984-2006). Historically, SAV abundance has changed dramatically in Chesapeake Bay, and since 1984, when SAV abundance was at historic low levels, SAV has exhibited complex changes including long-term (decadal) increases and decreases, as well as some large, single-year changes. Chesapeake Bay SAV was grouped into three broad-scale community-types based on salinity regime, each with their own distinct group of species, and detailed analyses were conducted on these three community-types as well as on seven distinct case-study areas spanning the three salinity regimes. Different trends in SAVabundance were evident in the different salinity regimes. SAV abundance has (a) continually increased in the low-salinity region; (b) increased initially in the medium-salinity region, followed by fluctuating abundances; and (c) increased initially in the high-salinity region, followed by a subsequent decline. In all areas, consistent negative correlations between measures of SAV abundance and nitrogen loads or concentrations suggest that meadows are responsive to changes in inputs of nitrogen. For smaller case-study areas, different trends in SAV abundance were also noted including correlations to water clarity in high-salinity case-study areas, but nitrogen was highly correlated in all areas. Current maximum SAV coverage for almost all areas remain below restoration targets, indicating that SAV abundance and associated ecosystem services are currently limited by continued poor water quality, and specifically high

  10. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? : A comparison between first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to

  11. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Beelen, R.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Schouten, L.J.; Bausch-Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Armstrong, B.; Hughes, E.; Jerrett, M.; v.d. Brandt, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases. In a 2002 pilot study, we reported clear indications that traffic-related air pollution, especially at the local scale, was related to cardiopulmonary mortality in a

  12. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  13. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  14. Markets and employment related to energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies: situation 2012-2013 and short term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleuriot, Fanny; Gaudin, Thomas; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Louis, Jonathan; Vesine, Eric; Greffet, Pierre; Randriambololona, Celine; Rageau, Francois; Carabot, Cyril

    2014-11-01

    Since 2008, ADEME has regularly compiled an overview of markets and employment related to the main activities connected with improving energy efficiency and developing renewable sources of energy in France. The activities were selected partly according to their connection with ADEME's field of activity and partly according to their connection with the main policies determined by the Grenelle environment summit. Another factor taken into account was the existence of statistical data enabling the relevant markets to be regularly monitored. Since the very first version of the report, each time it has analysed some thirty market segments, all of which fall into one of three main sectors: - Energy efficiency improvements in residential accommodation: work to improve energy efficiency in existing housing (insulation of outside walls and replacement of windows and doors with more effective solutions), purchase of condensing boilers, energy efficient large household electrical appliances, and compact fluorescent lamps; - Energy efficiency improvements in transport systems: developments in urban public transport systems and railways, including equipment and sales of category A and B private vehicles; - Investments in the production of renewable energy (RE) and sales of renewably sourced energy. Over the years, several new markets have been added, including controlled mechanical ventilation systems (CMV), city bike schemes, etc. For this edition of the report, three new markets have been introduced, each with its own individual 'Market Report': Marine Renewable Energies, Heating Networks, and Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, while thermodynamic domestic boilers and sales of LED lamps have been added to markets for heat-pumps and compact fluorescent lamps respectively. The possibility of including markets related to energy efficiency improvements in industry and non-residential buildings was also investigated, but no regular statistical data enabling proper

  15. Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Nilsson, Sten; Lennernaes, Bo; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects

  16. FSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the ne rvous system, including psycholog ical functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the nervous system, including psychological functions. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...... of the NDA Panel on such health claims. Thus, this guidance represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in these areas. It is not intended that the document will include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies/outcome measures...

  17. Factors associated with change in health-related quality of life among individuals treated with long-term mechanical ventilation, a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Heidi; Lehmann, Sverre; Nilsen, Roy M; Natvig, Gerd K

    2018-03-01

    To examine changes and explanatory variables for changes in health-related quality of life in patients treated with long-term mechanical ventilation over a 6-year period. Long-term mechanical ventilation is a treatment for individuals with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, primarily caused by neuromuscular diseases, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary and restrictive thoracic diseases. Studies on long-term outcome on health-related quality of life and factors influencing it are lacking. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected from the Norwegian Long-Term-Mechanical-Ventilation Registry and from patient-reported questionnaire in 2008 and 2014. Health-related quality of life was measured by the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire, containing 49 items and seven subdomains. Linear mixed effects models were used to measure changes and identify factors for changes. After 6 years, 60 patients were still participating, out of 127 at baseline. Health-related quality of life improved significantly in the total score and in four subdomains of the questionnaire. Satisfaction with training in long-term mechanical ventilation was an explanatory variable for improved 'psychological well-being' and follow-up for improvement of 'anxiety'. Side effects of the treatment like facial soreness were associated with the total score. High age and high forced vital capacity were related to lower 'physical function' and improved 'social functioning', respectively. Long-term mechanical ventilation over 6 years improved health-related quality of life in most patients. Patient training, follow-up and reduction of side effects, largely delivered by trained nurses, contribute to achieve the main goal of the treatment-improved health-related quality of life. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Biomarkers Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques in Long-Term Survivors of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Maroy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Blood samples were taken at a first follow-up 6 years after the stroke. At a second follow-up, additional arterial events were registered for 140 patients, new blood samples were taken, and measurements of cIMT and blood pressure (BP) were performed. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis showed that cIMT ≥1 mm was associated with age, male gender, additional arterial events, BP, cholesterol, sedimentation rate, haemoglobin, triglycerides, creatinine, glycolysed haemoglobin (HbA1c) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII. Adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression showed significance for age (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to1.23, p = 0.003), male gender (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.15 to 14.5, p = 0.030), HbA1c (OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.21 to 36.5, p = 0.029) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.08 to 14.3, p = 0.037). In this long-term follow-up study of patients with ischemic stroke at a young age, FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII was identified as a possible contributing factor for cIMT ≥1 mm together with known risk factors, such as age, male gender, systolic BP, additional arterial events and HbA1c.

  19. Relative gene transcription and pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli after long-term adaptation to acid and salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Relative gene transcription and virulence potential, as measured by a Caco-2 adhesion assay, were investigated for three enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains after long-term adaptation for 24 h to acid (BHI pH 5.5) and salt (BHI 4.5% (w/v) NaCl) stress. Five virulence genes (eae, lpf...... compared to EDL933 (O157:H7, raw hamburger). Long-term adaptation to salt stress significantly increased the adhesion of all three EHEC strains to Caco-2 compared to the non-stressed controls. The present study shows that long-term adaptation to food related stress factors such as acid and salt is capable...... of changing the relative transcription of important virulence and stress response genes and increasing the virulence potential as measured by adhesion to the human colonic epithelial cell line, Caco-2....

  20. Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D; Davies, Hugh W

    2017-08-31

    Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability. Because diabetes prevalence is increasing and may be on the causal pathway between noise and cardiovascular disease, we examined the influence of long-term residential transportation noise exposure and traffic-related air pollution on the incidence of diabetes using a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the influence of transportation noise exposure over a 5-y period (1994-1998) on incident diabetes cases in a population-based prospective cohort study (n=380,738) of metropolitan Vancouver (BC) residents who were 45-85 y old, with 4-y of follow-up (1999-2002). Annual average transportation noise (Lden), air pollution [black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter Transportation noise was associated with the incidence of diabetes [interquartile range (IQR) increase, 6.8 A-weighted decibels (dBA); OR=1.08 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.10)]. This association remained after adjustment for environmental coexposures including traffic-related air pollutants, greenness, and neighborhood walkability. After adjustment for coexposure to noise, traffic-related air pollutants were not associated with the incidence of diabetes, whereas greenness was protective. We found a positive association between residential transportation noise and diabetes, adding to the growing body of evidence that noise pollution exposure may be independently linked to metabolic health and should be considered when developing public health interventions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1279.