Aggression and tantrums are common co-occurring problems with autism. Fortunately, positive developments in the treatment of these challenging and stigmatizing behaviors have been made recently with psychologically-based interventions. Evidence-based methods employ behavior modification, which is also often described as applied behavior analysis…
Carr, Edward G.
Aggression, tantrums, and self-injury can function as escape behaviors, allowing children to terminate aversive demand (teaching) situations. In one group of six psychotic children, these behaviors were frequent in demand situations, and rare in nondemand situations. Further, when stimuli correlated with the termination of demands were presented,…
Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A
Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain. © The Author(s) 2014.
Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.
Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…
Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.
The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.
The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...
Tonnaer, F.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.
Aggression, violence and deviant behavior are terms frequently used interchangeable, but relate to different theoretical concepts. Therefore, this chapter starts with a definition of aggression. Furthermore, several theories regarding the development of aggression will be presented. According to
Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C
Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( 0.05). Average birth weight was lowest in the INCSOY diet ( = 0.02). This study demonstrates that RSTARCH and SOYHULLS can improve the welfare of sows by reducing aggression and increasing satiety in limit-fed pregnant sows without affecting production.
Jacobs, George B; Wille, Rosanne L
Anecdotal tales of colorful temper tantrums and outbursts by surgeons directed at operating room nurses and at times other health care providers, like residents and fellows, are part of the history of surgery and include not only verbal abuse but also instrument throwing and real harassment. Our Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Nancy Epstein, has made the literature review of "Are there truly any risks and consequences when spine surgeons mistreat their predominantly female OR nursing staff/colleagues, and what can we do about it?," an assigned topic for members of the editorial board as part of a new category entitled Ethical Note for our journal. This is a topic long overdue and I chose to research it. There is no medical literature to review dealing with nurse abuse. To research this topic, one has to involve business, industry, educational institutions, compliance standards and practices, and existing state and federal laws. I asked Dr. Rosanne Wille to co-author this paper since, as the former Dean of Nursing and then Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at a major higher educational institution, she had personal experience with compliance regulations and both sexual harassment and employment discrimination complaints, to make this review meaningful. A review of the existing business practices and both state and federal laws strongly suggests that although there has not been any specific legal complaint that is part of the public record, any surgeon who chooses to act out his or her frustration and nervous energy demands by abusing co-workers on the health care team, and in this case specifically operating room personnel, is taking a chance of making legal history with financial outcomes which only an actual trial can predict or determine. Even more serious outcomes of an out-of-control temper tantrum and disruptive behavior can terminate, after multiple hearings and appeals, in adverse decisions affecting hospital privileges. Surgeons who abuse other
Huber, Robert; Brennan, Patricia
Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal's behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects.
... whining and crying to screaming, kicking, hitting, and breath holding. They're equally common in boys and girls ... Child's Preschool Teacher Your Child's Habits Separation Anxiety Breath-Holding Spells Train Your Temper View more Partner Message ...
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The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...
Potegal, Michael; Carlson, Gabrielle; Margulies, David; Gutkovitch, Zinoviy; Wall, Melanie
Angry, agitated outbursts (AAOs) are a common precipitant of children's psychiatric hospitalization. In the hospital, AAOs present both management and diagnostic challenges, e.g., while they have recently been described as manic "rages", older studies suggest that they may be exacerbated temper tantrums. Factor analyses of 109 AAOs had by 46…
Stacy, Lauri L.
This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…
Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.
Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early
Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R
To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for
Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.
Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…
Tetsuya Haruna, MD
Full Text Available The effects of restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm by a combination of catheter ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs on atrial function in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF remain unknown. In 15 patients with chronic AF (>1 year, we attempted to restore and maintain sinus rhythm by ablation targeting complex fractionated atrial electrocardiograms (CFAEs combined with pulmonary vein isolation with or without AADs. Sinus rhythm was restored in all patients. At 17:7 ± 7:2 months after AF ablation, maintenance of sinus rhythm was achieved in 20% of patients without AADs and in 73.3% of patients with AADs. The left atrial diameter decreased significantly by 9:5 ± 8:1% (P < 0:05 during the 12-month followup. AADs did not have any adverse effects. The aggressive strategy for maintenance of sinus rhythm involving AF ablation and AADs potentially led to recovery of structural changes in the LA in patients with chronic AF.
Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.
Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of
Development of a modified prognostic index for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.
Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in order to construct a new, large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium levels (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein levels (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors used in the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, median overall survival for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a promising new risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur. Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention. Date Released: 11/28/2007.
Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.
"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…
De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G
Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.
Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical and psycholog......Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions. The study...
Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T
Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.
Beatrice A Golomb
Full Text Available Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively.This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and
response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions. The study...... at follow-up. The more exposure to violence the more fatigue was reported five years later. In a cross-sectional study, bullying was associated with psychological and somatic health effects and a lower physical stress response independently of age, gender, social climate and negative affectivity...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...
Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Zuoxin W
Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds-a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna
Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.
Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual
Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin
Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustra...
Coyne, Sarah M.
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…
Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of book-tax conformity level on the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness. Different from Frank et al. (2009 and Lennox et al. (2013, this study considers endogeneity problem to minimize biased results. Using the companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for 2013-2016, this study found that there is endogeneity problem in the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness, but no causality relationship. In this case, only tax reporting aggressiveness that affects financial reporting aggressiveness, but not otherwise. Consistent with the hypothesis, this study also found that firm with a low level of BTC is more weakened trade-offs between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness than firm with high level of BTC. These results are consistent either with or without include the industry dummy.
Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A; Grube, Joel W; Waiters, Elizabeth D
This study investigated whether young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Using self-administered questionnaires, data were collected from a sample of community-college students, ages 15-25 years (N=1056; 57% female). A structural equation model (maximum likelihood method) was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music and students' alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors. Respondents' age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking were included in the analyses as control variables. Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. In addition, alcohol and illicit-drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables (e.g., sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity) were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. The findings suggest that young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Music listening preference, conversely, may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. There is also the possibility that substance use, aggression, and music preference are independent constructs that share common "third factors".
They always lead to antagonistic responses and aggressive behaviours in sporting activities. The study examined whether a combination of anger, hostility, and verbal utterances would predict physical aggressive behaviour among student-athletes in South African universities. A cross-sectional study of 300 student-athletes ...
... check his or her hearing, vision, general health, language milestones, and learning abilities to see if there is another explanation ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ...
Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…
Nelson, Randy J; Trainor, Brian C
Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular approaches to the study of aggression have revealed biological signals that mediate the components of aggressive behaviour. These signals may provide targets for therapeutic intervention for individuals with extreme aggressive outbursts. This Review summarizes the complex interactions between genes, biological signals, neural circuits and the environment that influence the development and expression of aggressive behaviour.
Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil
Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...... whether the routine use of the BVC could reduce the frequency of patient aggression. We conducted a study with a semi-random regression discontinuity design in 15 psychiatric wards. Baseline aggression risk was assessed using the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS) over three months. The BVC...... was implemented in seven intervention wards, and the risk of aggressive incidents over three months of follow-up was compared with the risk in eight control wards. The analysis was conducted at the ward level because each ward was allocated to the intervention and control groups. At baseline, the risk...
Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick
Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.
Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C
Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie
Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay
Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.
Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.
Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…
Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.
Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P
Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey
Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.
De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco
Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior.
Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.
To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…
Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…
Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C
Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.
Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.
Jouriles, Ernest N; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were expected to partially account for the association between experiences of physical aggression and psychological distress. In addition, psychological aggression was hypothesized to be perceived as more unpleasant and less playful than physical aggression. Participants were 125 high school students. Relationship aggression was assessed over an 8-week period using two methods: (1) a retrospective method based on a single assessment at the end of the 8-week period, and (2) a cumulative method based on multiple assessments conducted during the 8-week period. Adolescents' appraisals of the aggression were also measured, as were their reports of symptoms of psychological distress. Adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression correlated positively, but inconsistently, with their symptoms of psychological distress. In analyses considering both forms of aggression simultaneously, psychological aggression was related to adolescents' distress, but physical aggression was not. This finding emerged across both methods of assessing for relationship aggression. Psychological aggression was more likely than physical aggression to be rated as unpleasant, and less likely to be attributed to the partner "playing around." The study of adolescent relationship aggression will benefit by expanding the focus of aggression to include psychological aggression as well as physical aggression, and by examining adolescents' appraisals of the aggression they experience. The findings highlight the importance of a broad view of aggression in adolescent relationships. Psychological aggression appears to be at least as important to adolescent
Maney, Donna L; Goodson, James L
Our understanding of the biological basis of aggression in all vertebrates, including humans, has been built largely upon discoveries first made in birds. A voluminous literature now indicates that hormonal mechanisms are shared between humans and a number of avian species. Research on genetics mechanisms in birds has lagged behind the more typical laboratory species because the necessary tools have been lacking until recently. Over the past 30 years, three major technical advances have propelled forward our understanding of the hormonal, neural, and genetic bases of aggression in birds: (1) the development of assays to measure plasma levels of hormones in free-living individuals, or "field endocrinology"; (2) the immunohistochemical labeling of immediate early gene products to map neural responses to social stimuli; and (3) the sequencing of the zebra finch genome, which makes available a tremendous set of genomic tools for studying gene sequences, expression, and chromosomal structure in species for which we already have large datasets on aggressive behavior. This combination of hormonal, neuroendocrine, and genetic tools has established songbirds as powerful models for understanding the neural basis and evolution of aggression in vertebrates. In this chapter, we discuss the contributions of field endocrinology toward a theoretical framework linking aggression with sex steroids, explore evidence that the neural substrates of aggression are conserved across vertebrate species, and describe a promising new songbird model for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying aggression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain parts and comparing brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs, we studied amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus and parietal cortex, as these tissues are reported to be involved in emotional reactions, including aggression. Based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in 20 brains, obtained from 11 dogs euthanised because of aggressive behaviour and nine non-aggressive dogs, we studied expression of nine genes identified in an initial screening by subtraction hybridisation. Results This study describes differential expression of the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes in brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. It also reports differential expression for eight of the studied genes across four different brain tissues (amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Sex differences in transcription levels were detected for five of the nine studied genes. Conclusions The study showed significant differences in gene expression between brain compartments for most of the investigated genes. Increased expression of two genes was associated with the aggression phenotype. Although the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes have no known function in regulation of aggressive behaviour, this study contributes to preliminary data of differential gene expression in the canine brain and provides new information to be further explored.
Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P
A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine amygdala/ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) functional connectivity (FC) and its relation to aggression in schizophrenia. Twenty-one healthy controls and 25 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Regions of interest were placed in the amygdala based on previously published work. A voxelwise FC analysis was performed in which the mean time series across voxels for this bilateral amygdala seed was entered as a predictor in a multiple regression model with motion parameters and global, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter signals as covariates. Patients showed significant reductions in FC between amygdala and vPFC regions. Moreover, in patients, the strength of this connection showed a significant inverse relationship with aggression, such that lower FC was associated with higher levels of self-rated aggression. Similar results were obtained for 2 other measures--Life History of Aggression and total arrests. These results suggest that amygdala/vPFC FC is compromised in schizophrenia and that this compromise is associated with aggression.
Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M.; Goodson, James L.
Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including ...
Adrianna Alicja Fronczak
Full Text Available The article includes information on the types and forms of aggressive behavior and mechanisms of aggression in children. In addition, there are presented the assumptions of sociocognitive model of work with aggressive children. The paper is mainly addressed to people working with children, concerned about their aggressive behavior and aware the hitherto methods are not sufficiently effective.
Skibsted, Anine P; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Carré, Justin M
The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations...... significant ventral and dorsal striatal reactivity when participants won a point and removed one from the opponent. Provocations significantly activated the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas. Task-related aggressive behavior was positively correlated with neural reactivity...... to provocations in the insula, the dorsal striatum, and prefrontal areas. Our findings suggest the PSAP within an fMRI environment may be a useful tool for probing aggression-related neural pathways. Activity in the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas during provocations is consistent...
Deckel, A W; Fuqua, L
Previous work demonstrated that the brains of many reptiles, including the American chameleon Anolis carolinensis (A. carolinensis), are functionally 'split'. Because the left eye in this species projects predominantly to the right hemisphere, and vice versa, inferences about lateralized brain functioning can be made in A. carolinensis by observation of eye use during behavioral encounters. Using this model, past work suggested that territorial aggression in Anolis is under the preferential control of the right hemisphere, and that acute stress or chronic alcohol exposure selectively reduces right hemisphere mediated territorial aggression. In addition, drugs which increase serotonin (5-HT) in the synaptic cleft inhibit aggressive responding in anoles in both hemispheres. The current experiment examined whether or not the administration of the serotonin agonists 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine) tetralin (8-OHDPAT), quipazine, or meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG) alter territorial aggression in Anolis. Nine adult socially isolated male A. carolinensis underwent a series of behavioral trials during which an antagonistic male was introduced into the cage. Once stable responding was initiated, all subjects were injected in a semi-randomized crossover manner with the following agents, (1) lactated Ringer's, (2) the 5-HT2 agonist quipazine (1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg), (3) the 5-HT1 agonist 8-OHDPAT (83 mg/kg), and (4) the 5-HT3 agonist mCPBG (3.0 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Twenty minutes post injections, the male intruder was reintroduced into the subject's cage. Several behaviors were recorded, including: (1) the time to the first aggressive response, (2) the number of aggressive episodes mediated by the left eye or right eye, and (3) changes in skin color and posture. Aggressive responding was virtually eliminated in all subjects injected with 8-OHDPAT. On the other hand, one-way ANOVA found that both the 9 mg/kg dose of mCPBG (P=0.007), and the 3.0 mg/kg dose of quipazine (P=0
López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D
Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.
Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael
This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman  Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae  Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck  Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vitor Crestani Calegaro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.
Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla
Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.
Inga D Neumann
Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.
Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter
For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive
Teughels, Wim; Dhondt, Rutger; Dekeyser, Christel; Quirynen, Marc
Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and
Kravitz, Edward A; Huber, Robert
Invertebrates are outstanding model systems for the study of aggression. Recent advances and promising new research approaches are bringing investigators closer to the goal of integrating behavioral findings with those from other disciplines of the neurosciences. The presence of highly structured, easily evoked behavioral systems offer unique opportunities to quantify the aggressive state of individuals, to explore the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of dominance relationships, to investigate the dynamic properties of hierarchy formation, and to explore the significance of neural, neurochemical and genetic mechanisms in these behavioral phenomena.
Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R
There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American
Pawliczek, Christina M.; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute
Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed tw...
Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.
Rösing, Lilian Munk
Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...
Full Text Available Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.
Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.
Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results
The results of the study supported the Buss and Perry four-factor structure, indicating that the AQ-SA can be useful for the measurement of aggression in a South African setting. The results showed that most athletes expressed moderate to low physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility; and exhibited low levels of ...
Cho, Un Jung; Lee, JooYoung; Kim, Hyo-Won; Lee, Jung Sun; Joo, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Chang Yoon; Shin, Yong-Wook
Study of inpatient aggression in psychiatric inpatient units (PIUs), where vulnerable patients interact intensely in small groups, is hampered by a lack of systematic monitoring of aggressive events in the context of group dynamics. Our current study examines the relationship between aggression and group structure in the PIU of a general tertiary-care hospital over a 9-month period. The severity of aggression was monitored daily using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Clinical data including the daily number and mean age of subpopulations with different diagnoses were acquired. Cross-correlation function and autoregressive integrated moving average modeling were used to assess the effects of various group structure parameters on the incidence of aggressive events in the PIU. The daily total OAS score correlated positively with the daily mean age of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. By contrast, the OAS total score demonstrated a negative correlation with the daily mean age of patients with major depression. The age of the patients at diagnosis is an important group structure that affects the incidence of aggression in a PIU.
Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon
Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support
Albandar, Jasim M
Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or
Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel
Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship…
Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate
Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E
Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds. We confirmed those findings using GWA in a second cohort of partially overlapping breeds. Lastly, we used the validated loci to create a model that effectively predicted fear and aggression stereotypes in a third group of dog breeds that were not involved in the mapping studies. We found that i) known IGF1 and HMGA2 loci variants for small body size are associated with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-social fear, and fear and aggression that are directed toward unfamiliar dogs and humans. All four genome loci are among the most highly evolutionarily-selected in dogs, and each of those was previously shown to be associated with morphological traits. We propose that the IGF1 and HMGA2 loci are candidates for identical variation being associated with both behavior and morphology. In contrast, we show that the GNAT3-CD36 locus has distinct variants for behavior and morphology. The chrX region is a special case due to its extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD). Our evidence strongly suggests that sociability (which we propose is associated with HS6ST2) and fear/aggression are two distinct GWA loci within this LD block on chrX, but there is almost perfect LD between the peaks for fear/aggression and animal size. We have mapped many canine fear and
Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775
Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.
In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the existence of combinations of aggression components (Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression that result in different profiles of aggressive behavior in children, as well as to test the differences between these profiles in scores of perfectionism, school refusal and affect. It is interesting to analyze these variables given: (a their clinical relevance due to their close relationship with the overall psychopathology; and (b the need for further evidence regarding how they are associated with aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 1202 Spanish primary education students between the ages of 8 and 12. Three aggressive behavior profiles for children were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA: High Aggression (Z scores between 0.69 and 0.7, Moderate Aggression (Z scores between −0.39 and −0.47 and Low Aggression (Z scores between −1.36 and −1.58. These profiles were found for 49.08%, 38.46% and 12.48% of the sample, respectively. High Aggression scored significantly higher than Moderate Aggression and Low Aggression on Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP, Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP, the first three factors of school refusal (i.e., FI. Negative Affective, FII. Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, FIII. To Pursue Attention, and Negative Affect (NA. In addition, Moderate Aggression also reported significantly higher scores than Low Aggression for the three first factors of school refusal and NA. Conversely, Low Aggression had significantly higher mean scores than High Aggression and Moderate Aggression on Positive Affect (PA. Results demonstrate that High Aggression was the most maladaptive profile having a high risk of psychological vulnerability. Aggression prevention programs should be sure to include strategies to overcome psychological problems that characterize children manifesting high levels of aggressive behavior.
Berkhout, Ben; de Ronde, Anthony; van der Hoek, Lia
New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?
Yang, Yaling; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Baker, Laura A
Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive and reactive aggression) and whether they differ between males and females. Using a sample of 106 14-year-old adolescent twins, this study found that striatal enlargement was associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. We also found that volumetric alterations in several frontal regions including smaller middle frontal and larger orbitofrontal cortex were correlated with higher levels of aggression in adolescent twins. In addition, cortical thickness analysis showed that thickness alterations in many overlapping regions including middle frontal, superior frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex and temporal regions were associated with aggression in adolescent twins. Results support the involvement of fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in the etiology of aggression during adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 43:230-240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C.
The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20–55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. PMID:24833604
P Andreas Svensson
Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.
Soma, Kiran K; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Newman, Amy E M; Charlier, Thierry D; Demas, Gregory E
In 1849, Berthold demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for aggressive behavior in roosters. Since then, research on the neuroendocrinology of aggression has been dominated by the paradigm that the brain receives gonadal hormones, primarily testosterone, which modulate relevant neural circuits. While this paradigm has been extremely useful, recent studies reveal important alternatives. For example, most vertebrate species are seasonal breeders, and many species show aggression outside of the breeding season, when gonads are regressed and circulating testosterone levels are typically low. Studies in birds and mammals suggest that an adrenal androgen precursor-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-may be important for the expression of aggression when gonadal testosterone synthesis is low. Circulating DHEA can be metabolized into active sex steroids within the brain. Another possibility is that the brain can autonomously synthesize sex steroids de novo from cholesterol, thereby uncoupling brain steroid levels from circulating steroid levels. These alternative neuroendocrine mechanisms to provide sex steroids to specific neural circuits may have evolved to avoid the "costs" of high circulating testosterone during particular seasons. Physiological indicators of season (e.g., melatonin) may allow animals to switch from one neuroendocrine mechanism to another across the year. Such mechanisms may be important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species, including humans.
Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.
Kowalczuk, Krystyna; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta
Patient aggression affects healthcare quality and, in extreme situations, may even lead to medical malpractice. Little is known, however, about the specific distribution of health care professionals' exposure to patient aggression in various countries. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of various professional groups of healthcare personnel to patient aggression, and to identify potential determinants (medical profession, age, gender, professional experience and employment at outpatient/inpatient healthcare units) of this exposure. The study was performed between January 2008 - December 2009 in northeastern Poland, and included 1,624 healthcare workers (493 nurses, 504 midwives, 501 physicians and 126 medical rescue workers). Exposure to eight forms of patient aggression was assessed using the MDM Mobbing Questionnaire. Using a raised voice was the most frequently observed form of aggression in all groups, whereas the least frequent form of aggression encountered was the use of direct physical violence. In inpatient healthcare units, the intensity of patient aggression was encountered most by nurses and medical rescue workers, followed by physicians and midwives. In outpatient healthcare units, medical rescue workers experienced significantly higher levels of aggression when compared to other professional groups. Significant differences in mean aggression intensity experienced in inpatient and outpatient healthcare units were observed only in nurses and physicians. Furthermore, no significant effects of gender were observed on the intensity of patient aggression. Nurses are most exposed to different forms of patient aggression, with verbal attacks being most prevalent. Nurses employed at inpatient healthcare units experienced aggression more frequently than those working in outpatient healthcare units.
Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa
Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Robert C Bransfield Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD. Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation.Conclusion: LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the
Bransfield, Robert C
No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation. LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the violence associated with LD can be avoided with better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of LD.
Gregg, T R; Siegel, A
1. Violence and aggression are major public health problems. 2. The authors have used techniques of electrical brain stimulation, anatomical-immunohistochemical techniques, and behavioral pharmacology to investigate the neural systems and circuits underlying aggressive behavior in the cat. 3. The medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray are the most important structures mediating defensive rage behavior, and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus clearly mediates predatory attack behavior. The hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septal area, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex project to these structures directly or indirectly and thus can modulate the intensity of attack and rage. 4. Evidence suggests that several neurotransmitters facilitate defensive rage within the PAG and medial hypothalamus, including glutamate, Substance P, and cholecystokinin, and that opioid peptides suppress it; these effects usually depend on the subtype of receptor that is activated. 5. A key recent discovery was a GABAergic projection that may underlie the often-observed reciprocally inhibitory relationship between these two forms of aggression. 6. Recently, Substance P has come under scrutiny as a possible key neurotransmitter involved in defensive rage, and the mechanism by which it plays a role in aggression and rage is under investigation. 7. It is hoped that this line of research will provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms and substrates regulating aggression and rage and thus establish a rational basis for treatment of disorders associated with these forms of aggression.
Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella
Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that 5-HT/Trp∗1000, antisocial behavior, and GAF were predictors of aggressive behavior. The model combining these three predictors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.851 (95% CI 0.806-0.895). This study indicates that while circulating Trp is reduced in aggressive individuals, the combination of biological (5-HT/Trp ratio) and psychopathological (antisocial behavior and GAF) markers discriminates between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior suggesting the potential of a multi-marker approach in psychiatry given the heterogenic nature of mental diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267
Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima
Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.
van der Hoek Lia
Full Text Available Abstract New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?
The article analyses the emotional aspects of a professional training process in the light of the participants’ experienced societal status. A detailed text analysis of interviews with a group of social pedagogue staff in Danish Youth clubs focuses on a particular vulnerability and their aggressive...... perception of other students with social problems, and interprets it partly as a reaction on the paradoxical situation adults in continuing education, and partly in the perspective of their experience of not being recognized as a profession. The last section of the article further explains the deep...
Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M
Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.
Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo
The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p self esteem (r = -.25, p happiness (r = -.21, p self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This paper presents adolescent aggression as mediated by the level of differentiation of self. No research has directly addressed Bowen's notion that level of differentiation impacts child functioning including aggression. Level of differentiation is discussed in conjunction with social, gender and cultural norms as manifested in aggressive behavior. Female adolescent aggression is described as mainly relationship focused and expressed via verbal threats, intimidation and manipulation, while ...
Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim
Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I 3 theory or General Aggression Model (GAM) metatheory of human aggression. I 3 theory explains exceptional, catastrophic events of human aggression, whereas the GAM explains common human aggression behaviours. A total of 249 Australian teachers participated in this study, including 142 primary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 35-39 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 10-14 years; 84% female) and 107 secondary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 45-49 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 15-19 years; 65% female). Participants completed four online self-report questionnaires, which assessed caregiving responsiveness, trait self-control, misbehaviour provocation, and teacher aggression. Analyses revealed that the GAM most accurately captures the mechanism underlying teacher aggression, with lower caregiving responsiveness appearing to indirectly lead to teacher aggression via higher misbehaviour provocation and lower trait self-control in serial, controlling for gender, age, years teaching, and current role (primary, secondary). This study indicates that teacher aggression proceeds from 'the person in the situation'. Specifically, lower caregiving responsiveness appears to negatively shape a teacher's affective, cognitive, and arousal states, which influence how they perceive and interpret student misbehaviour. These internal states, in turn, appear to negatively influence appraisal and decision processes, leading to immediate appraisal and impulsive actions. These results raise the possibility that teacher aggression is a form of countertransference. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…
Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W
Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage using various psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving. Using a cross-sectional approach in a consecutive sample of 331 respondents (68% female), we surveyed participants about the number of past driving citations, not necessarily convictions, and 21 aggressive behaviors using the Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. The number of driving citations demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the number of aggressive behaviors in the 21-item Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. There were no differences between men and women. As for specific aggressive behaviors, the number of driving citations was statistically significantly related to punching a wall when angry, causing and getting into a bar fight, getting into fistfights (not in a bar), causing someone to have an accident, and intentionally running someone off the road. The number of driving citations, an indication of problematic driving, appears to be related to generally aggressive behavior. Findings indicate that if aggression plays a role in problematic driving, it is likely not limited to the road.
Porsch, R.M.P.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Krapohl, E.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Loukola, A.; Korhonen, T.; Pulkkinen, L.; Corley, R.P.; Rhee, S.; Kaprio, J.; Rose, R.; Hewitt, J.K.; Sham, P.; Plomin, R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.
The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression
Blair, Robert J R
This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.
Cho, Chan-Myung; You, Hyung-Keun; Jeong, Seong-Nyum
Few epidemiologic studies have investigated aggressive periodontitis in Koreans, but such studies of disease prevalence and other clinical characteristics would be invaluable in providing proper treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis and to measure the extent of associated periodontal breakdown. The study population consisted of 1,692 patients who visited the Department of Periodontology, Wonkwang Daejeon Dental Hospital from January to December, 2010. Clinical parameters (probing depth, gingival recession, periodontal attachment loss) were measured by a single examiner, and radiographic examination was performed at the baseline. Twenty-eight (1.65%) patients showed clinical features of aggressive periodontitis, of which 27 patients exhibited the generalized form, and 1 exhibited the localized form. There was no significant difference between the percentage of male and female patients. The probing pocket depth of the maxillary first molar was deeper than that of the other teeth and gingival recession was also the most serious at the maxillary first molar. The periodontal attachment loss was the highest at the maxillary first molar. The average number of missing teeth was 1.29 per subject. Loss of the second molar was prominent. Within the limitations of this study, the periodontal breakdown evaluated by attachment loss was found to be most severe at the first molars of aggressive periodontitis patients. However, further large scale multicenter studies are necessary to access more precise data, including prevalence.
Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.
Li, Qing Kay; Chen, Li; Ao, Ming-Hui; Chiu, Joyce Hanching; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W
Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca. Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor. Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (pPSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca. Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker.
Evan L. MacLean
Full Text Available Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the measurement of free (unbound and total (free + bound OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.
MacLean, Evan L; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Martin, W Lance; Carter, C Sue
Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP)-neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species-and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the measurement of free (unbound) and total (free + bound) OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.
Blanchard D Caroline
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus, emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding
Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448
Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C
To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a
Ballester, Javier; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Obreja, Mihaela; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, MaryBeth; Iyengar, Satish; Farchione, Tiffany; Kupfer, David J; Brent, David; Birmaher, Boris
Objective Several studies have suggested that bipolar disorder (BP) in adults is associated with aggressive behaviors. However, most studies have only included inpatients and have not taken possible confounding factors into consideration. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of aggression in subjects with BP compared to subjects with other non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Methods Subjects with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) and bipolar II disorder (BP-II) (n = 255), non-BP psychopathology (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 84) were recruited. Aggression was measured using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Group comparisons were adjusted for demographic and clinical differences (e.g., comorbid disorders) and multiple comparisons. The effects of the subtype of BP, current versus past episode, polarity of current episode, psychosis, the presence of irritable mania/hypomania only, and pharmacological treatment were examined. Results Subjects with BP showed significantly higher total and subscale AQ scores (raw and T-scores) when compared with subjects with non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Exclusion of subjects with current mood episodes and those with common comorbid disorders yielded similar results. There were no effects of BP subtype, polarity of the current episode, irritable manic/hypomanic episodes only, or current use of pharmacological treatments. Independent of the severity of BP and polarity of the episode, those in a current mood episode showed significantly higher AQ scores than those not in a current mood episode. Subjects with current psychosis showed significantly higher total AQ score, hostility, and anger than those without current psychosis. Conclusions Subjects with BP display greater rates of anger and aggressive behaviors, especially during acute and psychotic episodes. Early identification and management of these behaviors is warranted. PMID:22548901
Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie
Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism should be of interest to investigate. Furthermore, modern brain-imaging studies will reveal the site of action of aggressiveness and impulsivity. Within brain regions of interest, biological studies will promote our knowledge of this deleterious behaviour.
Carr, Edward G.; And Others
This monograph reviews and analyzes a set of treatment procedures exemplifying a positive or nonaversive approach to the amelioration of severe behavior problems in persons with developmental disabilities. Target behaviors include self-injury, aggression, and tantrums. Approximately 100 research articles drawn from 21 journals and a number of…
Hoptman, Matthew J.; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J.; Shehzad, Zarrar E.; Kelly, A. M. Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Javitt, Daniel C.; Milham, Michael P.
A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity i...
Maney, Donna L.; Goodson, James L.
Our understanding of the biological basis of aggression in all vertebrates, including humans, has been built largely upon discoveries first made in birds. A voluminous literature now indicates that hormonal mechanisms are shared between humans and a number of avian species. Research on genetics mechanisms in birds has lagged behind the more typical laboratory species because the necessary tools have been lacking until recently. Over the past 30 years, three major technical advances have prope...
Kebschull, M.; Guarnieri, P.; Demmer, R.T.; Boulesteix, A.L.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.
The 2 major forms of periodontitis, chronic (CP) and aggressive (AgP), do not display sufficiently distinct histopathological characteristics or microbiological/immunological features. We used molecular profiling to explore biological differences between CP and AgP and subsequently carried out supervised classification using machine-learning algorithms including an internal validation. We used whole-genome gene expression profiles from 310 ‘healthy’ or ‘diseased’ gingival tissue biopsies from...
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.
Full Text Available Aggressive behaviour in children and youth is a widespread phenomenon. Antisocial behaviour that includes certain kind of aggressive behaviour can occur and disappear again during a child’s development. However, from a psychological perspective aggression can be one of the problematic types of behaviour in children with long-lasting negative consequences. The aim of this research is to examine teachers’ perceptions of the types of aggressive behaviour as well as to find out the causes for the development of aggressiveness in school-age children in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH from teacher’s point of view. In order to define and classify the types of aggressive behavior in school age children in BiH, descriptive method was used. For understanding phenomena of aggression and identification of its cause(s, explanatory method was used. In order to examine teachers’ perceptions of the types of aggressive behaviour as well as the causes for the development of aggressiveness, assessment scales for teachers’ perceptions were used. The research findings indicate that proactive, reactive, and relational types of aggression are most often seen in school-age children from teachers’ perceptions. The causes of aggressive behaviour range widely: Aggressive behaviour occurs as a combination of internal impulses and external stimuli or triggers that indicate possible aggression so temperament as well as environmental factors can influence the development of aggressiveness; aggressive behaviour is acquired through learning by observing and imitating model; the role of parents and their way of disciplining a child is another important cause; the mass media is seen as important cause of aggressive behaviour.
Dumas, Tara M; Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha
The purpose of this study was to assess (a) similarities in self-reported bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors among members of young male groups recruited on their way to bars and (b) group-level variables associated with individual members' self-reported likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression in the past year, controlling for individual attitudes. Young, male, natural drinking groups recruited on their way to a bar district Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights (n = 167, 53 groups) completed an online survey that measured whether they had perpetrated physical aggression at a bar in the past year and constructs associated with bar aggression, including attitudes toward male bar aggression and frequency of heavy episodic drinking in the past year. Intraclass correlations and chi-square tests demonstrated significant within-group similarity on bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors (ps bar aggression were significantly associated with individuals' likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression, controlling for individual attitudes (p bar aggression was nonsignificant in the full model. This study suggests that the most important group influence on young men's bar aggression is the attitudes of other group members. These attitudes were associated with group members' likelihood of engaging in bar aggression over and above individuals' own attitudes. A better understanding of how group attitudes and behavior affect the behavior of individual group members is needed to inform aggression-prevention programming.
Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F
Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.
Golovinski, P. A.
We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...
Full Text Available In this review, the concepts of fear, phobia and aggression in dogs were precisely defined, as well as their underlying causes. The behavioural activities specific for these conditions were indicated. The accompanying symptoms were consistently explained. The causes that the development of pathological fear leads to aggression in dogs as well as the ex various therapy options depending on the clinical signs were presented.
Volavka, Jan; Citrome, Leslie
Schizophrenia elevates the risk for aggressive behavior and violent crime, and different approaches have been used to manage this problem. The results of such treatments vary. One reason for this variation is that aggressive behavior in schizophrenia is heterogeneous in origin. This heterogeneity has usually not been accounted for in treatment trials nor is it adequately appreciated in routine clinical treatment planning. Here, we review pathways that may lead to the development of aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia and discuss their impact on treatment. Elements in these pathways include predisposing factors such as genotype and prenatal toxic effects, development of psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairments, substance abuse, nonadherence to treatment, childhood maltreatment, conduct disorder, comorbid antisocial personality disorder/psychopathy, and stressful experiences in adult life. Clinicians' knowledge of the patient's historical trajectory along these pathways may inform the choice of optimal treatment of aggressive behavior. Clozapine has superior antiaggressive activity in comparison with other antipsychotics and with all other pharmacological treatments. It is usually effective when aggressive behavior is related to psychotic symptoms. However, in many patients, aggression is at least partly based on other factors such as comorbid substance use disorder, comorbid antisocial personality disorder/psychopathy, or current stress. These conditions which are sometimes underdiagnosed in clinical practice must be addressed by appropriate adjunctive psychosocial approaches or other treatments. Treatment adherence has a crucial role in the prevention of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia patients.
Shechtman, Zipora; Tutian, Rony
To investigate the impact of outcome feedback provided to semi-professional counselors of children and adolescents at risk for aggressive behavior, following group treatment. Participants included 230 aggressive children and adolescents and 64 educators in a quasi-experimental design of 3 conditions: experimental group with feedback, experimental group without feedback, and control group (no treatment). The current study employed a feedback system based on self-report aggression scores measured after each session, provided to teachers, including an alert system and weekly follow-up group support. Outcomes were more favorable for the treatment children than the control group, but feedback had no impact on the results. Outcome feedback provided to group therapists does not have an effect on children and adolescents' reduction of aggression. Further research is needed to identify possible reasons for failure to show feedback effect.
Mogavero, Floriana; Jager, Amanda; Glennon, Jeffrey C
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with comorbid aggression and sleep disturbances. The sleep/wake cycle is under the control of the circadian system which is moderated by clock genes. Clock genes can regulate the transcription of monoamine oxidase A, which is involved in the degradation of monoamines. Disturbances in monoamine interaction with clock genes in those with monoamine gene polymorphisms may regulate susceptibility of ADHD and comorbid aggression/sleep disturbances. While monoamines influence circadian rhythm and clock gene expression, circadian rhythm components modulate aggressive behavior, and altered clock genes expression have been associated with ADHD. We propose a mechanism by which circadian rhythm and clock gene expression may influence ADHD and comorbid aggression through the modulation of neurotransmitters. The role of clock genes in ADHD patients with comorbid aggression awaits further research; therefore we also indicate directions for future studies to help increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms in ADHD with comorbid aggression and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit
Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.
We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…
Huesman, L. Rowell; And Others
Studies the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children over a 22-year period. Subjects who were more aggressive 8-year-olds were more aggressive 30-year-olds, exhibiting serious antisocial behavior as adults. The stability of aggression across generations within a family was also high. (Author/CB)
Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.
Pawliczek, Christina M; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute
Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.
Christina M Pawliczek
Full Text Available Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21 and one reporting low (n=18 trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.
Pawliczek, Christina M.; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute
Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression. PMID:24205247
Baird, Abigail A; Silver, Shari H; Veague, Heather B
Relational aggression is a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls, and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. A finding of relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated with increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are less sensitive to relational aggression. © 2010 Psychology Press
Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, verbal, stealing and teasing, and combined into composite measures of victimization and perpetration. Regression analysis identified associations with demographic characteristics, family and sibling composition, parent-child relationships and socioeconomic status and explored the link between sibling aggression and involvement in peer bullying. Using a broad definition, sibling aggression was found to be widespread, with 46% of all participants being victimized and 36% perpetrating aggression. Household and family characteristics, including a large family size, male siblings, and financial difficulties were associated with greater rates of sibling aggression. Parenting behavior showed the strongest relationship: harsh parenting increased the risk of sibling aggression while positive parenting protected against it. Sibling aggression was also homotypically related to involvement in peer bullying. Victimization by siblings significantly increased the odds of being a victim of peer bullying, and perpetrators of sibling aggression were more likely to be both peer bullies and bully-victims. Considering the adverse effects of sibling aggression on physical and mental health, the study provides pointers for efforts to reduce the risk of sibling aggression. Furthermore, the link with peer bullying suggests that school anti-bullying efforts should also take account of children's sibling relationships. Aggr. Behav. 41:14-24, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals
Das, Sourav; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Pathak, Kangkan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Sengupta, Soumik; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti
Aggression is very common in psychosis (prevalence ranging from 34% to 70%) and is often the main or first symptom for which the patient receives medical attention. Studies have associated alteration in cytokine profiles among healthy persons with aggressive traits. We hypothesise that even among those with psychosis, aggression is an independent entity, irrespective of psychotic state and is associated with cytokine alterations. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the inflammatory cytokines in aggressive psychotic patients. Study included 80 participants divided into four groups viz. aggressive diseased, non aggressive diseased, aggressive non diseased and non aggressive non diseased depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Interferon gamma(IFN-G), Interleukin 10(IL10) plasma concentrations and their ratio were measured using ELISA based assay kits read at absorbance of 450 nm wavelength using Double beam spectrophotometer. The four groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, Interferon Gamma levels, Interleukin 10 levels, Proinflammatory: Antiinflammatory cytokine ratio using standard statistical instruments. In patients with psychosis, the cytokines IFN-G and IL10 were significantly lower compared to those without. The cytokines IFN-G and IL10 are both significantly associated both with aggression and psychosis. IL10, but not IFN-G is associated with aggression in absence of psychosis. The proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratio, is more significantly associated with aggression, irrespective of psychosis. In fact, there is no significant relationship between the above ratio and psychosis. Strong correlation exists between the proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratio and aggression scores, even after controlling for severity of psychosis. It may be concluded from this study that in spite of a high prevalence of aggression in patients of psychosis, it is more likely to be an
Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.
The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982
Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R
Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.
Full Text Available Sarah E Fitzpatrick, Laura Srivorakiat, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. Keywords: autism, autism spectrum disorder, aggression, treatment, antipsychotics, applied behavior analysis
Gunam D. Singh
Full Text Available Managing learner aggression in the school system is central to learners’ academic performance and holistic development. In order to manage learner aggression, it is important to understand the contributory factors and the forms of learner aggression. This article reports on an investigation of factors contributing to learner aggression in rural secondary schools in the Empangeni district of KwaZulu-Natal in order to identify the forms of learner aggression and to establish strategies to manage such aggression in these secondary schools. A qualitative research design was adopted to investigate the phenomenon through an interview process with participants from five rural secondary schools. The findings showed that the factors contributing to learner aggression include family factors, environmental factors and school-related factors whilst the most common forms of learner aggression in schools are verbal aggression, physical aggression and bullying. The article concludes with the role that the school, parents and the Department of Education can play in addressing learner aggression in schools.
Hadi Naghdi; Nastaran Adibrad; Rahmatollah Nouranipour
Background: The aggression is one of the most important problems among the adolescences in relation with the others. Aggression is an emotion and researches showed that the emotional intelligence might help to better manage. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of the emotional intelligence training on the aggression. Methods: An experimental design was conducted using pre and post-test including control group. The statistical population included 420 adolescent bo...
Kulkarni, Cyelee; Kinane, Denis F
It is critical to understand the underlying host responses in aggressive periodontitis to provide a better appreciation of the risk and susceptibility to this disease. Such knowledge may elucidate the etiology and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis and directly influence treatment decisions and aid diagnosis. This review is timely in that several widely held tenets are now considered unsupportable, namely the concept that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans is the key pathogen and that chemotactic defects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes are part of the etiopathology. This review also serves to put into context key elements of the host response that may be implicated in the genetic background of aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, key molecules unique to the host response in aggressive periodontitis may have diagnostic utility and be used in chairside clinical activity tests or as population screening markers. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the microbial etiology of aggressive periodontitis and the histopathology of this disease are more similar to than different from that of chronic periodontitis. An important therapeutic consideration from the lack of support for A. actinomycetemycomitans as a critical pathogen here is that the widely held belief that tetracycline had a role in aggressive periodontitis therapy is now not supported and that antibiotics such as those used effectively in chronic periodontitis (metronidazole and amoxicillin) are not contraindicated. Furthermore, A. actinomycetemycomitans-related molecules, such as cytolethal distending toxin and leukotoxin, are less likely to have utility as diagnosis agents or as therapeutic targets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris
This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...
Neacşu, A. N.
Full Text Available Aggressive selling is selling method which consists in using a series of aggressive techniques of negotiation – the proposal to by an unnecessary product, or “charging” the client with supplementary quantities of commodities, over his needs. In our days, the companies spend each year, a lot of money to initiate their sell agents in the selling art. Unfortunately, these manipulation techniques are not prohibited by law, so we have to keep our eyes wide open and try to keep our independent thinking.
Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…
Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci
This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…
Anderson, C.A.; Shibuya, A.; Ihori, N.; Swing, E.L.; Bushman, B.J.; Sakamoto, A.; Rothstein, H.R.; Saleem, M.; Barlett, C.P.
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive
Dionisi, Angela M; Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E
We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed.
Vieira, Alexandre R; Albandar, Jasim M
This article critically reviews the evidence for a role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis and discusses the study approaches commonly used to identify genetic risk factors of this disease. Available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations in multiple genes, combined with environmental effects. Syndromic periodontal diseases include certain monogenic disorders that express phenotypes showing aggressive forms of periodontitis, and the genetic triggering factors of most of these syndromes have been identified. Other periodontal disease phenotypes seem to occur through different genetic predisposition patterns. Case-control and genome-wide studies have been used to investigate the association with gene polymorphisms. Association studies and the familial aggregation of aggressive periodontitis suggest a significant genetic component in the increased predisposition to this disease. There is evidence to support the contribution of a few major genes or of multiple small-effects genes. In addition, there is evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Early studies suggested an X-linked mode of transmission of aggressive periodontitis, and subsequent studies support an autosomal mode. Genetic studies have the potential to improve the screening programs of subjects at risk for developing aggressive periodontitis and may enhance treatment outcome through gene therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lehtonen, Topi K; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B M
Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild. © 2015 The Author(s).
Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W
This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.
Khushu, Abha; Powney, Melanie J
Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression. To examine whether haloperidol alone, administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously, is an effective treatment for long-term/persistent aggression in psychosis. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (July 2011 and April 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) or double blind trials (implying randomisation) with useable data comparing haloperidol with another drug or placebo for people with psychosis and long-term/persistent aggression. One review author (AK) extracted data. For dichotomous data, one review author (AK) calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a fixed-effect model. One review author (AK) assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. We have no good-quality evidence of the absolute effectiveness of haloperidol for people with long-term aggression. One study randomising 110 chronically aggressive people to three different antipsychotic drugs met the inclusion criteria. When haloperidol was compared with olanzapine or clozapine, skewed data (n=83) at high risk of bias suggested some advantage in terms of scale scores of unclear clinical meaning for olanzapine/clozapine for 'total aggression'. Data were available for only one other outcome, leaving the study early. When compared with other antipsychotic drugs, people allocated to haloperidol were no more likely to leave the study
Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…
... weight loss (86.8%), skin nodules (86.4%) and diarrhoea (55.3%). Virtually, all occupational groups were affected, with students, civil servants and businessmen topping the list. Key Words: Atypical Aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma, HIV infection. African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 ...
Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael
The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.
Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran
Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.
Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has since the mid-1980's been known to distinguish atypical, aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma (AAKS) from the endemic type in Africa (1). In our series at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, we recorded 44 patients with AAKS, 35 of them male and 9 female, giving ...
Wu, Chin-Chia; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih
Although palliative chemotherapy during end-of-life care is used for relief of symptoms in patients with metastatic cancer, chemotherapy may lead to more aggressive end-of-life care and less use of hospice service. This is a population-based study of the association between palliative chemotherapy and aggressiveness of end-of-life care. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified 49,920 patients with metastatic cancer who underwent palliative chemotherapy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. Patients who received chemotherapy 2-6 months before death were included. Aggressiveness of end-of-life care was examined by previously reported indicators. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and endotracheal tube intubation were included as indicators of aggressive end-of-life care. The association between palliative chemotherapy and hospice care was studied. Palliative chemotherapy was associated with more aggressive treatment. After adjustment for patient age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, cancer group, primary physician's specialty, postdiagnosis survival, hospital characteristics, hospital caseload, urbanization, and geographic regions, more than one emergency room visit (p care unit admission (p life care were significantly more common in patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. Patients who did not receive palliative chemotherapy received more hospice care in the last 6 months of life (p life care, including more emergency room visits and intensive care unit admissions, and endotracheal intubation. The patients who received palliative chemotherapy received less hospice service toward the end of life. Palliative chemotherapy is used for patients with incurable cancer toward the end of life (EOL). Aggressiveness of EOL care and hospice care are related to the quality of life of these patients. This study of data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database found that palliative chemotherapy led to more
Dack, C; Ross, J; Papadopoulos, C; Stewart, D; Bowers, L
To combine the results of earlier comparison studies of in-patient aggression to quantitatively assess the strength of the association between patient factors and i) aggressive behaviour,ii) repetitive aggressive behaviour. A systematic review and meta-analysis of empirical articles and reports of comparison studies of aggression and non-aggression within adult psychiatric in-patient settings. Factors that were significantly associated with in-patient aggression included being younger, male, involuntary admissions, not being married, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, a greater number of previous admissions, a history of violence, a history of self-destructive behaviour and a history of substance abuse. The only factors associated with repeated in-patient aggression were not being male, a history of violence and a history of substance abuse. By comparing aggressive with non-aggressive patients, important differences between the two populations may be highlighted. These differences may help staff improve predictions of which patients might become aggressive and enable steps to be taken to reduce an aggressive incident occurring using actuarial judgements. However, the associations found between these actuarial factors and aggression were small. It is therefore important for staff to consider dynamic factors such as a patient's current state and the context to reduce in-patient aggression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly and mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 pll.2. Although the physical and molecular genetic features of SMS are increasingly well understood, work is more limited on SMS's behavioral phenotype, which includes self-injury, tantrums, aggression, attention deficit, and sleep disturbance. This case-report describes the lowering of the aggression level of a 13 year old individual with SMS.
Gomes, M M
The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.
Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.
sexual abuse to include piercing (piercing skin and genitals with pins, needles, and other sharp objects), scat (ingestion or use of feces), extreme...sadomasochism, bestiality (sex with animals) , extreme mutilation , and child pornogra- phy. 2 7 Obviously apparent is the fact that today’s...Newsweek, 18 Mar. 1985, 62. 9 Kathleen Barry, Female Sexual Slavery (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979), 84. 10 Osanka and Johann, op. cit., 16
LLANOS, Alexandre Hugo; SILVA, Carlos Guillermo Benítez; ICHIMURA, Karina Tamie; REBEIS, Estela Sanches; GIUDICISSI, Marcela; ROMANO, Marcelo Munhóes; SARAIVA, Luciana
Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of different forms of periodontal diseases on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Fifty-two patients with Aggressive Periodontitis (AP) or Chronic Periodontitis (CP) were included: nine patients with Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), thirty-three patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis (GAP) and ten patients with Generalized Chronic Periodontitis (GCP). Oral Health Impact Profile ques...
Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie
In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Parks, Michael; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.; Wells, Samantha
Objective Little systematic research has focused on motivations for aggression and most of the existing research is qualitative and atheoretical. This study increases existing knowledge by using the theory of coercive actions to quantify the apparent motives of individuals involved in barroom aggression. Objectives were to examine: gender differences in the use of compliance, grievance, social identity, and excitement motives; how motives change during an aggressive encounter; and the relationship of motives to aggression severity. Method We analyzed 844 narrative descriptions of aggressive incidents observed in large late-night drinking venues as part of the Safer Bars evaluation. Trained coders rated each type of motive for the 1,507 bar patrons who engaged in aggressive acts. Results Women were more likely to be motivated by compliance and grievance, many in relation to unwanted sexual overtures from men; whereas men were more likely to be motivated by social identity concerns and excitement. Aggressive acts that escalated tended to be motivated by identity or grievance, with identity motivation especially associated with more severe aggression. Conclusions A key factor in preventing serious aggression is to develop approaches that focus on addressing identity concerns in the escalation of aggression and defusing incidents involving grievance and identity motives before they escalate. In bars, this might include training staff to recognize and defuse identity motives and eliminating grievance-provoking situations such as crowd bottlenecks and poorly managed queues. Preventive interventions generally need to more directly address the role of identity motives, especially among men. PMID:24224117
Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Wang, Lin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Sui, Hong; Yang, Yanjie
With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data. Females reported lower levels of aggression than males (p aggression, and the model was highly significant (R 2 = .233, Ad R 2 = .230, p aggression is affected by gender, family-level and school-level variables. Aggression scores are significantly correlated with not only family-level or school-level variables independently, but their combination as well. We find that the risk factors for aggression include a dissatisfying profession, higher levels of study pressure, poor parental relationships, poor interpersonal relationships, the presence of siblings, punishment, health maladjustment, less subjective support, and lower levels of utilization of social support.
Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W
Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.
Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda
Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.
Ligthart, R.S.L.; Bartels, M.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.
Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…
Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.
Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff
the cognitive bases of adolescent aggressive behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2005; 34: 229-243. 25.Hayward, S. and Fletcher, J. Relational aggression in an Australian sample: gender and age differences. Australian Journal of. Psychology2003; 55:129–134. 26. Coie, J.D., and Dodge, K.A. (1998). Aggression.
Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)
Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J
A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji
Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli
Full Text Available Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610 from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95% extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking
Verhoeven, Floor E A; Booij, Linda; Kruijt, Anne-Wil; Cerit, Hilâl; Antypa, Niki; Does, Willem
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypic variation has been associated with variation in aggression, especially in interaction with childhood trauma or other early adverse events. Male carriers of the low-expressing variant (MAOA-L) with childhood trauma or other early adverse events seem to be more aggressive, whereas female carriers with the high-expressing variant (MAOA-H) with childhood trauma or other early adverse events may be more aggressive. We further investigated the effects of MAOA genotype and its interaction with sex and childhood trauma or other early adverse events on aggression in a young adult sample. We hypothesized that the association between genotype, childhood trauma, and aggression would be different for men and women. We also explored whether this association is different for dispositional (trait) aggression versus aggression in the context of dysphoric mood. In all, 432 Western European students (332 women, 100 men; mean age 20.2) were genotyped for the MAOA gene. They completed measures of childhood trauma, state and trait measures of aggression-related behaviors (STAXI), and cognitive reactivity to sad mood (LEIDS-R), including aggression reactivity. Women with the MAOA-H had higher aggression reactivity scores than women with the MAOA-L. This effect was not observed in men, although the nonsignificant findings in men may be a result of low power. Effects on the STAXI were not observed, nor were there gene by environment interactions on any of the aggression measures. A protective effect of the low-expression variant in women on aggression reactivity is consistent with previous observations in adolescent girls. In females, the MAOA-H may predispose to aggression-related problems during sad mood.
Das, Sourav; Sengupta, Soumik; Pathak, Kangkan; Sah, Divyashree; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Gogoi, Vijay; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti
Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis. The present study included 80 participants divided into four groups depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability were measured using ELISA. The groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability using standard statistical instruments. The present study found lower levels of morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and cortisol variability among the aggressive group (vs. non aggressive group) and among the diseased group (vs. non diseased group). The differences were most marked for cortisol variability which was related to both aggression and psychosis independently. There were statistically significant correlation between cortisol variability and aggression, which was retained even after controlling for psychosis. There was no significant correlation of cortisol variability with psychosis severity (after controlling for aggression score) or with age, gender or duration of psychosis. We conclude that aggression, even among patients with psychosis, is an independent entity characterized by lower levels of morning cortisol and cortisol variability. The etio-pathology may lie in some altered neuro-immune parameters executed by cortisol and psychosis as trigger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn
This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337
Hood, Suzanne; Amir, Shimon
The body's internal timekeeping system is an under-recognized but highly influential force in behaviors and emotions including anger and reactive aggression. Predictable cycles or rhythms in behavior are expressed on several different time scales such as circadian ( circa diem , or approximately 24-h rhythms) and infradian (exceeding 24 h, such as monthly or seasonal cycles). The circadian timekeeping system underlying rhythmic behaviors in mammals is constituted by a network of clocks distributed throughout the brain and body, the activity of which synchronizes to a central pacemaker, or master clock. Our daily experiences with the external environment including social activity strongly influence the exact timing of this network. In the present review, we examine evidence from a number of species and propose that anger and reactive aggression interact in multiple ways with circadian clocks. Specifically, we argue that: (i) there are predictable rhythms in the expression of aggression and anger; (ii) disruptions of the normal functioning of the circadian system increase the likelihood of aggressive behaviors; and (iii) conversely, chronic expression of anger can disrupt normal rhythmic cycles of physiological activities and create conditions for pathologies such as cardiovascular disease to develop. Taken together, these observations suggest that a comprehensive perspective on anger and reactive aggression must incorporate an understanding of the role of the circadian timing system in these intense affective states.
Full Text Available The body’s internal timekeeping system is an under-recognized but highly influential force in behaviors and emotions including anger and reactive aggression. Predictable cycles or rhythms in behavior are expressed on several different time scales such as circadian (circa diem, or approximately 24-h rhythms and infradian (exceeding 24 h, such as monthly or seasonal cycles. The circadian timekeeping system underlying rhythmic behaviors in mammals is constituted by a network of clocks distributed throughout the brain and body, the activity of which synchronizes to a central pacemaker, or master clock. Our daily experiences with the external environment including social activity strongly influence the exact timing of this network. In the present review, we examine evidence from a number of species and propose that anger and reactive aggression interact in multiple ways with circadian clocks. Specifically, we argue that: (i there are predictable rhythms in the expression of aggression and anger; (ii disruptions of the normal functioning of the circadian system increase the likelihood of aggressive behaviors; and (iii conversely, chronic expression of anger can disrupt normal rhythmic cycles of physiological activities and create conditions for pathologies such as cardiovascular disease to develop. Taken together, these observations suggest that a comprehensive perspective on anger and reactive aggression must incorporate an understanding of the role of the circadian timing system in these intense affective states.
Winzer, Lylla; Krahé, Barbara; Guest, Philip
Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the world. It is experiencing rapid socioeconomic change that may influence the level of sexual aggression, but data on the scale of sexual aggression in the region remain sparse. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the findings of studies available in English on the prevalence of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization among women and men above the age of 12 years in the 11 countries of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). Based on four scientific databases, the search engine Google, Opengrey database, and reference checking, 49 studies were found on sexual victimization. Of those, 32 included only women. Self-reported perpetration was assessed by only three studies and included all-male samples. Prevalence rates varied widely across studies but showed that sexual victimization was widespread among different social groups, irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. Methodological heterogeneity, lack of representativeness of samples, imbalance of information available by country, missing information within studies, and cultural differences hampered the comparability between and within countries. There is a need for operationalizations that specifically address sexual aggression occurring after the age of consent, based on detailed behavioral descriptions of unwanted sexual experiences and allied to a qualitative approach with cultural sensitivity. Data on sexual aggression in conflict settings and in human trafficking are also limited. Recommendations for future research are presented in the discussion.
Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E
This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350
Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.
There is much evidence that schizophrenia patients have an increased risk for aggression and violent behavior, including homicide. The neurobiological basis and correlates of this risk have not been much studied. While genome-wide association studies are lacking, a number of candidate genes have been investigated. By far, the most intensively studied is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on chromosome 22. COMT is involved in the metabolism of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Several studies suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism of this gene affects COMT activity. Methionine (Met)/Met homozygote schizophrenia patients show 4- to 5-fold lower COMT activity than valine (Val)/Val homozygotes, and some but not all studies have found an association with aggression and violence. Recently, a new functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene, Ala72Ser, was found to be associated with homicidal behavior in schizophrenia, but this finding warrants further replication. Studies published so far indicate that an association with the monoamine oxidase A, B, or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 genes is unlikely. Data for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene are conflicting and limited. Data from the limited number of neuroimaging studies performed to date are interesting. Frontal and temporal lobe abnormalities are found consistently in aggressive schizophrenia patients. Positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) data indicate deficits also in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found a negative association of violent behavior with frontal and right-sided inferior parietal activity. Neuroimaging studies may well help further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behavior.
Gonçalves, L F H; Fermiano, D; Feres, M; Figueiredo, L C; Teles, F R P; Mayer, M P A; Faveri, M
To compare the levels of Selenomonas sputigena and uncultivated/unrecognized Selenomonas species in subgingival biofilms from periodontally healthy subjects and from subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Fifteen periodontally healthy subjects and 15 subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis were recruited and their clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated. Nine subgingival plaque samples were collected from each subject and all were individually analyzed for the levels of 10 bacterial taxa, including cultured and uncultivated/unrecognized microorganisms, using the RNA-oligonucleotide quantification technique. Between-group differences in the levels of the test taxa were determined using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis showed significantly higher mean counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, S. sputigena and the Mitsuokella sp. Human Oral Taxon (HOT) 131 (previously described as Selenomonas sp. oral clone CS002), while higher mean counts of Actinomyces gerencseriae and Streptococcus sanguinis were found in periodontally healthy subjects (p aggressive periodontitis group. In the generalized aggressive periodontitis group, the levels of P. gingivalis and S. sputigena were higher in deep sites (probing depth ≥ 5 mm) than in shallow sites (probing depth ≤ 3 mm) (p aggressive periodontitis, sites with probing depth of ≤ 3 mm harbored higher levels of these two species than sites with the same probing depth in periodontally healthy subjects. There were positive correlations between probing depth and the levels of P. gingivalis (r = 0.77; p aggressive periodontitis, and their role in the onset and progression of this infection should be investigated further. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.
Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea
Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.
Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.
AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162
Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C
AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.
Full Text Available Background: According to World Health Organization, aggression is one of the most serious problems in nations’ general health. The current study was aimed to investigate the predictive factors of aggressive behaviors in guidance and high school male students, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Material and Methods: A total of 457 guidance and high school male students from Sanandaj city were randomly selected. They were asked to complete a questionnaire included questions about attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and aggressive behavior. The questionnaire was validated by the researcher, beforehand. Pearson correlation coefficient and Linear and Ordinal Multivariate Regression was used to investigate the predictability of the constructs of the theory for intention and behavior. Results: The participants’ age range was from 12 to 17 year (mean, 14.70. %35.5 of the participants reported no physical aggression and %26.9 of them reported no verbal aggression during the last month. Linear regression showed that the theory components, all together, could predict %50.2 of the intended physical aggressive behavior, and %73.3 of the intended verbal aggressive behavior. Moreover, the perceived behavior control was the most predictive construct for intended aggression. The results, also, revealed that the theory components, all together, could predict %36.3 of the verbal aggressive behavior, and %21.1 of the physical aggressive behavior. The results, also showed that, intended behavior was the most predictive construct for the verbal aggressive behavior, and that perceived behavior control was the most predictive construct for physical aggression. Conclusion: As, during physical aggression, people feel less control on their behavior; and their verbal aggression is affected by their attitudes, paying attention to these constructs could result into decreasing adolescents’ aggression. In other words, taking part in
Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra
Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Itil, T M
In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.
Maekawa, Fumihiko; Nagino, Koki; Yang, Jiaxin; Htike, Nang T T; Tsukahara, Shinji; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kawashima, Takaharu
The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan established a strain of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) known as NIES-L by rotation breeding in a closed colony for over 35years; accordingly, the strain has highly inbred-like characteristics. Another strain called NIES-Brn has been maintained by randomized breeding in a closed colony to produce outbred-like characteristics. The current study aimed to characterize intermale aggressive behaviors in both strains and to identify possible factors regulating higher aggression in the hypothalamus, such as sex hormone and neuropeptide expression. Both strains displayed a common set of intermale aggressive behaviors that included pecking, grabbing, mounting, and cloacal contact behavior, although NIES-Brn quail showed significantly more grabbing, mounting, and cloacal contact behavior than did NIES-L quail. We examined sex hormone levels in the blood and diencephalon in both strains. Testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the blood and diencephalon of NIES-Brn quail compared to NIES-L quail. We next examined gene expression in the hypothalamus of both strains using an Agilent gene expression microarray and real-time RT-PCR and found that gene expression of mesotocin (an oxytocin homologue) was significantly higher in the hypothalamus of NIES-Brn quail compared to NIES-L quail. Immunohistochemistry of the hypothalamus revealed that numbers of large cells (cell area>500μm 2 ) expressing mesotocin were significantly higher in the NIES-Brn strain compared to the NIES-L strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that higher testosterone and mesotocin levels in the hypothalamus may be responsible for higher aggression in the NIES-Brn quail strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tulogdi, Aron; Toth, Mate; Halasz, Jozsef; Mikics, Eva; Fuzesi, Tamas; Haller, Jozsef
Callous-unemotional violence associated with antisocial personality disorder is often called 'predatory' because it involves restricted intention signaling and low emotional/physiological arousal, including decreased glucocorticoid production. This epithet may be a mere metaphor, but may also cover a structural similarity at the level of the hypothalamus where the control of affective and predatory aggression diverges. We investigated this hypothesis in a laboratory model where glucocorticoid production is chronically limited by adrenalectomy with glucocorticoid replacement (ADXr). This procedure was proposed to model important aspects of antisocial violence. Sham and ADXr rats were submitted to resident/intruder conflicts, and the resulting neuronal activation patterns were investigated by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. In line with earlier findings, the share of attacks aimed at vulnerable targets (head, throat and belly) was dramatically increased by ADXr, while intention signaling by offensive threats was restricted. Aggressive encounters activated the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region involved in intra-specific aggression, but sham and ADXr rats did not differ in this respect. In contrast, the activation of the lateral hypothalamus that is tightly involved in predatory aggression was markedly larger in ADXr rats; moreover, c-Fos counts correlated positively with the share of vulnerable attacks and negatively with social signaling. Glucocorticoid deficiency increased c-Fos activation in the central amygdala, a region also involved in predatory aggression. In addition, activation patterns in the periaqueductal gray - involved in autonomic control - also resembled those seen in predatory aggression. These findings suggest that antisocial and predatory aggression are not only similar but are controlled by overlapping neural mechanisms. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing
Gowin, Joshua L; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D
The serotonin 1(B/D) (5-HT1(B/D)) receptor has shown potential as a target for decreasing aggression. The 5-HT1(B/D) agonist zolmitriptan's ability to reduce aggressive behavior in humans and its interaction with the well-known aggression-enhancing drug alcohol were examined. Our objective was to investigate zolmitriptan's potential to modify human aggression in a laboratory paradigm across a range of alcohol doses. Alcohol has been consistently associated with aggression and violence, thus we hoped to expand current understanding of alcohol's role in aggressive behavior via manipulation of the serotonin (5-HT) system. Eleven social drinkers, seven male, were recruited to participate in a research study lasting 3-4 weeks. Aggression was measured using the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP), a laboratory model widely used in human aggression studies. Subjects were administered 5-mg zolmitriptan and placebo capsules along with alcohol doses of 0.0, 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg in a within-subject, counterbalanced dosing design. Data were analyzed as the ratio of aggressive/monetary-earning responses, to account for possible changes in overall motor function due to alcohol. There was a significant alcohol by zolmitriptan interaction on the aggressive/monetary response ratio. Specifically, compared to placebo, zolmitriptan decreased the aggressive/monetary ratio at the 0.4- and 0.8-g/kg alcohol doses. A 5-mg dose of zolmitriptan effectively reduced alcohol-related aggression in an acute dosing protocol, demonstrating an interaction of 5-HT and alcohol in human aggressive behavior.
Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Roitman, Suzana; Piccone Sapir, Anna; Poreh, Amir; Kotler, Moshe
Impulsivity has been shown to be a major variable in the etiology of suicide and aggression, but has not been researched as much in the schizophrenic population, which is characterized by serious suicide and aggression risks. 68 male schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale (IS), the Suicide Risk Scale (SRS) and the Overt Aggression Scale. We divided our subjects into those who received scores above and below the median on the IS. The high-impulsivity group had higher present and past rates of suicidal ideation and showed a trend for more lifetime suicidal attempts than the low-impulsivity group. The impulsivity score correlated positively with the SRS score and with some of the scores of the PANSS (the positive symptoms score, the general psychopathology score and the total score). A multiple regression analysis revealed that an older age, higher levels of aggression, high impulsivity and an elevated score on the general psychopathology subscale of the PANSS contributed positively and significantly to the explained variance of the SRS. Our study supports the contention that high impulsivity in schizophrenia patients is significant in the etiology of suicide in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia patients, and also the amelioration of impulsivity by pharmacological interventions, require further study. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Barnow, S; Lucht, M; Freyberger, H J
The results of this study provide evidence for the importance of psychosocial risks in childhood for aggressive behavior in adolescence. This study demonstrated that aggressive adolescents differed from a nonaggressive control group in an increased exposure to prior psychotraumatic events, such as sexual abuse (tendency), physical abuse, and broken homes. However, in predicting later aggressive behavior, long-term and chronically effective negative living conditions seem of greater importance. Parenting behavior which includes harsh punishment and emotional rejection as well as separation of the parents early in life are particularly important factors. Whereas aggressive girls do not differ from the nonaggressive control group in terms of self-reported mental health, the aggressive boys reported more attention deficits, depression, anxiety, delinquency, and social problems. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
Klahr, Ashlea M; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra
There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome.
Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.
This article discusses strategies for preventing aggression and violence in children and youth, including understanding and applying appropriate interventions for escalating levels of aggression and violence, classroom preventative and planning measures, and systemwide policies and procedures. A student crisis plan sheet is provided as a tool for…
Robertson, Dylan L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Duncan, Tisha; Crowther, Amity; Dadisman, Kimberly A.
Social relations of second grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) were examined in rural elementary classrooms. Cluster analysis of teacher ratings was used to identify interpersonal competence configurations including perceived unpopular-aggressive (i.e., "Troubled") and perceived popular-aggressive (i.e., "Tough") subtypes for…
Kinasewitz, Theodore M.
Incidences of aggressive and violent actions in schools have been increasing. The goals of this practicum were to reduce aggressive and violent behavior in a large, comprehensive, public high school and to make students and staff aware of peaceful alternatives to conflicts. Solution strategies included teaching conflict resolution skills in the…
Peters, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Haselager, G.J.T.
This study examined how children's aggression and prosocial behavior are related to the preference and popularity of their best friends. Participants were 1,953 fourth-graders (52.2% boys). Measures included peer nominations of friendship, peer status, overt and relational aggression, and prosocial
Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.
The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…
Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming
This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…
Livingstone, David; Murthy, Varsha; Reddy, Vineela Katam; Pillai, Ajay
Aggressive periodontitis previously termed as juvenile periodontitis is characterised by rapid destruction of the periodontium at a relatively young age. Rehabilitation of these patients is often challenging and difficult. Controlling the disease and restoring periodontal health is essential for successful prosthodontic rehabilitation. This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation of a young adult patient with generalised aggressive periodontitis. Treatment objectives included plaque control, prevention of further attachment loss, reduction/elimination of pockets, and prosthetic rehabilitation to enhance aesthetics and restore masticatory function. One year recall evaluation revealed stable periodontal support with no further loss of attachment and no other complications. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Kim, Eu Hyun; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Tae Jung [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
We report two cases of aggressive thyroid lymphoma in elderly patients that presented as Epub ahead of print large infiltrative thyroid masses with extensive invasion to adjacent structures including trachea, esophagus, and common carotid artery. Ultrasonography displayed irregular shaped, heterogeneous hypoechoic mass, mimicking anaplastic carcinoma. Computed tomography showed heterogeneously enhancing mass compared to surrounding muscles without calcification and hemorrhage. After biopsy, the masses were histopathologically diagnosed as lymphoma. Aggressive primary thyroid lymphoma is rare; therefore, here we report its image features, with emphasis on ultrasonographic findings, and discuss its differential diagnosis.
Dellasega, Cheryl; Volpe, Rebecca L; Edmonson, Cole; Hopkins, Margaret
This study provides a 1st look at relational aggression (RA) and the consequences among nurses. Interpersonal hostility, bullying, and a toxic work environment (WE) can impact patient care delivery as well as nurses' personal health and job satisfaction. The Relational Aggression Assessment Scale, measuring aggressors, victims, and bystanders, was used to measure RA in a sample of 842 nurses. Additional variables measured included a demographic profile, job satisfaction, and intent to leave. Nurses were most likely to identify with victim behaviors, but a minority of nurses reported relying on aggressor behaviors and bystander behaviors. There was a positive correlation among aggressor, victim, and bystander items, suggesting overlap in roles. A few relationally aggressive individuals can create a toxic WE. Interventions to address RA among nurses must be tested, as well as strategies for improving job satisfaction and promoting healthy WEs through positive relationships.
Özlem GÖZÜN KAHRAMAN
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between gender and the witnessed interparental violence during childhood and the prosocial and aggressive tendencies of 586 senior class students enrolled at the faculty of education of a university at the Eastern Anatolian Region. The research is a survey model and a socio-demographic survey, and ‘Prosocial Behavior Tendency Scale' and ‘Aggressiveness Scale' were applied to the participants. The applied statistical techniques included descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and t test for independent groups. In conclusion, it is stated that gender and witnessed interparental violence were to affect the prosocial and aggressive tendencies of the participants.
Ribeiro, Luisa A; Zachrisson, Henrik D
This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within-child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher-rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher-rated child PA over time, but only for boys. No significant peer effects on parent-rated child PA were found. Findings point to the importance of avoiding the congregation of several problematic children, particularly boys, in the same ECEC groups. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L
Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.
Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.
This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340
Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K
This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rohlf, Helena L.; Holl, Anna K.; Kirsch, Fabian; Krahé, Barbara; Elsner, Birgit
Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF) is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only few studies have analyzed the role of underlying variables that may explain the association between EF and aggression. The present study examined the prospective paths between EF and different forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression. The habitual experience of anger was examined as a potential underlying mechanism of the link between EF and aggression, because the tendency to get angry easily has been found to be both a consequence of deficits in EF and a predictor of aggression. The study included 1,652 children (between 6 and 11 years old at the first time point), who were followed over three time points (T1, T2, and T3) covering 3 years. At T1, a latent factor of EF comprised measures of planning, rated via teacher reports, as well as inhibition, set shifting, and working-memory updating, assessed experimentally. Habitual anger experience was assessed via parent reports at T1 and T2. The forms and functions of aggression were measured via teacher reports at all three time points. Structural equation modeling revealed that EF at T1 predicted physical, relational, and reactive aggression at T3, but was unrelated to proactive aggression at T3. Furthermore, EF at T1 was indirectly linked to physical aggression at T3, mediated through habitual anger experience at T2. The results indicate that deficits in EF influence the later occurrence of aggression in middle childhood, and the tendency to get angry easily mediates this relation. PMID:29535615
Helena L. Rohlf
Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only few studies have analyzed the role of underlying variables that may explain the association between EF and aggression. The present study examined the prospective paths between EF and different forms (physical and relational and functions (reactive and proactive of aggression. The habitual experience of anger was examined as a potential underlying mechanism of the link between EF and aggression, because the tendency to get angry easily has been found to be both a consequence of deficits in EF and a predictor of aggression. The study included 1,652 children (between 6 and 11 years old at the first time point, who were followed over three time points (T1, T2, and T3 covering 3 years. At T1, a latent factor of EF comprised measures of planning, rated via teacher reports, as well as inhibition, set shifting, and working-memory updating, assessed experimentally. Habitual anger experience was assessed via parent reports at T1 and T2. The forms and functions of aggression were measured via teacher reports at all three time points. Structural equation modeling revealed that EF at T1 predicted physical, relational, and reactive aggression at T3, but was unrelated to proactive aggression at T3. Furthermore, EF at T1 was indirectly linked to physical aggression at T3, mediated through habitual anger experience at T2. The results indicate that deficits in EF influence the later occurrence of aggression in middle childhood, and the tendency to get angry easily mediates this relation.
García-Sancho, Esperanza; Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been associated with several indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including aggressive behavior, but the relevant research has been mostly cross-sectional, focused on adults, and limited to trait EI measures (García-Sancho, Salguero & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014; Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, ). The present work explored the relationship between Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI) and aggression in both adults and adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. We conducted two studies. Study 1 aimed to provide preliminary evidence about the relationship between AEI and aggression in adults. As literature has shown personality traits act as a strong predictor of aggression, study 1 also examined the potential incremental validity of AEI beyond personality traits in 474 undergraduate students (M = 22.76, SD = 5.13). The results indicated AEI explains a significant amount of unique variance for physical aggression, but not for verbal aggression after controlling personality traits. Study 2 aimed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between EI and aggression in 151 adolescents (M = 14.74, SD = 0.84). AEI predicted physical aggression over time, but it did not predict verbal aggression. Results from both studies suggest a negative and significant relationship between AEI and physical aggression, however contrary our expectations, it did not for verbal aggression. These results highlight the important explanatory role of emotional abilities in physical aggressive conducts and the implications of these findings are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Wells, Karen C
Aggression among youth is public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors, including parental aggression to children in the form of corporal punishment and other aggressive behavior, have also been linked to aggressive behavior in children at these ages. Despite the important role played by these two risk factors, the connection between the two has not been fully studied in the literature. This study examined the link between parental aggression and children' hostile attributions longitudinally among a diverse sample of 123 boys as they entered middle school. Results support acceptance of a model in which parental aggression to children prior to entering middle school predicted children's hostile attributions after the transition to middle school above and beyond that which was predicted by previous levels of hostile attributions. As expected, hostile attributions also predicted change in parent- and teacher-rated child aggression. These findings provides important evidence of the role that parental behavior plays in youth social cognition at this critical age, which has implications for understanding the development of aggressive behavior.
Felthous, Alan R
Assessment of a violent act committed by an offender with schizophrenia typically focuses on whether the act was due to distortions in thought or perception, i.e., delusions or hallucination. An important but less appreciated feature is the impulsivity of the act, which can have forensic and therapeutic implications. Here a modification of Barratt's classification of aggressive behavior is presented that includes premeditated (instrumental), medical (secondary), impulsive (expressive), and compulsive (instrumental and expressive) aggression. Violence due to a mental condition such as schizophrenia is considered medical, but even aggression motivated by delusions or hallucinations can also be characterized as impulsive, premeditated, or compulsive.Although research on aggression and schizophrenia is limited with regard to the impulsivity-premeditation dimension and difficult to compare, current evidence suggests this to be an important consideration in the assessment of aggression in individuals with schizophrenia, important both forensically and therapeutically. Future research on the impulsive-premeditated quality of aggressive acts by offenders with schizophrenia--research wherein aggressive behavior is defined, situational context is clarified, and diagnostic criteria are explicitly followed--should further refine our understanding of the nature of aggressive acts associated with schizophrenia. Findings from such research will undoubtedly inform assessment, treatment, and forensic relevance of schizophrenia-related physical aggression. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ulrike M Krämer
Full Text Available An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e. increased tendencies towards aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test-battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task and Tower of London. High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the Tower of London, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the more aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people.
Caiozzo, Christina N; Houston, Jessica; Grych, John
This study sought to prospectively predict aggression in the romantic relationships of 1180 college students from the United States (807 females; 373 males) over the course of two months with a set of intrapersonal risk and protective factors, including personality characteristics that rarely have been examined in this population. After accounting for prior dating aggression, perpetration of verbal aggression was predicted uniquely by aggressive attitudes, emotion regulation, and for females, narcissism. Perpetration of physical aggression was predicted by aggressive attitudes, but only at low levels of emotion regulation, and the interaction of callous-unemotional traits, emotion regulation, and gender: males with low levels of callous-unemotional traits perpetrated less physical aggression when they reported greater emotion regulation. These findings are among the first to show that personality traits and emotion regulation prospectively predict partner aggression in late adolescence and suggest mechanisms for continuity in interpersonal aggression from early adolescence to adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Romano, Donato; Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Remorini, Damiano; Canale, Angelo; Stefanini, Cesare
The use of robotics to establish social interactions between animals and robots, represents an elegant and innovative method to investigate animal behaviour. However, robots are still underused to investigate high complex and flexible behaviours, such as aggression. Here, Betta splendens was tested as model system to shed light on the effect of a robotic fish eliciting aggression. We evaluated how multiple signal systems, including a light stimulus, affect aggressive responses in B. splendens. Furthermore, we conducted experiments to estimate if aggressive responses were triggered by the biomimetic shape of fish replica, or whether any intruder object was effective as well. Male fishes showed longer and higher aggressive displays as puzzled stimuli from the fish replica increased. When the fish replica emitted its full sequence of cues, the intensity of aggression exceeded even that produced by real fish opponents. Fish replica shape was necessary for conspecific opponent perception, evoking significant aggressive responses. Overall, this study highlights that the efficacy of an artificial opponent eliciting aggressive behaviour in fish can be boosted by exposure to multiple signals. Optimizing the cue combination delivered by the robotic fish replica may be helpful to predict escalating levels of aggression.
Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita
Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.
Walters, Glenn D
The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The current study used social cognitive theory as a framework to investigate self-reported homophobic aggressive behavior at school. Participants included 863 students of 49 classes, enrolled in Grades 9-13 in 10 Italian public high schools. The results from the multilevel mediation model (1-2-1) showed that class-level homophobic attitudes toward…
Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P
Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.
Full Text Available Gonadectomy is widely used to treat and prevent behavior problems including the aggressive behavior of dogs. The aim of this study was to determine whether aggressive behavior toward familiar people, strangers, or other dogs was significantly different in dogs gonadectomized at various ages vs. intact dogs using the Canine Behavioral Assessment Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ with multivariate analysis. Of 15,370 initial surveys, those for dogs reported to have been gonadectomized at less than 6 weeks of age or to correct a behavior problem, and those with incomplete answers to questions regarding independent or dependent variables were excluded, leaving 13,795 for the analysis of aggressive behavior toward familiar people: 13,498 for aggressive behavior toward strangers and 13,237 for aggressive behavior toward dogs. Aggressive behavior was defined (a using mean scores for all questions on the C-BARQ for aggressive behavior (range 0–4 and (b comparing dogs with no aggressive behavior (all questions answered 0 to dogs with moderate or severe aggression (at least one score of 2, 3, or 4. Data for intact dogs were compared with those for dogs gonadectomized at 6 months or less, 7–12 months, 11–18 months, and >18 months. Neither gonadectomy nor age at gonadectomy showed an association with aggression toward familiar people or dogs. However, there was a low but significant increase in the odds of moderate or severe aggression toward strangers for all gonadectomized dogs compared with intact dogs, but this effect was driven entirely by data for dogs gonadectomized at 7–12 months of age, which were 26% more likely to demonstrate aggression toward strangers. This large, comprehensive study of the relationships between gonadectomy and aggressive behavior in dogs demonstrates that when the many factors affecting aggressive behavior are considered, there is no evidence that gonadectomy at any age alters aggressive behavior toward
Farhoody, Parvene; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Serpell, James A.; Duffy, Deborah L.; Zink, Chris
Gonadectomy is widely used to treat and prevent behavior problems including the aggressive behavior of dogs. The aim of this study was to determine whether aggressive behavior toward familiar people, strangers, or other dogs was significantly different in dogs gonadectomized at various ages vs. intact dogs using the Canine Behavioral Assessment Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) with multivariate analysis. Of 15,370 initial surveys, those for dogs reported to have been gonadectomized at less than 6 weeks of age or to correct a behavior problem, and those with incomplete answers to questions regarding independent or dependent variables were excluded, leaving 13,795 for the analysis of aggressive behavior toward familiar people: 13,498 for aggressive behavior toward strangers and 13,237 for aggressive behavior toward dogs. Aggressive behavior was defined (a) using mean scores for all questions on the C-BARQ for aggressive behavior (range 0–4) and (b) comparing dogs with no aggressive behavior (all questions answered 0) to dogs with moderate or severe aggression (at least one score of 2, 3, or 4). Data for intact dogs were compared with those for dogs gonadectomized at 6 months or less, 7–12 months, 11–18 months, and >18 months. Neither gonadectomy nor age at gonadectomy showed an association with aggression toward familiar people or dogs. However, there was a low but significant increase in the odds of moderate or severe aggression toward strangers for all gonadectomized dogs compared with intact dogs, but this effect was driven entirely by data for dogs gonadectomized at 7–12 months of age, which were 26% more likely to demonstrate aggression toward strangers. This large, comprehensive study of the relationships between gonadectomy and aggressive behavior in dogs demonstrates that when the many factors affecting aggressive behavior are considered, there is no evidence that gonadectomy at any age alters aggressive behavior toward familiar people or
Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Granger, Douglas A
This study tests a biosocial model of the link between testosterone and proactive-reactive aggression in youth at varying levels of harsh discipline. Given that proactive aggression is used to gain power and status and the importance of social learning in its formation, we hypothesized that testosterone would be associated with proactive aggression at higher levels of harsh discipline, and that this relationship would be more pronounced in boys than girls. Participants (n = 445; 50% male; M age = 11.92 years; 80% African-American) and their caregivers completed questionnaires including demographics, conflict tactics, and proactive-reactive aggression. Youth also provided a saliva sample for testosterone. Analyses revealed an interaction between testosterone and harsh discipline on proactive aggression in both boys and girls, and an interaction between testosterone and harsh discipline on reactive aggression in boys only. For those experiencing high levels of harsh discipline, testosterone was positively associated with proactive aggression, with the magnitude of the association increasing as harsh discipline increased. For below average levels of harsh discipline, there were protective effects of high testosterone for boy's reactive aggression and for girl's proactive aggression. The findings support basic tenets of the biosocial model which suggest that links between testosterone and aggressive behavior are dependent on contextual forces, highlighting the complex relationship between hormones, social context, and aggression. Novel findings include protective effects of high testosterone for those exposed to low levels of harsh discipline. Findings are discussed in light of the context-contingency effect and also within the differential susceptibility framework.
Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita
Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041
Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels
Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...... aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...
Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Bertelsen, Preben
. These results suggest that risk assessment of pathological aggression as well as future intervention programs targeted at reducing severe aggression in schizophrenia could benefit from including psychological functions such as mentalizing, as well as assessing personality pathology severity and attachment......, only a few studies have examined the role of mentalizing abilities and personality pathology severity, and none have examined the role of attachment representations known to play a role in aggression. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research that differentiates between premeditated and impulsive...... aggression in schizophrenia. To this end, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 108 patients with schizophrenia to explore if a specific combination of mentalizing abilities, attachment representations and personality pathology severity pertain to premeditated aggression, controlling for essential...
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette
Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitmore, Robert G; Thawani, Jayesh P; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M; Sanborn, Matthew R; Stein, Sherman C
The object of this study was to determine whether aggressive treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), including invasive intracranial monitoring and decompressive craniectomy, is cost-effective. A decision-analytical model was created to compare costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for treating a patient with severe TBI. The aggressive-care approach is compared with "routine care," in which Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines are not followed. A "comfort care" category, in which a single day in the ICU is followed by routine floor care, is included for comparison only. Probabilities of each treatment resulting in various Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were obtained from the literature. The GOS scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), based on expected longevity and calculated quality of life associated with each GOS category. Estimated direct (acute and long-term medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were calculated from the perspective of society. Sensitivity analyses employed a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 trials, each with 1000 patients. The model was also used to estimate these values for patients 40, 60, and 80 years of age. For the average 20-year-old, aggressive care yields 11.7 (± 1.6 [SD]) QALYs, compared with routine care (10.0 ± 1.5 QALYs). This difference is highly significant (p care remains significantly better at all ages. When all costs are considered, aggressive care is also significantly less costly than routine care ($1,264,000 ± $118,000 vs $1,361,000 ± $107,000) for the average 20-year-old. Aggressive care remains significantly less costly until age 80, at which age it costs more than routine care. However, even in the 80-year-old, aggressive care is likely the more cost-effective approach. Comfort care is associated with poorer outcomes at all ages and with higher costs for all groups except 80-year-olds. When all the costs of severe TBI are considered, aggressive
Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi
Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual d...
Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick
Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of a...
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Abstract Previous research has shown that playing violent video games increased aggressive tendencies. However, as pointed out by the General Learning Model (GLM) (Buckley & Anderson, 2006), depending on their content, video games do not inevitably increase but may also decrease aggressive responses. Accordingly, the present research tested the hypothesis that playing prosocial video games decreases aggressive cognitions. In fact, playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video g...
Full Text Available Background/purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the systemic levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in peripheral blood samples of patients with aggressive periodontitis during the first twelve months of periodontal treatment, at exactly six month interval measurements, and compare them with clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and methods: All patients (N = 45 were examined prior to the initiation of periodontal treatment. Patients were divided into two groups GAgP (Generalised form of aggressive periodontitis, N = 23 and group LAgP (Localised form of aggressive periodontitis, N = 22. Control group (CON included 60 individuals with healthy periodontium. The levels of CRP were determined in both groups GAgP and LAgP three times in 6 month intervals during the periodontal treatment. Results: CRP is a plasma protein that reflects the extent of the acute phase response to inflammation and is one of the markers of choice for monitoring this response. In our study, CRP levels decreased in course of periodontal treatment in both groups (GAgP and LAgP in a similar way as bleeding on probing (BOP and probing pocket depth (PPD indices. Conclusion: Our study results showed that CRP levels, as well as bleeding on probing (BOP and probing pocket depth (PPD, indices decreased in course of periodontal treatment in patients with generalised and localised aggressive periodontitis. Therefore this marker might be exploitable as a means to evaluate periodontal health in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Keywords: aggressive periodontitis, C-reactive protein, periodontal index, cardiovascular diseases
Full Text Available A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolen prostate cancers in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a prostate cancer is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in prostate cancer aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in prostate cancer. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways (including androgen receptor, TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK and ERK …, and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in prostate cancer initiation in coordination with the androgen receptor. The aim of this review is to gather data that explores the links between the Src kinase family and prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness.
van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C
It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.
Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.
Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra
This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Witold Stanisław Proskura
Full Text Available The background of aggression is very complicated and the basis of its occurrence has not been well explained yet. It is thought that tendency to aggressiveness is an effect of both environmental and genetic factors. Aggression is a very undesirable behavioural trait in dogs living with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two polymorphisms: DRD4 intron II VNTR and C/T substitution in exon I HTR2B genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs. The VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification, whereas C/T substitution in the HTR2B gene was analysed using amplification created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (ACRS-PCR. A total of 121 dogs of several breeds were analyzed. All animals were classified based on a veterinary interview and observation in two groups: aggressive (n = 21 and non-aggressive (n = 100. Significant differences in DRD4 genotype frequencies between aggressive and non-aggressive dogs were observed (P DRD4 gene with the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Moreover, the findings give good justification for further research aimed at evaluation of the possibility of using this genetic marker in Marker-assisted Selection.
Cardwell, Michael Steven
Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.
Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J
Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.
Miczek, Klaus A; de Boer, Sietse F; Haller, Jozsef
Preclinical experimental models of pathological aggressive behavior are a sorely understudied and difficult research area. How valid, reliable, productive, and informative are the most frequently used animal models of excessive aggressive behavior? The rationale, key methodological features, supporting data, and arguments as well as their disadvantages and limitations of the most frequently used animal models for excessive aggressive behavior are summarized and their validity and reliability are evaluated. Excessive aggressive behavior is validly and reliably seen in (1) a proportion of feral-derived rats and selectively bred mice; (2) rats with compromised adrenal function resulting in a hypoglucocorticoid state; (3) a significant minority of mice, rats, and monkeys after consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol; and (4) resident animals of various species after social instigation. Limitations of these procedures include restrictive animal research regulations, the requirement of expertise in surgical, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, and the behaviorally impoverished mouse strains that are used in molecular genetics research. Promising recent initiatives for novel experimental models include aggressive behaviors that are evoked by optogenetic stimulation and induced by the manipulation of early social experiences such as isolation rearing or social stress. One of the most significant challenges for animal models of excessive, potentially abnormal aggressive behavior is the characterization of distinctive neurobiological mechanisms that differ from those governing species-typical aggressive behavior. Identifying novel targets for effective intervention requires increased understanding of the distinctive molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms for each type of abnormal aggressive behavior.
DE HOON, Marieke
The regulation of war through the prohibition and criminalization of the act of aggression has provided a common legal language for denouncing an opponent for committing aggressive war that is used between warring sides and is understood globally. Nevertheless, due to the indeterminate nature of aggression, different actors may invoke different interpretations and conceptual frameworks related to the legality of war to accuse the other of aggression. This article asserts that the notion of ag...
This thesis investigates the aggressive behaviour in 102 city dogs of different breeds in Berlin. The results presented in this thesis are based on an aggression test especially developed for this investigation and consisting of 31 test sequences, as well as a physical examination. The purpose of the test was to explore the different forms of aggressive behaviour shown by dogs toward humans and to ascertain possibly existing stimulus thresholds for aggressive behaviour. Before the test ...
Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M; Goodson, James L
Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to the BSTm. Although VT is known to facilitate mate competition aggression, the role of DA has not previously been examined. We now show that in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), mate competition aggression is inhibited by the D(2) agonist quinpirole, though not the D(1) agonist SKF-38393 or the D(4) agonist PD168077. The D(3) agonist 7-OH-DPAT also inhibited aggression, but only following high dose treatment that may affect aggression via nonspecific binding to D(2) receptors. Central VT infusion failed to restore D(2) agonist-inhibited aggression in a subsequent experiment, demonstrating that D(2) does not suppress aggression by inhibiting VT release from BSTm neurons. In a final experiment, we detected D(2) agonist-induced increases in immunofluorescent colocalization of the product of the immediate early gene c-fos and the steroid-converting enzyme aromatase (ARO) within VT neurons of the BSTm. Thus, although VT and DA appear to influence mate competition aggression independently, BSTm VT neurons are clearly influenced by the activation of D(2) receptors, which may modify future behaviors.
Владимир Иванович Озюменко
Full Text Available In todays atmosphere of information warfare the biased impact of the media has increased, pushing behind other functions, including the informative one. The forms of media influence have also changed: direct persuasion has been replaced by implicit manipulation, which develops into outright aggression. Since, in the media discourse aggression can be both verbal and non-verbal, we propose to use the term information (or media aggression , which is broader than verbal aggression . Media aggression can be considered as a binary process - in relation to the referent (affective aggression and in relation to the audience (cognitive aggression. As a result, the information under media aggression refers to the expression of open hostility and animosity towards the referent and meaningful impact on the consciousness of the recipient (the target audience to its ideological subordination. The purpose of this article is to justify the hypothesis that the growing media aggression is a feature of modern media discourse in the atmosphere of information warfare, and this function can be analysed within the framework of manipulative discourse as manipulative persuasion. The data has been taken from quality British and American newspapers, news websites of The BBC, The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and some others covering the relations between Russia and the USA, the situation in the Middle East, particularly in Syria. The the study was conducted using critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2001, Van Dijk 2006, 2009; Wodak 2007; Weiss, Wodak 2007 and the multimodal approach (Ivanova, Spodarets 2010; Ponton 2016, and reveals various strategies and means of linguistic manipulation and media aggression. It also shows that the main aim of linguistic manipulation accentuated by verbal and non-verbal aggression is to deliberately mislead the audience imposing on it the desired idea of ideological subordination. Therefore, a
Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert
Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…
Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi
This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…
Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A
Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.
Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa
Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha
Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better
Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.
Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.
Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…
Amkhanitskaia, L I; Sidorenko, E I; Nikolaeva, G V; Kuznetsova, Iu D
To investigate the role of vitreous body changes in the pathogenesis of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. The study included 60 children with stage 4-5 retinopathy of prematurity demonstrating either classical or aggressive posterior form of progression. In all cases vitreous samples for laboratory testing were taken during surgery. The study showed that aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is associated with more significant metabolic changes in comparison with classical form of the disease. The degree of biochemical imbalance of the vitreous appeared directly related to the stage of the disease, which was determined by the type and extent of retinal detachment. Volcano-shaped retinal detachment with intensive exudation within the posterior eye segment is considered the most severe variant of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is characterized by substantial disturbance of metabolism of the vitreous body, which contributes to exudation and proliferation, thus aggravating the course of the disease and worsening the prognosis.
This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja
This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja
This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935
Spear, Matthew A.; Jennings, L. Candace; Mankin, Henry J.; Spiro, Ira J.; Springfield, Dempsy S.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Efird, James T.; Suit, Herman D.
Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome analysis was based on 5-year actuarial local control rates. Results: Control rates among surgery, radiation therapy, and combined modality groups were 69%, 93%, and 72%. Multivariate analysis identified age 60 Gy was seen in patients with unresected or gross residual disease. Of the patients, 23 with disease involving the plantar region had a control rate of 62%, with significantly worse outcomes in children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with those found in the relevent literature. They support primary resection with negative margins when feasible. Radiation is a highly effective alternative in situations where surgery would result in major functional or cosmetic defects. When negative surgical margins are not achieved in recurrent tumors, radiation is recommended. Perioperative radiation should be considered in other high-risk groups (recurrent disease, positive margins, and plantar tumors in young patients). Doses of 60-65 Gy for gross disease and 50-60 Gy for microscopic residual are recommended. Observation may be considered for primary tumors with disease remaining in situ when they are located such that progression would not cause significant morbidity. Although plantar lesions in children may represent a group at high risk for recurrence or aggressive behavior, the greater potential for radiation-induced morbidity in this group must also temper its use. Given the inconsistent nature and treatment response of this tumor, it is fundamental that treatment recommendations should be made based on the risk:benefit analysis for
de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo
Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kanchika, Masaru; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konish, Akihito; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Yumi; Nakada, Akihiro; Inoue, Koki
Aggression in the workplace is increasingly recognized as a serious problem, but there are few studies about worker aggression toward outsiders in the workplace. We investigated the association between aggression and occupational stress among teachers. This was a cross-sectional study of 1583 teachers, principals, and vice-principals. Aggression was measured using the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). The survey respondents were classified into tertiles according to the BAQ score. The high BAQ group was defined as the upper tertile for the BAQ total score (BAQ total score 625). Occupational stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire. Comparisons among the groups were performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 1583 respondents, 488 were included in the high BAQ group. After adjusting for demographic and occupational variables, high role conflict and role ambiguity were significantly associated with belonging to the high BAQ group. In subscales of the BAQ, high role conflict and role ambiguity related to high levels of hostility, and physical aggression. Occupational stress such as role conflict and role ambiguity was associated with aggression among teachers. It is necessary to reduce problems which relates to role conflict and role ambiguity for preventing teachers' aggression.
Hoptman, Matthew J
Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often, multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors; however, more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy.
Falk, Örjan; Sfendla, Anis; Brändström, Sven; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra
Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population. The majority of offenders scored distinctively high on trait aggression. There were moderate to strong associations between the personality dimensions and each of the subscales of LHA (Aggression, Self-directed Aggression and Antisocial behavior). These associations were stronger in the female offender sample. Trait aggression could be best explained by a model, which included male gender, younger age, high novelty seeking temperament and low character maturity. Our results suggest that therapies aiming at strengthening self-governance and increasing cooperativeness (focusing on character maturity) may alleviate aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ewing, Claire; Phillipou, Andrea; Castle, David
The aim of this study was to determine the rates of patient aggression in a psychiatric unit over 12 months and to determine underlying causes, notably the role of substances. A retrospective file audit was undertaken of all patients admitted to St Vincent's psychiatric unit (Melbourne, Australia) in the first half of 2013 and 2014 involved in an aggressive incident. Patient information included demographics, psychiatric, substance and aggression history. The setting and context of aggression and associated mental state findings were also reviewed. There were 26 aggressive incidents in 2013 and 63 in 2014, perpetrated by 11 and 34 patients respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups' baseline demographics. The 2014 cohort was significantly more likely to have substance use history (odds ratio (OR) 4.83) and have made threats to staff (OR 4.07) but significantly less likely to be distracted by internal stimuli (OR 0.05). There were also (not statistically significant) trends for the 2014 cohort; they were more likely to report a history of alcohol use (OR 3.9); be accompanied to emergency department by police (OR 2.95) and have leave prior to aggression ( χ 2 = 7.37). Aggressive incidents more than doubled over 12 months. Substance use appeared to be a major factor associated with aggression. These findings have implications for service provision and training. Further research is needed to better understand and manage substances in psychiatric settings.
Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D
Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (ORα) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for ORα, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve.
Pond, Richard S; Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Deckman, Timothy; Bonser, Ian M; Fincham, Frank D
Many models of aggression include negatively valenced emotions as common elicitors of aggressive behavior. Yet, the motivational direction of these emotions is not taken into account. The current work explored whether sensitivity to a negative emotion associated with behavioral avoidance-disgust-will predict lower levels of aggression. Five studies tested the hypothesis that disgust sensitivity predicts less aggression. In Study 1 (N = 92), disgust sensitivity predicted less trait physical and verbal aggression. In Study 2 (N = 268), participants high in disgust sensitivity were less likely to behave aggressively towards a stranger on a reaction-time task. In Study 3 (N = 51), disgust sensitivity was associated with less intimate partner violence inclinations. Study 4 (N = 247) replicated this effect longitudinally. In Study 5 (N = 166), each domain of disgust (i.e., moral, sexual, and pathogen disgust) had a buffering effect on daily aggression when daily experiences activated those specific domains. These results highlight the usefulness of considering the motivational direction of an emotion when examining its influence on aggression.
Desir, Michelle P; Karatekin, Canan
Parent- and sibling-directed aggression by minor children are two forms of family violence that often co-occur and have strong relations to prior exposure to domestic violence, yet are often overlooked in intervention efforts. In addition, current research does not examine these forms of family violence in tandem, and there is very limited research with samples exposed to domestic violence. To better understand how these forms of aggression operate within a domestic violence context, we interviewed 44 women residing in a domestic violence shelter with at least one child over 3.5 years of age who was aggressive toward them and/or siblings. Caregivers reported on their emotional reactions to children's parent-directed aggression and the types of and effectiveness of help they sought for parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression. In line with previous literature, caregivers endorsed a complex mix of emotional reactions to their children's parent-directed aggression, including anger, sadness, guilt, forgiveness, and worthlessness. In contrast to other studies, most caregivers (89%) had sought help for children's parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression and found it effective. Findings contribute to the literature on parent- and sibling-directed aggression and provide implications for how to effectively intervene.
Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.
In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…
Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy
For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…
Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.
How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609
Brock, Barbara L.
Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…
Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.
Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members
Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben
Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....
Liu, Jinting; Zhong, Ru; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Haibo; Eisenegger, Christoph; Zhou, Xiaolin
Melatonin, a hormone released preferentially by the pineal gland during the night, affects circadian rhythms and aging processes. As animal studies have shown that melatonin increases resident-intruder aggression, this study aimed to investigate the impact of melatonin treatment on human aggression. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled between-participant design, 63 healthy male volunteers completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) after oral administration of melatonin or placebo. We found that when given the opportunity to administer high or low punishments to an opponent, participants who ingested melatonin selected the high punishment more often than those who ingested placebo. The increased reactive aggression under melatonin administration remained after controlling for inhibitory ability, trait aggression, trait impulsiveness, circadian preference, perceptual sensibility to noise, and changes in subjective sleepiness and emotional states. This study provides novel and direct evidence for the involvement of melatonin in human social processes.
Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.
The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr
Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing physical and psychological aggression, the two dimensions of attachment insecurity (anxiety over abandonment and avoidance of intimacy), the demand-withdraw communication pattern, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability (a control measure). As predicted, there was an association between attachment anxiety and aggression (both physical and psychological), which was mediated by the man demands/woman withdraws (MD/WW) pattern (as reported by the men). There was no evidence of mediation by the woman demands/man withdraws pattern, as reported by the men. Relationship satisfaction mediated the association between attachment anxiety and psychological (but not physical) aggression, but did not mediate the link between avoidance and aggression (physical or psychological). Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.
Zvereva M. V.
Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology
David C Marshall
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.
DeSimone, Justin A; James, Lawrence R
This manuscript uses item response theory (IRT) to estimate item characteristics of the Conditional Reasoning Test of Aggression (CRT-A). Using a sample size of 5,511 respondents, the present analysis provides an accurate assessment of the capability of the CRT-A to measure latent aggression. The one-parameter logistic (1PL) model, two-parameter logistic (2PL) model, and three-parameter logistic (3PL) model are compared before the item analysis. Results suggest that the 2PL model is the most appropriate dichotomous IRT model for describing the item characteristics of the CRT-A. Potential multdimensionality in the CRT-A is also examined. Results suggest that CRT-A items work as theoretically intended, with the probability of selecting an aggressive response increasing with latent trait levels. Information curves indicate that the CRT-A is best suited for use with individuals who are high on latent aggression. Exploratory analyses include an examination of polytomous IRT models and DIF comparing student and employee respondents. The results have implications for future research using the CRT-A as well as the identification of populations appropriate for measurement using this assessment tool. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter
Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia
The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss; Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.
Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian
Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion. PMID:17978016
Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M; Kravitz, Edward A; Rissman, Emilie F; de Boer, Sietse F; Raine, Adrian
Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion.
Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len
Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Karataş, Zeynep
This study aimed to examine the mediating role of anger in the relationship between automatic thoughts and physical aggression in adolescents. The study included 224 adolescents in the 9th grade of 3 different high schools in central Burdur during the 2011-2012 academic year. Participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire and Automatic Thoughts Scale in their classrooms during counseling sessions. Data were analyzed using simple and multiple linear regression analysis. There were positive correlations between the adolescents' automatic thoughts, and physical aggression, and anger. According to regression analysis, automatic thoughts effectively predicted the level of physical aggression (b= 0.233, P thoughts and physical aggression (Sobel z = 5.646, P thoughts and physical aggression. Providing adolescents with anger management skills training is very important for the prevention of physical aggression. Such training programs should include components related to the development of an awareness of dysfunctional and anger-triggering automatic thoughts, and how to change them. As the study group included adolescents from Burdur, the findings can only be generalized to groups with similar characteristics.
Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; de Boer, Sietse F
Hierarchical social status greatly influences health and well-being in mammals, including humans. The social rank of an individual is established during competitive encounters with conspecifics. Intuitively, therefore, social dominance and aggressiveness may seem intimately linked. Yet, whether an
Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…
The article is devoted to an overview of foreign researches about factors that increase the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior among juveniles and reduce the risk of such behavior. Such definitions as risk factor, protective factor (defensive), aggression and violence were examined. It is shown how the methods of assessment for both social and negative consequences of unlawful behavior, including aggressive one, have been developed, starting from discretionary approach based on unstructured...
Spann, Catherine A; Gagne, Jeffrey R
Aggressive behaviors in early childhood are associated with multiple undesirable outcomes, including juvenile delinquency, academic failure, and substance abuse. This investigation employed a family study design to examine child, mother and sibling predictors of early-emerging aggressive behaviors. These predictors included several indices of executive functioning within children, depression symptoms and education level of mothers, and inhibitory control (IC) of siblings. The sample consisted of 95 families (191 children; boys = 100) with at least two, typically developing children between 30 and 66 months of age (M(age) = 45.93 months, SD = 12.40). Measures included laboratory-assessed working memory and IC, parent-reported aggressive behaviors, as well as self-reported maternal depression symptoms and education. Results revealed that children showed substantial sibling similarity in aggressive behaviors. Using multilevel regression analyses, low child IC and greater maternal depression symptoms were associated with increased child aggressive behaviors. Child working memory, maternal education, and sibling IC did not uniquely predict child aggressive behaviors. Moderation analyses revealed an interaction between maternal depression symptoms and maternal education, such that the effect of depression symptoms on child aggressive behaviors was particularly evident amongst highly educated mothers. The current analysis moved beyond a main effects model of maternal depression and extended previous findings on the importance of child IC to aggressive behaviors by using a multiple-child-per-family framework. A promising direction for future research includes assessing whether efforts to increase child IC are successful in reducing child aggressive behaviors.
Hoptman, Matthew J.; Antonius, Daniel; Mauro, Cristina J.; Parker, Emily M.; Javitt, Daniel C.
Objective Aggression in schizophrenia is a major societal issue, leading to physical harm, stigmatization, patient distress, and higher healthcare costs. Impulsivity is associated with aggression in schizophrenia, but it is multidetermined. The subconstruct of urgency is likely to play an important role in this aggression, with positive urgency referring to rash action in context of positive emotion, and negative urgency to rash action in context of negative emotion. Method We examined urgency and its neural correlates in 33 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 31 healthy controls. Urgency was measured using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking scale. Aggressive attitudes were measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results Positive urgency, negative urgency, and aggressive attitudes were significantly and selectively elevated in patients (1.21Aggression Questionnaire total score (rs>.48) and each uniquely accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression over and above the effect of group. Urgency measures correlated with reduced cortical thickness in ventral prefrontal regions including right frontal pole, medial and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyri, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, reduced resting state functional connectivity in some of these regions was associated with higher urgency. Conclusions Findings highlight the key role of urgency in aggressive attitudes in people with schizophrenia and suggest neural substrates of these behaviors. They also suggest behavioral and neural targets for interventions to remediate urgency and aggression. PMID:25073506
Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...
Hills, Danny J
Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in prevalence, as well as risk and protective factors, for exposure to workplace aggression between male and female clinicians in Australian medical practice settings. Methods In a cross-sectional, self-report study in the third wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life survey (2010-11), 16327 medical practitioners were sampled, with 9449 (57.9%) respondents working in clinical practice. Using backward stepwise elimination, parsimonious logistic regression models were developed for exposure to aggression from external (patients, patients' relatives or carers and others) and internal (co-workers) sources in the previous 12 months. Results Overall, greater proportions of female than male clinicians experienced aggression from external (Paggression (Paggression. In logistic regression models, differences were identified in relation to age for males and experience working in medicine for females with external and internal aggression; working in New South Wales (vs Victoria) and internal aggression for females; a poor medical support network and external aggression, and perceived unrealistic patient expectations with internal aggression for males; warning signs in reception and waiting areas with external aggression for males; and optimised patient waiting conditions with external and internal aggression for females. Conclusions Differences in risk and protective factors for exposure to workplace aggression between male and female clinicians, including in relation to state and rural location, need to be considered in the development and implementation of efforts to prevent and minimise workplace aggression in medical practice settings. What is known about the topic? Workplace aggression is prevalent in clinical medical settings, but there are conflicting reports about sex-based differences in the extent of exposure, and little evidence on differences in risk and protective
Meysamie, Alipasha; Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-Fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. According to parents' rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers' rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.
Full Text Available Objective:Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression Methods:In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results:According to parents’rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4% , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6% and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%, respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%, 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0% and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%, respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05.Conclusion:This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.
Siegel, Allan; Douard, John
The present paper addresses the philosophical problem raised by current causal neurochemical models of impulsive violence and aggression: to what extent can we hold violent criminal offenders responsible for their conduct if that conduct is the result of deterministic biochemical processes in the brain. This question is currently receiving a great deal of attention among neuroscientists, legal scholars and philosophers. We examine our current knowledge of neuroscience to assess the possible roles of deterministic factors which induce impulsive aggression, and the extent to which this behavior can be controlled by neural conditioning mechanisms. Neural conditioning mechanisms, we suggest, may underlie what we consider the basis of responsible (though not necessarily moral) behavior: the capacity to give and take reasons. The models we first examine are based in part upon the role played by the neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the regulation of violence and aggression. Collectively, these results would appear to argue in favor of the view that low brain serotonin levels induce impulsive aggression which overrides mechanisms related to rational decision making processes. We next present an account of responsibility as based on the capacity to exercise a certain kind of reason-responsive control over one's conduct. The problem with such accounts of responsibility, however, is that they fail to specify a neurobiological realization of such mechanisms of control. We present a neurobiological, and weakly determinist, framework for understanding how persons can exercise guidance control over their conduct. This framework is based upon classical conditioning of neurons in the prefrontal cortex that allow for a decision making mechanism that provides for prefrontal cortical control of the sites in the brain which express aggressive behavior that include the hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray. The authors support the view that, in many circumstances, neural
Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi
Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.
Gollan, Jackie K; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F
The aim of this paper is to clarify how neural mechanisms at the molecular level, specifically the serotonergic (5-HT) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system (HPA) in conjunction with early life stress may contribute to the emergence of aggression, self-directed and otherwise, in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic dysregulation of these biological systems, which function to regulate stress and emotion, may potentiate the development of impulsive aggression in borderline personality conditions. Our central premise in this paper is that brain development, stress regulation, and early pathonomic experience are interactive and cumulative in their mutual influence on the development of impulsive aggression in BPD. We review the parameters of impulsive aggression in BPD, followed by a discussion of the neurobiological and neuroendocrine correlates of impulsive aggression with and without BPD. We then focus on the developmental continuities in BPD with attention to brain maturation of 5-HT and HPA axis function during the life span and the influence of early adverse experiences on these systems. Finally, we comment on the data of the relative stability of aggression in BPD, adolescence as a developmental stage of potential vulnerability, and the course of aggressive behavior during the life span.
Soma, K K
Berthold's classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold's original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the 'costs' of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species.
Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.
Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David
To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, paggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J
Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.
Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H
Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs.
Gale, Christopher; Hannah, Annette; Swain, Nicola; Gray, Andrew; Coverdale, John; Oud, Nico
Objective: Aggression by patients is a known risk factor for hospital workers. Within New Zealand, the bulk of ongoing care for physical and mental disabilities and health issues is not hospital based, but contracted to various non-governmental agencies. The rate of client aggression towards care workers from these organizations, to our knowledge, has not been assessed. Method: Two hundred and forty-two support workers in non-governmental agencies caring for people with disabilities responded to an anonymous mailed survey on client aggression, personal distress, and communication style. Results: Most support workers did experience verbal forms of aggression or destructive behaviour, fewer experienced physical aggression, and a minority were injured, sexually harassed, stalked or harassed by means of formal complaint. The median total violence score was five (interquartile range 12.25). A higher total violence score (using the POPAS-NZ) was associated with age and gender, the primary disability of clients, and the numbers of hours worked. The length of time worked was not associated with total violence risk. Communication style, after correcting for other factors, was a predictor of aggression. Almost 6% of care workers reported distress symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant stress reactions. Conclusions: Patient aggression is common among care workers, and can cause distress in the minority. We suggest that further research to clarify risk factors and develop interventions for care workers is needed.
Ballester, Javier; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina R; Yu, Haifeng; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Diler, Rasim S; Sakolsky, Dara J; Sparks, Garrett; Iyengar, Satish; Kupfer, David J; Brent, David A; Birmaher, Boris
Objectives Bipolar disorder (BP) has been associated with increased aggressive behaviors. However, all existing studies are cross-sectional and include forensic or inpatient populations and many do not take into account the effects of comorbid conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal course of aggression among adult outpatients with BP compared with non-BP patients and healthy controls. Methods Subjects with bipolar I disorder (BP-I)/bipolar II disorder (BP-II) (n = 255), non-BP psychopathology (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 84) (average 38.9 years, 78.7% female, and 84.9% Caucasian) were evaluated at intake and after two- and four-years of follow-up. Aggression was self-rated using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Comparisons were adjusted for any significant demographic and clinical differences and for multiple comparisons. For subjects with BP, associations of AQ with subtype of BP, current versus past mood episodes, polarity and severity of the current episode, psychosis, and current pharmacological treatment were evaluated. Results In comparison with subjects with non-BP psychiatric disorders and healthy controls, subjects with BP showed persistently higher total and subscale AQ scores (raw and T-scores) during the four-year follow-up. There were no effects of BP subtype, severity or polarity of the current episode, psychosis, and current pharmacological treatments. Subjects in an acute mood episode showed significantly higher AQ scores than euthymic subjects. Conclusions BP, particularly during acute episodes, is associated with increased self-reported verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility. These results provide further evidence for the need of treatments to prevent mood recurrences and prompt treatment of acute mood episodes in subjects with BP. PMID:24372913
Full Text Available Background: The aggression is one of the most important problems among the adolescences in relation with the others. Aggression is an emotion and researches showed that the emotional intelligence might help to better manage. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of the emotional intelligence training on the aggression. Methods: An experimental design was conducted using pre and post-test including control group. The statistical population included 420 adolescent boys. 120 students were selected and asked to complete Boss and Perry’s aggression questionnaire. 30 students who have got highest scores were selected and randomly divided into two the experimental and the control group. The experimental group received eight teaching sessions of the emotional intelligence training while the control group did not. At the end the aggression questionnaire completed again. The collected data were analyzed using covariance and t-student test. Results: The results showed that the emotional intelligence training decreased the physical, verbal and anger aggression. There was not changed in the level of the student's hostility. Conclusion: We can confirm that the emotional intelligence training may reduce aggression in adolescent boys. Introducing emotional intelligence training in the national educational system for secondary school boys highly recommended.
Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas
Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.
In general, the new term "localized aggressive periodontitis" replaces what was previously known as "localized juvenile periodontitis." Similarly, "generalized aggressive periodontitis" replaces what used to be called "generalized juvenile periodontitis." Aggressive periodontitis is a specific type of periodontitis with clearly identifiable clinical and laboratory findings, making it sufficiently different from chronic periodontitis and warranting separate classification. Not all the characteristics must be present to assign a diagnosis or classify the disease. The diagnosis may be based on clinical, radiographic, and historical data, and laboratory testing may not be essential for assigning a diagnosis.
Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Hegde, Manjunath; Prasad, Umesh Chandra
This case report describes the management of an 18-year-old female who presented with generalized aggressive periodontitis, gingival enlargement and a mesiodens. Diagnosis for aggressive periodontitis was determined based on history, clinical findings and radiographic examination. Treatment included oral prophylaxis, extraction of the mesiodens and elimination of infectious microorganisms, using a combination of surgical intervention and antimicrobial therapy with long-term maintenance. Presence of gingival enlargement in cases of aggressive periodontitis may be clinically confusing; hence, the diagnosis should always be based on the patient's history as well as the clinical and radiographic findings.
Full Text Available This study explored the influence of situational factors on aggressive driving from within the framework of a frustration-aggression model of aggressive driving. Through the use of driving scenarios, a number of situational characteristics were manipulated to examine their effect on the level of anger reported by participants and their likely behavioural response. The situational characteristics examined included the age, gender and anonymity of the offending driver, and the sense of time pressure as well as the gender of the participants. The results confirmed that the situational characteristics of a potentially frustrating road event can influence both the anger reported by participating drivers and their likely behavioural response.
Radu, V; Ion, D; şerban, MB; Ciurea, M
This clinical trial studies local invasions from primary colonic and rectal cancers (urinary bladder, abdominal wall, small bowls, uterus, vagina, stomach, bile tract, spleen, duodenum, pancreas, ureters, kidneys), with or without undiscovered metastasis. Primary locally aggressive colonic and rectal cancers include tumors that are staged T4N1–2Mx on diagnosis, and are often associated with a lower prognosis than earlier cancers.  Diagnosis is based on thorough clinical evaluation, imagist...
for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...new class of dendrimer-based theranostic agents for aggressive PCa, we have arranged four Specific Aims as indicated in Statement of Work ( SOW ). Our...BFC scaffolds, RR-8 and SS-8. The CD spectrum of RR-8 shows a positive Cotton effect in the 230-280 nm region, while SS-8 exhibits the opposite sign
Tracy Christina Seymour
Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and fatal type of primary brain tumor. Gliosarcoma (GSM is a rarer and more aggressive variant of GBM that has recently been considered a potentially different disease. Current clinical treatment for both GBM and GSM includes maximal surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treating other solid tumors, treatment for GBM and GSM still remains palliative, with a very poor prognosis and a median survival rate of 12 to 15 months. Treatment failure is a result of a number of causes, including resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent research has applied the cancer stem cells theory of carcinogenesis to these tumors, suggesting the existence of a small subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs within these tumors. GSCs are thought to contribute to tumor progression, treatment resistance and tumor recapitulation post-treatment and have become the focus of novel therapy strategies. Their isolation and investigation suggests that GSCs share critical signalling pathways with normal embryonic and somatic stem cells, but with distinct alterations. Research must focus on identifying these variations as they may present novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pluripotency transcription factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG demonstrates promising therapeutic potential that if applied in isolation or together with current treatments may improve overall survival, reduce tumor relapse and achieve a cure for these patients.
Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer
This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, P<.001). There was no effect of the group-based treatment on verbal or physical aggression scores. Follow-up indicated that the effect of the therapy was still measureable 16 weeks after the cessation of the therapy. Results of the present study indicate that group-based psychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.
Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.
Johnson, T.S.; Peters, L.J.; Adelson, M.; Williamson, K.D.; Sneige, N.; Katz, R.L.; Freedman, R.S.
The authors are investigating the interrelationships of flow cytometric measured ploidy, S-fraction with histology features of uterine cervical squamous cell cancers in an attempt to identify aggressive, high risk tumors and less aggressive tumors. Experimentally, pre-radiotherapy biopsy specimens are being studied using flow ploidy and cell-cycle analysis and microscopic scoring for histology features. The results to date for some 200 patients indicate that there are identifyable aggressive tumors, at high risk for 2 yr local control within each stage of disease and differentiation category (WD, MD, PD). These aggressive tumors usually have high degree DNA abnormalities (triploid or greater), high proliferative activity (%S≥20) compared to the less aggressive tumors characterized by diploid/near diploid DNA content, low to moderate %S (2-19, mean 12). Expression of high S-fraction appears to reflect high growth activity or growth potential and characterizes the aggressive tumors
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.
Meyer, Jonathan M; Cummings, Michael A; Proctor, George; Stahl, Stephen M
Persistent violence not due to acute psychosis or mania can be managed only after appropriate characterization of the aggressive episodes (psychotic, impulsive, or predatory/planned/instrumental). The type of violence combined with the psychiatric diagnosis dictates the evidence-based pharmacologic approaches for psychotically motivated and impulsive aggression, whereas instrumental violence mandates forensic/behavioral strategies. For nonacute inpatients, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, and dementia comprise the majority of individuals who are persistently aggressive, with impulsive actions the most common form of violence across all diagnoses. Neurobiological considerations combined with empirical data provide a comprehensive framework for systematic medication trials to manage persistently aggressive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos
Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology.
Birger, Moshe; Swartz, Marnina; Cohen, David; Alesh, Ya'akov; Grishpan, Chaim; Kotelr, Moshe
The relevance of central neurotransmission to aggressive and impulsive behavior has become more evident due to extensive research in humans and animals. Among other findings, there are abundant data relating low serotonergic activity--as measured by low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and a blunted response of prolactin to fenfluramine--to impulsive behavior. Many studies on testosterone activity show a relation between high plasma levels and a tendency towards aggression. It is hypothesized that the interaction between low serotonin and high testosterone levels in the central nervous system has a significant effect on the neural mechanisms involved in the expression of aggressive behavior. It seems that testosterone modulates serotonergic receptor activity in a way that directly affects aggression, fear and anxiety. Our survey reviews the main findings on serotonin, testosterone and the possible interaction between them with regard to these behavioral phenomena.
Hoopfer, Eric D
Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Cebrzyńska, Joanna
The paper addresses the issue of violence among correctional officers. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of exposure to violence in this professional group. The study comprised the sample of 222 correctional officers who voluntary and anonymously fulfilled the MDM questionnaire. The MDM Questionnaire allows for assessing exposure to aggression and mobbing at work. Preliminary assessment of exposure to single aggressive acts and mobbing shows a quite alarming tendency--around one third of subjects under the study experienced repetitive aggressive acts from coworkers and/or superiors. The problem of organizational aggression in correctional institutions should be recognized in details to develop effective preventive measures against violent behaviors occurring at work.
Parrott, Dominic J; Eckhardt, Christopher I
There is little debate that alcohol is a contributing cause of aggressive behavior. The extreme complexity of this relation, however, has been the focus of extensive theory and research. And, likely due to this complexity, evidence-based programs to prevent or reduce alcohol-facilitated aggression are quite limited. We integrate I 3 Theory and Alcohol Myopia Theory to provide a framework that (1) organizes the myriad instigatory and inhibitory factors that moderate the effect of alcohol on aggression, and (2) highlights the mechanisms by which alcohol facilitates aggression among at-risk individuals. This integrative framework provides the basis for understanding the appropriate targets for prevention and intervention efforts and may serve as a catalyst for future research that seeks to inform intervention development.
Desi Sandra Sari
Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein expressed by neutrophil, monocytes, gingival keratinocytes, and oral epithelial cells. The concentrations of calprotectin increase in plasma, urine and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases. This protein is known as a marker for periodontal diseases and is detected in gingival crevicular fluids. Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the detection of inflammation on the aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression. Method: The gingival crevicular fluids were taken from five aggressive periodontitis patients and five healthy subjects by using sterile paper points. Calprotectin expression was analyzed by ELISA technique. Result: The results showed the significant difference in calprotectin expression between subject with aggressive periodontitis and healthy subjects p = 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that the calprotectin expression on the aggressive periodontitis patients may be useful for evaluation the progression of inflammation in periodontitis.
Belhaissi, F E; Cherkaoui, A; Laporte, C; Miquel, J L
This work concerns a retrospective study of prevalence records and the clinical characteristics of localised aggressive periodontitis in the breast of consultants in the periodontitis service in Dental Medicine Faculty of Rabat (Morocco) from 1997 to 1999.
Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji
Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that “reactivity to stimuli” was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: “sociability with humans,” “fear of sounds,” “chase proneness,” “reactivity to stimuli,” and “avoidance of aversive events.” By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, “reactivity to stimuli,” i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that “reactivity to stimuli” is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth
Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati; Dwi Martani
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of book-tax conformity level on the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness. Different from Frank et al. (2009) and Lennox et al. (2013), this study considers endogeneity problem to minimize biased results. Using the companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for 2013-2016, this study found that there is endogeneity problem in the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and fina...
Adoun, G.; Coumar, O.
Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)
Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch
In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...
Diatri Nariratih; Janti Rusjanti; Agus Susanto
Aggressive Periodontitis is one of periodontal disease that generally affects individuals less than 30 years old, with a rapid attachment loss and alveolar bone destruction. Special features of the disease are affected incisors and first molars with symmetrical bilateral destruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Aggressive Periodontitis at Student Clinics, Faculty of Dentistry Padjadjaran University on May to July 2010. Based on accidentally...
Cho, Chan-Myung; You, Hyung-Keun; Jeong, Seong-Nyum
Purpose Few epidemiologic studies have investigated aggressive periodontitis in Koreans, but such studies of disease prevalence and other clinical characteristics would be invaluable in providing proper treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis and to measure the extent of associated periodontal breakdown. Methods The study population consisted of 1,692 patients who visited the Department of Periodontology, Wonkwang Daejeon Dental Hospital from ...
Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos; Wilson, Lauren F
Although many studies of personality and aggression focus on multidimensional traits and higher order personality disorders (e.g., psychopathy), lower order, unidimensional traits may provide more precision in identifying specific aspects of personality that relate to aggression. The current study includes a comprehensive measurement of lower order personality traits in relation to three forms of aggression: reactive, proactive, and relational. Traits related to interpersonal antagonism and impulsivity, especially impulsive behavior in the context of negative affect, were consistently related to aggression across multiple indices. These findings suggest that certain lower order traits are of critical importance to understanding who engages in aggressive behavior and why this behavior occurs.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Welter, Nicole
Aggression among pupils is one of the frequent sources of stress in school. Aggression among pupils can display diverse forms and also has different origins. In this contribution, bullying, mobbing and relational aggression as different forms of aggression were described, based on recent research. In addition, a psychoanalytic treatment of a female adolescent is presented who suffered from mobbing. The treatment includes 70 hours work with the female patient and additional work with her parents. Based on this case study, it became obvious that it necessary to precisely analyse the own contribution for eliciting and maintaining aggression.
Khalid, Farah N; Ford, Tamsin; Maughan, Barbara
Despite evidence of an increased risk of violence among adults suffering from psychosis, very little is currently known about the relationship between early onset psychosis and aggressive behaviour. We aimed to identify and examine overlaps between aggressive behaviour and psychosis in a referred child and adolescent sample to assess whether potential risk factors and other associated features of this co-occurring pattern can be identified at a young age. Standardised item sheet data on young people referred to the Child and Adolescent Department of the Maudsley Hospital between 1973 and 2004 were used to contrast three groups: (1) aggressive-only (n = 1,346), (2) psychosis-only (n = 173), and (3) co-occurring aggression and psychosis (n = 39) on a range of comorbid symptoms and potential risk factors. Co-occurring cases presented with elevated rates of depersonalisation/derealisation, intrusive thoughts and restlessness, and were more likely to have received past treatment compared with both psychosis-only and aggressive-only cases. Although co-occurring cases resembled the psychosis-only group in many domains, including socio-demographic background and rates of emotional symptoms, they differed from 'pure' psychosis cases in having high levels of special educational needs, irritability, non-aggressive antisocial behaviours, as well as being more likely to be from a low social class and have increased contact with police and child care authorities. Our findings suggest that it is possible to identify early risk factors for aggression in individuals with psychosis.
Taylor, Laramie D; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Malanchuk, Oksana
The present study explores the relation between academic self-concept, self-esteem, and aggression at school. Longitudinal data from a racially diverse sample of middle-school students were analyzed to explore how academic self-concept influenced the likelihood of aggressing at school and whether high self-concept exerted a different pattern of influence when threatened. Data include self-reported academic self-concept, school-reported academic performance, and parent-reported school discipline. Results suggest that, in general, students with low self-concept in achievement domains are more likely to aggress at school than those with high self-concept. However, there is a small sample of youth who, when they receive contradictory information that threatens their reported self-concept, do aggress. Global self-esteem was not found to be predictive of aggression. These results are discussed in the context of recent debates on whether self-esteem is a predictor of aggression and the use of a more proximal vs. general self-measure in examining the self-esteem and aggression relation. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss; Inc.
Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia
The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vasant Venkatraman Shastri
Full Text Available Background: Competitive examinations, particularly in mathematics, have made emotional stress a major problem for preuniversity students, emotions like aggression toward fellow students and teachers increase. Mindfulness is a quality that reduces both emotional stress and aggression, so increasing mindfulness should be helpful. Aims: To study the effects of Yoga Pranayama (YP and Vedic Mathematics (VM on mindfulness, aggression, and emotion regulation. Methods: Participants were 12th graders attending a preuniversity college in Chikkamagaluru, India, of both genders. Exclusion criteria included major psychological problems. Three classes were arbitrarily assigned to one of three interventions, which consisted of 15 days each of 30 min daily instruction in YP, Group 1, VM, Group 2, or 30 min ordinary class work, Group 3, the control group. Assessments were made using the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, the Nonphysical Aggression Scale from Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 19.0. Results: Mindfulness, aggression, and negative emotional regulation changed significantly for the YP group, while mindfulness alone improved significantly for the VM group. No group changed on positive emotion regulation. Controls apparently improved on aggression. An interesting post hoc correlation analysis is also reported, among other things directly linking increased mindfulness to decreased aggression. Conclusions: The study showed positive effects of traditional methods of decreasing emotional pressure on students facing preuniversity mathematics examinations. Increasing mindfulness is considered a way of increasing emotion regulation, so the failure of this study to provide evidence for that is of interest.
Alcorn, Joseph L; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D
The oxytocin receptor is important in several domains of social behavior, and administration of oxytocin modulates social responding in several mammalian species, including humans. Oxytocin has both therapeutic and scientific potential for elucidating the neural and behavioral mechanisms governing social behavior. In the present study, operationally-defined aggressive behavior of six males with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) was measured following acute intranasal oxytocin dosing (12, 24, and 48 international units) and placebo, using a well-validated laboratory task of human aggression (Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). The PSAP provides participants with concurrently available monetary-earning and operationally-defined aggressive response options, maintained by fixed ratio schedules of consequences. Shifts in response rates and inter-response time (IRT) distributions were observed on the aggressive response option following oxytocin doses, relative to placebo. Few changes were observed in monetary-reinforced responding. However, across participants the direction and magnitude of changes in aggressive responding were not systematically related to dose. No trends were observed between psychometric or physiological data and oxytocin dosing or aggressive behavior. While this report is to our knowledge the first to examine the acute effects of oxytocin in this population at high risk for violence and other forms of antisocial behavior, several limitations in the experimental design and the results cast the study as a preliminary report. Strategies for more extensive future projects are discussed.
Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J
Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak
Full Text Available Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorder. However, conduct disorder is characterised by a stable aggressive behavioural pattern, recurrently violating either the basic rights of the others or of the generally accepted social norms. Aggressive behaviour can also be present in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD, affective and psychotic disorders, autistic spectrum disorders and in some other developmental neurological disorders including intellectual disability ‒ but only as a possible and not a typical symptom. Child and adolescent psychiatrist can mainly help with aggressive behaviour associated with mental disorders. In all other possible causes of aggressive behaviour, child and adolescent psychiatry has neither the possibility/capacity nor the authority to intervene.
Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina
The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted. PMID:23086015
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Pronk, Rhiarne E
The primary purpose of this multimethod and multimeasure study was to identify how the peer relationships of Australian adolescents (ages 9-15 years; N = 335) at school, including relational aggression and victimization, correlated with their symptoms of depression and anxiety. Moreover, relational aggression and victimization were measured via both self- and peer report, and discrepancies between reports were considered as correlates of symptoms and peer relationship status. Adolescents who reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety also self-reported more relational victimization and reported their peers as less trustworthy. Adolescents who overreported their own relational victimization and aggression compared with peer report had more symptoms compared with those who agreed with their peers or underreported their aggression and victimization. Adolescents who underreported their own aggression were not only more socially prominent but were also more disliked by their peers. When considered independent of self-reports, no measure of peer-reported peer status, aggression, or victimization was associated with depressive symptoms; but adolescents reported as more accepted by their peers had fewer anxiety symptoms. Longitudinal research should be conducted to examine adolescents' increasing socioemotional problems as correlates of discrepancies between self- and peer reports of relational aggression and victimization. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zenz Adamshick, Pamela
Girl-to-girl aggression is increasingly being recognized as a health problem, and the number of teenage girls involved in serious fighting is on the rise. Research on the experiences of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls who are out of the mainstream because of poor relationship skills and physical aggression is notably absent, yet this group is at heightened risk for persistent violence. In this study I used the interpretive phenomenological approach to study the lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in girls who were marginalized and attending an alternative school because of physically aggressive behavior. Data were collected over a 4-month period by means of in-depth interviews and field notes. For this population, girl-to-girl aggression provided self-protection, expressed girls' identity, and was also a means to finding attachment, connection, and friendship. These findings have multidisciplinary implications for interventions with physically aggressive girls, including mentoring programs, in-school support groups, and exploration of a paradigm shift in the use of alternative schools.
Venezia, E; Abed, Y; Raz, P; Goldstein, M; Schwartz, Z
The diagnosis of localized aggressive periodontitis includes first molar attachment loss as an obligatory criterion. This tooth-specific based diagnosis has never been questioned or tested previously. We present a rare case of aggressive periodontitis that developed during orthodontic treatment, which included extraction of right lower first molar and bodily movement of the second molar to the original first molar site. At the end of the orthodontic therapy, localized periodontal disease was diagnosed at the site of the lower left first molar and the second lower right molar that was now occupying the site of the former first lower molar. The patient's periodontal condition was stabilized, and the bony defects were filled following periodontal treatment. This report shows that bacterial induced aggressive periodontitis developed during orthodontic treatment in a site-specific manner and suggest the hypothesis that localized aggressive periodontitis was targeted to a specific alveolar site rather than a tooth-specific site.
Smokowski, Paul R; Cotter, Katie L; Robertson, Caroline I B; Guo, Shenyang
There is little research on the prevalence of and risk factors for mental health disorders, including anxiety and aggression, for low income, rural youth. The research that does exist suggests that rural youth may be at increased risk for negative outcomes, including low educational achievement, drug use and possession of weapons among gang members, and alcohol use. Using multilevel logistic regression, we examined individual, family, and school risk and protective factors for adolescent anxiety and aggression in a large, racially diverse sample of 4,321 middle school students who came from two impoverished, rural counties in a Southeastern state. Parent-child conflict, negative peer relationships, and negative friend behaviors were key risk factors associated with both anxiety and aggressive behaviors. The teacher turnover rate at school was also associated with both anxiety and aggression. Significant direct effects, cross-level moderation effects, and implications for prevention programming were discussed.
Siegel, Allan; Victoroff, Jeff
The present paper reviews and summarizes the basic findings concerning the nature of the neurobiological and behavioral characteristics of aggression and rage. For heuristic purposes, the types of aggression will be reduced to two categories - defensive rage (affective defense) and predatory attack. This approach helps explain both the behavioral properties of aggression as well as the underlying neural substrates and mechanisms of aggression both in animals and humans. Defensive rage behavior is activated by a threatening stimulus that is real or perceived and is associated with marked sympathetic output. This yields impulsivity with minimal cortical involvement. Predatory attack behavior in both animals and humans is generally planned, taking minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or even years (with respect to humans) for it to occur and is directed upon a specific individual target; it reflects few outward sympathetic signs and is believed to require cortical involvement for its expression. Predatory attack requires activation of the lateral hypothalamus, while defensive rage requires activation of the medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Both forms of aggressive behavior are controlled by components of the limbic system, a region of the forebrain that is influenced by sensory inputs from the cerebral cortex and monoaminergic inputs from the brainstem reticular formation. Control of aggressive tendencies is partly modifiable through conditioning and related learning principles generated through the cerebral cortex.
Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard
Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
McBride, E.A.; Jones, R.E.
Aggressive behaviour in dogs has become a major topic of scientific research in Northern Europe, particularly in England and France, and also in the USA. It ranks amongst the top problems presented to animal behaviour therapists.Research into the influence of owner’s interactions with their dog on the development of the dog’s behaviour in general and problem behaviour, including aggression in particular, has yielded contradictory results. While some authors could not establish significant lin...
Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A; McBride-Chang, Catherine
This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents' and children's gender. Mothers' harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers', whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers' harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers' harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
One function of aggression in animals is to gain access to mates. Aggression may therefore be favoured by sexual selection, the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. Here, we tested the hypotheses that male swordtails, Xiphophorus sp., are consistent in the aggressive and mating ...
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...
Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne
Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…
Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…
Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Cima, M.; Schuhmann, T.; Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.
The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a
Z I Kekelidze
Full Text Available Aim. To establish comparative clinical and psychopathological and social factors leading to realization of intrafamilial and extrafamilial aggressive actions of females suffering from schizophrenia when comparing the mechanisms of illegal actions. Methods. The article presents the results of the study of 91 female patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, (F20.0 of continuous and episodic with progressive deficit type of course, who committed aggressive socially dangerous acts and are admitted for involuntary treatment to Kazan psychiatric hospital of specialized type with intensive supervision. Two groups were identified: group 1 included 57 patients committed aggressive criminal acts in the family, and group 2 included 34 patients committed criminal acts against persons outside the family. A comparison was performed between two basic scientific concepts regarding the reasons and conditions of illegal acts committed by mentally ill persons. Statistical significance of the differences between the compared data was determined (using Fisher's angular transformation criterion and Mann-Whitney test. Results. Comparative study of the analysis concepts of illegal behavior in females suffering from schizophrenia demonstrated that the results turned out to be more detailed when using the concept of psychopathological mechanisms. So, in the productive psychotic mechanism imperative hallucinations and automatisms were noted predominantly in women from group 1 - in 59.5% (p1
Mathai, Ashwin Jacob; Lowry, Christopher A.; Cook, Thomas B.; Brenner, Lisa A.; Brundin, Lena; Groer, Maureen W.; Peng, Xiaoqing; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Fuchs, Dietmar; Rujescu, Dan
We previously reported that trait aggression, proposed as an endophenotype for suicidal behavior, is positively associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) seropositivity in females, but not in males. Additionally, older males seropositive for T. gondii had lower scores on measures of trait aggression, including self-aggression. Trait aggression may be influenced by dopaminergic signaling, which is known to be moderated by gender and age, and potentially enhanced in T. gondii positives through the intrinsic production of dopamine by the microorganism. Therefore, we investigated associations between trait aggression and interactions between T. gondii enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) IgG titer-determined seropositivity and high-performance liquid chromatography- (HPLC-) measured blood levels of dopamine precursors phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and their ratio in a sample of 1000 psychiatrically healthy participants. Aggressive traits were assessed using the questionnaire for measuring factors of aggression (FAF), the German version of the Buss-Durkee hostility questionnaire. We found that 1) the decrease in trait aggression scores in T. gondii-positive older males was only present in individuals with a low Phe:Tyr ratio, and 2) that there was a positive correlation between Phe:Tyr ratio and total aggression and selected subscales of aggression in T. gondii-positive males, but not in T. gondii-negative males. These findings point toward a gender-specific reciprocal moderation by Phe:Tyr ratio and T. gondii seropositivity of their associations with aggression scores, and lead to experimental interventions geared to manipulating levels of dopamine precursors in selected T. gondii positive individuals with increased propensity for aggression. PMID:28943719
Anderson, Craig A; Sakamoto, Akira; Gentile, Douglas A; Ihori, Nobuko; Shibuya, Akiko; Yukawa, Shintaro; Naito, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Kumiko
Youth worldwide play violent video games many hours per week. Previous research suggests that such exposure can increase physical aggression. We tested whether high exposure to violent video games increases physical aggression over time in both high- (United States) and low- (Japan) violence cultures. We hypothesized that the amount of exposure to violent video games early in a school year would predict changes in physical aggressiveness assessed later in the school year, even after statistically controlling for gender and previous physical aggressiveness. In 3 independent samples, participants' video game habits and physically aggressive behavior tendencies were assessed at 2 points in time, separated by 3 to 6 months. One sample consisted of 181 Japanese junior high students ranging in age from 12 to 15 years. A second Japanese sample consisted of 1050 students ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. The third sample consisted of 364 United States 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-graders ranging in age from 9 to 12 years. RESULTS. Habitual violent video game play early in the school year predicted later aggression, even after controlling for gender and previous aggressiveness in each sample. Those who played a lot of violent video games became relatively more physically aggressive. Multisample structure equation modeling revealed that this longitudinal effect was of a similar magnitude in the United States and Japan for similar-aged youth and was smaller (but still significant) in the sample that included older youth. These longitudinal results confirm earlier experimental and cross-sectional studies that had suggested that playing violent video games is a significant risk factor for later physically aggressive behavior and that this violent video game effect on youth generalizes across very different cultures. As a whole, the research strongly suggests reducing the exposure of youth to this risk factor.
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.
Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research  were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath
Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence. PMID:23054352
Manchia, Mirko; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Valtorta, Flavia; Comai, Stefano
Aggressive individuals have higher rates of mental illness compared to non-aggressive individuals. Multiple factors, including psychosocial, genetic, and neurobiological determinants modulate the liability to both aggressive behavior and mental illness. Concerning the latter factors, multiple lines of evidence have shown a dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system occurring in aggressive and in mentally ill individuals. In particular, reduced 5-HT activity has been associated with depression as well as with aggressive behavior, especially with impulsive aggression. Consistently, psychopharmacological interventions aimed at boosting the 5-HT system (e.g., with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in a high percentage of patients with either or both pathological conditions. Current knowledge does not yet allow to clearly disentangle whether 5-HT dysfunction, most often a 5-HT deficiency, is the cause or the consequence of the aggressive/violent behavior, of the underlying mental disease/s, or the expression of the comorbidity. Future studies are thus needed to clarify the association between changes in 5-HT levels, altered activity of 5-HT receptors and their intracellular signaling cascades, and modifications of 5-HT genes, and in particular the neurobiological link between the altered 5-HT machinery and aggressive behavior in the context or in the absence of mental illness. In this Review, we employ a dimensional approach to discuss the trivariate relationship among the 5-HT system, aggressive behavior, and mental illness, focusing our attention on 5-HT levels, 5-HT receptors, metabolic enzymes, and their genes. Emphasis is given to controversial findings, still unanswered questions, and future perspectives.
Full Text Available Maria Zschoche, Angelika Anita Schlarb Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany Purpose: Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods: A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results: Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion: Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. Keywords: adolescents, aggressive behavior, sleep problems
Full Text Available Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display. The efficacy of AS was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA or serotonin (5HT. In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA’s natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here.
Kebschull, M; Guarnieri, P; Demmer, R T; Boulesteix, A L; Pavlidis, P; Papapanou, P N
The 2 major forms of periodontitis, chronic (CP) and aggressive (AgP), do not display sufficiently distinct histopathological characteristics or microbiological/immunological features. We used molecular profiling to explore biological differences between CP and AgP and subsequently carried out supervised classification using machine-learning algorithms including an internal validation. We used whole-genome gene expression profiles from 310 'healthy' or 'diseased' gingival tissue biopsies from 120 systemically healthy non-smokers, 65 with CP and 55 with AgP, each contributing with ≥ 2 'diseased' gingival papillae (n = 241; with bleeding-on-probing, probing depth ≥ 4 mm, and clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm), and, when available, a 'healthy' papilla (n = 69; no bleeding-on-probing, probing depth ≤ 4 mm, and clinical attachment loss ≤ 4 mm). Our analyses revealed limited differences between the gingival tissue transcriptional profiles of AgP and CP, with genes related to immune responses, apoptosis, and signal transduction overexpressed in AgP, and genes related to epithelial integrity and metabolism overexpressed in CP. Different classifying algorithms discriminated CP from AgP with an area under the curve ranging from 0.63 to 0.99. The small differences in gene expression and the highly variable classifier performance suggest limited dissimilarities between established AgP and CP lesions. Future analyses may facilitate the development of a novel, 'intrinsic' classification of periodontitis based on molecular profiling.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the extent of aggression (verbal abuse and violence (physical abuse directed toward General Medicine physicians by their patients, to identify causes and consequences of such behaviour on physicians' professional work and to establish prevention measures. Method: All general medicine physicians who attended an educational seminar from 28 to 29 February 2015 in Belgrade were given the questionnaire and asked to complete it. Results: 411 general medicine physicians have completed the questionnaire. Both genders were included: 86.37% of them were women. Majority of the participants were in the age group of 51-60 years (45.25%, mean age was 49.27±9.32. Mean number of years in practice was 21.10±9.87. Most of them specialized in General Medicine (62.30%. 85.40% of physicians have encountered some kind of abuse during their work and there was no significant difference regarding physicians' gender or qualifications. In the preceding year 62.3% of participants have encountered aggression or violence in their workplace. Aggression was reported by 82.97% and violence by 8.83% of participants. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of physicians' gender (p=0.859, type of workplace (p=0.097, number of years in practice (p=0.640 and specialty (p=0.537. In 83.2% of cases acts of aggression or violence have been committed by patients and in 40.2% by members of their families. In 44.2% of these cases nobody tried to assist the physicians and even less so if they were male doctors (p=0.05. The most common causes were: patients' dissatisfaction (60.4%, long waiting time for examination (37.0% and patient's alcohol or drug intoxication (35.0%. The most common consequence of this on physicians was decreased satisfaction with their job (53.6%. Prevention measures for this issue would be: decreasing of the number of consultations per day (56.0%, introduction of a new 'in line of duty' status for healthcare workers (55
van Lier, P.A.C.; Boivin, M.E.; Vitaro, F.; Brendgen, M.; Koot, H.M.; Dionne, G.; Tremblay, R.E.; Pérusse, D.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. METHOD: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as
Flavia M Carvalho
Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03 was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009. Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1beta, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.
This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...
Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese
Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...
Adi, Samar G
The purpose of this multiple case study was to gather information about female aggression in situationally violent relationship. The interviews and surveys of four African-American couples were coded and analyzed to gather information about the impact of female aggression on the relationship, the contextual factors surrounding female aggression, and the motivations for female aggression. The results indicated that female aggression impacts the couple relationship in several ways. First,...
Pederson, Casey A; Rathert, Jamie L; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani
Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth. The current study examined parenting styles, gender, and age as potential moderators of the relations between proactive and reactive aggression and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 392 children, 6-12 years of age admitted consecutively to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Reactive aggression was uniquely associated with anxiety symptoms. However, proactive aggression was associated with internalizing problems only when specific parenting styles and demographic factors were present. Although both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression were associated with internalizing symptoms, differential associations were evident. Implications of findings are discussed.
Kim, Youl-Ri; Lee, Joo Young; Min, Sung Kil
We investigated the association between the tryptohan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene and aggression in schizophrenia in a Korean population. The sample included 61 aggressive patients as well as 104 non-aggressive patients from psychiatric hospitals and 335 healthy volunteers in Korea. Blood samples were collected from all participants for TPH1 A218C genotyping. The patients were administered standard psychiatric interviews as well as a self-report questionnaire for anger-related traits. In the case-control phenotypic comparisons, there was no significant association between the aggressive patients and the TPH1 A218C polymorphism. There was no significant effect of the TPH1 genotype on the anger-related traits, or no significant interaction between the genotype and group (aggressive and non-aggressive patients). These findings suggest that TPH1 does not play a major role in aggressive behavior via anger in schizophrenic patients.
Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W
Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.
Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Harakeh, Zeena; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma
This longitudinal study examined the extent to which the development of prosocial and aggressive peer norms was related to individual prosocial and aggressive behavior development across the first year of secondary education (three waves, n = 1,134 adolescents from 51 classes, M-age = 12.66). A
Lee, Eunju J.
This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…
Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles
Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.
Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Harakeh, Zeena; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Vollebergh, Wilma
This longitudinal study examined the extent to which the development of prosocial and aggressive peer norms was related to individual prosocial and aggressive behavior development across the first year of secondary education (three waves, n = 1,134 adolescents from 51 classes, M[subscript age] = 12.66). A distinction was made between descriptive…
de Hoon, A.M.
The regulation of war through the prohibition and criminalization of the act of aggression has provided a common legal language for denouncing an opponent for committing aggressive war that is used between warring sides and is understood globally. Nevertheless, due to the indeterminate nature of
Hart, David W; Wolf, Steven E; Chinkes, David L; Beauford, Robert B; Mlcak, Ronald P; Heggers, John P; Wolfe, Robert R; Herndon, David N
Severe burn induces a systemic hypermetabolic response, which includes increased energy expenditure, protein catabolism, and diminished immunity. We hypothesized that early burn excision and aggressive enteral feeding diminish hypermetabolism. Forty-six burned children were enrolled into a cohort analytic study. Cohorts were segregated according to time from burn to transfer to our institution for excision, grafting, and nutritional support. No subject had undergone wound excision or continuous nutritional support before transfer. Resting energy expenditure, skeletal muscle protein kinetics, the degree of bacterial colonization from quantitative cultures, and the incidence of burn sepsis were measured as outcome variables. Early, aggressive treatment did not decrease energy expenditure; however, it did markedly attenuate muscle protein catabolism when compared with delay in aggressive treatment. Wound colonization and sepsis were diminished in the early treatment group as well. Early excision and concurrent aggressive feeding attenuate muscle catabolism and improve infectious outcomes after burn.
Beyer, Frederike; Münte, Thomas F; Krämer, Ulrike M
We investigated changes in the neural processing of social information as possible link between social exclusion and aggression. Participants played a virtual ball game with two putative game partners, during which half of the 34 participants were excluded. Then, participants played the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) against the same partners. An empathy paradigm followed, in which participants watched pictures of neutral and emotional social scenes, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Excluded participants showed stronger neural reactivity to emotional compared to neutral pictures than included participants in regions associated with cognitive mentalizing and the mirror neuron system (bilateral superior, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, right precentral gyrus). Reactivity of left inferior temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus was positively correlated with aggressive behavior in the TAP. Our results support previous behavioral findings which suggest changes in social information processing as mediator between exclusion and aggression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martin, Paul R; Ghalambor, Cameron K
Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those associated with body size
Paul R Martin
Full Text Available Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those
Rohde, Palle Duun; Gartner, Bryn; Ward, Kirsty
Human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often include adverse behaviors including increased aggressiveness. Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability...... previously been associated with aggressive behavior in Drosophila and mice. Further, many of these genes have human orthologs that have been associated with neurological disorders, indicating partially shared genetic mechanisms underlying aggression in animal models and human psychiatric disorders....... behavior, as well as significant genotype-by-social environ- mental interaction (GSEI); i.e., variation among DGRP genotypes in the degree to which social isolation affected aggression. We performed genome-wide association (GWA) analyses to identify genetic variants associated with aggression within each...
Rizzi, Michele; Trezza, Andrea; Messina, Giuseppe; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Franzini, Angelo; Marras, Carlo Efisio
Neurological surgery offers an opportunity to study brain functions, through either resection or implanted neuromodulation devices. Pathological aggressive behavior in patients with intellectual disability is a frequent condition that is difficult to treat using either supportive care or pharmacological therapy. The bulk of the laboratory studies performed throughout the 19th century enabled the formulation of hypotheses on brain circuits involved in the generation of emotions. Aggressive behavior was also studied extensively. Lesional radiofrequency surgery of the posterior hypothalamus, which peaked in the 1970s, was shown to be an effective therapy in many reported series. As with other surgical procedures for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, however, this therapy was abandoned for many reasons, including the risk of its misuse. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) offers the possibility of treating neurological and psychoaffective disorders through relatively reversible and adaptable therapy. Deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus was proposed and performed successfully in 2005 as a treatment for aggressive behavior. Other groups reported positive outcomes using target and parameter settings similar to those of the original study. Both the lesional and DBS approaches enabled researchers to explore the role of the posterior hypothalamus (or posterior hypothalamic area) in the autonomic and emotional systems.
A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.
Harmon, A C; Huhman, K L; Moore, T O; Albers, H E
Dominant subordinate relationships are formed as the result of social conflict and are maintained at least in part by communication. At this time, little is known about the neural mechanisms that are responsible for coordinating the social behaviours (e.g. aggression) that occur in association with the formation and maintenance of these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of oxytocin (OXT) within the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamic continuum (MPOA-AH) in the control of aggression in female hamsters. OXT injected into the MPOA-AH immediately before testing significantly reduced the duration of aggression in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of an OXT antagonist 30 min before testing significantly increased the duration of aggression. In contrast, the duration of aggression was not altered when hamsters were tested either 30 min after injection of OXT or immediately following injection of an OXT-antagonist. These data support the hypothesis that OXT release within the MPOA-AH regulates social behaviours important in the formation and maintenance of dominant subordinate relationships in female hamsters.
Interspecific aggression between hermatypic corals on Bermudian reefs has been investigated by aquarium and field studies, the latter involving induced interactions, observations from 30 m-2 transects and random SCUBA traverses. Resultant hierarchies, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage competitors, show close similarities with each other and with the Jamaican hierarchy at the family level, notwithstanding some differences in the ranking of some species. Only 11% of natural-occurring interactions depart from the aquarium-derived results; in terms of species-pair combinations, 30% show partial or complete inversions from aquarium to field, with most changes involving species close together in the field hierarchy. Circular (intransitive) interactions occur mostly within a network of weakly-aggressive species in both aquarium- and fieldderived hierarchies. While number of potential interactions m-2 varies directly with density, frequency of aggression is positively correlated with coral diversity (species richness), while frequency of “no reactions” and conspecific fusion (combined) shows a correspondingly negative correlation with diversity. Frequency of aggression does not appear to be depth related. Comparison of aquarium and field hierarchies suggest that digestion by mesenterial filaments is the most important mechanism of aggression under natural conditions. Sweeper tentacle activity is the most likely cause of field reversals involving Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa. Other factors, such as stress caused by seasonal environmental extremes, may be responsible for reversals or inconsistent behaviour in other species.
Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree
Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression
Small, Eusebius; Kim, Youn Kyoung; Mengo, Cecilia
In 2010, approximately one out of four youths in the United States were immigrant children. Hispanics and Asians comprised the largest groups (58% and 16%), respectively. Today, the Hispanic population is the largest ethnic minority in the United States (15%) and is a majority of the U.S. foreign-born population (47%). While immigration is a positive process for most immigrants, resettlement into a new country has challenges, including acculturation adjustments. Youth engage in risky behaviors such as substance use and antisocial behaviors. For immigrant youth with limited supportive opportunities, however, the acculturation process can be difficult. Stress, alienation, and stigma often manifest and cause behavioral problems, including aggression. This pilot study examines the mediating effect of antisocial attitudes using sociocultural, developmental, and environmental factors to understand Hispanic youth problem behaviors. We sampled 136 youths, ages 6-12, from predominantly Hispanic elementary schools in the southwestern United States to ascertain the role of aggression and antisocial behavior in substance use attitudes. The results show significant differences in aggression, antisocial attitudes, and substance use according to (1) age, (2) years in the United States, (3) English level, and (4) relationship with mother. Aggression significantly predicted antisocial attitudes and substance use, with antisocial attitudes having a mediating effect on the relationship between aggression and substance use. In developing social service programs to prevent substance use among children from immigrant families, social work educators and practitioners may consider addressing the role of aggression in Hispanic adolescents' future behavior.
Citrome, Leslie; Volavka, Jan
Aggressive behaviour is common in forensic psychiatric settings. The aetiology of aggressive behaviour is multifactorial and can be driven by psychosis, impulsivity, psychopathy, intoxication, cognitive impairment, or a combination of all of these. Recognition of the different factors behind the aggression can inform medication selection and the relative need for specific environmental and behavioural interventions in a forensic psychiatric setting. Acute agitation needs to be managed quickly and effectively before further escalation of the behavioural dyscontrol occurs. Benzodiazepines and/or antipsychotic medications are often used and can be given intramuscularly to achieve a rapid onset of action. Available are intramuscular preparations of second-generation antipsychotics that have similar efficacy to lorazepam and haloperidol in reducing agitation, but are well tolerated and not associated with the extrapyramidal adverse effects, including akathisia, that can plague the older first-generation antipsychotics. The longer-term management of persistent aggressive behaviour can be quite complex. A major obstacle is that the causality of aggressive events can differ from patient to patient, and also from event to event in the same patient. For patients with schizophrenia and persistent aggressive behaviour, clozapine is recommended both for its superior antipsychotic effect and its specific anti-hostility effect. Mood stabilizers such as valproate may be helpful in instances of poor impulsivity and personality disorders. Other agents that have been successfully used include β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) and antidepressants.
Hayes, Maureen A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Creech, Suzannah K; DeCandia, Carmela J; Beach, Corey A; Taft, Casey T
We evaluated the effectiveness of Strength at Home Friends and Families (SAH-F), a dyadic group intervention to prevent relational aggression and its negative consequences, in a community-based sample of service members/veterans and significant others who reported relational difficulties. Participants included 70 veterans and their loved ones. Recruitment was conducted from October 2010 through March 2012. Participants completed an initial assessment that included measures of relational aggression and functioning, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were enrolled in the 10-week SAH-F targeting social information-processing mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the relationship between trauma and aggression and were reassessed at program completion and 3 months after intervention. Significant reductions in psychological aggression were seen both at program completion and at 3-month follow-up for both veterans (standardized mean gain effect size [ESsg] = -0.45, P aggression remained low after pretreatment and did not increase. Relationship adjustment reported by significant others, but not veterans, indicated a significant improvement from pretreatment to program completion (ESsg = 0.33, P relational aggression in military member/significant other dyads and enhancing relationship quality and mental health. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Lucimara Junko Koga
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity among Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the USA, assess their aggressiveness variability, and verify the existence of an isolate-cultivar interaction. Isolate variability was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG, and isolate aggressiveness by cut-stem inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine isolates from the same soybean field in Brazil and nine from the Midwest region of the USA. The second set included 16 isolates from several regions of Brazil and one from the USA. In the first set, 18 isolates formed 12 different MCGs. In the second set, 81% of the isolates from Brazil grouped into a single MCG. No common MCGs were observed among isolates from Brazil and the USA. The isolates showed aggressiveness differences in the first set, but not in the second. Although aggressiveness differed in the first set, soybean cultivars and isolates did not interact significantly. Cultivar rank remained the same, regardless of the genetic diversity, aggressiveness difference, and region or country of origin of the isolate. Results from screening of soybean cultivars, performed by the cut-stem method in the USA, can be used as reference for researchers in Brazil.
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javadinia, Seyed Alireza; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sedghijalal, Homa
Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013. The search terms were violence, aggression, drug abuse, substance abuse, illicit drug, psychoactive drug, intravenous drug users, addiction and high-risk sexual relationships, unprotected sex, high risk sexual behavior, and sexual risk-taking. In this study, forty-nine studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria (in English or Persian, full text, and included the search terms). Forty-nine articles were included; 17 out of 26 studies showed a significant correlation between addiction and risky sexual behavior, 15 out of 19 articles indicated a statistically significant correlation between aggression and addiction, and 9 out of 10 articles reported significant correlation between aggression and risky sexual behavior. According to the results, the triangle hypothesis of sex, addiction, and aggression led to the definition of the relationship among the variables of the hypothetical triangle based on the reviewed studies; and the proposed dual and triple relationship based on the conducted literature review was confirmed. This is not a meta-analysis, and there is no analysis of publication bias.
Cusimano, Michael D; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J; Pauley, Christopher R; Stulberg, Jennifer R; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley
In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.
Liam P. Kilduff
Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie
Youth peer groups hold many different types of norms, including norms supporting aggressive behavior. Challenging or standing up to such aggressive norms can be difficult for children and adolescents, given the pressures to conform to groups. In the current study, the relationship between individual judgments and expectations of the judgments of a peer group about the acceptability of challenging aggressive group norms was investigated. The sample included 9-10 and 13-14 year-olds (N = 292, 52.4 % female). Participants evaluated groups with norms condoning physical and relational aggression. Participants were more supportive of challenges to relational aggression than challenges to physical aggression. Additionally, age-related differences were found, with younger children perceiving challenges to group norms as more feasible than did adolescents. Participants individually rated challenging aggressive norms as okay, but thought that groups would be much less supportive of such challenges. The results also documented the influence of gender stereotypes about aggressive behavior on children's and adolescents' evaluations.
Jennyfer Insuasty Torres
Full Text Available An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999. The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968. In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicates, that neither of the colonies presents an extreme aggressive behavior and it is possible that they have not Africans genotypes. These results are an indirect proof of the index. Nevertheless, it could be improved by the introduction of other factors such as, climate and colony management.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is the first cause of death and disability in children and young adults in worldwide. During the acute phase of recovery from moderate to severe brain injury, a period of post-traumatic confusion state (PTCS will arise that is a combination of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Seven key symptoms of PTCS are identified and measured by Confusion Assessment Protocol (CAP Agitation can be part of PTCS in the acute phase or, part of the recovery of consciousness in chronic phase. There are different hypothesis and classifications of acute and chronic post-traumatic aggressive syndromes. While post-traumatic aggression is common, its mechanism, assessment tool, outcome and treatment plans are not well-defined. Understanding the different aspects of post-traumatic aggression; mechanism, differential diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed in this article.
Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit
In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.
Susin, Cristiano; Haas, Alex N; Albandar, Jasim M
Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis have used different study designs and a range of examination methods and case definitions, and this greatly complicates the study of disease prevalence in populations. The wide range of disease case definitions, in particular, profoundly impacts the reported rate of disease, and the use of a standard disease definition is strongly recommended. Surveys of aggressive periodontitis that use only clinical examinations, without radiographic examination to confirm the presence of a distinctive pattern of tissue loss, may overestimate the prevalence of this disease, particularly when a low threshold of attachment loss is used. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies significantly between populations, and differences in race/ethnicities seem to be a key factor. Studies consistently show that aggressive periodontitis is most prevalent in Africa and in populations of African descent and is least prevalent in Caucasians in Europe and North America. Among children and young adults the prevalence of this disease is higher in older than in younger age groups. Most studies show comparable disease prevalence in male and female subjects. These findings show that aggressive periodontitis is a significant health problem in certain populations. This review also highlights a lack of information on the epidemiology and demographics of this disease in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis in high-risk populations are important and could provide vital data on the determinants of this disease, and this information is needed for the establishment of effective health-promotion measures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei
Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227
Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei
Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression.
von der Pahlen, Bettina
The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well established although a direct causal relationship has proven hard to demonstrate. There are, however, indications that alcohol facilitates aggression in individuals who already have a predisposition to behave aggressively. Aggressive personality disorders have in turn been explained by elevated testosterone level. A one-to-one relation between increased levels of testosterone and aggression has been, nevertheless, difficult to reveal. Two metabolites of testosterone, estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), have been studied much less in human aggressive behavior. Estradiol might reduce androgenic effects and have a counterbalancing influence on aggression. DHT, again, has a much higher affinity than testosterone to androgen receptors, and there are indications that some of the effects of testosterone-mediating aggressive behavior occur after aromatization. Disregard of seasonal and circadian fluctuations in male testosterone production might be responsible for some of the inconclusive testosterone-aggression results. In addition, increasing age decreases both aggressive behavior and testosterone production in males. Cortisol has yielded conflicting results as a mediator in aggressive behavior. Both higher and lower levels have been reported in aggressive and abusive men. Finally, the acute and chronic effects of alcohol influence the steroid hormone levels in various ways. The present understanding of the etiology of aggression is still vague. It is clear that a multidimensional approach, combining both biological and psychosocial factors, will be necessary for the development of a more general concept of human aggression in the future.
Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J
Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.
Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila
Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility.
This paper presents adolescent aggression as mediated by the level of differentiation of self. No research has directly addressed Bowen's notion that level of differentiation impacts child functioning including aggression. Level of differentiation is discussed in conjunction with social, gender and cultural norms as manifested in aggressive behavior. Female adolescent aggression is described as mainly relationship focused and expressed via verbal threats, intimidation and manipulation, while male aggression is described mainly as overt physical violence involving dominance and competitiveness. Research on differentiation focuses mainly on Western cultures that tend to be individualistic. Jewish-Israeli society is in transition from collectivistic to individualistic cultural values in the midst of ongoing hostilities. These processes create conflict regarding togetherness and individuality needs among adolescents, who are exposed to contradictory messages regarding separating and staying close. External as well as internal expressions of aggression (depression, suicide) are presented as coping strategies in the service of a wounded self-negotiating with the world. Guided mindfulness meditation is a powerful technique for facilitating healing and growth toward autonomy by helping adolescents connect to their inner voice. This technique may be especially useful in the adolescent search for self-awareness, meaning and life purpose. Bodily, cognitive and emotional experiences are treated as informative regarding the 'self' and facilitate expansion of self-perception and individuality.
Full Text Available This paper presents adolescent aggression as mediated by the level of differentiation of self. No research has directly addressed Bowen's notion that level of differentiation impacts child functioning including aggression. Level of differentiation is discussed in conjunction with social, gender and cultural norms as manifested in aggressive behavior. Female adolescent aggression is described as mainly relationship focused and expressed via verbal threats, intimidation and manipulation, while male aggression is described mainly as overt physical violence involving dominance and competitiveness. Research on differentiation focuses mainly on Western cultures that tend to be individualistic. Jewish-Israeli society is in transition from collectivistic to individualistic cultural values in the midst of ongoing hostilities. These processes create conflict regarding togetherness and individuality needs among adolescents, who are exposed to contradictory messages regarding separating and staying close. External as well as internal expressions of aggression (depression, suicide are presented as coping strategies in the service of a wounded self-negotiating with the world. Guided mindfulness meditation is a powerful technique for facilitating healing and growth toward autonomy by helping adolescents connect to their inner voice. This technique may be especially useful in the adolescent search for self-awareness, meaning and life purpose. Bodily, cognitive and emotional experiences are treated as informative regarding the “self” and facilitate expansion of self-perception and individuality.
Modin, Carolina; Abadji, Denise; Adler, Lottie; Jansson, Leif
To investigate if differences according to discontinuation of treatment could be identified between patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis at two specialist clinics of periodontology irrespective of the effects of background factors. This is a retrospective case-control study. The variables were registered from dental records. The population consisted of patients referred to two specialist clinics of periodontology during three years. A study group was included consisting of 234 patients with a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. A control group with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis was randomly selected. In total, 234 patients (4% of the referrals) with a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis were referred to the two periodontal clinics during a period of three years. Forty-two per cent of the non-compliant patients were smokers compared to 31% for the compliers and this difference was statistically significant. Patients with aggressive periodontitis interrupted their periodontal treatment significantly more frequently (46%) compared to those patients with chronic periodontitis (34%). The non-compliant patients had significantly deeper periodontal pockets at baseline as well as significantly more sites with bleeding at probing. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, aggressive periodontitis, smoking and the relative frequency of sites with periodontal pockets >4 mm at baseline were the remaining variables with a significant influence on the incidence of interrupting ongoing periodontal treatment. The patient group with aggressive periodontitis interrupted the periodontal treatment significantly more often irrespective of background factors and risk factors, which may be regarded as a major health problem.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the predictive capacity of some individual, family, and community variables concerning the likelihood that a teenager will engage in aggressive behavior toward others using a mobile phone or the Internet, occasionally or intensely, controlling for the effect of potential confounding variables. To that end, the Cyber-Aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA as well as previously validated scales for the evaluation of the potential indicators analyzed were applied to 3,059 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (M = 14.01, SD = 1.39. The aforementioned scales include sociodemographic variables (age and sex and variables referring to the use of the Internet (social networks, instant messaging programs, and the Internet for non-school tasks, parental control (behavioral control, rules for the use of the Internet, Internet use monitoring, and affection and communication, personality (impulsivity and empathy, antisocial behavior (frequency of aggression toward others at school, antisocial behavior outside the school, and antisocial friendships, and frequency of cyber-victimization. Multivariate regression analyses highlight the predictive capacity of impulsivity, aggression at school, and cyber-victimization as risk factors of cyber-aggression. They also suggest the existence of indirect or even spurious relationships between some of the variables analyzed and cyber-aggression. We discuss the practical implications of these results.
Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Carroll, Jason S; Smith, Nathan J; Yang, Chongming; Holmgren, Hailey G; Johnson, Chad
Relational aggression occurs in many different contexts, including in romantic relationships. The current study examined associations between two subtypes of relational aggression (love withdrawal and social sabotage) and marital quality over a 5-year time period. Participants consisted of 311 married couples who completed a number of questionnaires on relational aggression and relationship quality once a year over a 5-year period. Results revealed that relational aggression was highly stable over time and that women used more relational aggression than men. Men's use of social sabotage and love withdrawal were bidirectionally related to both partners' perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Conversely, only women's use of love withdrawal was related to her own perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Collectively, these results suggest that relational aggression by men may be less common, though particularly toxic in a marital relationship. Couples are encouraged to find healthier ways of coping with problems in relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise
Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Doyle, Heather S; McLoughlin, Caven S
Relational aggression is a form of covert or indirect aggression or bullying in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group, rather than through physical violence. We compare findings from empirical research into relational aggression with the depictions, interpretations and interventions described in trade-books and popular media dealing with that same topic. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys and is popularly described as synonymous with "mean-girl" behaviors. We investigate the degree that popular trade books and movies accurately portray findings from researched investigations including the incidence and indicators of the condition and its remedies. We determine that there is a great deal of similarity between these two sources in how relational aggression is understood and how it may be treated. The concurrence across both dissemination formats reflects terminology and definitions, the harmful effects of relational aggression, the gender-specific nature of the condition to women and girls, its age of occurrence, the impact of parenting styles, its relationship to girls' social competence, and nature of its expression through non-physical means.
Serico, Jennifer M; NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Houck, Mark; Leff, Stephen S
Unlike the overt nature of physical aggression, which lends itself to simpler and more direct methods of investigation, the often-masked nature of relational aggression has led to difficulties and debate regarding the most effective tools of study. Given concerns with the accuracy of third-party relational aggression reports, especially as individuals age, self-report measures may be particularly useful when assessing experiences with relational aggression. However, it is important to recognize validity concerns-in particular, the potential effects of item order presentation-associated with self-report of relational aggression perpetration and victimization. To investigate this issue, surveys were administered and completed by 179 young adults randomly assigned to one of four survey conditions reflecting manipulation of item order. Survey conditions included presentation of (a) perpetration items only, (b) victimization items only, (c) perpetration items followed by victimization items, and (d) victimization items followed by perpetration items. Results revealed that participants reported perpetrating relational aggression significantly more often when asked only about perpetration or when asked about perpetration before victimization, compared with participants who were asked about victimization before perpetration. Item order manipulation did not result in significant differences in self-reported victimization experiences. Results of this study indicate a need for greater consideration of item order when conducting research using self-report data and the importance of additional investigation into which form of item presentation elicits the most accurate self-report information.
Chi, Mei-Ting; Jeang, Shiow-Rong; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Leu, Shu-Jen; Chueh, Ching-Mo
Incidences of violence in acute psychiatric ward can lead to not only facility destructions, but also mental, physical injuries and even medical disputes. As part of efforts to enhance medical team abilities to manage aggressive events, this study aimed to provide references for reducing both aggressive events and resultant damage. Over two-thirds (69%) of all unanticipated occurrences registered by our unit in 2003-2004 were classed as "aggressive events", i.e. there were 27 occurrences (0.09%) in which 0.04% resulted in staff injury. Events were mainly attributable to psychiatric symptoms, poor impulse control and interpersonal conflicts. For this study, we used several intervention methods, including categorizing patients by "risk of violence" rank, revising the hospital's standard operation processes for handling violence and revising the nursing rules to enhance nurse skills at managing violent events, countering patient violence, helping patients safely vent their anger and physical force, listening to relax music and conducting behavior modification. As a result, aggressive event prediction sensitivity increased from 56% to 100%, with successful prevention rates reaching 80%. The rate of aggressive event occurrence reduced from 0.09% to 0.06% and staff injuries decreased from 0.04% to 0.02%. Intervention methods employed were shown to be quite effective. If medical teams elsewhere enhanced their sensitivity and abilities to avoid aggressive events, injury and damages could be prevented and medical care quality enhanced.
Manhães de Castro R.
Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.
Tuvblad, Catherine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Comasco, Erika; Andershed, Henrik; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Nilsson, Kent W
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for several psychiatric diseases as well as aggressive behavior, either directly, or in interaction with an adverse environment. The present study aimed at investigating the susceptibility properties of COMT genotype to adverse and favorable environment in relation to physical and verbal aggressive behavior. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was genotyped in a Swedish population-based cohort including 1,783 individuals, ages 20-24 years (47% males). A significant three-way interaction was found, after correction for multiple testing, between COMT genotype, exposure to violence, and parent-child relationship in association with physical but not verbal aggressive behavior. Homozygous for the Val allele reported lower levels of physical aggressive behavior when they were exposed to violence and at the same time experienced a positive parent-child relationship compared to Met carriers. Thus, susceptibility properties of COMT genotype were observed in relation to physical aggressive behavior supporting the hypothesis that COMT genotypes are modifying the sensitivity to environment that confers either risk or protection for aggressive behavior. As these are novel findings, they warrant further investigation and replication in independent samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore
Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care.
Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J
This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to an overview of foreign researches about factors that increase the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior among juveniles and reduce the risk of such behavior. Such definitions as risk factor, protective factor (defensive, aggression and violence were examined. It is shown how the methods of assessment for both social and negative consequences of unlawful behavior, including aggressive one, have been developed, starting from discretionary approach based on unstructured clinical statement and ending with a method of structured risk assessment. The article contains the descriptions of researches about prognostic structured risk assessment of aggressive criminal behavior among adolescents. The results of contemporary foreign researches that were aimed at identifying factors that either increase or reduce the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior in childhood and adolescence, were outlined.
Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Peter; Møller, Steen Henrik
Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises...... a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks...... genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite marks and probably aggression behaviour in group-housed mink....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and aggressiveness. To identify candidate genes we analyzed association of DNA markers in each of ten genes (CRH g.233C>T, CRHR1 c.*866_867insA, CRHBP c.51G>A, POMC c.293_298del, MC2R c.306T>G, NR3C1 c.*2122A>G, AVP c.207A>G, AVPR1B c.1084A>G, UCN g.1329T>C, CRHR2 c.*13T>C related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, one of the main stress-response systems, with various stress- and aggression-related parameters at slaughter. These parameters were: physiological measures of the stress response (plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, and lactate, adrenal weight (which is a parameter reflecting activity of the central branch of the HPA axis over time and aggressive behaviour (measured by means of lesion scoring in the context of psychosocial stress of mixing individuals with different aggressive temperament. Results The SNP NR3C1 c.*2122A>G showed association with cortisol concentration (p = 0.024, adrenal weight (p = 0.003 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.012; total lesion score p = 0.045. The SNP AVPR1B c.1084A>G showed a highly significant association with aggressive behaviour (middle lesion score, p = 0.007; total lesion score p = 0.003. The SNP UCN g.1329T>C showed association with adrenal weight (p = 0.019 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.029. The SNP CRH g.233C>T showed a significant association with glucose concentration (p = 0.002, and the polymorphisms POMC c.293_298del and MC2R c.306T>G with adrenal
Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew
A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.
de Boer, Sietse F
Escalated interpersonal aggression and violence are common symptoms of multiple psychiatric disorders and represent a significant global health issue. Current therapeutic strategies are limited due to a lack of understanding about the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the 'vicious' shift of normal adaptive aggression into violence, and the environmental triggers that cause it. Development of novel animal models that validly capture the salient features of human violent actions combined with newly emerging technologies for mapping, measuring, and manipulating neuronal activity in the brain significantly advance our understanding of the etiology, neuromolecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic interventions of excessive aggressive behaviors in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scotto Rosato, Nancy; Correll, Christoph U; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Chait, Alanna; Crystal, Stephen; Jensen, Peter S
To develop guidelines for management and treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth in the areas of psychosocial interventions, medication treatments, and side-effect management. Evidence was assembled and evaluated in a multistep process, including systematic reviews of published literature; an expert survey of recommended practices; a consensus conference of researchers, policymakers, clinicians, and family advocates; and review by the steering committee of successive drafts of the recommendations. The Center for Education and Research on Mental Health Therapeutics Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines reflect a synthesis of the available evidence, based on this multistep process. This article describes the content, rationale, and evidence for 11 recommendations. Key treatment principles include considering psychosocial interventions, such as evidence-based parent and child skills training as the first line of treatment; targeting the underlying disorder first following evidence-based guidelines; considering individual psychosocial and medical factors, including cardiovascular risk in the selection of agents if medication treatment (ideally with the best evidence base) is initiated; avoiding the use of multiple psychotropic medications simultaneously; and careful monitoring of treatment response, by using structured rating scales, as well as close medical monitoring for side effects, including metabolic changes. Treatment of children with maladaptive aggression is a "moving target" requiring ongoing assimilation of new evidence as it emerges. Based on the existing evidence, the Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines provide a framework for management of maladaptive aggression in youth, appropriate for use by primary care clinicians and mental health providers.
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R
While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education.
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan
Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.
meyer (2003) describes an incident where a male teacher grabbed learners by the neck and then pushed one of ..... were critical of the attitude of the young teachers coming from the universities: “… for them (the young ... Male teachers need to develop social skills and self-control techniques so they can avoid aggressive ...
For example, 16 subsyndromes of schizophrenia have been so delineated.'· It is likely that there are many more than three indicants of diencephalic instability and the indentification of subsyndromes may well involve tracing a path through a Boolean lattice. Aggressive behaviour is the indicant of particular interest here.
Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.
Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…
Nwhator, Solomon Olusegun; Uhunmwangho, Iyobosa; Chukwuma, Benedict; Ikponmwosa, Osagie
These case series were aimed at highlighting late presentations of aggressive periodontitis (AP) in a teaching hospital as well as proffering possible reasons for such presentations which would serve as part of the solution to prevent such presentations in the future. Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of destructive periodontitis traditionally believed to present around puberty. However, many cases seen in a teaching hospital presented much later for yet-to-be explained reasons. Seven patients referred to the specialist periodontal clinic of a Nigerian teaching hospital presented with clinical features consistent with AP. Most of the patients were over twenty and some over thirty years of age. Aggressive periodontitis patients seen in our center were often outside the traditional age brackets. The range of treatment options available to the patients were under-utilized due to serious financial constraints. Aggressive periodontitis comes with serious psychological challenges and severe morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and effective management hold the key to success It is important to investigate why many of the cases seen in our center presented that late. Could be due to ignorance and poverty or could be due to failure of dentists recognize these cases and consequent misdiagnosis? Further studies are needed to answer these questions.
Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit
To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…
Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie
We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…
Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey
Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...
Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles
People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…
The instruments for data collection were aggressive behaviour scale (ABAS) and Psychological Assessment Scale (PAQ). The instruments were validated by experts in Educational Psychology, Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained for ABAS while reliability coefficients of 0.74, 0.85 ...
Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June
The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients
Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim
Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...
Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.
Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.
Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…
Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura
The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…
In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when
This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...
Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...
age groups (e.g. preschoolers, adolescence, adulthood), many researchers have been particularly interested in relational aggression. 4 among adolescents . Adolescence is a period of significant cognitive, social and behavioural transitions. Socially peer relationships become. 5 increasingly significant during adolescence ...
Kooij, J. F. P.; Liem, M. C.; Krijnders, J. D.; Andringa, T. C.; Gavrila, D. M.
This paper presents a smart surveillance system named CASSANDRA, aimed at detecting instances of aggressive human behavior in public environments. A distinguishing aspect of CASSANDRA is the exploitation of complementary audio and video cues to disambiguate scene activity in real-life environments.
Albandar, Jasim M
Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014
Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A
Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities ( N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration
Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1,136, to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S, which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure, three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers, and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts such as oral sex. Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration
Miller, Patricia H.; DeMarie-Dreblow, Darlene
This study aimed to describe developmental differences in five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds' understanding of displaced aggression and to identify social and cognitive correlates of these differences. Understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with age. (RH)
Sulugodu Ramachandra, Srinivas
This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down's syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.
Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; DeWall, C Nathan
Social rejection is a painful event that often increases aggression. However, the neural mechanisms of this rejection-aggression link remain unclear. A potential clue may be that rejected people often recruit the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's (VLPFC) self-regulatory processes to manage the pain of rejection. Using functional MRI, we replicated previous links between rejection and activity in the brain's mentalizing network, social pain network, and VLPFC. VLPFC recruitment during rejection was associated with greater activity in the brain's reward network (i.e., the ventral striatum) when individuals were given an opportunity to retaliate. This retaliation-related striatal response was associated with greater levels of retaliatory aggression. Dispositionally aggressive individuals exhibited less functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the right VLPFC during aggression. This connectivity exerted a suppressing effect on dispositionally aggressive individuals' greater aggressive responses to rejection. These results help explain how the pain of rejection and reward of revenge motivate rejected people to behave aggressively.
Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.
Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to
Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.
Ulrich, Roger S; Bogren, Lennart; Lundin, Stefan
The paper proposes a tentative theory for designing psychiatric environments to foster reduced aggression and violence. A basic premise underlying the design theory is that environmental and psycho-social stressors mediate and trigger aggression. The theory posits that aggression will be reduced ...... buildings with design guided by the best available evidence and theory can play an important role in reducing the serious patient and staff safety problem of aggressive behavior.......The paper proposes a tentative theory for designing psychiatric environments to foster reduced aggression and violence. A basic premise underlying the design theory is that environmental and psycho-social stressors mediate and trigger aggression. The theory posits that aggression will be reduced...... if the facility has been designed with an evidence-based bundle of stress-reducing environmental characteristics that are identified and discussed. To make possible a tentative empirical evaluation of the theory, findings are described from a study that compared aggressive incidents in three Swedish psychiatric...
Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.
Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Van Horn, M Lee; Snow, David L; Sullivan, Tami P
Theories and measures of women's aggression in intimate relationships are only beginning to be developed. This study provides a first step in conceptualizing the measurement of women's aggression by examining how well three widely used measures (i.e., the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), the Sexual Experiences Survey [SES], and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory [PMWI]) perform in assessing women's perpetration of and victimization by aggression in their intimate relationships with men. These constructs were examined in a diverse sample of 412 African American, Latina, and White women who had all recently used physical aggression against a male intimate partner. The factor structures and psychometric properties of perpetration and victimization models using these measures were compared. Results indicate that the factor structure of women's perpetration differs from that of women's victimization in theoretically meaningful ways. In the victimization model, all factors performed well in contributing to the measurement of the latent victimization construct. In contrast, the perpetration model performed well in assessing women's physical and psychological aggression but performed poorly in assessing women's sexual aggression, coercive control, and jealous monitoring. Findings suggest that the power and control model of intimate partner violence (IPV) may apply well to women's victimization but not as well to their perpetration of violence.
MacLean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Gruen, Margaret E.; Sherman, Barbara L.; Martin, W. Lance; Carter, C. Sue
Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP)—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the measurement of free (unbound) and...
Renuka Metgud; Ajay Kumar; Kishore Bhat
Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been ...
Falkner, Annegret L.; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J.; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu
In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat provoking cues. While several brain areas have been implicated in generating attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or ?voluntary? aggression seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilize an aggression-seeking task wherein male mice can self-initiate aggression trials to gain br...
I A Novikova
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of the aggressiveness level in smoking and nonsmoking female students. The System-Functional Model of Aggressiveness developed by A.I. Krupnov has been used in the study. The results confirm the hypothesis that smoking female students in general have a higher level of aggressiveness in comparison with the non-smokers, although the level of aggressiveness in both groups did not exceed the norm.
豊島, 久美子; 福井, 一
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between the musical behavior of adolescent and the aggressiveness. Questionnaires about music behavior and aggressiveness (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnarie) were conducted for the schoolchild and the junior high school student (221 people: 97 male and 124 female). As a result, the positive correlation was found for aggressiveness and music behavior (listening, singing). There is significant relation between musical behavior of adoles...
Randy J. McCarthy; Malte Elson
Aggression is often defined as a behavior that is done with the intent to harm an individual who is believed to want avoid being harmed (e.g., Baron & Richardson, 1994). Accordingly, social scientists have developed several tasks to study aggression in laboratory settings; tasks that we refer to as “lab-based aggression paradigms.” However, because of the legal, ethical, and practical issues inherent in provoking aggression within the confines of a laboratory setting, it is feasible to st...
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fond, G; Boyer, L; Favez, M; Brunel, L; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Laouamri, H; Lancon, C; Le Strat, Y; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Schurhoff, F; Tronche, A M; Urbach, M; Vidalhet, P; Llorca, P M; Pelissolo, A
The primary objective of this study was to determine if second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) administration was associated with lower aggressiveness scores compared to first-generation (FGA) in schizophrenia (SZ). The secondary objective was to determine if antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and benzodiazepines administration were respectively associated with lower aggressiveness scores compared to patients who were not administered these medications. Three hundred thirty-one patients with schizophrenia (N = 255) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 76) (mean age = 32.5 years, 75.5 % male gender) were systematically included in the network of FondaMental Expert Center for Schizophrenia and assessed with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and validated scales for psychotic symptomatology, insight, and compliance. Aggressiveness was measured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) score. Ongoing psychotropic treatment was recorded. Patients who received SGA had lower BPAQ scores than patients who did not (p = 0.01). More specifically, these patients had lower physical and verbal aggression scores. On the contrary, patients who received benzodiazepines had higher BPAQ scores than patients who did not (p = 0.04). No significant difference was found between BPAQ scores of patients respectively being administered mood stabilizers (including valproate), antidepressant, and the patients who were not. These results were found independently of socio-demographical variables, psychotic symptomatology, insight, compliance into treatment, daily-administered antipsychotic dose, the way of antipsychotic administration (oral vs long acting), current alcohol disorder, and daily cannabis consumption. The results of the present study are in favor of the choice of SGA in SZ patients with aggressiveness, but these results need further investigation in longitudinal studies. Given the potent side effects of benzodiazepines
Taylor, Catherine A.; Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Rice, Janet C.
Objective To examine associations between maternal and paternal use of corporal punishment (CP) for 3-year old children and intimate partner aggression or violence (IPAV) in a population-based sample. Methods The study sample (n = 1997) was derived from wave 3 of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. Mother and father reports regarding their use of CP and their IPAV victimization were analyzed. IPAV included coercion, non-physical and physical aggression. Results About 65% of the children were spanked at least once in the prior month by one or both parents. Of those couples that reported any family aggression (87%), 54% reported that both CP and IPAV occurred. The most prevalent patterns of co-occurrence involved both parents as aggressors either toward each other (i.e., bilateral IPAV) or toward the child. The presence of bilateral IPAV essentially doubled the odds that one or both parents would use CP, even after controlling for potential confounders such as parenting stress, depression, and alcohol or other drug use. Of the five patterns of co-occurring family aggression assessed, the “single aggressor” model, in which only one parent aggressed in the family, received the least amount of empirical support. Conclusions Despite American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations against the use of CP, CP use remains common in the U.S. CP prevention and intervention efforts should carefully consider assumptions made about patterns of co-occurring aggression in families, given that adult victims of IPAV, including even minor, non-physical aggression between parents, have increased odds of using CP with their children. PMID:20732943
Street, Nancy White; McCormick, Marie C; Austin, S Bryn; Slopen, Natalie; Habre, Rima; Molnar, Beth E
Optimal sleep takes up one-third of a person's day and is known to be an important component of health and well-being. Shortened sleep duration in adolescence has been found to be associated with adverse health outcomes. In this study, we examined the association between sleep duration and physical aggression against peers among a large representative sample of urban youth, hypothesizing that shorter sleep would lead to more physical aggression. Data came from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, an in-school survey of 1878 public high school students. We calculated adjusted odds ratios of past month perpetration of physical aggression, categorized as minor, moderate, or severe, adjusting for school clustering, sex, age, race and ethnicity, hours spent on homework, time watching television, and peer influences. Sixty-one percent of students reported insufficient sleep, categorized as 7 or less hours of sleep per school night. Approximately 40% of students reported perpetrating some form of physical aggression at school or in their neighborhood in the past month. Individuals reporting longer sleep duration were significantly less likely to report moderate physical aggressive behavior against peers (adjusted odds ratio=0.90, 95% confidence interval=0.81-1.00). In light of the inverse association between hours of sleep and perpetration of aggression, efforts to decrease physical aggression among high school students should include attention to ensuring healthy sleep, including education on the importance of getting 9hours of sleep each night. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manganello, Jennifer A; Taylor, Catherine A
To examine associations of child television (TV) exposure and household TV use with aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children while controlling for demographic characteristics and risk and protective factors for aggression. The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a prospective cohort study. Data collected at home and by telephone from parents of children born from 1998 to 2000 from 20 cities. Mothers who completed a 36-month in-home survey and met inclusion criteria (n = 3128). Direct child TV exposure and household TV use were the primary explanatory variables. Additional risk factors included neighborhood disorder and maternal factors like depression. Childhood aggression was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations between TV measures, additional risk factors, and childhood aggression. Children who were spanked in the past month (beta = 1.24, P < .001), lived in a disorderly neighborhood (beta = 2.07, P < .001), and had a mother reporting depression (beta = 0.92, P < .001) and parenting stress (beta = 0.16, P < .001) were significantly more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior. Direct child TV exposure (beta = 0.16, P < .001) and household TV use (beta = 0.09, P < .001) were also significantly associated with childhood aggression, even when controlling for other factors. Three-year-old children exposed to more TV, both directly and indirectly, are at increased risk for exhibiting aggressive behavior. Further research is essential to determine whether pediatric recommendations concerning TV and children should include limits for general household TV use.
Cusimano, Michael D; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura
The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2-5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required.
Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.
Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…
Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.
Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here
Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese
Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a 'girl problem', we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression…
Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.
Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…
Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.
This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…
Dryier, Kimberly J.
The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…
Sandstrom, Marlene J.
This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…
Background: School bullying and aggression among children and adolescents have been a source of concern for many researchers globally in the past few decades. Limited research exists regarding relational aggression, largely because research has focused historically on direct verbal and physical aggression, which is ...
diagnosis. The 40 non-aggressive subjects were mainly medical students and hospital staff. The MOAS was subsequently used to assess aggression in the entire cohort. Results: The males had higher mean global weighted score than the females in both the aggressive and nonaggressive categories. The mean global ...