WorldWideScience

Sample records for included sufficient information

  1. Information geometry and sufficient statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ay, N.; Jost, J.; Le, Hong-Van; Schwachhöfer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-2 (2015), s. 327-364 ISSN 0178-8051 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fisher quadratic form * Amari-Chentsov tensor * sufficient statistic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.204, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00440-014-0574-8

  2. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Almen, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Lars

    2004-04-01

    can be used in the decision whether and how to continue the investigation. Highlight uncertainty evaluation of aspects of the Site Description judged to be critical to the decision of investigation sufficiency ('uncertainty of key aspects') and to help substantiate how these uncertainties should be explored such that they can be used in the decision analysis. In addressing these objectives the report describes some formal decision analyses tools, assessed potential feedback from Safety Assessment and Rock Engineering, explores some key uncertainty in the Site Description and also explores an example where the decision analyses tools are applied. Based on this work it is generally concluded that the question When to stop the site investigation is a decision problem. In simple words the site investigations should stop when the expected net gain of further investigations is zero or negative, where gain is related to the total cost, which includes several factors besides the direct monetary outlay. Furthermore, this decision perspective should be applied not only in determining the sufficiency of the programme, but also when optimising the remaining parts of the ongoing programme. In particular, it needs to be understood that the Site Investigation is only a step towards the ultimate decision of disposing waste and eventually sealing a repository. The cost and value of information obtained in the Site Investigation Phase, needs to be weighted against the costs and value of obtaining information during later stages. All issues need not be resolved during the Site Investigation Phase. Some could be much better handled later, e.g. during the construction and detailed investigation phase. More specifically, it is recommended to: to actively solicit feedback from Safety Assessment and Repository Engineering, keep track of the uncertainty evaluation of the key aspects of the Site Descriptive Models, develop the Underground Characterisation Programme as this is the next step

  3. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    can be used in the decision whether and how to continue the investigation. Highlight uncertainty evaluation of aspects of the Site Description judged to be critical to the decision of investigation sufficiency ('uncertainty of key aspects') and to help substantiate how these uncertainties should be explored such that they can be used in the decision analysis. In addressing these objectives the report describes some formal decision analyses tools, assessed potential feedback from Safety Assessment and Rock Engineering, explores some key uncertainty in the Site Description and also explores an example where the decision analyses tools are applied. Based on this work it is generally concluded that the question When to stop the site investigation is a decision problem. In simple words the site investigations should stop when the expected net gain of further investigations is zero or negative, where gain is related to the total cost, which includes several factors besides the direct monetary outlay. Furthermore, this decision perspective should be applied not only in determining the sufficiency of the programme, but also when optimising the remaining parts of the ongoing programme. In particular, it needs to be understood that the Site Investigation is only a step towards the ultimate decision of disposing waste and eventually sealing a repository. The cost and value of information obtained in the Site Investigation Phase, needs to be weighted against the costs and value of obtaining information during later stages. All issues need not be resolved during the Site Investigation Phase. Some could be much better handled later, e.g. during the construction and detailed investigation phase. More specifically, it is recommended to: to actively solicit feedback from Safety Assessment and Repository Engineering, keep track of the uncertainty evaluation of the key aspects of the Site Descriptive Models, develop the Underground Characterisation Programme as this is the

  4. Information system support as a critical success factor for chronic disease management: Necessary but not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carolyn J; Fortin, Patricia; Maclure, Malcolm; Macgregor, Art; Robinson, Sylvia

    2006-12-01

    Improvement of chronic disease management in primary care entails monitoring indicators of quality over time and across patients and practices. Informatics tools are needed, yet implementing them remains challenging. To identify critical success factors enabling the translation of clinical and operational knowledge about effective and efficient chronic care management into primary care practice. A prospective case study of positive deviants using key informant interviews, process observation, and document review. A chronic disease management (CDM) collaborative of primary care physicians with documented improvement in adherence to clinical practice guidelines using a web-based patient registry system with CDM guideline-based flow sheet. Thirty community-based physician participants using predominantly paper records, plus a project management team including the physician lead, project manager, evaluator and support team. A critical success factor (CSF) analysis of necessary and sufficient pathways to the translation of knowledge into clinical practice. A web-based CDM 'toolkit' was found to be a direct CSF that allowed this group of physicians to improve their practice by tracking patient care processes using evidence-based clinical practice guideline-based flow sheets. Moreover, the information and communication technology 'factor' was sufficient for success only as part of a set of seven direct CSF components including: health delivery system enhancements, organizational partnerships, funding mechanisms, project management, practice models, and formal knowledge translation practices. Indirect factors that orchestrated success through the direct factor components were also identified. A central insight of this analysis is that a comprehensive quality improvement model was the CSF that drew this set of factors into a functional framework for successful knowledge translation. In complex primary care settings environment where physicians have low adoption rates of

  5. Do invitations for cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable informed choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolthoff, Sie Karen; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2016-01-01

    or unmentioned. The same applied to other important harms, such as false-positive results and the psychological consequences from an abnormal test result. The majority of invitations took a paternalistic approach. While only two invitations (17%) included a pre-assigned appointment date, eight (70...

  6. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization. When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170 were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.

  7. Therapeutic patient education in heart failure: do studies provide sufficient information about the educational programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Do Cuticular Hydrocarbons Provide Sufficient Information for Optimal Sex Allocation in the Ant Formica exsecta?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    translates accurately into chemical variability. However, in genetically heterogeneous colonies, too accurate information may encourage the pursuit of individual interests through nepotistic behavior and reduce colony efficiency or cause social disruption. In this study, we estimated how well variability...... of CHC recognition cues reflects colony kin structure in the ant Formica exsecta. Our results show that CHC variability does not covary with kin structure or the overall genetic diversity of the colony, and that patrilines and matrilines can have distinct CHC profiles in some but not all colonies...

  9. Is Information a Sufficient Basis for Cognition? Part 2: Physical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Díaz Nafría

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this second part of our inquiry into the relation between information and cognition, we delve into the physical limits of the manifestation of an arbitrary object first with independence of any observer, then considering the nature of perception. The analysis of the manifestations of an object in a homogeneous environment by means of wave phenomena shows that the information carried by such manifestations offers a constitutive fuzziness and ambiguity of the observed object. On the one hand, the details that can be specified concerning the object are strictly limited by the wave length; on the other hand, the volumetric details of the object (i.e. its bowls are outlawed to the observer, not in virtue of the object opacity, but to the very dimension or complexity of the wave phenomenon in the space surrounding the object. The analysis of perception, considering this physical boundary and the specificity of the animal sensitivity, shows the combined role of other concurrent or previous percept and some a priori knowledge in the perception and awareness of reality.

  10. 77 FR 73493 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...; representatives participants. of 4 key partner agencies; FSS participants. Cost-Benefit analysis data collection 6... participants to obtain greater economic independence. While the main objective of FSS is stable, suitable...; or accomplishing similar goals that lead to economic independence. Data collection will include the...

  11. What should be the necessary and sufficient information to define a notion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to prove the importance of cognition in the difficult and complex task of finding the right definition for a term or a collocation. The principles of categorization can be successfully applied in order to find the needed and structured information about the perceived world. They can also help finding the attributes that distinguish representatives of one category. Categorizing by using prototypes contributes to the development of individuals’ vocabulary in various fields and also in discovering the most important distinctive features in order to define object, beings or abstract notions of the perceived world. A good definition must contain not only distinctive features but also specific attributes, in order to increase its accuracy.

  12. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  13. Web-based information system design of agricultural management towards self-sufficiency local food in North Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin; Husaini; Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The agricultural sector, especially food crops and horticulture, is one of the sectors driving regional economic pillars in Aceh Utara Regency of Aceh Province. Some agricultural products and food crops that become excellent products in North Aceh regency are: rice, corn, peanuts, long beans, cassava and soybeans. The Local Government of North Aceh Regency has not been optimal in empowering and maximizing the potential of agriculture resources. One of the obstacles is caused by the North Aceh Regency Government does not have an adequate database and web information system/GIS (Geographic Information System) for data management of agricultural centre in North Aceh Regency. This research is expected to assist local government of North Aceh Regency in managing agriculture sector to realize local food independence the region in supporting national food security program. The method in this research is using waterfall method for designing and making information system by conducting sequential process starting from data collection stage, requirement analysis, design, coding, testing and implementation system. The result of this research is a web-based information system for the management of agriculture superior agricultural product centre in North Aceh. This application provides information mapping the location of agricultural superior product producers and mapping of potential locations for the development of certain commodities in North Aceh Regency region in realizing food self-sufficiency in the region.

  14. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper ...

  15. Forecasting the regional distribution and sufficiency of physicians in Japan with a coupled system dynamics-geographic information system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Kensuke; Ohba, Hisateru; Suzuki, Teppei; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    In Japan, the shortage of physicians has been recognized as a major medical issue. In our previous study, we reported that the absolute shortage will be resolved in the long term, but maldistribution among specialties will persist. To address regional shortage, several Japanese medical schools increased existing quota and established "regional quotas." This study aims to assist policy makers in designing effective policies; we built a model for forecasting physician numbers by region to evaluate future physician supply-demand balances. For our case study, we selected Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan, a region displaying disparities in healthcare services availability between urban and rural areas. We combined a system dynamics (SD) model with geographic information system (GIS) technology to analyze the dynamic change in spatial distribution of indicators. For Hokkaido overall and for each secondary medical service area (SMSA) within the prefecture, we analyzed the total number of practicing physicians. For evaluating absolute shortage and maldistribution, we calculated sufficiency levels and Gini coefficient. Our study covered the period 2010-2030 in 5-year increments. According to our forecast, physician shortage in Hokkaido Prefecture will largely be resolved by 2020. Based on current policies, we forecast that four SMSAs in Hokkaido will continue to experience physician shortages past that date, but only one SMSA would still be understaffed in 2030. The results show the possibility that diminishing imbalances between SMSAs would not necessarily mean that regional maldistribution would be eliminated, as seen from the sufficiency levels of the various SMSAs. Urgent steps should be taken to place doctors in areas where our forecasting model predicts that physician shortages could occur in the future.

  16. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  17. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  18. New research builds strong case for including informal migrant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... The informal sector is a major source of income for the urban poor. Migrants play a critical role in the informal economy, yet the importance of their role is often overlooked. Two new studies supported by IDRC seek to address this gap.

  19. Exploratory movement generates higher-order information that is sufficient for accurate perception of scaled egocentric distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mantel

    Full Text Available Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants' movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate.

  20. 25 CFR 183.16 - What information must be included in the Tribe's annual report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... annual report must contain the following information: (a) An accounting of the expenditures of funds... Council and the Secretary; and (c) Sufficient documentation for us to determine that the Tribe has...

  1. INFORMATION ON FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS INCLUDED IN ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gust

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims at emphasizing several aspects of the recognition, measurement and presentation of information on capital assets and how they are reflected in accounting. In this respect, here is a presentation of the calculation, preparation and regulation of impairment that can affect capital assets and the way accounting entries may influence the financial status and performance of a company. Although the bookkeeping variants of asset impairment, namely the Romanian and the international ones, are different, the information reported in annual financial statements is the same and assets are shown at their fair values. The issues approached in the paper herein are vast and they open new prospects to scientific research.

  2. Play It, Learn It, Make It Last: Developing an Online Game to Create Self-Sufficient Library Information Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lindsay M

    2016-01-01

    Library orientation at an academic health sciences library consisted of a five-minute overview within new student orientation. Past experience indicated this brief presentation was insufficient for students to learn about library resources. In 2014, an effort was made to supplement orientation by developing an online game aimed at enabling students to become self-sufficient through hands-on learning. A gaming model was chosen with expectations that competition and rewards would motivate students. Although the pilots suffered from low participation rates, the experience merits further research into the potential of a broader model of online library instruction in the health sciences environment.

  3. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  4. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services...., Information Technology Help Desk Services, West Norriton, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities... Technology Help Desk ] Services. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the...

  5. 78 FR 9935 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... at Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) across the U.S. The study will use random assignment methods to..., there are many interim outcome of interest, which include: Getting a first job; getting a higher paying job; self-employment/small business ownership; no longer needing benefits provided under one or more...

  6. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  7. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  8. 17 CFR 248.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Safeguarding Personal Information Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 248.6 Information to be included in privacy...; (4) The categories of nonpublic personal information about your former customers that you disclose... personal information about your former customers, other than those parties to whom you disclose information...

  9. 14 CFR 11.35 - Does FAA include sensitive security information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures General § 11.35 Does FAA include sensitive security information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS)? (a) Sensitive security... information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS)? 11.35 Section 11.35...

  10. 25 CFR 115.616 - What information will be included in BIA's final decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information will be included in BIA's final decision... Account § 115.616 What information will be included in BIA's final decision? BIA's final written decision to the parties involved in the proceeding will include: (a) BIA's decision to remove or retain the...

  11. Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG Genes... (including RNA editing information) Data detail Data name Genes (including RNA edi... Site Policy | Contact Us Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  12. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal management...

  13. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Foot (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract... (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY...)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  14. 12 CFR 563b.105 - What information must I include in my business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information must I include in my business plan? (a) Prior to filing an application for conversion, you must adopt a business plan reflecting your intended plans for deployment of the proposed conversion proceeds. Your business plan is required, under § 563b.150, to be included in your conversion application. At a...

  15. Extending FDA guidance to include consumer medication information (CMI) delivery on mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Adam; Blalock, Susan J; Carpenter, Delesha

    This paper describes the current state of consumer-focused mobile health application use and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on the distribution of consumer medication information (CMI), and discusses recommendations and considerations for the FDA to expand CMI guidance to include CMI in mobile applications. Smartphone-based health interventions have been linked to increased medication adherence and improved health outcomes. Trends in smartphone ownership present opportunities to more effectively communicate and disseminate medication information; however, current FDA guidance for CMI does not outline how to effectively communicate CMI on a mobile platform, particularly in regards to user-centered design and information sourcing. As evidence supporting the potential effectiveness of mobile communication in health care continues to increase, CMI developers, regulating entities, and researchers should take note. Although mobile-based CMI offers an innovative mechanism to deliver medication information, caution should be exercised. Specifically, considerations for developing mobile CMI include consumers' digital literacy, user experience (e.g., usability), and the quality and accuracy of new widely used sources of information (e.g., crowd-sourced reviews and ratings). Recommended changes to FDA guidance for CMI include altering the language about scientific accuracy to address more novel methods of information gathering (e.g., anecdotal experiences and Google Consumer Surveys) and including guidance for usability testing of mobile health applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of the Dutch Self-Sufficiency Matrix (SSM-D) to inform allocation decisions to public mental health care for homeless people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauriks, Steve; de Wit, Matty A. S.; Buster, Marcel C. A.; Fassaert, Thijs J. L.; van Wifferen, Ron; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study set out to develop a decision support tool based on the Self-Sufficiency Matrix (Dutch version; SSM-D) for the clinical decision to allocate homeless people to the public mental health care system at the central access point of public mental health care in Amsterdam, The

  17. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  18. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  19. 12 CFR 516.20 - What information must I include in my draft business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business plan? 516.20 Section 516.20 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What information must I include in my draft business plan? If you must submit a draft business plan... described in the savings association's draft business plan; and (d) Demonstrate how applicable requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 725.355 - Information to be included in the TME application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or the environment as a result of the test marketing. The TME application must be in writing and must... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information to be included in the TME application. 725.355 Section 725.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.125 - What information must agencies include in the title report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 373, took place on the property. Hazardous substance activity includes situations where any hazardous substance was stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed of on the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must...

  2. Waste pickers in the informal economy of the Global South: included or excluded?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.J. Bisschop (Lieselot); D. Coletto (Diego)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Purpose:_ This article aims to provide insights into the role and practices of informal waste pickers and the implications for waste management policy in urban contexts of the Global South. _Design/methodology/approach:_ Qualitative case studies were used, including interviews,

  3. Tornadoes: Nature's Most Violent Storms. A Preparedness Guide Including Safety Information for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This preparedness guide explains and describes tornadoes, and includes safety information for schools. A tornado is defined as a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. The guide explains the cause of tornadoes, provides diagrams of how they form, describes variations of tornadoes, and classifies tornadoes by…

  4. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Cognizant, IBM, Infosys, Kana, Patni, Siemens, Tapfin, Veritas... Workers From At&T Solutions, Chimes, Cognizant, Patni, Siemens, Xerox Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Revised...

  5. 41 CFR 301-71.103 - What information must be included on all travel authorizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included on all travel authorizations? 301-71.103 Section 301-71.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.103 What information must be...

  6. Budget Issues: Accrual Budgeting Useful in Certain Areas but Does Not Provide Sufficient Information for Reporting on Our Nation's Longer-Term Fiscal Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... The six countries have taken different approaches in the design of their accrual-based budgets, and all continue to use cash information particularly for evaluating the overall fiscal condition...

  7. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  8. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  9. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on Coarse-Graining, Including the Transition from Micro to Macro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Lindgren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An information-theoretic perspective on coarse-graining is presented. It starts with an information characterization of configurations at the micro-level using a local information quantity that has a spatial average equal to a microscopic entropy. With a reversible micro dynamics, this entropy is conserved. In the micro-macro transition, it is shown how this local information quantity is transformed into a macroscopic entropy, as the local states are aggregated into macroscopic concentration variables. The information loss in this transition is identified, and the connection to the irreversibility of the macro dynamics and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. This is then connected to a process of further coarse-graining towards higher characteristic length scales in the context of chemical reaction-diffusion dynamics capable of pattern formation. On these higher levels of coarse-graining, information flows across length scales and across space are defined. These flows obey a continuity equation for information, and they are connected to the thermodynamic constraints of the system, via an outflow of information from macroscopic to microscopic levels in the form of entropy production, as well as an inflow of information, from an external free energy source, if a spatial chemical pattern is to be maintained.

  10. Designing Better Graphs by Including Distributional Information and Integrating Words, Numbers, and Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David M.; Sandor, Aniko

    2009-01-01

    Statistical graphs are commonly used in scientific publications. Unfortunately, graphs in psychology journals rarely portray distributional information beyond central tendency, and few graphs portray inferential statistics. Moreover, those that do portray inferential information generally do not portray it in a way that is useful for interpreting…

  11. 78 FR 8586 - PEPSICO, Inc., Business & Information Solutions (BIS) Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Procurestaff, Cognizant, Infosys, Wipro, and TCS; Plano, TX; PEPSICO, Inc., Business & Information Solutions... Solutions (BIS) Division, Plano, Texas (PepsiCo-BIS-Plano). Workers of PepsiCo-BIS are engaged in activities... former workers of PepsiCo-BIS-Plano. The Department has received information that PepsiCo, Inc., Business...

  12. 40 CFR 725.255 - Information to be included in the TERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identity information required for MCANs in § 725.155(c), (d)(1), and (d)(2). (d) Persons applying for a... for disposal of any articles, waste, clothing, machinery, or other equipment involved in the...

  13. 78 FR 36305 - Proposed Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., crystalline and infectious arthritis) and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of... Osteonecrosis Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... solicits comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a...

  14. Quality of referral: What information should be included in a request for diagnostic imaging when a patient is referred to a clinical radiologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Pitman, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Referral to a clinical radiologist is the prime means of communication between the referrer and the radiologist. Current Australian and New Zealand government regulations do not prescribe what clinical information should be included in a referral. This work presents a qualitative compilation of clinical radiologist opinion, relevant professional recommendations, governmental regulatory positions and prior work on diagnostic error to synthesise recommendations on what clinical information should be included in a referral. Recommended requirements on what clinical information should be included in a referral to a clinical radiologist are as follows: an unambiguous referral; identity of the patient; identity of the referrer; and sufficient clinical detail to justify performance of the diagnostic imaging examination and to confirm appropriate choice of the examination and modality. Recommended guideline on the content of clinical detail clarifies when the information provided in a referral meets these requirements. High-quality information provided in a referral allows the clinical radiologist to ensure that exposure of patients to medical radiation is justified. It also minimises the incidence of perceptual and interpretational diagnostic error. Recommended requirements and guideline on the clinical detail to be provided in a referral to a clinical radiologist have been formulated for professional debate and adoption. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related... that was indicated is the estimated annualized cost to the respondents for the hour burden for... additional 30-days for public comments and to correct the cost from $236,253.00 to zero. DATES: Comments are...

  16. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  17. 36 CFR 51.5 - What information will the prospectus include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., include, but are not limited to the following: (1) The minimum acceptable franchise fee or other forms of... out by department for the three most recent years; franchise fees charged under the current concession...

  18. How much information about the benefits of medicines is included in patient leaflets in the European Union? - A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Raynor, David K; Knapp, Peter; MacDonald, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Patient information leaflets (PILs) are required with all licensed medicines throughout the European Union (EU) and they must include information about all side effects and their likelihood. This has led to criticism of a lack of balance, with little information included about potential benefits. Recent European Medicines Agency guidance proposed the inclusion of benefit information, and this study examined the current prevalence and type of such information in PILs in the EU. A survey and content analysis of the English translation of PILs in the EUwas carried out. Random quota sampling was used on the most frequently dispensed (n = 50) and newly licensed medicines (n = 50) in 2011/2. Leaflets were searched for benefit information meeting predefined criteria, and data synthesised and categorised into 10 categories. Eighty-five (85%) leaflets described how the medicine works, with 45 providing information about the rationale for treatment (more commonly for newly licensed (32/50) than most commonly dispensed medicines (13/50; P information. Current PILs do not appropriately communicate information about benefit. At the basic level, around a half did not include information about treatment rationale or whether the treatment was to treat symptoms, curative or preventative. However, for true informed decision making, patients need quantitative information about benefits and none of the leaflets provided this. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  20. 40 CFR 725.155 - Information to be included in the MCAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation, which includes a diagram of the major unit operations and conversions, the identity and entry... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Microbial Commercial... processes, involvement in rate limiting steps in mineral or nutrient cycling, or involvement in inorganic...

  1. 40 CFR 720.45 - Information that must be included in the notice form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured, processed, or used. (2) A process description of each manufacture, processing, and use operation which includes a diagram of the major unit operations and chemical conversions, the identity and entry... composition that can be represented by a specific, complete chemical structure diagram (a Class 1 substance...

  2. Including Accident Information in Automatic Bicycle Route Planning for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Singleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 there were 9071 traffic accidents involving bicycles within London and this paper demonstrates the utility of Geographic Information Systems as a tool for analysing and visualising these occurrences. Through linkage of these spatial locations to a street network dataset it was possible to create a variety of intelligence about the types of street infrastructure where accidents predominantly occur. Additionally, a network routing algorithm was adapted to account for the frequency of accidents within a series of proposed journeys. This pilot routing application compared the quickest route with an accident avoidance weighted route between a series of origins and destinations. The results demonstrated that the routes avoiding areas of high accident volume did not increase journey length significantly; however they did provide a “safer” route based on empirical evidence over the volume of accident locations.

  3. Sufficiency Grounded as Sufficiently Free: A Reply to Shlomi Segall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    be grounded on (i) any personal value, nor (ii) any impersonal value. Consequently, sufficientarianism is groundless. This article contains a rejoinder to this critique. Its main claim is that the value of autonomy holds strong potential for grounding sufficiency. It argues, firstly, that autonomy carries...... both personal value for its recipient as well as impersonal value, and that both of these values are suitable for grounding sufficiency. It thus follows that we should reject both (i) and (ii). Secondly, although autonomy is presumably the strongest candidate for grounding sufficiency, the article...... provides some counterargument to Segall’s rejection of the other candidates—the impersonal value of virtue; the personal value for the allocator; and the personal value for others. If the arguments are sound, they show that we need not worry about sufficientarianism being groundless....

  4. Utilities and Power - Sector Report. Malaysia: including electricity, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications and information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market. The Seventh Malaysia Plan, covering the five year period, 1996-2000, contains an ambitious menu of infrastructure projects. Total expenditure under the Plan is envisaged at RM450 billion, of which around RM380 billion will be sourced from the private sector. This is an indication of the wealth accumulated within the Malaysian economy. The infrastructure developments identified are designed to take the country towards Vision 2020. These infrastructure developments will continue to make the country highly attractive to foreign investors, who were the catalyst for Malaysia`s explosive growth over the last few years. Malaysian Corporations have also grown rapidly and are becoming international investors and traders in their own right, including in the United Kingdom. As they expand, seeking new markets, they are looking also for partners with whom they can share technology and jointly develop projects. Such companies are often ideal partners for UK companies wishing to enter the Malaysian and Asian market. Malaysia offers opportunities to companies prepared to make the small effort to know and understand the country and its people. This report will assist companies to develop a useful understanding of the market. (author)

  5. Does including informal care in economic evaluations matter? A systematic review of inclusion and impact of informal care in cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; van Exel, Job

    2015-02-01

    Informal care makes an important contribution to societal welfare. However, it may involve substantial time costs and can have a considerable negative effect on the health and well-being of informal caregivers. These costs and effects of informal caregiving are often excluded in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions. The impact of this exclusion on the outcomes of these evaluations is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations and the potential impact of the costs and effects of informal caregiving on cost-effectiveness outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of interventions in four distinct disease areas where informal care is potentially important: Alzheimer's disease, metastatic colorectal cancer, Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It was recorded how often economic evaluations included informal caregiving. Next, for the studies including informal care, the impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was determined by removing informal care costs and effects of the cost-effectiveness calculations and recalculating the outcomes. The new cost-effectiveness outcomes were then compared with the original reported outcomes. The study identified 100 economic evaluations investigating interventions targeted at Alzheimer's disease (n = 25), metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 24), Parkinson's disease (n = 8) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 43). Twenty-three of these evaluations (23 %) included costs and/or effects of informal caregiving: 64 % of the Alzheimer's disease studies, 0 % of the metastatic colorectal cancer studies, 13 % of Parkinson's disease studies and 14 % of rheumatoid arthritis studies. When informal care was included, this mostly concerned time costs. Studies rarely included both costs and effects. The effect of including or excluding informal care costs or effects on cost-effectiveness outcomes in most studies was modest, but in some studies the

  6. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.80 Section 286.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 41 CFR 102-5.85 - What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified rather than named individuals? 102-5.85 Section 102-5.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  8. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  9. Sufficient Dimensionality Reduction with Irrelevant Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Globerson, Amir; Chechik, Gal; Tishby, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    The problem of finding a reduced dimensionality representation of categorical variables while preserving their most relevant characteristics is fundamental for the analysis of complex data. Specifically, given a co-occurrence matrix of two variables, one often seeks a compact representation of one variable which preserves information about the other variable. We have recently introduced ``Sufficient Dimensionality Reduction' [GT-2003], a method that extracts continuous reduced dimensional fea...

  10. 20 CFR 411.420 - What information should be included in an agreement between an EN and a State VR agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agreement between an EN and a State VR agency? 411.420 Section 411.420 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Agreements Between Employment Networks and State Vr Agencies § 411.420 What information should be...

  11. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  12. 26 CFR 301.6103(h)(2)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administration. 301.6103(h)(2)-1 Section 301.6103(h)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(h)(2)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information (including..., shall, to the extent provided by section 6103(h)(2) (A), (B), and (C) and subject to the requirements of...

  13. Information and communication technologies for promoting and sustaining quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies--outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Kolb, Gerald; Künemund, Harald; Eichelberg, Marco; Appell, Jens-E; Appelrath, H-Jürgen; Bartsch, Christian; Bauer, Jürgen M; Becker, Marcus; Bente, Petra; Bitzer, Jörg; Boll, Susanne; Büsching, Felix; Dasenbrock, Lena; Deparade, Riana; Depner, Dominic; Elbers, Katharina; Fachinger, Uwe; Felber, Juliane; Feldwieser, Florian; Forberg, Anne; Gietzelt, Matthias; Goetze, Stefan; Gövercin, Mehmet; Helmer, Axel; Herzke, Tobias; Hesselmann, Tobias; Heuten, Wilko; Huber, Rainer; Hülsken-Giesler, Manfred; Jacobs, Gerold; Kalbe, Elke; Kerling, Arno; Klingeberg, Timo; Költzsch, Yvonne; Lammel-Polchau, Christopher; Ludwig, Wolfram; Marschollek, Michael; Martens, Birger; Meis, Markus; Meyer, Eike Michael; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Hubertus; Moritz, Niko; Müller, Heiko; Nebel, Wolfgang; Neyer, Franz J; Okken, Petra-Karin; Rahe, Julia; Remmers, Hartmut; Rölker-Denker, Lars; Schilling, Meinhard; Schöpke, Birte; Schröder, Jens; Schulze, Gisela C; Schulze, Mareike; Siltmann, Sina; Song, Bianying; Spehr, Jens; Steen, Enno-Edzard; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tanschus, Nele-Marie; Tegtbur, Uwe; Thiel, Andreas; Thoben, Wilfried; van Hengel, Peter; Wabnik, Stefan; Wegel, Sandra; Wilken, Olaf; Winkelbach, Simon; Wist, Thorben; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Wolf, Lars; Zokoll-van der Laan, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Many societies across the world are confronted with demographic changes, usually related to increased life expectancy and, often, relatively low birth rates. Information and communication technologies (ICT) may contribute to adequately support senior citizens in aging societies with respect to quality of life and quality and efficiency of health care processes. For investigating and for providing answers on whether new information and communication technologies can contribute to keeping, or even improving quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies through new ways of living and new forms of care, the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL) had been established as a five years research project, running from 2008 to 2013. Ambient-assisted living (AAL) technologies in personal and home environments were especially important. In this article we report on the GAL project, and present some of its major outcomes after five years of research. We report on major challenges and lessons learned in running and organizing such a large, inter- and multidisciplinary project and discuss GAL in the context of related research projects. With respect to research outcomes, we have, for example, learned new knowledge about multimodal and speech-based human-machine-interaction mechanisms for persons with functional restrictions, and identified new methods and developed new algorithms for identifying activities of daily life and detecting acute events, particularly falls. A total of 79 apartments of senior citizens had been equipped with specific "GAL technology", providing new insights into the use of sensor data for smart homes. Major challenges we had to face were to deal constructively with GAL's highly inter- and multidisciplinary aspects, with respect to research into GAL's application scenarios, shifting from theory and lab experimentation to field tests, and the complexity of organizing and, in our view, successfully managing

  14. Missing the target: including perspectives of women with overweight and obesity to inform stigma-reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Gorin, A A; Suh, Y J

    2017-03-01

    Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma-reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight-based stigma. Women with overweight or obesity ( N  = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma-reduction strategies in diverse settings. Participants (91.5% who reported experiencing weight stigma) also completed self-report measures assessing experienced and internalized weight stigma. Most participants assigned high importance to all stigma-reduction strategies, with school-based and healthcare approaches accruing the highest ratings. Adding weight stigma to existing anti-harassment workplace training was rated as the most impactful and feasible strategy. The family environment was viewed as an important intervention target, regardless of participants' experienced or internalized stigma. These findings underscore the importance of including people with stigmatized identities in stigma-reduction research; their insights provide a necessary and valuable contribution that can inform ways to reduce weight-based inequities and prioritize such efforts.

  15. Energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The study is not an engineering analysis but begins the process of exploring the potential for conservation and local renewable-resource development in a specific community, Northampton, Massachusetts, with the social, institutional, and environmental factors in that community taken into account. Section I is an extensive executive summary of the full study, and Section II is a detailed examination of the potential for increased local energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, including current and future demand estimates, the possible role of conservation and renewable resources, and a discussion of the economic and social implications of alternative energy systems. (MOW)

  16. Alcoholic subtypes: are two sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Scheidt, Douglas M

    2004-12-01

    Guided by the literature on alcohol subtypes, cluster analytical solutions ranging from two to five were evaluated for a large (n = 802), ethnically diverse sample of alcoholic in-patients. Personal interview data were collected from in-patients regarding their substance abuse and psychiatric disorder status, risk factors for psychopathology and health outcomes. The data were collected at five alcohol in-patient treatment settings in New York; three settings were in New York City, one in Rochester and one in Buffalo. The sample included 802 participants (481 males and 321 females) with racial/ethnic group diversity (418 blacks, 180 whites, 187 Hispanics, 17 of other ethnic origin). Subjects were assessed with standardized measures of substance abuse and psychiatric disorders, family history of alcoholism, psychopathy, temperament, alcohol expectancies and clinical health variables. Based on internal and external criteria and compatibility with the existing literature, four subtypes were identified: mild course, polydrug, negative affect and chronic/antisocial. On external criteria, the polydrug subtype had the highest rate of family criminality, high-risk sexual behavior and intravenous drug use; the negative affect subtype had the highest rate of childhood sexual abuse, attempted suicide and childhood homelessness; the chronic/antisocial personality (ASP) subtype had the most severe pattern of drinking and antisocial behavior. Findings are discussed with regard to the etiological and clinical utility of the four-subtype formulation, and consistency with recent studies in molecular genetics and pharmacology.

  17. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective, for NR Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Poeth

    2005-01-01

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that 10 B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights

  18. Improving the power to detect differentially expressed genes in comparative microarray experiments by including information from self-self hybridizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusnanto, Arief; Tom, Brian; Burns, Philippa; Macaulay, Iain; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C.; Tijssen, Marloes R.; Langford, Cordelia; Watkins, Nicholas; Ouwehand, Willem; Berzuini, Carlo; Dudbridge, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Our ability to detect differentially expressed genes in a microarray experiment can be hampered when the number of biological samples of interest is limited. In this situation, we propose the use of information from self-self hybridizations to acuminate our inference of differential expression. A

  19. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  20. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  1. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  2. Web Search Engines and Indexing and Ranking the Content Object Including Metadata Elements Available at the Dynamic Information Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh sadat Tabatabai Amiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to make exam the indexing and ranking of XML content objects containing Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements in dynamic online information environments by general search engines and comparing them together in a comparative-analytical approach. 100 XML content objects in two groups were analyzed: those with DCXML elements and those with MARCXML elements were published in website http://www.marcdcmi.ir. from late Mordad 1388 till Khordad 1389. Then the website was introduced to Google and Yahoo search engines. Google search engine was able to retrieve fully all the content objects during the study period through their Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements; Yahoo search engine, however, did not respond at all. The indexing of metadata elements embedded in content objects in dynamic online information environments and different between indexing and ranking of them were examined. Findings showed all Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements by Google search engine were indexed. And there was not observed difference between indexing and ranking DCXML and MARCXML metadata elements in dynamic online information environments by Google search engine.

  3. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  4. 45 CFR 286.135 - What information on penalties against individuals must be included in a Tribal Family Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be the Tribe's policies related to victims of domestic violence consistent with § 286.140? (b) The... proposal include, but are not limited to; poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer. The analysis should include a narrative discussion of the features of the building structure... and location of fuel items, space layout, building construction, openings and ventilation, suppression capability, detection time, occupant notification, occupant reaction time, occupant mobility, and means of...

  6. 30 CFR 254.26 - What information must I include in the “Worst case discharge scenario” appendix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case discharge scenarioâ appendix? 254.26 Section 254.26 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and environmental importance, if any, specified in the appropriate Area Contingency Plan(s). (d) A...) and owner, quantity, and capabilities of the equipment. You also must include the effective daily...

  7. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,649; TA-W-74,649a] DST Systems... Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc., Boston... November 5, 2010, applicable to workers of DST Systems, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Comsys...

  8. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  9. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  10. Are mini DNA-barcodes sufficiently informative to resolve species ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences ... 1School of Ecology and Conservation and Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences,. GKVK ..... Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5, 181–184. Ficetola G. F., Coissac E., Zundel S., Riaz T., Shehzad W., Bessiere. J. et al. 2010 An in silico approach for the evaluation of DNA.

  11. Are mini DNA-barcodes sufficiently informative to resolve species ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since then, the COI has been effec- tively used as 'universal DNA barcode' in several animal groups such as birds, butterflies, amphibians and fishes. ∗. For correspondence. E-mail: gravikanth@atree.org. (Hebert et al. 2003; Gu et al. 2011). However, in plants, the. COI was found to be ineffective in discriminating the taxa,.

  12. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 45 CFR 284.30 - What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in the State on the increase in child poverty? 284.30 Section... TANF PROGRAM § 284.30 What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the... PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES METHODOLOGY...

  14. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramochi, Yui, E-mail: kuramochi.yui.22c@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, 6158540 Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  15. Error Bounds: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Kruger, A.Y.; Fabian, Marián; Henrion, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 121-149 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Error bounds * Calmness * Subdifferential * Slope Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-error bounds necessary and sufficient conditions.pdf

  16. Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; Chaviano, Casey L; Scott, Jenna C; McNeil Smith, Shardé

    2015-11-01

    Homeless families in transitional housing face a number of distinct challenges, yet there is little research seeking to guide prevention and intervention work with homeless parents. Informed by the tenets of community-based participatory research, the purpose of this study was to identify relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for this population. Data were gathered from 40 homeless parents through semistructured individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The resulting 15 categories suggest several topics, approach considerations, and activities that can inform parenting intervention work with homeless families in transitional housing. Study findings are discussed within the context of intervention fidelity versus adaptation, and implications for practice, research, and policy are suggested. This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Graduate Degree in Library or Information Science Is Required, but not Sufficient, to Enter the Profession. A Review of: Reeves, R., & Hahn, T. (2010. Job advertisements for recent graduates: Advising, curriculum, and job-seeking implications. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 51(2, 103-119.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazi Torabi

    2011-03-01

    were covering a wide range of responsibilities, the greatest numbers of entry-level library positions are found to be public service (52.2% and technical services (23.9% positions. The two largest represented position types in archives are technical services (50.7 % and generalist (40.5%.While average salaries increased slightly over the four years of study, there is a more significant increase in the salaries of positions posted in 2009. The highest average salaries were found to be $43K for archivists working for government and $60K for library positions in the "other" category. In addition, the number of entry-level positions has increased from year to year over this period.Social competencies such as communication, collaboration and team work, and service orientation were the most emphasized traits for novice librarians and archivists. General information technology skills and knowledge of technical services were the most common skills required for both library and archive positions. Overall, the entry-level job postings did not require non-professional experience. However, 13.6% of the library and 18.7% of the archival positions required supervisory experience. Experience with preservation of physical objects and the knowledge of programming and mark-up languages were also common requirements for archives positions. Instructional and reference experience ranks the second and third essential skills for librarians.Conclusion – Based on the research results, a graduate degree in library or information science is required, but not sufficient, to enter the profession. Practical experience, either through internships, co-op programs, or part-time or full-time employment, is essential for new graduates seeking employment, but the majority of postings do not require a subject expertise, second Master’s degree, or knowledge of a foreign language. Since the job content analysis in this study only evaluated broad components of library services and archival operation, it

  18. Media Reporting on Suicide: Evaluating the Effects of Including Preventative Resources and Psychoeducational Information on Suicide Risk, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Help-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Witte, Tracy K

    2017-05-15

    We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions. Although researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of media guidelines in the aggregate at reducing imitative suicidal behavior, it remains unclear which guidelines in particular are responsible for this effect. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  19. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  20. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  1. Included or Excluded: An Analysis of the Application of the Free, Prior and Informed Consent Principle in Land Grabbing Cases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude N Ashukem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the principle of free, prior and informed consent (FPIC is soft law, the need to respect, protect and fulfil the rights to be informed and to be involved in development projects is strongly backed in international legal instruments including inter alia the ILO Convention 169 Concerning Indigenous and Tribal People in Independent Countries (1998 and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous and Tribal People (2007. These instruments do not only appear to be the most comprehensive and advanced international legal instruments that deal with indigenous peoples' rights in terms of the FPIC, but also signal an addition to the growing body of international human rights law that serves to ensure the realisation and protection of the substantive environmental and other human rights of indigenous people, particularly in the context of land grabbing activities that have the potential to negatively impact on their rights. Such rights include, for example, the rights to be informed and to participate in decision-making processes with respect to development projects, including land grabbing activities. This implies an obligation on states party to such international agreements to ensure that indigenous people are informed about and are actively involved in both the negotiation and the implementation of land grabbing deals. However, because the latter often takes place against the background of non-transparent transactions which are inimical to the rights and interests of indigenous people, one may wonder why the principle of FPIC is not applicable during land grabbing transactions. Focusing on Cameroon, this article examines instances of land grabbing in the country in order to support this hypothesis. This is done by focusing specifically on the application of the principle of FPIC. The arguments in the article are inspired by international law in which the application of the principle in the context of land grabbing serves not only to

  2. Innovation in Feed Technology for Self Sufficiency in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is self sufficient in poultry production to meet the local demand for broiler and egg, mainly derived from modern poultry rather than the local village chicken. Feed may contribute up to 70% of total cost of poultry production. Poultry feed is formulated using least cost feed formulation technique to meet the bird requirement and composed by several ingredients both locally available and imported materials. Feed ingredients are classified based on energy sources, protein sources, agro-industrial by products, mineral sources and supplements. In many cases the poultry feed was supplemented with additives (antibiotics, enzymes, preservatives, etc. to improve animal performance. In 2005, Indonesian feed production reached almost 7 million tonnes and comprised around 85% as poultry feed, while the rest for aquaculture, swine and others. Poultry feed is based on corn-soy diet and average corn usage may reach more than 55% while soybean meal more than 23%. Ingredients requirement has been calculated based on the feed production and in order to fulfill the requirement. In 2006, Indonesia will import more than 1.6 million tonnes of corn from Argentina, USA and China, and more than 1.5 million tonnes of protein meal due to insufficiency of the local production. Major problems related in feed production are raw materials supply, quality and price fluctuation along with limited information. Several research have been conducted to use unconventional ingredients as protein sources such as local beans, leguminous seeds, leaf protein, animal by products but they were limited in availability. Research to improve protein level from carbohydrate source or by products had been attempted but it was not feasible for commercial feed industry. In future, technology innovation should be developed based on the existing problems related with feed industry including the areas to improve production efficiency, managing feed quality, processing technology and feed

  3. Adolescents' perceptions of flavored tobacco products, including E-cigarettes: A qualitative study to inform FDA tobacco education efforts through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K

    2018-07-01

    Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Hughes, Phil J; Steel, David G

    2014-09-04

    In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame

  5. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Lujan Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the

  6. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lujan, Francisco; Piñol-Moreso, Josep L I; Martin-Vergara, Nuria; Basora-Gallisa, Josep; Pascual-Palacios, Irene; Sagarra-Alamo, Ramon; Llopis, Estefania Aparicio; Basora-Gallisa, Maria T; Pedret-Llaberia, Roser

    2011-11-11

    There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain). 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant), comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Smoking cessation at 12 months. Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the intervention group than in the control group. Application of a motivational intervention based on structured information about spirometry results

  7. Sufficient dimension reduction and prediction in regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragni, Kofi P; Cook, R Dennis

    2009-11-13

    Dimension reduction for regression is a prominent issue today because technological advances now allow scientists to routinely formulate regressions in which the number of predictors is considerably larger than in the past. While several methods have been proposed to deal with such regressions, principal components (PCs) still seem to be the most widely used across the applied sciences. We give a broad overview of ideas underlying a particular class of methods for dimension reduction that includes PCs, along with an introduction to the corresponding methodology. New methods are proposed for prediction in regressions with many predictors.

  8. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  9. The Relationship between Organizational Support Perceptions and Self-Sufficiencies of Logistics Sector Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer Gumus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to examine the relationship between organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of logistics sector employees and to determine whether organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of employees differ according to some specification. The questionnaire form consisting of perceived organizational support scale in accordance with the purpose, general self-sufficiency scale and personal information form, was applied to 124 employees of 3 separate logistics firms operating in Istanbul. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS17.0 statistical software package on computer. In the assessment of data, descriptive characteristics of employees were determined by frequency and percentage statistics and the self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels by the mean and standard deviation statistics. The t test, Tukey test and one-way Anova tests were utilized in determining employees' self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels differentiation according to descriptive characteristics, and correlation analysis was utilized in determining the relationship between self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels of employees. In conclusion, it was determined that there was statistical relationship between organizational support and self-sufficiency levels perceived by logistics sector employees. Accordingly, when employees' perceived organizational support levels increase then self-sufficiency levels also increase, and when perceived organizational support levels decrease then self-sufficiency levels also decrease.

  10. Health information impact on the relative importance of beef attributes including its enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Realini, Carolina E; Gil, José Maria

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses Choice Experiments (CE) to investigate Spanish consumers' preferences towards beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). Data were gathered from self-completed questionnaires in a controlled environment with two different samples (320 and 322 consumers) differentiated by the information received. The surveys were carried out in three main Spanish cities (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Pamplona), representing the average consumer. A variation of the "Dual Response Choice Experiments" (DRCE) design was used due to its ability to emphasize the purchase context. Results showed that consumers who received information attach higher preference for enriched meat with polyunsaturated fatty acids. The utility associated with the higher content of fat increase for informed consumers, showing a substitute effect. Informed consumers are willing to accept meat with a higher amount of visible fat if it is enriched with beneficial fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.

    2017-04-17

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  12. 30 CFR 250.1727 - What information must I include in my final application to remove a platform or other facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Month/Year); and (5) Water depth. (c) Description of the structure you are removing including: (1... description of soil composition and condition; (7) The sizes and weights of the jacket, topsides (by module... the structure. (d) A description, including anchor pattern, of the vessel(s) you will use to remove...

  13. Sustainability and energy self-sufficiency; overcoming the barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Abdel Galil

    2015-12-01

    on the energy sustainability front (WEC, 2013. That is not to say that social barriers do not exist. They are manifested in the hindrance of knowledge transfer between social actors including misinformation, inadequate public consultation, and lack of inertia, access to relevant professional services, expertise and skills. Also, community concern over aesthetics, environmental issues and a perception of unequal distribution of benefits. However, in the MENA there is barely any awareness on the issue of energy security, equity and sustainability among individuals and the society, with lack of education and information on production and consumption, and no incentives for change. The rate of adoption, although not homogenous across the region, has been slow to date. Policy makers will not be persuaded to change, as a bottom-up approach is unlikely and the market will not develop accordingly, for lack of demand. Also, top-bottom approaches will be ineffective as the adoption of new systems are often met with resistance and the uptake will require change of entrenched practices and incentives for adoption.Challenges to the wider adoption of renewable energy lie in two areas; provision and choice. The later can be overcome by awareness campaigns, incentive-based initiatives, and involving and empowering individuals and local communities in the development of renewable energy solutions. There is an urgent need to support initiatives in the MENA region to collaborate on environmental and energy related issues, build capacities to enable civil society engagement in the context of developing and implementing national energy plans and increase awareness on the needed shift towards a sustainable energy future. Meaningful global price for carbon is but one example to provide incentives for everyone to play their role in meeting the world’s increasing energy needs whilst combating climate change and maintaining good air and water quality.  To conclude, a quote by the United

  14. Health information impact on the relative importance of beef attributes including its enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Kallas, Zein; Realini Cujó, Carolina; Gil Roig, José María

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Choice Experiments (CE) to investigate Spanish consumers' preferences towards beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). Data were gathered from self-completed questionnaires in a controlled environment with two different samples (320 and 322 consumers) differentiated by the information received. The surveys were carried out in three main Spanish cities (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Pamplona), representing the average consumer. A var...

  15. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  17. Nature exposure sufficiency and insufficiency: The benefits of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R; Durante, Salvatore B

    2018-01-01

    Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI). Insufficiency includes impoverished environments (e.g., slums and prisons) where nature exposure is very limited. Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) is an optimal amount of exposure to nature where many benefits such as reinvigoration can be obtained by everyone. NES also has several benefits for individuals with various health conditions such as arthritis, dementia, or depression. The benefits of NE are not just derivable from parks, forests, and other natural settings. Interiors of buildings and homes can be enhanced with plants and even pictures or objects from nature. Additionally, there is abundant evidence indicating that virtual and artificial environments depicting nature can provide substantial NE and therefore contribute to general wellbeing. Besides the difficulty in achieving cooperation amongst nations, corporations, and other collectives in developing and implementing long range plans to deal with climate change, there is also sometimes an aversion at the individual level whereby people are unwilling to experience nature due to insects and other discomforts. Such individuals are often averse to supplanting the comforts of home, even temporarily, with inadequate facilities that are seemingly less pleasant than their typical dwellings. We propose using the term Nature Exposure Aversion

  18. 17 CFR 240.13d-101 - Schedule 13D-Information to be included in statements filed pursuant to § 240.13d-1(a) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities. Item 2. Identity and Background. If the person filing this statement or any person enumerated in... disposition of securities of the issuer; (b) An extraordinary corporate transaction, such as a merger... corporate structure, including but not limited to, if the issuer is a registered closed-end investment...

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Includes May 1979 edition and Supplements 1-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracts/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. 17 CFR 240.15g-100 - Schedule 15G-Information to be included in the document distributed pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15g-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of investing in penny stocks. Please read it carefully before you agree to purchase or sell a penny... to accurately price. Investors in penny stock should be prepared for the possibility that they may... securities—including penny stocks—is available on the SEC's Web site at http://www.sec.gov/investor/pubs...

  1. CISN Display - Reliable Delivery of Real-time Earthquake Information, Including Rapid Notification and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Given, D.

    2002-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) Display is part of a Web-enabled earthquake notification system alerting users in near real-time of seismicity, and also valuable geophysical information following a large earthquake. It will replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering graphical earthquake information to users at emergency operations centers, and other organizations. Features distinguishing the CISN Display from other GUI tools are a state-full client/server relationship, a scalable message format supporting automated hyperlink creation, and a configurable platform-independent client with a GIS mapping tool; supporting the decision-making activities of critical users. The CISN Display is the front-end of a client/server architecture known as the QuakeWatch system. It is comprised of the CISN Display (and other potential clients), message queues, server, server "feeder" modules, and messaging middleware, schema and generators. It is written in Java, making it platform-independent, and offering the latest in Internet technologies. QuakeWatch's object-oriented design allows components to be easily upgraded through a well-defined set of application programming interfaces (APIs). Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to other earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-schema. The message model starts with the CUBE message format, but extends it by provisioning additional attributes for currently available products, and those yet to be considered. The supporting metadata in the XML-message provides the data necessary for the client to create a hyperlink and associate it with a unique event ID. Earthquake products deliverable to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, Ground Displacement, Focal Mechanisms, Rapid Notifications, OES Reports, and Earthquake Commentaries. Leveraging the power of the XML-format, the CISN Display provides prompt access to

  2. When is Information Sufficient for Action Search with Unreliable Yet Informative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    intelligence assets, political ramifications, etc. We describe the problem in §2 and formulate the mathe - matical model in §3. The cases of n= 2 and n...total cost in our model. Finally, note that our model has one decision maker, the searcher. One could view the problem as having three strategic players ...develop a two- player Markov game between the searcher and target similar to the Inspection Game (see Chapter 4 of Washburn 2014). However, the

  3. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the

  4. Sufficiency does energy consumption become a moral issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Adrian (Socio-economic Inst. and Univ. Research Priority Programme in Ethics, Univ. of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing the externalities from energy use is crucial for sustainability. There are basically four ways to reduce externalities from energy use: increasing technical efficiency ('energy input per unit energy service'), increasing economic efficiency ('internalising external costs'), using 'clean' energy sources with few externalities, or sufficiency ('identifying 'optimal' energy service levels'). A combination of those strategies is most promising for sustainable energy systems. However, the debate on sustainable energy is dominated by efficiency and clean energy strategies, while sufficiency plays a minor role. Efficiency and clean energy face several problems, though. Thus, the current debate should be complemented with a critical discussion of sufficiency. In this paper, I develop a concept of sufficiency, which is adequate for liberal societies. I focus on ethical foundations for sufficiency, as the discussion of such is missing or cursory only in the existing literature. I first show that many examples of sufficiency can be understood as (economic) efficiency, but that the two concepts do not coincide. I then show that sufficiency based on moralization of actions can be understood as implementation of the boundary conditions for social justice that come with notions of liberal societies, in particular the duty not to harm other people. By this, to increase sufficiency becomes a duty beyond individual taste. I further illustrate this in the context of the adverse effects of climate change as externalities from energy use.

  5. Improving the Perception of Self-Sufficiency towards Creative Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Korkmaz, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Creative Drama Based Perception of Self-sufficiency Skills Training Program on 2nd grade bachelor degree students' (who are attending a preschool teacher training program) perception of self-sufficiency. This is a quasi-experimental study. Totally 50 students were equally divided into…

  6. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent jurisdiction...

  7. Moira Chimombo It is never sufficient simply to analyze without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION*. Moira Chimombo. It is never sufficient simply to analyze without synthesis, or for that matter to synthesize without analysis. Ironically, that is as true of language acquisition itself as it is of the research that describes it. Yet researchers cannot synthesize until they have analysed sufficient ...

  8. Memorizing innate instructions requires a sufficiently specific adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, José A M; De Boer, Rob J

    2002-05-01

    During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype, e.g. secrete a particular profile of cytokines. Once stimulated, lymphocytes store the appropriate type of response by differentiating from a naive to a memory phenotype. This allows the appropriate type of immune reaction to be regenerated upon re-stimulation of those memory clones. We developed a computer simulation model in which cross-reacting effector/memory clones contribute to the immunological context of pathogens. If a pathogen is recognized by both naive clones and pre-existing effector/memory clones, the naive lymphocytes adopt the effector mechanism of the memory clone. The adaptive immune system thereby stores immunological decisions and somatically learns to induce the right type of immune response to pathogens sharing epitopes. The influence of effector/memory lymphocytes may be detrimental when they cross-react to new pathogens that require a different kind of immune response. Here, we show that the immune system needs to be sufficiently specific to avoid such mistakes and to profit from the information that is stored in effector/memory lymphocytes. Repertoire diversity is required to reconcile this specificity with reactivity against many pathogens.

  9. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Powerful Statistical Inference for Nested Data Using Sufficient Summary Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Irene; Haufe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically-organized data arise naturally in many psychology and neuroscience studies. As the standard assumption of independent and identically distributed samples does not hold for such data, two important problems are to accurately estimate group-level effect sizes, and to obtain powerful statistical tests against group-level null hypotheses. A common approach is to summarize subject-level data by a single quantity per subject, which is often the mean or the difference between class means, and treat these as samples in a group-level t -test. This "naive" approach is, however, suboptimal in terms of statistical power, as it ignores information about the intra-subject variance. To address this issue, we review several approaches to deal with nested data, with a focus on methods that are easy to implement. With what we call the sufficient-summary-statistic approach, we highlight a computationally efficient technique that can improve statistical power by taking into account within-subject variances, and we provide step-by-step instructions on how to apply this approach to a number of frequently-used measures of effect size. The properties of the reviewed approaches and the potential benefits over a group-level t -test are quantitatively assessed on simulated data and demonstrated on EEG data from a simulated-driving experiment.

  11. Powerful Statistical Inference for Nested Data Using Sufficient Summary Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Irene; Haufe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically-organized data arise naturally in many psychology and neuroscience studies. As the standard assumption of independent and identically distributed samples does not hold for such data, two important problems are to accurately estimate group-level effect sizes, and to obtain powerful statistical tests against group-level null hypotheses. A common approach is to summarize subject-level data by a single quantity per subject, which is often the mean or the difference between class means, and treat these as samples in a group-level t-test. This “naive” approach is, however, suboptimal in terms of statistical power, as it ignores information about the intra-subject variance. To address this issue, we review several approaches to deal with nested data, with a focus on methods that are easy to implement. With what we call the sufficient-summary-statistic approach, we highlight a computationally efficient technique that can improve statistical power by taking into account within-subject variances, and we provide step-by-step instructions on how to apply this approach to a number of frequently-used measures of effect size. The properties of the reviewed approaches and the potential benefits over a group-level t-test are quantitatively assessed on simulated data and demonstrated on EEG data from a simulated-driving experiment. PMID:29615885

  12. Including information about co-morbidity in estimates of disease burden: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J; Vilagut, G; Chatterji, S; Heeringa, S; Schoenbaum, M; Bedirhan Üstün, T; Rojas-Farreras, S; Angermeyer, M; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, A N; Kovess, V; Levinson, D; Liu, Z; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Uda, H; Kessler, R C

    2011-04-01

    The methodology commonly used to estimate disease burden, featuring ratings of severity of individual conditions, has been criticized for ignoring co-morbidity. A methodology that addresses this problem is proposed and illustrated here with data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Although the analysis is based on self-reports about one's own conditions in a community survey, the logic applies equally well to analysis of hypothetical vignettes describing co-morbid condition profiles. Face-to-face interviews in 13 countries (six developing, nine developed; n=31 067; response rate=69.6%) assessed 10 classes of chronic physical and nine of mental conditions. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess overall perceived health. Multiple regression analysis with interactions for co-morbidity was used to estimate associations of conditions with VAS. Simulation was used to estimate condition-specific effects. The best-fitting model included condition main effects and interactions of types by numbers of conditions. Neurological conditions, insomnia and major depression were rated most severe. Adjustment for co-morbidity reduced condition-specific estimates with substantial between-condition variation (0.24-0.70 ratios of condition-specific estimates with and without adjustment for co-morbidity). The societal-level burden rankings were quite different from the individual-level rankings, with the highest societal-level rankings associated with conditions having high prevalence rather than high individual-level severity. Plausible estimates of disorder-specific effects on VAS can be obtained using methods that adjust for co-morbidity. These adjustments substantially influence condition-specific ratings.

  13. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  14. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Corinne; Rösch, Andreas; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  15. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.moser@zhaw.ch [Institute of Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Rösch, Andreas [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Stauffacher, Michael [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Transdisciplinarity Laboratory, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-16

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  16. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne eMoser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are facing a challenging transition towards more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviours (i.e. sufficiency. While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behaviour.This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviours in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N=150 to examine preferences for behaviours with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviours, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behaviour. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet. Thus, it seems

  17. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    and interviews were analyzed thematically, resulting in three central themes: informality, information based authority, and information brokering. The general informal character of interactions at work included a network based information dissemination. In these networks, persons were percieved as informal...

  18. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional...... pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. The introduction of alternative water resources raises several challenges: energy requirements vary by more than a factor of ten...... amongst the alternative techniques, wastewater reclamation can lead to the appearance of trace contaminants in drinking water, and changes to the drinking water system can meet tough resistance from the public. Public water-supply managers aim to achieve a high level of reliability and stability. We...

  19. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  20. The level of energy sufficiency - why all the controversy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2000-01-01

    It as become fashionable in certain circles to attempt to demolish the notion of energy sufficiency, a concept which is now seen as being archaic and unsuitable. To back up their claims, proponents of this standpoint take great pleasure in attacking the corresponding indicator - the rate of energy sufficiency calculated as a ratio of national primary energy production and the total consumption of primary energy (in the same unit and without climatic corrections). Confirming its precarious, conventional and debatable nature seems in their eyes to be the best means of ensuring that both the word, the concept and the measuring method of energy sufficiency are consigned to the dustbin of economic history. After having examined with perhaps a certain irony some of the usual criticisms, I intend to proceed with a re-examination of questions which in my eyes appear to be essential. (author)

  1. Nuclear criticality safety program development using necessary and sufficient standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croucher, D.W.; Stachowiak, R.V. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, R.E. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process has been used to develop a new criticality, safety program manual for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Standards define and communicate the expectations for performance of work. The purpose of the necessary and sufficient standards closure process is to apply standards determined to be necessary and sufficient for protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. This ensures that the applied standards add value to the performance of the activity; work effectiveness is increased. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe the process and the results for the selection of national criticality safety standards for use at the Rocky Flats facilities.

  2. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  3. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement

  4. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  5. Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.

  6. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Inclusion Relations for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We obtain a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for | N ¯ , p n | k to imply | N ¯ , q n | s for 1 < ≤ < ∞. Using this result we establish several inclusion theorems as well as conditions for the equivalence of | N ¯ , p n | k and | N ¯ , q n | s .

  7. Some sufficient conditions for Hamiltonian property in terms of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... v ) ) for various choices of the function (), where (, ) is the distance between vertices and in . In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for a connected graph to be Hamiltonian, a connected graph to be traceable, and a connected bipartite graph to be Hamiltonian in terms of the Wiener-type invariants ...

  8. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for Hypercyclicity Criterion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for an operator on a separable. Hilbert space to satisfy the hypercyclicity criterion. Keywords. Strong operator topology; Hilbert–Schmidt operators; Hypercyclicity. Criterion. 1. Introduction. Suppose thatX is a separable topological vector space andT is a continuous linear mapping.

  9. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  10. Leadership, the Logic of Sufficiency and the Sustainability of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottery, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The notion of sufficiency has not yet entered mainstream educational thinking, and it still has to make its mark upon educational leadership. However, a number of related concepts--particularly those of sustainability and complexity theory--are beginning to be noticed. This article examines these two concepts and uses them to critique the…

  11. Necessity and sufficiency conditions for the absolute null ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are inspired by the works of Chukwu [1], Eke [2], Schinterdorf and Barmish [4] to unveil necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute null controllability of a linear delay perturbed system with zero in the domain of null controllability. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 549- ...

  12. Towards a sufficiency-driven business model : Experiences and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; Short, SW

    2016-01-01

    Business model innovation is an important lever for change to tackle pressing sustainability issues. In this paper, ‘sufficiency’ is proposed as a driver of business model innovation for sustainability. Sufficiency-driven business models seek to moderate overall resource consumption by curbing

  13. Minimal sufficient statistical experiments on von Neumann algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2017-06-01

    A statistical experiment on a von Neumann algebra is a parametrized family of normal states on the algebra. This paper introduces the concept of minimal sufficiency for statistical experiments in such operator algebraic situations. We define equivalence relations of statistical experiments indexed by a common parameter set by completely positive or Schwarz coarse-graining and show that any statistical experiment is equivalent to a minimal sufficient statistical experiment unique up to normal isomorphism of outcome algebras. We also establish the relationship between the minimal sufficiency condition for a statistical experiment in this paper and those for subalgebra. These concepts and results are applied to the concatenation relation for completely positive channels with general input and outcome von Neumann algebras. In the case of the quantum-classical channel corresponding to the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), we prove the equivalence of the minimal sufficient condition previously proposed by the author and that in this paper. We also give a characterization of the discreteness of a POVM up to postprocessing equivalence in terms of the corresponding quantum-classical channel.

  14. Necessary and sufficient conditions for inclusion relations for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We obtain a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for | N ¯ , p n | k to imply | N ¯ , q n | s for 1 < ≤ < ∞. Using this result we establish several inclusion theorems as well as conditions for the equivalence of | N ¯ , p n | k and | N ¯ , q n | s .

  15. Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Stability of Generalized Expectation Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz El Kaabouchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of generalized definitions of expectation value is often employed in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics for complex systems. Here, the necessary and sufficient condition is presented for such a class to be stable under small deformations of a given arbitrary probability distribution.

  16. Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759

  17. Faculty Sufficiency and AACSB Accreditation Compliance within a Global University: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronico, Jess; Murdy, Jim; Kong, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a mathematical model to address faculty sufficiency requirements towards assuring overall high quality management education at a global university. Constraining elements include full-time faculty coverage by discipline, location, and program, across multiple campus locations subject to stated service quality standards of…

  18. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  19. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation.

  20. On the Necessary and Sufficient Assumptions for UC Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    -transfer protocol for the stand-alone model. Since a KRA where the secret keys can be computed from the public keys is useless, and some setup assumption is needed for UC secure computation, this establishes the best we could hope for the KRA model: any non-trivial KRA is sufficient for UC computation. •  We show......We study the necessary and sufficient assumptions for universally composable (UC) computation, both in terms of setup and computational assumptions. We look at the common reference string model, the uniform random string model and the key-registration authority model (KRA), and provide new results...... for all of them. Perhaps most interestingly we show that: •  For even the minimal meaningful KRA, where we only assume that the secret key is a value which is hard to compute from the public key, one can UC securely compute any poly-time functionality if there exists a passive secure oblivious...

  1. Some sufficient conditions for Hamiltonian property in terms of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Wiener-type invariants of a simple connected graph G = (V,E) can be expressed in terms of the quantities Wf = ∑{u,v}⊆V f (dG(u, v)) for various choices of the function f (x), where dG(u, v) is the distance between vertices u and v in G. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for a connected graph to be.

  2. Necessary and sufficient conditions for inclusion relations for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using this result we establish several inclusion theorems as well as conditions for the equivalence of |N,pn|k and |N,qn|s . Keywords. Absolute summability; weighted mean matrix; Cesáro matrix. In 1994, Sarıgöl [6] obtained necessary and sufficient conditions for |N,pn|k to imply. |N,qn|s for 1 < k ≤ s < ∞, using the definition ...

  3. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the weak value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, J; Jordan, A N

    2012-01-01

    We review and clarify the sufficient conditions for uniquely defining the generalized weak value as the weak limit of a conditioned average using the contextual values formalism introduced in Dressel, Agarwal and Jordan (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401). We also respond to criticism of our work by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v1) concerning a proposed counter-example to the uniqueness of the definition of the generalized weak value. The counter-example does not satisfy our prescription in the case of an underspecified measurement context. We show that when the contextual values formalism is properly applied to this example, a natural interpretation of the measurement emerges and the unique definition in the weak limit holds. We also prove a theorem regarding the uniqueness of the definition under our sufficient conditions for the general case. Finally, a second proposed counter-example by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v6) is shown not to satisfy the sufficiency conditions for the provided theorem. (paper)

  5. Deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Vold, E.L.; Gung, C.Y.; Youssef, M.Z.; Shin, K.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions necessary to achieve deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors are derived through extensive modeling and calculations of the required and achievable tritium breeding ratios as functions of the many reactor parameters and candidate design concepts. It is found that the excess margin in the breeding potential is not sufficient to cover all present uncertainties. Thus, the goal of attaining fuel self-sufficiency significantly restricts the allowable parameter space and design concepts. For example, the required breeding ratio can be reduced by (A) attaining high tritium fractional burnup, >5%, in the plasma, (B) achieving very high reliability, >99%, and very short times, <1 day, to fix failures in the tritium processing system, and (C) ensuring that nonradioactive decay losses from all subsystems are extremely low, e.g., <0.1% for the plasma exhaust processing system. The uncertainties due to nuclear data and calculational methods are found to be significant, but they are substantially smaller than those due to uncertainties in system definition

  6. ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY OF COMMUNITY-ACKUIRED PNEUMONIA: NECESSITY AND SUFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Savchenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analysis of pathogenetic and  symptomatic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in the prehospital and at the stage  of hospital treatment of disease in hospitals of city Khujand of the Republic of Tajikistan.Materials and  methods: A retrospective analysis of 393 case  histories of  patients treated for  community-acquired pneumonia in  the  hospital Khujand from  2011  to  2015  is conducted. The estimation of the scope  and efficiency of the additional medical support for the treatment of communityacquired pneumonia was conducted, take  into  account the drugs  that  given  to patients in an outpatient setting and  in a hospital. Analyzed purpose rationale, adequacy of dose, duration of treatment and  compliance of the  activities with existing international and  national guidelines for the treatment  of community-acquired pneumonia.Results:  the  study found that  in  clinical  practice, 57% of  patients with  community-acquired pneumonia received funds pathogenetic and  symptomatic therapy. It  is  found that  quite  often  prescribed drugs  with  unproven efficiency. Thus,  75%  of patients received expectorants and  mucolytic drugs,   42.2% of  patients  received anti-allergic medicals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicals received 37.9% of patients with  community-acquired pneumonia, almost  30% of patients receiving infusion therapy. Quite often  (15.7% patients with   community-acquired  pneumonia  prescribed antifungal drugs  and  antiprotozoal drug  – metronidazole (59%  of cases.  Furthermore, in complex treatment of community-acquired pneumonia include vitamin C (23.1% and vitamin B (65.9%.Conclusion: the  analysis of pharmacotherapy community-acquired pneumonia showed that  in the treatment of this disease occurs  unjustified polypharmacy. Quite often  prescribe drugs with unproven efficacy and, as a consequence of a significant frequency of clinical

  7. Rhetorically self-sufficient arguments in Western Australian parliamentary debates on Lesbian and Gay Law Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Mark

    2007-12-01

    Western Australia's Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Bill 2001 delivered a measure of legal equality in such areas as property transfer, superannuation, inheritance and discrimination, and more controversially, adoption, lesbian access to IVF, lowering the age of consent for sex between men from 21 to 16, and incorporating information on homosexuality into high school sex education classes. This paper examines the use of various moral principles within parliamentary speeches supporting or opposing the legislation, and the extent to which they were treated by members as beyond question, or 'rhetorically self-sufficient'. The resources of 'equality', 'human rights', 'democracy', 'the interests of the majority' and 'the interests of children' were given a kind of beyond-question, self-sufficient status, but their use was able to be undermined in a number of ways, relating to members' management of what the Bill was 'about', and the flexibility of these social constructs. It is argued that rather than pitting one set of resources against another, members on both sides of the debate faced a rhetorical pressure to adopt and mobilize all of the same self-sufficient moral resources, due to the flexible, constructed and non-hierarchical, yet often rhetorically self-sufficient nature of common-sense moral principles.

  8. Detecting necessary and sufficient parts for assembling a functional weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Solomon, Divya; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Adkins, Tracy; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2017-05-01

    Continuing our previous research to visually extract and visually and conceptually match weapons, this study develops a method to determine whether a set of weapon parts visually extracted from images taken from different scenes can be assembled as a firing weapon. This new approach identifies potential weapons in the ontology via tracing detected necessary and sufficient parts through their meronymic relation to the whole weapon. A fast algorithm for identifying potential weapons that can be assembled from a given set of detected parts is presented.

  9. Pathogens in Sludge: A Case of Sufficient Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesilind, R. Aarne

    2003-07-01

    There is increasing pressure in many countries to strengthen the regulations controlling the land disposal of wastewater sludges. In this paper I argue that although there is little doubt that sludges from wastewater treatment contain pathogenic organisms, not only are there no data to show that such disposal is a public health problem, but I want to suggest that small doses of pathogens in the environment provide a ''sufficient challenge'' that actually enhances public health. There therefore seems little reason, from a public health standpoint, to pass stricter sludge disposal regulations. (author)

  10. Evidence that nonconscious processes are sufficient to produce false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Sivan C; Gallo, David A; Seamon, John G

    2008-03-01

    Are nonconscious processes sufficient to cause false memories of a nonstudied event? To investigate this issue, we controlled and measured conscious processing in the DRM task, in which studying associates (e.g., bed, rest, awake...) causes false memories of nonstudied associates (e.g., sleep). During the study phase, subjects studied visually masked associates at extremely rapid rates, followed by immediate recall. After this initial phase, nonstudied test words were rapidly presented for perceptual identification, followed by recognition memory judgments. On the perceptual identification task, we found significant priming of nonstudied associates, relative to control words. We also found significant false recognition of these nonstudied associates, even when subjects did not recall this word at study or identify it at test, indicating that nonconscious processes can cause false recognition. These recognition effects were found immediately after studying each list of associates, but not on a delayed test that occurred after the presentation of several intervening lists. Nonconscious processes are sufficient to cause this memory illusion on immediate tests, but may be insufficient for more vivid and lasting false memories.

  11. EVALUATION OF FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mansurov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's method for estimation of the level of food self-sufficiency for the main types of food products in the regions of Republic of Tatarstan. The proposed method is based on the use of analytical methods and mathematical comparative analysis to compose a final rating. The proposed method can be used in the system of regional management of agro-industrial complex on the federal and local level. Relevance. The relevance of this work is caused by on the one hand a hardening of foreign policy that may negatively impact on national food security, and on the other hand the state crisis of the domestic agricultural sector. All this requires the development of new approaches to regional agribusiness management. Goal. To develop a methodology is used to assess the level of food self-sufficiency. To rate the level of self-sufficiency in main types of foodstuff in regions of Republic of Tatarstan. Materials and Methods. Statistical data of the results of the AIC of the Republic of Tatarstan for 2016 was used for the study. Analytical methods, including mathematical analysis and comparison were used. Results. Based on the analysis of the present situation for ensuring of food security in Russia it was shown that now it is necessary to develop effective indicators identifying the level of self-sufficiency in basic food regions. It was also revealed that there are no such indicators in system of regional agrarian and industrial complex at present time. As a result of analysis existing approaches the author's method of rating the level of self-sufficiency of regions was offered. This method was adopted on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan. Conclusions. The proposed method of rating estimation of self-sufficiency for basic foodstuffs can be used in the regional agroindustrial complex management system at the federal and local level. It can be used to rank areas in terms of their self-sufficiency for basic foodstuffs. This

  12. Implementing necessary and sufficient standards for radioactive waste management at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.M.; Ladran, A.; Hoyt, D.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy, Oakland Field Office (DOE/OAK), are participating in a pilot program to evaluate the process to develop necessary and sufficient sets of standards for contractor activities. This concept of contractor and DOE jointly and locally deciding on what constitutes the set of standards that are necessary and sufficient to perform work safely and in compliance with federal, state, and local regulations, grew out of DOE's Department Standards Committee (Criteria for the Department's Standards Program, August 1994, DOE/EH/-0416). We have chosen radioactive waste management activities as the pilot program at LLNL. This pilot includes low-level radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, and the radioactive component of low-level and TRU mixed wastes. Guidance for the development and implementation of the necessary and sufficient set of standards is provided in open-quotes The Department of Energy Closure Process for Necessary and Sufficient Sets of Standards,close quotes March 27, 1995 (draft)

  13. Differences in psychosocial responses to pain between sufficiently and insufficiently active adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Gyurcsik, Nancy C

    2017-07-01

    Adults with arthritis struggle to meet the physical activity recommendation for disease self-management. Identifying psychosocial factors that differentiate adults who meet (sufficiently active) or do not meet (insufficiently active) the recommendation is needed. This study sought to examine differences in psychosocial responses to arthritis pain among adults who were sufficiently or insufficiently active. This prospective study included adults with medically diagnosed arthritis (N = 136, M age  = 49.75 ± 13.88 years) who completed two online surveys: (1) baseline: pain and psychosocial responses to pain and (2) two weeks later: physical activity. Psychosocial responses examined in this study were psychological flexibility in response to pain, pain anxiety and maladaptive responses to pain anxiety. A between-groups MANCOVA comparing sufficiently active (n = 87) to insufficiently active (n = 49) participants on psychosocial responses, after controlling for pain intensity, was significant (p = .005). Follow-up ANOVA's revealed that sufficiently active participants reported significantly higher psychological flexibility and used maladaptive responses less often compared to insufficiently active participants (p's arthritis pain.

  14. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  15. Self-sufficiency of an autonomous reconfigurable modular robotic organism

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Raja Humza

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how the principle of self-sufficiency can be applied to a reconfigurable modular robotic organism. It shows the design considerations for a novel REPLICATOR robotic platform, both hardware and software, featuring the behavioral characteristics of social insect colonies. Following a comprehensive overview of some of the bio-inspired techniques already available, and of the state-of-the-art in re-configurable modular robotic systems, the book presents a novel power management system with fault-tolerant energy sharing, as well as its implementation in the REPLICATOR robotic modules. In addition, the book discusses, for the first time, the concept of “artificial energy homeostasis” in the context of a modular robotic organism, and shows its verification on a custom-designed simulation framework in different dynamic power distribution and fault tolerance scenarios. This book offers an ideal reference guide for both hardware engineers and software developers involved in the design and implem...

  16. Are nonconscious processes sufficient to produce false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Seamon, John G

    2004-03-01

    Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998) reported evidence that nonconscious processes could produce false recognition in a converging-associates task, whereby subjects falsely remember a nonstudied lure (e.g., sleep) after studying a list of related words (bed, rest, awake...). Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers (2003) failed to observe this false recognition effect when list word recognition was at chance. We critically evaluate the evidence for nonsconscious processing and report the results of a new experiment designed to overcome previous methodological limitations. Consistent with Seamon et al., we found that conscious activation of a related lure during study was not necessary for its subsequent recognition; consistent with Zeelenberg et al., we found no evidence for recognition of related lures under conditions where there was no memory for studied words. It is currently unknown whether conscious recollection of the studied items is necessary for false recognition or if nonconscious activation of the lure is sufficient.

  17. TAX BENEFITS FOR REGIONAL BUSINESS: NEED, SUFFICIENCY, EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Dovbiy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the tax benefits for the enterprises of Russia. Their analysis is carried out in the context of territorial affiliation of tax benefit. Tax benefits were granted as anti-crisis measures: promotion of entrepreneurship, reduction of informal employment, implementation of investment projects. Their granting was often characterized by haphazard nature. There were cases of abuse in the application of tax benefits. The entrepreneur must be ready to prove their right to benefits. Tax benefits have a triple effect: economic, fiscal-budgetary, social. The state tax policy allowed reducing the level of debt burden for 2016. Simultaneously, the increase in tax and non-tax revenues of the consolidated budgets was ensured. The authors analyze the regional and sectoral tax benefits. They are very diverse, especially for small businesses. This is due to socio-economic differentiation of regions. The magnitude of the regional tax burden is determined by the complex of factors: external and internal. The application of tax benefits is associated with big problems. First of all, this is a concealment of income. Secondly, there is a problem of “double” taxation. Difficulties are also associated with applying individual tax regimes: special economic zones, territories of advanced development. The problem of drawing “out of the shadow” of selfemployed citizens is very acute. There must be a special fee regime for them: there is no guarantee of employment for such citizens. The problems of regional taxation of entrepreneurial activity include, on the one hand, the availability and development of various benefits, and on the other hand, their nonsystem character, the impossibility of identifying and using various mechanisms in the aggregate, for example, the mechanisms for the development of entire industries and social directions in entrepreneurship. The authors emphasize that the conditions in which the modern economy of Russia is

  18. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: DOD Needs to Ensure New Acquisition Strategy Is Based on Sufficient Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    provides engines or rockets for use on EELVs. 13 ULA sent its initial survey in 2009, and then sent another version of the same survey to suppliers in...Exploration Technologies, Inc. (also known as SpaceX ), and Orbital Sciences Corporation. Page 19 GAO-11-641 Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle...new vehicle concepts. Several of the studies, and the 2010 NASA Authorization Act,20 discuss developing reusable launch vehicles, which could also

  19. 78 FR 59048 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Family Self-Sufficiency Program (FSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Participation with each eligible family that opts to participate in the program, compute an escrow credit for...-52652--Escrow Account Credit 750 50 37,500 .85 31,875 Worksheet HUD-1044--Grant Agreement*...... 250 1...

  20. Bio-fuels and energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Marin, Elkin; Suarez Mahecha, Hector; Pardo Carrasco, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The condition of finite and not renewable resource of fossil fuels, added to high atmospheric contamination in big populated centers, for the automotive park that participates in high proportion in the total consumption of primary energy have been unchaining factors for the promotion and study in the country of new energy or bio fuels, starting from organic resources (vegetables or animals). Colombia is a vulnerable country in hydrocarbons in front of exploration programs limitations due to absence of new important discoveries and to decrease of its reserves. Consequently, the country is ad portas of losing its oil self-sufficiency in the short term (2015 horizon) surround by an unfavorable conjuncture of high prices. Everything added to bad quality by the high content of sulphur, particularly in diesel, which overcomes widely the established international levels. To diversify energy sources, to avoid degraded climatic change and to draw social rejection to polluting energy, become important challenges so that science and technology contribute to a sustainable development, well-known and supported by the citizens.

  1. Sufficient Conditions for Labelled 0-1 Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Burris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available If F(x = e G(x, where F(x = Σf(nx n and G(x = Σg(nx n, with 0≤g(n = O(n θn /n!, θ∈(0,1, and gcd(n: g(n >0=1, then f(n= o(f(n-1. This gives an answer to Compton's request in Question 8.3 [Compton 1987] for an ``easily verifiable sufficient condition'' to show that an adequate class of structures has a labelled first-order 0-1 law, namely it suffices to show that the labelled component count function is O(n θn for some θ∈(0,1. It also provides the means to recursively construct an adequate class of structures with a labelled 0-1 law but not an unlabelled 0-1 law, answering Compton's Question 8.4.

  2. Humoral BMP-2 is Sufficient for Inducing Breast Cancer Microcalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangbing; Bloch, Nathalie; Bhushan, Kumar R.; De Grand, Alec M.; Tanaka, Eiichi; Solazzo, Stephanie; Mertyna, Pawel M.; Goldberg, Nahum; Frangioni, John V.; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an important diagnostic marker for breast cancer on mammograms, yet the mechanism of their formation is poorly understood. Indeed, there is presently no short-latency, high-yield, syngeneic rodent model of the process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a key mediator of physiological bone formation and pathological vasculature calcification, but its role in breast cancer microcalcification is unknown. In this study, R3230 rat breast tumors were adapted to cell culture, transduced with adenoviral BMP-2, and inoculated into a syngeneic host. Tumor growth and calcium salt deposition were quantified in living animals over time using micro-computed tomography, and probed chemically using near-infrared fluorescence. Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified over time by ELISA. Within three weeks, 100% of breast tumors developed microcalcifications, which were absent from all normal tissues. Importantly, when two tumors were initiated in a single host, the ipsilateral tumor expressing BMP-2 was able to induce microcalcification in the contralateral tumor that was not expressing BMP-2, suggesting that BMP-2 can act humorally. Taken together, we describe the first reproducible rodent model of breast cancer microcalcification, prove that BMP-2 expression is sufficient for initiating the process, and lay the foundation for a new generation of targeted diagnostic agents. PMID:19123988

  3. Sufficient conditions of endemic threshold on metapopulation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-09-07

    In this paper, we focus on susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on metapopulation networks, where nodes represent subpopulations, and where agents diffuse and interact. Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous network structure between elements plays an important role in determining the threshold of infection rate at the onset of epidemics, a fundamental quantity governing the epidemic dynamics. We consider the general case in which the infection rate at each node depends on its population size, as shown in recent empirical observations. We first prove that a sufficient condition for the endemic threshold (i.e., its upper bound), previously derived based on a mean-field approximation of network structure, also holds true for arbitrary networks. We also derive an improved condition showing that networks with the rich-club property (i.e., high connectivity between nodes with a large number of links) are more prone to disease spreading. The dependency of infection rate on population size introduces a considerable difference between this upper bound and estimates based on mean-field approximations, even when degree-degree correlations are considered. We verify the theoretical results with numerical simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Can New Zealand achieve self-sufficiency in its nursing workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews impacts on the nursing workforce of health policy and reforms of the past two decades and suggests reasons for both current difficulties in retaining nurses in the workforce and measures to achieve short-term improvements. Difficulties in retaining nurses in the New Zealand workforce have contributed to nursing shortages, leading to a dependence on overseas recruitment. In a context of global shortages and having to compete in a global nursing labour market, an alternative to dependence on overseas nurses is self-sufficiency. Discursive paper. Analysis of nursing workforce data highlighted threats to self-sufficiency, including age structure, high rates of emigration of New Zealand nurses with reliance on overseas nurses and an annual output of nurses that is insufficient to replace both expected retiring nurses and emigrating nurses. A review of recent policy and other documents indicates that two decades of health reform and lack of a strategic focus on nursing has contributed to shortages. Recent strategic approaches to the nursing workforce have included workforce stocktakes, integrated health workforce development and nursing workforce projections, with a single authority now responsible for planning, education, training and development for all health professions and sectors. Current health and nursing workforce development strategies offer wide-ranging and ambitious approaches. An alternative approach is advocated: based on workforce data analysis, pressing threats to self-sufficiency and measures available are identified to achieve, in the short term, the maximum impact on retaining nurses. A human resources in health approach is recommended that focuses on employment conditions and professional nursing as well as recruitment and retention strategies. Nursing is identified as 'crucial' to meeting demands for health care. A shortage of nurses threatens delivery of health services and supports the case for self-sufficiency in the nursing

  5. National Energy Plan 1997 - 2010; Sustainable Energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present revision of the PEN consists of two parts, a diagnosis and a strategy. In the diagnosis; the evolution and the changes are analyzed foreseen in the international and national environments to establish the form like the energy sector is affected and it responds to these conditions. In second part it revises the strategy to incorporate the required adjustments of agreement with the changes in the environment, the demand perspectives and sector and national politics limits. In the international thing, the process of transformation of the system economic World cup will contribute to strengthen the liberalization actions, deregulation and privatization of the economies of the development countries. Great part of the dynamics growth, will be sustained then in the private investment and in an atmosphere of global competition. The formation of regional blocks opens favorable perspectives for new cooperation forms and development of resources. In the case of the American hemisphere and with reference to the energy sector, one has an important potential to improve the self-sufficiency starting from regional supplies, especially starting from fossil resources. This expectation is important for Colombia that has well-known reservations and important potentials in these resources. The tendencies waited in the fossil resources are more favorable for the countries than they can have reservations and growing production of petroleum and of natural gas. Nevertheless, the development of the coal maintains favorable expectations, but with important requirements as for efficiency and quality in the production that it guarantee the positioning in a more and more concerned market. In the environmental thing, the growth foreseen in the consumption of fossil fuels also bears to the increment in the 2010 in the greenhouse gases, at levels between 36% and 49% superiors to those of 1990. That most of this increment will originate in the in the development countries and

  6. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  7. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these “cultural universals” is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all

  9. 40 CFR 350.13 - Sufficiency of assertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... the chemical whose identity is being claimed trade secret can be used in the fashion that the...

  10. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  11. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  12. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  13. Overlap Cycles for Permutations: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    to genetic algorithms [4]. More recently universal cycles are being used in areas such as rank modulation for multilevel flash memories [12], however...that pn+ qs = d. This implies the following. pn+ qs = d pmd+ qkd = d pm+ qk = 1 Thus the same integers p, q provide confirmation that gcd(m,k) = 1. 4...12] Z. Wang and J. Bruck, Partial Rank Modulation for Flash Memories, IEEE Interna- tional Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings (2010), 864-868

  14. Refueling availability for alternative fuel vehicle markets: Sufficient urban station coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaina, Marc; Bremson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles can play an important role in addressing the challenges of climate change, energy security, urban air pollution and the continued growth in demand for transportation services. The successful commercialization of alternative fuels for vehicles is contingent upon a number of factors, including vehicle cost and performance. Among fuel infrastructure issues, adequate refueling availability is one of the most fundamental to successful commercialization. A commonly cited source reports 164,300 refueling stations in operation nationwide. However, from the perspective of refueling availability, this nationwide count tends to overstate the number of stations required to support the widespread deployment of alternative fuel vehicles. In terms of spatial distribution, the existing gasoline station networks in many urban areas are more than sufficient. We characterize a sufficient level of urban coverage based upon a subset of cities served by relatively low-density station networks, and estimate that some 51,000 urban stations would be required to provide this sufficient level of coverage to all major urban areas, 33 percent less than our estimate of total urban stations. This improved characterization will be useful for engineering, economic and policy analyses. (author)

  15. Simulation of Steam Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor with Energy Self-Sufficient Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaree Suwatthikul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomass gasification process is widely accepted as a popular technology to produce fuel for the application in gas turbines and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Chemical reactions of this process can be separated into three reaction zones: pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction. In this study, sensitivity analysis with respect to three input parameters (gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, and steam-to-biomass ratio has been carried out to achieve energy self-sufficient conditions in a steam gasification process under the criteria that the carbon conversion efficiency must be more than 70%, and carbon dioxide gas is lower than 20%. Simulation models of the steam gasification process have been carried out by ASPEN Plus and validated with both experimental data and simulation results from Nikoo & Mahinpey (2008. Gasification temperature of 911 °C, equivalence ratio of 0.18, and a steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.78, are considered as an optimal operation point to achieve energy self-sufficient condition. This operating point gives the maximum of carbon conversion efficiency at 91.03%, and carbon dioxide gas at 15.18 volumetric percentages. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA is included to compare the environmental performance of conventional and energy self-sufficient gasification for steam biomass gasification.

  16. Staple Food Self-Sufficiency of Farmers Household Level in The Great Solo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsono

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of food security level of household is a novelty of measurement standards which usually includes regional and national levels. With household approach is expected to provide the basis of sharp food policy formulation. The purpose of this study are to identify the condition of self-sufficiency in staple foods, and to find the main factors affecting the dynamics of self-sufficiency in staple foods on farm household level in Great Solo. Using primary data from 50 farmers in the sample and secondary data in Great Solo (Surakarta city, Boyolali, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sragen and Klaten). Compiled panel data were analyzed with linear probability regression models to produce a good model. The results showed that farm households in Great Solo has a surplus of staple food (rice) with an average consumption rate of 96.8 kg/capita/year. This number is lower than the national rate of 136.7 kg/capita/year. The main factors affecting the level of food self-sufficiency in the farmer household level are: rice production, rice consumption, land tenure, and number of family members. Key recommendations from this study are; improvement scale of the land cultivation for rice farming and non-rice diversification consumption.

  17. Maximizing the economic value of irrigation water and achieving self sufficiency of main crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hosni

    2014-12-01

    Giving information on the economic value of water enable decision makers to take informed choices on water allocation to face the growing demands for all uses and drawing its sustainable future in agricultural and water policies. The current paper aims to assist decision makers in developing new cropping patterns considering the supply and demand aspects based on the efficient utilization of the water resources. It has proposed a cropping pattern which can increase the economic value of irrigation water from 0.88 LE/CM to 0.92 LE/CM. It can also decrease the gap between the national production and the imports, and increase self sufficiency of the main agricultural crops.

  18. Is sickle cell disease sufficiently prioritized in policy and socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review was systematically done by drawing evidence from published and unpublished literature searched through online search engines and other sources. The magnitude of SCA problem is yet to be adequately measured and documented in terms of the scale of its prevalence in many countries including Tanzania.

  19. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  20. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab's set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions

  1. Public review of nuclear power lacks sufficient scientific basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duderstadt, J.J.; Kikuchi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power illustrates how a new technoloy is accepted or rejected as society balances its perceived benefits against its perceived risks. The debate over nuclear power's role has been confusing because too few scientists participated with factual information after their initial enthusiasm for the opportunities of peaceful applications. A realistic appraisal of electricity demand shows that successful conservation measures cannot eliminate the need for either coal-fired or nuclear plants. A comparison of the perceived (and hypothetical) nuclear hazards with the real (and documented) hazards of coal suggests that society's real choice is between accepting whatever risks are associated with nuclear power or accepting the unknown risks of unproven alternatie technologies and the probability of a lower living standard. 28 references

  2. Prospect of Cattle Development to Support Self Sufficiency of Meat in North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Rifai Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of beef supply to meet national needs is also found locally in North Sumatera Province. The trend for beef in this area was triggered by the increasing of population, economic improvement and desire for better nutrient comsumption. Level of beef consumption is increased 17% from year 2004 to 2008, so in the same period the number of cattle entered into the North Sumatera Province also increased. Some efforts had been conducted to develop beef cattle program in North Sumatera Self Sufficiency Program in Beef through technical and policy approaches. Several programs have been developed to accelerate the development of productivity and the population in North Sumatra, among others, 1 Agribusiness Development Program, 2 Food Security Improvement Program, 3 Farmer's Welfare Program; which are financed by both central and local budgets. Institutional aspects that have been developed to support the PSDS-2014 is the Regional Artificial Insemination Center to serve the needs of semen for districts and municipalities in the Province of North Sumatera. In the year 2008, it has been distributed as many as 44 000 doses of semen for frozen semen to meet the demands of 11 Districts. The amount of land resources for development indicated the availability of pastural land area of 1,311,159 ha from oil palm and rubber plantation, area of 1,192,172 ha for crops and livestock integration system. It is estimated that biomass production of rice straw, bean straw and sugarcane straw reaches 7,062,227; 68 145 and 14 664 tons per year, respectively. Also available as many as 689,478 tons of rice bran and palm oil industry waste as much as 4,159,203 tons per year. Some challenges in the North Sumatera PSDS programs in accordance with a predetermined time include: 1 Not all of the stakeholders get a complete information about the program, 2 the difficulties to prevent productive cows being slaughtered, 3 limited capital in an effort to pick up and redistribute

  3. A pacemaker magnet check alone is sufficient for the majority of patients postpacemaker implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A; Wong, Kelvin C K; Qureshi, Norman; Rajappan, Kim; Bashir, Yaver; Betts, Timothy R

    2014-12-01

    Patients postpacemaker implant can undergo a full assessment by pacing system programmer (PSP) or a magnet check. The former takes longer, but provides more detailed information; a magnet-mode assessment is faster, but provides only capture data in an asynchronous pacing mode. A magnet-mode assessment alone may be sufficient in most cases, and current clinical practice varies considerably. A retrospective single-center assessment of all pacemaker implants receiving PSP and magnet checks between September 2009 and April 2010. Patient records were reviewed. The results of PSP and magnet checks and any subsequent device-related management were noted. A total of 168 patients underwent pacemaker implantation, magnet-mode assessment, and then PSP interrogation during this period. Magnet-mode assessment revealed a problem in only one patient-failure of atrial capture, leading to subsequent atrial lead repositioning. None of the remaining 167 patients have a serious problem at PSP interrogation; six had minor issues at PSP check, none of which required repeat surgical intervention. The magnet-mode test only provides information on lead capture in an asynchronous pacing mode, which is the most essential data postoperatively. Our study has suggested that a magnet-mode assessment without PSP interrogation may be sufficient in the immediate postimplant assessment of these patients. Routine postimplant PSP interrogation is time consuming, labor intensive, and adds only minimal additional benefit to the safe management of these patients above and beyond a magnet check, coupled with informed assessment of the associated electrocardiogram/rhythm strip, clinical examination, and chest x-ray. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSagana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon that people can be easily misled about the choices they made in the recent past. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying choice blindness. Specifically, we tested whether memory impairment may account for choice blindness. A total of N = 88 participants provided sympathy ratings on 10-point scales for 20 female faces. Subsequently, participants motivated some of their ratings. However, on three trials, they were presented with sympathy ratings that deviated from their original ratings by three full scale points. On nearly 41% of the trials, participants failed to detect (i.e., were blind the manipulation. After a short interval, participants were informed that some trials had been manipulated and were asked to recall their original ratings. Participants adopted the manipulated outcome in only 3% of the trials. Furthermore, the extent to which the original ratings were accurately remembered was not higher for detected as compared with non-detected trials. From a theoretical point of view our findings indicate that memory impairment does not fully account for blindness phenomena.

  5. Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagana, Anna; Sauerland, Melanie; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon that people can be easily misled about the choices they made in the recent past. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying choice blindness. Specifically, we tested whether memory impairment may account for choice blindness. A total of N = 88 participants provided sympathy ratings on 10-point scales for 20 female faces. Subsequently, participants motivated some of their ratings. However, on three trials, they were presented with sympathy ratings that deviated from their original ratings by three full scale points. On nearly 41% of the trials, participants failed to detect (i.e., were blind) the manipulation. After a short interval, participants were informed that some trials had been manipulated and were asked to recall their original ratings. Participants adopted the manipulated outcome in only 3% of the trials. Furthermore, the extent to which the original ratings were accurately remembered was not higher for detected as compared with non-detected trials. From a theoretical point of view our findings indicate that memory impairment does not fully account for blindness phenomena.

  6. Deconstructing Community for Conservation: Why Simple Assumptions are Not Sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry Ann; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation policies advocate engagement with local people, but conservation practice has sometimes been criticised for a simplistic understanding of communities and social context. To counter this, this paper explores social structuring and its influences on conservation-related behaviours at the site of a conservation intervention near Pipar forest, within the Seti Khola valley, Nepal. Qualitative and quantitative data from questionnaires and Rapid Rural Appraisal demonstrate how links between groups directly and indirectly influence behaviours of conservation relevance (including existing and potential resource-use and proconservation activities). For low-status groups the harvesting of resources can be driven by others' preference for wild foods, whilst perceptions of elite benefit-capture may cause reluctance to engage with future conservation interventions. The findings reiterate the need to avoid relying on simple assumptions about 'community' in conservation, and particularly the relevance of understanding relationships between groups, in order to understand natural resource use and implications for conservation.

  7. A blueprint for complete energy self-sufficiency in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Endless Energy Project is a partnership between the Globe Foundation, BC Hydro, Day 4 Energy, the Power Technology Alliance, the National Research Council of Canada, and Western Economic Diversification. The purpose of the project is to examine British Columbia's potential to be energy self-sufficient from renewable sources by 2025. Background information on the Endless Energy Project was presented with reference to energy use in all sectors of the economy and energy supply from all sources indigenous to the province. The report discussed global drivers and scenarios as well as energy use trends specific to British Columbia. These trends were related to energy use for residential buildings; commercial sector; domestic transportation; gateway transportation; and industrial sources. The report also provided an outlook for each of these sectors. A large-scale supply outlook was also described for solar; geothermal; wind; hydro; biomass; forest waste to energy potential; ocean wave energy potential; and tidal current systems. The report concluded with a discussion of matching renewable energy supplies to demand. It was concluded that based on a combination of renewable energy supply, cleaner burning fuels, such as hydrogen and ethanol, and energy use reduction in homes, businesses, and public sector operations, British Columbia could reasonably achieve energy self-sufficiency by 2025. tabs., figs

  8. Is the IAEA's Safeguard Strategic Plan Sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolski, H.; Gilinsky, V.

    2015-01-01

    IAEA safeguards have much improved and the Safeguards Department is commendably planning to further its technical capabilities and to make full use of its authority. Will this be enough to keep countries from exploiting nuclear power programmes to develop nuclear weapons, or to be in a position to do so rapidly should they so decide? Depending on nuclear programmes developments worldwide, especially on expansions in enrichment and reprocessing, and on how international affairs unfold, the answer may well be no. The fundamental limitations on the Department's ability to prevent proliferation are not technical, but conceptual. The Department is clearly motivated to carry out its technical activities competently. Yet it takes a relatively passive view of its role in the worldwide development of nuclear power-whatever technology comes into use, and whoever deploys it, the Department promises to exert its best effort to safeguard. In our view the Department should be more open about what it can or cannot realistically safeguard, and therefore what technology is permissible for deployment in national programmes. The Department's Strategic Plan says at the outset that its verifications assist the Agency to fulfil its statutory objective to ''accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy. . . '' The Department should judge itself by how well it promotes international security, not by its contribution to expanding nuclear power use. The Department's Vision includes advancing toward a nuclear weapons free world. That vision should include keeping states from deploying technologies that put them within easy reach of nuclear weapons. Our paper will suggest how the Department might supplement its current plan to best accomplish this. (author)

  9. Kidney trauma with underlying renal pathology: Is conservative management sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabii El-Atat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pre-existing renal lesions (PERL found incidentally during evaluation for blunt renal trauma, determine their importance, and suggest guidelines for effective management, including conservative treatment, we reviewed 180 patients who were hospitalized with blunt renal trauma between 1992 and 2008. Thirty of the 180 (16.6% patients had PERL, which had been undiagnosed. The mean follow-up was 5 years (range 1-9 years. There were 24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 30 years (range 14-80 years. The most common cause of blunt renal injuries was falls and sports. Renal stones were present in 14 patients, pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction in 12, ectopic kidney in two, and megaureter and renal cyst in one case each. Ureteral stenting was used in four cases, and early nephrectomy was required in the other four. Fourteen patients underwent surgery for the PERL and not trauma, with a pyeloplasty in eight cases, partial nephrectomy in three cases, percutaneous nephrololithotomy in two cases, and ureteroneocystostomy in one case. In our study, the conservative treatment was possible in 73% of cases. We believe the published data support increasing conservative attempts in the hemodynamically stable patient.

  10. Towards self-sufficiency in health learning materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H

    1994-01-01

    The health learning network operating between southeast Asian countries initially consist of 4 pilot projects, supported since 1981 by the United Nations Development Program and the World Health Organization, in Kenya, Morocco, Nepal and Sudan; the program since 1981 has expanded into more than 30 countries. Collaborative networks exist in Nairobi, Kenya, for 9 other countries, in Cotonou for 9 other countries, in Alexandria for the eastern Mediterranean countries, and in Bissau for 6 countries. These networks use respectively, the following languages: English, French, Arabic, and Portuguese. In 1990, the southeast Asian network was established in Kathmandu and exchanged health materials between centers in Jakarta, Indonesia; Yangon, Myanmar; Kathmandu, Nepal; Kalutara Sri Lanka; and Bangkok, Thailand. Some of the materials produced in Nepali cover the following topics: medical textbooks, infectious diseases, health post administration, midwives, community health education, breast feeding guidelines, health care without a dentist, health care without a doctor, environmental sanitation, and biochemistry. In Thailand, audiovisual materials for the health worker have been produced. Even though there are five different languages involved in the participating countries, English provides the link. The centers vary in their level of development. The kings of materials produced include books, manuals, booklets, pamphlets, posters, slides, and video films. There is no copyright, which allows for unfettered translation and adaptation of materials to the local context. Workshops on writing skills and audiovisual application have been held, and surveys on the needs and resources of health education conducted. An outreach effort is underway in Mongolia with the assistance of the five network countries. There is always a need for volunteers from developed countries to train local people in microcomputing design and editing skills and in developing the capacity to network via

  11. Synchronous spikes are necessary but not sufficient for a synchrony code in populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Jan; Kruscha, Alexandra; Lindner, Benjamin; Benda, Jan

    2017-03-07

    Synchronous activity in populations of neurons potentially encodes special stimulus features. Selective readout of either synchronous or asynchronous activity allows formation of two streams of information processing. Theoretical work predicts that such a synchrony code is a fundamental feature of populations of spiking neurons if they operate in specific noise and stimulus regimes. Here we experimentally test the theoretical predictions by quantifying and comparing neuronal response properties in tuberous and ampullary electroreceptor afferents of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus These related systems show similar levels of synchronous activity, but only in the more irregularly firing tuberous afferents a synchrony code is established, whereas in the more regularly firing ampullary afferents it is not. The mere existence of synchronous activity is thus not sufficient for a synchrony code. Single-cell features such as the irregularity of spiking and the frequency dependence of the neuron's transfer function determine whether synchronous spikes possess a distinct meaning for the encoding of time-dependent signals.

  12. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Gen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve.

  13. Heterogeneous Systems Biocatalysis: The Path to the Fabrication of Self-Sufficient Artificial Metabolic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Jackson, Erienne; Betancor, Lorena

    2017-12-19

    Industrial biocatalysis is playing a key role in the development of the global bio-economy that must change our current productive model to pair the socio-economical development with the preservation of our already harmed planet. The exploitation of isolated multi-enzyme systems and the discovery of novel biocatalytic activities are leading us to manufacture chemicals that were inaccessible through biological routes in the early past. These endeavors have been grouped under the concept of systems biocatalysis. However, by using isolated biological machineries, fundamental features underlying the protein confinement found inside the living cells are missed. To re-gain these properties, such concepts can be expanded to a new concept; heterogeneous systems biocatalysis. This new concept is based on the fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts inspired by the spatial organization and compartmentalization that orchestrate metabolic pathways within cells. By assembling biological machineries (including enzymes and cofactors) into artificial solid chassis, one can fabricate self-sufficient and robust cell-free systems able to catalyze orchestrated chemical processes. Furthermore, the confinement of enzymes and and "artificial cofactor" inside solid materials has also attracted our attention because these self-sufficient systems exert de novo and non-natural functionalities. Here, we intend to go beyond immobilization of multi-enzyme systems, discussing only those enzymatic systems that have been co-immobilized with their cofactor or exogenous partners to enhance their cooperative action. In this article, we review the latest architectures developed to fabricate self-sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts with application in chemical manufacturing, biosensing or energy production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Specific tandem repeats are sufficient for paramutation-induced trans-generational silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L Belele

    Full Text Available Paramutation is a well-studied epigenetic phenomenon in which trans communication between two different alleles leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles. Paramutation at the b1 locus involves RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and requires specific tandem repeats that generate siRNAs. This study addressed three important questions: 1 are the tandem repeats sufficient for paramutation, 2 do they need to be in an allelic position to mediate paramutation, and 3 is there an association between the ability to mediate paramutation and repeat DNA methylation levels? Paramutation was achieved using multiple transgenes containing the b1 tandem repeats, including events with tandem repeats of only one half of the repeat unit (413 bp, demonstrating that these sequences are sufficient for paramutation and an allelic position is not required for the repeats to communicate. Furthermore, the transgenic tandem repeats increased the expression of a reporter gene in maize, demonstrating the repeats contain transcriptional regulatory sequences. Transgene-mediated paramutation required the mediator of paramutation1 gene, which is necessary for endogenous paramutation, suggesting endogenous and transgene-mediated paramutation both require an RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing pathway. While all tested repeat transgenes produced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, not all transgenes induced paramutation suggesting that, as with endogenous alleles, siRNA production is not sufficient for paramutation. The repeat transgene-induced silencing was less efficiently transmitted than silencing induced by the repeats of endogenous b1 alleles, which is always 100% efficient. The variability in the strength of the repeat transgene-induced silencing enabled testing whether the extent of DNA methylation within the repeats correlated with differences in efficiency of paramutation. Transgene-induced paramutation does not require extensive

  15. Energetically self-sufficient robot group study kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rovbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the project of educational and research software and hardware kit designed for use in case-based educational project activities based on the theme of energetically autonomous robots. An important feature of the complex is its interdisciplinarity since robotics combines many fields of science and technology — mechanical design, electronics, programming, elements of artificial intelligence, energy science and others. Students can receive basic knowledge in these areas as well as gain practical skills in solving real problems that require a convergent approach. The kit serves as an experimental basis that allows to study intricacies of robot control and its hardware and software design while making structural changes, including using different power units: solar, fuel, thermoelectric and others. Power units (converters and the various sources of renewable energy may be considered both from the theoretical point of view, i.e. from the principles of their functioning and from the practical aspect — studying their practical application in real systems. Another important aspect of the system is the development of software architecture for a robot and for a team of robots as well as studying the interactions between them. In addition to performing the target task, ancillary tasks such as maintaining the battery level, communication with other team members in a multi-agent system, should be considered in the control algorithm of the robot, which allows to study the distribution of priorities between these objectives, as shown in the example of multicriteria optimization. The prototype of the kit and its usage according to the described approach have been partially validated by conducting computational experiments with algorithms based on different search methods (random search, closest source and multi-criteria optimization methods, multi-agent paradigm and adaptive control which show a variety of possible approaches and

  16. Is ultrasound screening for DDH in babies born breech sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Meghan; Scott, Vanessa; Stearns, Philip; Bastrom, Tracey; Mubarak, Scott J

    2010-02-01

    To review our incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in breech infants referred for ultrasound screening and to determine if subsequent follow-up radiographs are necessary in these patients with normal clinical and ultrasound examinations. A review of the clinical data and imaging studies of all children with the risk factor of breech presentation that were referred for orthopedic evaluation over a 5-year period was conducted. All patients were examined by a fellowship-trained pediatric orthopedic surgeon and all ultrasounds were done at approximately 6 weeks of age by an experienced ultrasonographer. Ultrasounds were evaluated using the dynamic method as described by Harcke. As per our protocol, all patients with normal screening ultrasounds were brought back for a final clinical examination and radiographic check at 4-6 months. Acetabular dysplasia was indicated by radiographic parameters-if there was severe blunting of the sourcil, abnormal acetabular index for age, or if there was significant asymmetry of acetabular indices side-to-side-in the setting of clinical parameters-if there was greater than 10° difference in side-to-side abduction or symmetric abduction of less than 60°. Three hundred patients with the risk factor of breech presentation were included. Thirty-four patients had clinically unstable hips; 266 had clinically stable hips and were screened by ultrasound. Sixty-four percent were female and 36% were male. Twenty-seven percent of these breech patients had abnormal screening ultrasounds and were subsequently treated. Of the remaining 73% with normal ultrasounds, who were returned per protocol at a mean of 5 months, 29% had evidence of dysplasia and underwent treatment. The diagnosis of dysplasia following a normal ultrasound was based on both radiographic and clinical parameters. Of the hips treated with a Pavlik harness, 62% had acetabular indices at least two standard deviations from the age-corrected average versus 26% of

  17. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  18. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.; Milligan, Michael; Brinkman, Greg; Bloom, Aaron; Clark, Kara; Denholm, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  19. Evidence from Students’ Information Seeking Diaries Underscores the Importance of Including Librarians in Undergraduate Education. A Review of: Lee, J. Y., Paik, W., & Joo, S. (2012). Information resource selection of undergraduate students in academic search tasks. Information Research, 17(1), paper511. Retrieved 8 Aug., 2012 from http://informationr.net/ir/17-1/paper511.html

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Melssen

    2012-01-01

    Objective – To determine what informationresources undergraduate students choose tocomplete assignments for their courses, whythey choose those resources, the process ofselecting those resources and the factors thatcontributed to selecting the resources, andtheir perceptions of those resources.Design – Semi-structured information seekingdiary.Setting – Private university in Seoul, Korea.Subjects – 233 undergraduate students fromall majors and all years.Methods – Students selected one assignme...

  20. The evaluation of the urban parks in Konya province in terms of quality, sufficiency, maintenance, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Sertaç; Polat, Ahmet Tuğrul

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, the understanding of physically, socially, and visually sufficient and high-standard outdoor arrangements has begun to appear. The most important ones among this kind of spaces are urban parks which contain many recreational opportunities and facilities together. The aim of this study is to identify the current situation of the urban parks in Konya province and the facilities in the parks in terms of quality, sufficiency, growth rate, and maintenance. The second purpose of the study is to obtain information about the park users' evaluations of the park officers within the context of park visits and information sources of the users related to the parks. Within the context of the study, the questionnaires were conducted by face-to-face interviews with 494 park users. The urban parks in Konya province were evaluated by the park users in terms of quality, sufficiency, maintenance, and growth rate criteria. While 44.1% of the users evaluated the parks as "good" in terms of quality, 4.7% of the users stated that the quality of the parks was "bad." Considering the sufficiency of the urban parks, the findings represent that majority of the users identified the parks as sufficient and 27.9% of them identified insufficient. 44.1% of the users stated that the parks were well maintained and 10.1% considered the parks were badly maintained. The growth rate of the urban parks in Konya was described as "fast" by 48.6% of the users and as "normal" by 29.8% of the users.

  1. A contribution to quantum cryptography in finite-dimensional systems including further results from the field of quantum information theory; Ein Beitrag zur Quantenkryptographie in endlichdimensionalen Systemen nebst weiteren Ergebnissen aus dem Gebiet der Quanteninformationstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranade, Kedar S.

    2009-02-04

    This PhD thesis deals with quantum-cryptographic protocols which allow general finite-dimensional quantum systems (qudits) as carriers of information in contrast to the predominantly used two-dimensional quantum systems (qubits). The main focus of investigations is the maximum tolerable error rate of such protocols and its behaviour as a function of the dimension of the information carriers. For this purpose, several concepts are introduced which allow the treatment of this problem. In particular, protocols are presented which work up to a maximum tolerate error rate, and it is shown that a wide class of protocols cannot be used for higher error rates. Among other things, it turns out that the maximum tolerable error rate for two-basis protocols increases up to 50% for high dimensions. Apart from the above-mentioned main subjects of this thesis, some other results from the field of quantum information theory are given, which were achieved during this PhD project. (orig.)

  2. Evidence from Students’ Information Seeking Diaries Underscores the Importance of Including Librarians in Undergraduate Education. A Review of: Lee, J. Y., Paik, W., & Joo, S. (2012. Information resource selection of undergraduate students in academic search tasks. Information Research, 17(1, paper511. Retrieved 8 Aug., 2012 from http://informationr.net/ir/17-1/paper511.html

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine what informationresources undergraduate students choose tocomplete assignments for their courses, whythey choose those resources, the process ofselecting those resources and the factors thatcontributed to selecting the resources, andtheir perceptions of those resources.Design – Semi-structured information seekingdiary.Setting – Private university in Seoul, Korea.Subjects – 233 undergraduate students fromall majors and all years.Methods – Students selected one assignmentfrom their elective course and recorded thefollowing in a diary: what the assignment was,the topic they needed to research to completethe assignment, resources used, the factors thatcontributed to choosing the resources, andperceptions of those resources.Main Results – Data were analyzed bothqualitatively and quantitatively. The factorsthat affected the students’ resource selectionwere analyzed qualitatively using an opencoding method created by the researchers. Thefactors were not predetermined by theresearchers, but were selected based on thefactors identified by the students. Onlineresources (67.1% were the most frequentlyselected resources by the students compared tohuman resources (11.5%, print materials (11.5%, and mass media (3%. Students used an average of 5.28 resources to complete one assignment. Factors that affected the students’ selection of resources were the type of information provided by the resource, the features of the resource, the search strategy used when searching in the resource, and the students’ interaction with other people when selecting and using the resource. More than one factor typically contributed to the students’ selection of the resource. The students’ perceptions of the resources they selected were analyzed quantitatively: perceptions were analyzed in six content areas using a five point scale. Correlations and similarities across the six content areas were also analyzed. Perceptions of resources

  3. The Study of Supporting Learning Sufficiency Economy Philosophy of Students Majoring in Early Childhood Education by Backyard Gardening Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannisa Hakoon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to make students majoring in early childhood education learn about the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy by integrating learning process through practicing planting vegetables and herbs, harvesting, processing products and selling the products at the CEECE farm. This case study include 104 students in total, 2 males students and 102 females students majoring in early childhood education in the second semester of academic year 2016, Mahasarakham university. The researcher integrated the learning with subjects in early childhood education field such as Story and literature for young Children, Thai languages and literacy for young children, Independent study in early childhood education and Early childhood education quality assurance. The research instruments were 1 CEECE Farm area for practicing growing vegetables and herbs and 2 Self Reflection from the students. Data collection was conducted through three phases including 1 preparation 2 process and 3 data collection. The researcher analyzed the content by describing and drawing conclusions from students opinions about the learning. This research revealed: 1. Factors affecting success or barriers to learning include students, location, materials, budget, academic advisors and other factors such as climate and workloads of students. 2. Students majoring in early childhood education learn the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy through practicing at the CEECE farm. Students learn Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and knowledge as follows ; 2.1 Moderation: Students learn to use the resources sufficiently. Students realize the value and use resources in order to maximize savings ; location, materials and budget. 2.2 Reasonableness: Students learn to apply the principles of reason and critical thinking to planning decisions and resolving issues arising from the implementation based on information that they have gathered and relies on the concept, “if students are consumers, will they

  4. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, N.; Kose, D.; Altinkaynak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  5. Isolation and characterization of a self-sufficient one-domain protein. (Cd)-metallothionein from Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, C; Stürzenbaum, S; Gehrig, P; Sack, R; Hunziker, P; Berger, B; Dallinger, R

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms have been shown to accumulate trace elements in general, and particularly high amounts of metal ions such as cadmium, copper and zinc. The earthworm's response to metal contamination has been linked to the induction and expression of metallothionein (MT) proteins, a detoxification strategy analogous to that found in other biological systems. The present study focuses on an inducible Cd-MT isolated from the compost-dwelling brandling worm Eisenia foetida (Savigny). A full characterization of the protein (including protein induction, MT cDNA, amino-acid sequence and metal stoichiometry) revealed a new dimension of knowledge to the molecular genetic information available to date. Whereas the elucidated cDNA codes for a putative protein which possesses 80 amino-acid residues, the characterized protein bears only 41 amino acids. The isolated product has evidently attained its size and shape by cleavage near the N-terminal site and at the linker region between the two putative metal-binding domains of the translated product, yielding a small MT moiety which contains 12 Cys residues (including one triple Cys-motif) binding four cadmium ions. It can be shown that the isolated MT molecule represents a self-sufficient one-domain MT which is stable in vitro. The isolation of the single-domain MT peptide raises the question about the method of formation and significance in vivo of such small MT moieties from tissues of E. foetida and possibly other terrestrial invertebrates. In this respect, two hypotheses are discussed: firstly, the possibility of formation of small MT peptides due to enzymatic cleavage of the intact protein during the process of preparation and isolation; and secondly, the possibility of deliberate post-translational processing of the translated gene product to yield functional one-domain MT moieties.

  6. Chironomidae larvae from the lower Athabasca River, AB, Canada and its tributaries including macroscopic subfamily and tribe keys, indices for environmental tolerance and trait-based information for biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namayandeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011 the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM program has been conducted in the lower Athabasca River by the Governments of Canada and Alberta to assess the freshwater health in areas associated with oil sands development. The majority of the benthic invertebrate assemblage of the Athabasca River and its tributaries are Chironomidae larvae. Assessments of such benthic assemblages are made difficult because the identification of Chironomidae larvae is costly and time consuming. To facilitate this identification process, we aimed to develop a simple taxonomic key for Chironomidae larvae of this region. This taxonomic reference and identification key makes use of the known taxonomic details on these Chironomidae species. Moreover, we provide details on their geographical distribution, ecology, habitats, environmental tolerance values for species, and traitbased morphological characters. Our main goal was to make this information readily available to both non-specialists and specialists so that biomonitoring programs can more readily utilize these organisms in biomonitoring.

  7. Development of a sophisticated information system including a metadatabase and regional radioecological cadastres for assessment of the radiation impact on the environment and population of the Northwest Russia and Krasnoyarsk Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.A.; Burykin, A.A.; Lebedev, O.G.; Popov, V.K.; Churaev, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the 'Radinfo' project is creation of a meta-database (MDB) and radioecological cadastres, geo-referenced information systems being a basic component of those ones, and conducting (using those systems) evaluation study of possible pathways of radionuclides from the radiation-hazardous objects, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, followed by the ranking of threats, for two priority regions of Russia selected on the basis of expert interrogation: the North-West of Russia and Krasnoyarsk region. In order to achieve the goal the following investigation tools are being created and/or applied for evaluation study on the two regions: - information data files (local databases, publications etc.) on radiation sources, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, as well as on the environment characteristics in the studied regions; - radionuclide transfer pathways models; - sets of local geo-information systems (comprising a basic component of GIS cadastres), embracing (scanning) the areas of two regions of interest and allowing to assess the dynamics of real and probable migration of radionuclides. The RadInfo MDB development is based on use of multi-level architecture of the Web-technologies. The multi-level architecture, unlike that of conventional 'Client-Server' type, provides more versatility and scalability. In this particular case a three-level version is realized. A SQL-server (MySQL) is used as a database server. The well-known Apache Web-server is used as an application server. For its part it provides execution of scripts in the PHP language (the scripts are program extension of the server part)With such kind of configuration there is no need in using special software on the client side. Any browser (for instance, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) can be used as a workplace. The configuration is very simple as far as as its installation, adjustment and use are concerned. The meta-database and the models of radionuclide transfer

  8. [The concept of nutritional self-sufficiency and the demographic equilibrium of Rwanda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habimana Nyirasafari, G

    1987-12-01

    Achieving food self-sufficiency is the basic strategy of Rwanda's 4th 5-year plan covering 1987-91. The population growth rate has increased from 3% in 1970 to 3.7% in 1983, with the population doubling between 1964 and 1985. Food production grew by about 4%/year between 1966-83, creating a slight increase in per capita food availability, but the 2171 calories available per capita is dangerously close to the theoretical minimum requirement of 2100 per day. The theoretical protein requirement is almost covered, but there is a serious shortage of oils. The increase in production since 1966 has been due almost exclusively to the extension of cultivated land. But the land supply is limited, and future production increases will need to be based on increased yields per unit cultivated. The National Office of Population has developed a simulation model that analyzes the parallel evolution of population and production so as to identify demographic and development policies that will assure food self-sufficiency and an improvement in living conditions. The population subsystem subjects the population divided by age and sex to the effects of fertility, migration, and mortality. Births are the result of 36 different fertility rates applied to the population of women aged 14-49 years. The agricultural subsystem is tied to the population subsystem by comparison of the volume of population to that of production, by estimation of the proportion of the population living exclusively by subsistence agriculture, by calculation of the potential emigration resulting from overpopulation of the countryside, and by estimation of the links between nutritional level, mortality, and duration of breastfeeding. 5 annexes contain subsystems showing effects of demographic growth on education, employment, and health. The model has various limitations including those of the reliability of its data, but it is sufficiently precise for its main function of clarifying the choices facing policymakers. 6

  9. 25 CFR 26.23 - What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)? 26.23... AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.23 What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)? (a) An ISP is a document that: (1) Spells out the details necessary for a person to assume a...

  10. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of State...

  11. 76 FR 55404 - Announcement of Funding Awards Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Resident Opportunity and Self- Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service Coordinators, Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2010...-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service Coordinators Program. This announcement contains the consolidated names and addresses of the award recipients for this year under the ROSS- Service Coordinators Program. FOR FURTHER...

  12. Linear and Ponderal Growth Trajectories in Well-Nourished, Iron-Sufficient Infants Are Unimpaired by Iron Supplementation12

    OpenAIRE

    Gahagan, Sheila; Yu, Sunkyung; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and supplementation is recommended during periods of high risk, including infancy. However, questions have been raised about possible adverse effects of iron on growth in iron-sufficient (IS) infants and the advisability of across-the-board iron supplementation. This study examined whether short- or long-term growth was impaired in IS infants who received iron supplementation. From a longitudinal study of healthy, breast...

  13. Are world uranium resources sufficient to fuel global growth in nuclear generating capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Vance, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased uranium prices since 2003 have produced more activity in the sector than the previous 20 years. Nuclear reactor construction is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and several, particularly in the developing world, are considering introducing nuclear power as a means of meeting rising electricity demand without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Others have recently decided to either withdraw from the use of nuclear power or not proceed with development plans following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. Since the mid-1960, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have jointly prepared a comprehensive update of global uranium resources, production and demand (commonly known as the 'Red Book'. The Red Book is based on government responses to a questionnaire that requests information on uranium exploration and mine development activity, resources and plans for nuclear development to 2035. This presentation provides an overview of the global situation based on the recently published 2011 edition. It features a compilation of global uranium resources, projected mine development and production capability in all the countries currently producing uranium or with plans to do so in the near future. This is compared to updated, post-Fukushima demand projections, reflecting nuclear phase-out plans announced in some countries and ambitious expansion plans of others. The 2011 Red Book shows that currently defined uranium resources are sufficient to meet high case projections of nuclear power development to 2035. (authors)

  14. Necessary and sufficient conditions for big bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattoen, Celine; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, the physically relevant singularities occurring in FRW cosmologies had traditionally been thought to be limited to the 'big bang', and possibly a 'big crunch'. However, over the last few years, the zoo of cosmological singularities considered in the literature has become considerably more extensive, with 'big rips' and 'sudden singularities' added to the mix, as well as renewed interest in nonsingular cosmological events such as 'bounces' and 'turnarounds'. In this paper we present an extensive catalogue of such cosmological milestones, both at the kinematical and dynamical level. First, using generalized power series, purely kinematical definitions of these cosmological events are provided in terms of the behaviour of the scale factor a(t). The notion of a 'scale-factor singularity' is defined, and its relation to curvature singularities (polynomial and differential) is explored. Second, dynamical information is extracted by using the Friedmann equations (without assuming even the existence of any equation of state) to place constraints on whether or not the classical energy conditions are satisfied at the cosmological milestones. We use these considerations to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of cosmological milestones such as bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events. Since the classification is extremely general and, modulo certain technical assumptions, is complete, the corresponding results are to a high degree model independent: in particular, we provide a characterization of the class of bangs, crunches and sudden singularities for which the dominant energy condition is satisfied

  15. MHC odours are not required or sufficient for recognition of individual scent owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jane L; Thom, Michael D; Nevison, Charlotte M; Humphries, Richard E; Beynon, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    To provide information about specific depositors, scent marks need to encode a stable signal of individual ownership. The highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences scents and contributes to the recognition of close kin and avoidance of inbreeding when MHC haplotypes are shared. MHC diversity between individuals has also been proposed as a primary source of scents used in individual recognition. We tested this in the context of scent owner recognition among male mice, which scent mark their territories and countermark scents from other males. We examined responses towards urine scent according to the scent owner's genetic difference to the territory owner (MHC, genetic background, both and neither) or genetic match to a familiar neighbour. While urine of a different genetic background from the subject always stimulated greater scent marking than own, regardless of familiarity, MHC-associated odours were neither necessary nor sufficient for scent owner recognition and failed to stimulate countermarking. Urine of a different MHC type to the subject stimulated increased investigation only when this matched both the MHC and genetic background of a familiar neighbour. We propose an associative model of scent owner recognition in which volatile scent profiles, contributed by both fixed genetic and varying non-genetic factors, are learnt in association with a stable involatile ownership signal provided by other highly polymorphic urine components. PMID:15906464

  16. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  17. Collaborative technologies, higher order thinking and self-sufficient learning: A case study of adult learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare S. Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of online elements in learning environments is becoming commonplace in Post Compulsory Education. A variety of research into the value of such elements is available, and this study aims to add further evidence by looking specifically at the use of collaborative technologies such as online discussion forums and wikis to encourage higher order thinking and self-sufficient learning. In particular, the research examines existing pedagogical models including Salmon’s five-stage model, along with other relevant literature. A case study of adult learners in community-based learning centres forms the basis of the research, and as a result of the findings, an arrow model is suggested as a framework for online collaboration that emphasises the learner, mentions pre-course preparation and then includes three main phases of activity: post, interact and critique. This builds on Salmon’s five-stage model and has the benefit of being flexible and responsive, as well as allowing for further development beyond the model, particularly in a blended learning environment.

  18. Are scoring systems sufficient for predicting mortality due to sepsis in the emergency department?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Gunes Ozaydin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Scoring systems have been used to risk stratify in intensive care units (ICU, but not routinely used in emergency departments. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy for predicting mortality in emergency medicine with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, Mortality in ED Sepsis (MEDS score and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPSII. Methods: This is a prospective observational study. Patients presenting with evidence of sepsis were all included. SAPSII, MEDS, and SOFA scores were calculated. Analysis compared areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for 28-day mortality. Results: Two hundred patients were included; consisting of 31 (14.3% septic shock. 138 (69% severe sepsis and 31 (15.5% infection without organ dysfunction. 53 (26.5% patients died within 28 days.Area under the ROC curve for mortality was 0.76 for MEDS (0.69–0.82, 0.70 for SAPSII (0.62–0.78; and 1.68 for SOFA (0.60–0.76 scores. Pair wise comparison of AUC between MEDS, SAPSII, SOFA and Lactate were not significant. Conclusion: According to our results; SOFA, SAPSII and MEDS were not sufficient to predict mortality. Also this result, MEDS was better than other scoring system. Keywords: Sepsis, Septic shock, Scoring systems, SOFA, SAPSII, MEDS, Lactate, Emergency medicine

  19. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a frameowork for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measureable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...

  20. A brief intervention is sufficient for many adolescents seeking help from low threshold adolescent psychiatric services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laukkanen Eila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable increase in the need for psychiatric services for adolescents. Primary health care practitioners have a major role in detecting, screening and helping these adolescents. An intervention entitled SCREEN is described in this article. The SCREEN intervention was developed to help practitioners to detect and screen adolescent needs, to care for adolescents at the primary health care level and to facilitate the referral of adolescents to secondary care services in collaboration between primary and secondary health care. Secondly, the article presents the background and clinical characteristics of youths seeking help from the SCREEN services, and compares the background factors and clinical characteristics of those patients referred and not referred to secondary care services. Methods The SCREEN intervention consisted of 1 to 5 sessions, including assessment by a semi-structured anamnesis interview, the structured Global Assessment Scale, and by a structured priority rating scale, as well as a brief intervention for each adolescent's chosen problem. Parents took part in the assessment in 39% of cases involving girls and 50% involving boys. During 34 months, 2071 adolescents (69% females entered the intervention and 70% completed it. The mean age was 17.1 years for boys and 17.3 years for girls. Results For 69% of adolescents, this was the first contact with psychiatric services. The most common reasons for seeking services were depressive symptoms (31%. Self-harming behaviour had occurred in 25% of girls and 16% of boys. The intervention was sufficient for 37% of those who completed it. Psychosocial functioning improved during the intervention. Factors associated with referral for further treatment were female gender, anxiety as the main complaint, previous psychiatric treatment, self-harming behaviour, a previous need for child welfare services, poor psychosocial functioning and a high score in the

  1. Comparison of self -sufficiency of selected types of meat in the Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef SLABOCH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the rate of self-sufficiency of selected types of meat (beef, pork, and poultry in the Visegrad countries. The data are obtained from Eurostat and from national statistical offices of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The rate of self-sufficiency is evaluated for the time period 2003 - 2013 and its results are compared to trade coverage ratio that indicates competitiveness of country in given commodity. Degree of self-sufficiency is an important indicator of country's ability to meet demand of domestic supply. From the obtained results, it can be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with regard to self-sufficiency significantly deteriorated after EU accession, especially in the area of pork and poultry. The self-sufficiency for pork meat decreased to 57% and to 73% in the case of poultry. The situation is quite stable for beef. However beef creates only a small portion of the Czech consumption. A similar situation can be observed in Slovakia, its degree of self-sufficiency of pork and poultry declined down to 53% and 78% respectively. To cover production of poultry and pork from national resources in both countries, production would need to increase by millions of swine and chicken, which may be complicated with respect to existing infrastructure. The production of beef, poultry and pork is sufficient in Poland, production covers consumption. Self-sufficiency in beef increased above 400% mainly due to decline in beef consumption. Since 2009, self-sufficiency in pork has slightly risen and in 2013 it reached 117%. Consumption and production of poultry is on the rise, poultry become a substitute to beef; processing industry doubled its output between 2003 and 2013. Also Hungary, similarly to Poland, is able to cover domestic consumption by domestic production. The self-sufficiency in the case of poultry meat reach 170%, which is positively reflected in the trade balance. Between 2003 and 2013

  2. Effects of a Tariff Reduction on Grain Self-Sufficiency: Evidence from Country-Level Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghyeon Jeon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of a tariff reduction on the grain self-sufficiency and the sustainability of domestic grain production. We develop a theoretical model in which trade, tariff, and supply-demand equations are explicitly included, with the classification of food importing and exporting countries. Estimation results based on panel data for 150 countries over 17 years show that the effects of domestic tariff of food-importing countries on the grain self-sufficiency rate (SSR are positive. This implies that market expansion through tariff reduction will have a negative effect on the importing country’s food SSR and sustainable domestic supply. Using the estimated coefficients on the empirical equations, we derived the elasticities of grain SSR with respect to the tariff rate of food-importing countries. Those are in the ranges of 0.221–0.387.

  3. A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading {alpha}'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

  4. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  5. Changes in cytokinins are sufficient to alter developmental patterns of defense metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütting, Christoph; Schäfer, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Plant defense metabolites are well known to be regulated developmentally. The optimal defense (OD) theory posits that a tssue's fitness values and probability of attack should determine defense metabolite allocations. Young leaves are expected to provide a larger fitness value to the plant, and therefore their defense allocations should be higher when compared with older leaves. The mechanisms that coordinate development with defense remain unknown and frequently confound tests of the OD theory predictions. Here we demonstrate that cytokinins (CKs) modulate ontogeny-dependent defenses in Nicotiana attenuata. We found that leaf CK levels highly correlate with inducible defense expressions with high levels in young and low levels in older leaves. We genetically manipulated the developmental patterns of two different CK classes by using senescence- and chemically inducible expression of CK biosynthesis genes. Genetically modifying the levels of different CKs in leaves was sufficient to alter ontogenic patterns of defense metabolites. We conclude that the developmental regulation of growth hormones that include CKs plays central roles in connecting development with defense and therefore in establishing optimal patterns of defense allocation in plants. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. New research builds strong case for including informal migrant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Another IDRC-supported project analyzed rural labour markets in Mali, Burkina Faso, and Senegal, to understand the activities migrants typically engage in after moving to cities. The results show that young migrants are better off. Young men tend to be the first to migrate, with parents sending them to bigger cities to find ...

  7. The Effects of Simple Necessity and Sufficiency Relationships on Children's Causal Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Attempted to determine (1) whether developmental differences existed in children's comprehension of simple necessity and simple sufficiency relationships, and (2) the source of developmental differences in children's causal reasoning. (SB)

  8. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany

    2016-04-26

    This presentation provides an overview of new and ongoing NREL research that aims to improve our understanding of reliability and revenue sufficiency challenges through modeling tools within a markets framework.

  9. A necessary and sufficient condition for a real quadratic extension to have class number one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemu, Y.

    1990-02-01

    We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a real quadratic extension to have class number one and discuss the applicability of the result to find the class number one fields with small discriminant. 9 refs, 3 tabs

  10. Countrywide Evaluation of the Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency Plan. Establishing the Baselines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoeni, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ...) Plan on November 16,1999. The LTFSS Plan consists of 46 projects whose goal is to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating in the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs...

  11. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is now widely recognized in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multi-disciplinary perspective, with businesses increasingly using inter-disciplinary teams. This trend is also seen in nuclear emergency management, for example in the UK inter-disciplinary groups are formed to focus on specific topics such as remediation where their recommendations are feed to the decision makers. The necessity of taking a multi-disciplinary perspective is particularly important for contexts in which the decision makers are likely to be under high stress and so could revert to instinctive patterns of behaviour and modes of communication found in their core disciplines. Yet when we look at the design of the information systems produced to support emergency management, we find a very partial set of disciplinary perspectives providing a strongly rationalistic, technocratic view. These systems have been developed by the technical community with little consultation with non-expert decision makers and limited understanding of emergency management processes across Europe and the social systems with which they interact. In this paper we have considered the Cynefin model, developed by IBM, which draws together much of the work on decision making and decision context over the past 30-40 years, describing the possible contexts in which decision-making may take place, the known, the knowable, the complex and the chaotic space. The known space is the realm of scientific knowledge where the cause and effect are understood. Next, there is the knowable space the realm of scientific enquiry where the cause and effect can be determined with sufficient data. In the complex space there are many interacting cause and effects, to the extent that we do not have sufficiently refined models to predict what will happen as a consequence of any particular actions and the cause and effect may only be explained after the event. In the chaotic

  12. High-order sufficient conditions for configuration tracking of affine connection control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Sigalotti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we study under which conditions the trajectories of a mechanical control system can track any curve on the configuration manifold. We focus on systems that can be represented as forced affine connection control systems and we generalize the sufficient conditions for tracking known in the literature. The sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of convex cones of vector fields defined through particular brackets of the control vector fields of the sys...

  13. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  14. An Empirical Approach to Sufficient Similarity: Combining Exposure Data and Mixtures Toxicology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Scott; Gennings, Chris; Teuschler, Linda K.; Stork, LeAnna G.; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Crofton, Kevin M.; Rice, Glenn E.

    2013-01-01

    When assessing risks posed by environmental chemical mixtures, whole mixture approaches are preferred to component approaches. When toxicological data on whole mixtures as they occur in the environment are not available, EPA guidance states that, toxicity data from a mixture considered “sufficiently similar” to the environmental mixture can serve as a surrogate. We propose a novel method to examine whether mixtures are sufficiently similar, when exposure data and mixture toxicity study data from at least one representative mixture are available. We define sufficient similarity using equivalence testing methodology comparing the distance between benchmark dose estimates for mixtures in both data rich and data poor cases. We construct a “similar mixtures risk indicator” (analogous to the hazard index) on sufficiently similar mixtures linking exposure data with mixtures toxicology data. The methods are illustrated using pyrethroid mixtures occurrence data collected in child care centers (CCC) and dose-response data examining acute neurobehavioral effects of pyrethroid mixtures in rats. Our method shows that the mixtures from 90% of the CCCs were sufficiently similar to the dose-response study mixture. Using exposure estimates for a hypothetical child, the 95th percentile of the (weighted) similar mixtures risk indicator (SMRI) for these sufficiently similar mixtures was 0.20 (i.e., where SMRI1, more concern). PMID:23398277

  15. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  16. HDAC1 activates FoxO and is both sufficient and required for skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Adam W.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Roberts, Brandon M.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are activated, and necessary for the muscle atrophy, in several pathophysiological conditions, including muscle disuse and cancer cachexia. However, the mechanisms that lead to FoxO activation are not well defined. Recent data from our laboratory and others indicate that the activity of FoxO is repressed under basal conditions via reversible lysine acetylation, which becomes compromised during catabolic conditions. Therefore, we aimed to determine how histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins contribute to activation of FoxO and induction of the muscle atrophy program. Through the use of various pharmacological inhibitors to block HDAC activity, we demonstrate that class I HDACs are key regulators of FoxO and the muscle-atrophy program during both nutrient deprivation and skeletal muscle disuse. Furthermore, we demonstrate, through the use of wild-type and dominant-negative HDAC1 expression plasmids, that HDAC1 is sufficient to activate FoxO and induce muscle fiber atrophy in vivo and is necessary for the atrophy of muscle fibers that is associated with muscle disuse. The ability of HDAC1 to cause muscle atrophy required its deacetylase activity and was linked to the induction of several atrophy genes by HDAC1, including atrogin-1, which required deacetylation of FoxO3a. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of class I HDACs during muscle disuse, using MS-275, significantly attenuated both disuse muscle fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Together, these data solidify the importance of class I HDACs in the muscle atrophy program and indicate that class I HDAC inhibitors are feasible countermeasures to impede muscle atrophy and weakness. PMID:24463822

  17. On information acquisition by buyers and information disclosure by sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstiege, Stefan

    I consider a monopolistic-pricing model in which the buyer does not know his valuation at the outset. The seller may induce him to acquire information even though she could easily disclose sufficient information herself.

  18. 77 FR 2550 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... outcomes, reduce criminal recidivism, comply with child support orders and improve family engagement. The..., household income, criminal justice, self-sufficiency and family engagement, including, child support... contact information. 3. Implementation Research and Site Visits. Data on the context for the programs and...

  19. Philosophy of sufficiency economy for community-based adaptation to climate change: Lessons learned from Thai case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulvadee Kansuntisukmongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major components within the philosophy of a sufficiency economy include moderation, prudence, and self-immunity together with knowledge and morality. These components were proposed to safeguard local communities from adverse changes and crises. Climatic crises due to global warming can impact upon local agricultural production and consumption systems. Yet, it is still questionable whether communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy can cope with climate change. The objective of this research was to study the coping and adaptive capacity to climate change of local agricultural communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy and to analyze the success factors of adaptation to climate change. The research found five adaptive strategies leading to a resilient livelihood: (1 self-evaluation, (2 diversity dependency, (3 storage and reserve, (4 cooperation, and (5 mobility over space and time. These strategies help to reduce exposure and sensitivity, while increasing adaptive capacity to climate change with the aims of sustainability and adaptation for survival, and protecting natural resource bases for food and settlement security. Moderation, prudence, and self-immunity are critical success factors of adaptation measures, whereas local ecological knowledge with morality is a core enabling factor for adapting to climate change. These factors can be applied in community-based climate change adaptation in the National Adaptation Plan.

  20. Are single odorous components of a predator sufficient to elicit defensive behaviors in prey species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimund eApfelbach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When exposed to the odor of a sympatric predator, prey animals typically display escape or defensive responses. These phenomena have been well-documented, especially in rodents, when exposed to the odor of a cat, ferret or fox. As a result of these experiments new discussions center on the following questions: 1 is a single volatile compound such as a major or a minor mixture constituent in urine or feces, emitted by the predator sufficient to cause defensive reactions in a potential prey species or 2 is a whole array of odors required to elicit a response and 3 will the relative size or escapability of the prey as compared to the predator influence responsiveness. Most predator-prey studies on this topic have been performed in the laboratory or under semi-natural conditions. Field studies could help to find answers to these questions. Australian mammals are completely naïve towards the introduced placental carnivores. That offers ideal opportunities to analyze in the field the responses of potential prey species to unknown predator odors. During the last decades researchers have accumulated an enormous amount of data exploring the effects of eutherian predator odors on native marsupial mammals. In this review, we will give a survey about the development of olfactory research, chemical signals and their influence on the behavior and - in some cases - physiology of prey species. In addition, we report on the effects of predator odor experiments performed under natural conditions in Australia. When studying all these literature we learned that data gained under controlled laboratory conditions elucidate the role of individual odors on brain structures and ultimately on a comparatively narrow range behaviors. In contrast to single odors odor arrays mimic much more the situation prey animals are confronted to in nature. Therefore, a broad range of methodology — from chemistry to ecology including anatomy, physiology and behavior — is needed to

  1. Human cerebrospinal fluid monoclonal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor autoantibodies are sufficient for encephalitis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Jakob; Wenke, Nina K; Chayka, Mariya; Leubner, Jonas; Murugan, Rajagopal; Maier, Nikolaus; Jurek, Betty; Ly, Lam-Thanh; Brandl, Doreen; Rost, Benjamin R; Stumpf, Alexander; Schulz, Paulina; Radbruch, Helena; Hauser, Anja E; Pache, Florence; Meisel, Andreas; Harms, Lutz; Paul, Friedemann; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Garner, Craig; Schmitz, Dietmar; Wardemann, Hedda; Prüss, Harald

    2016-10-01

    SEE ZEKERIDOU AND LENNON DOI101093/AWW213 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently discovered autoimmune syndrome associated with psychosis, dyskinesias, and seizures. Little is known about the cerebrospinal fluid autoantibody repertoire. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR are thought to be pathogenic; however, direct proof is lacking as previous experiments could not distinguish the contribution of further anti-neuronal antibodies. Using single cell cloning of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, we generated a panel of recombinant monoclonal NR1 antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid memory B cells and antibody secreting cells of NMDAR encephalitis patients. Cells typically carried somatically mutated immunoglobulin genes and had undergone class-switching to immunoglobulin G, clonally expanded cells carried identical somatic hypermutation patterns. A fraction of NR1 antibodies were non-mutated, thus resembling 'naturally occurring antibodies' and indicating that tolerance induction against NMDAR was incomplete and somatic hypermutation not essential for functional antibodies. However, only a small percentage of cerebrospinal fluid-derived antibodies reacted against NR1. Instead, nearly all further antibodies bound specifically to diverse brain-expressed epitopes including neuronal surfaces, suggesting that a broad repertoire of antibody-secreting cells enrich in the central nervous system during encephalitis. Our functional data using primary hippocampal neurons indicate that human cerebrospinal fluid-derived monoclonal NR1 antibodies alone are sufficient to cause neuronal surface receptor downregulation and subsequent impairment of NMDAR-mediated currents, thus providing ultimate proof of antibody pathogenicity. The observed formation of immunological memory might be relevant for clinical relapses. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on

  2. Are children's dental panoramic tomographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs sufficiently optimized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Ekholm, Marja; Haukka, Jari; Evälahti, Marjut; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Cutting down the dimensions of the X-ray beam is the most effective way to reduce the patient dose. We evaluated the appropriateness of field-size in the most frequent radiographs, dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) among 7- to 12-year-olds. The image field-size of 241 DPTs and 118 LCRs was analysed. The image field was considered appropriate when it did not include anatomic structures beyond the area of clinical interest. The image field was compared with factors such as the age of the patient, the radiographic equipment used and the programme selected. Moreover, we assessed the use of thyroid shield in LCR. The field-size was too large in 70% of the DPTs horizontally and in 96% vertically. None of the DPTs were segmented. Every LCR showed appropriate limitation anteriorly, but the image field was too large in 54% posteriorly, in 86% superiorly, and in 76% inferiorly. A thyroid shield had been used in only 71% of cases. Most DPTs and LCRs had been performed sub-optimally. An abundancy of DPTs had been taken using an adult programme, and the field-size had not been sufficiently adjusted in LCRs, possibly for technical reasons. To facilitate adherence to radiological best practice the equipment used for DPTs and LCRs should facilitate the adjustment of field-size in both the vertical and horizontal planes. In addition, those involved in taking radiographs should maintain their skills through regular update courses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Optimization of the self-sufficient thorium fuel cycle for CANDU power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of optimization calculations for CANDU reactors operating in the thorium cycle are presented in this paper. Calculations were performed to validate the feasibility of operating a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in a self-sufficient thorium cycle. Two modes of operation were considered in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U in the reactor itself and the mode of operation in a self-sufficient cycle. For the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that enriched uranium or plutonium was used as additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. In the self-sufficient mode of operation, the mass and isotopic composition of heavy nuclei unloaded from the reactor should provide (after the removal of fission products the value of the multiplication factor of the cell in the following cycle K>1. Additionally, the task was to determine the geometry and composition of the cell for an acceptable burn up of 233U. The results obtained demonstrate that the realization of a self-sufficient thorium mode for a CANDU reactor is possible without using new technologies. The main features of the reactor ensuring a self-sufficient mode of operation are a good neutron balance and moving of fuel through the active core.

  4. How, When, and Where? Assessing Renewable Energy Self-Sufficiency at the Neighborhood Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosspietsch, David; Thömmes, Philippe; Girod, Bastien; Hoffmann, Volker H

    2018-02-20

    Self-sufficient decentralized systems challenge the centralized energy paradigm. Although scholars have assessed specific locations and technological aspects, it remains unclear how, when, and where energy self-sufficiency could become competitive. To address this gap, we develop a techno-economic model for energy self-sufficient neighborhoods that integrates solar photovoltaics (PV), conversion, and storage technologies. We assess the cost of 100% self-sufficiency for both electricity and heat, comparing different technical configurations for a stylized neighborhood in Switzerland and juxtaposing these findings with projections on market and technology development. We then broaden the scope and vary the neighborhood's composition (residential share) and geographic position (along different latitudes). Regarding how to design self-sufficient neighborhoods, we find two promising technical configurations. The "PV-battery-hydrogen" configuration is projected to outperform a fossil-fueled and grid-connected reference configuration when energy prices increase by 2.5% annually and cost reductions in hydrogen-related technologies by a factor of 2 are achieved. The "PV-battery" configuration would allow achieving parity with the reference configuration sooner, at 21% cost reduction. Additionally, more cost-efficient deployment is found in neighborhoods where the end-use is small commercial or mixed and in regions where seasonal fluctuations are low and thus allow for reducing storage requirements.

  5. The need for a sufficient number of low level sera in comparisons of different serum vitamin B12 assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.; Kock, H.W. de; Meulendijk, P.N.; Schmidt, N.A.; Schopman, W.; Tertoolen, J.F.W.; Voogd, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Eight radiochemical methods for the assay of vitamin B 12 in serum were compared with the microbiological assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 using 198 individual sera of patients. There was a good agreement between the results of most samples with some kits and the microbiological assay. However, especially in the sera of vitamin B 12 -deficient patients large discrepancies between the results could occur. These variations were due to both the kits used and the performance of the assays in different laboratories. A sufficient number of non-pooled sera of vitamin B 12 -deficient patients should be included in investigations to validate radiochemical methods. (Auth.)

  6. Sufficient criterion for guaranteeing that a two-qubit state is unsteerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Quantum steering can be detected via the violation of steering inequalities, which provide sufficient conditions for the steerability of quantum states. Here we discuss the converse problem, namely, ensuring that an entangled state is unsteerable and hence Bell local. We present a simple criterion, applicable to any two-qubit state, that guarantees that the state admits a local hidden state model for arbitrary projective measurements. Specifically, we construct local hidden state models for a large class of entangled states, which thus cannot violate any steering or Bell inequality. In turn, this leads to sufficient conditions for a state to be only one-way steerable and provides the simplest possible example of one-way steering. Finally, by exploiting the connection between steering and measurement incompatibility, we give a sufficient criterion for a continuous set of qubit measurements to be jointly measurable.

  7. Microdialysate concentration changes do not provide sufficient information to evaluate metabolic effects of lactate supplementation in brain-injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dienel, G. A.; Rothman, D. L.; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    in extracellular glucose level is beneficial or that lactate is metabolized and improves neuroenergetics. The increase in glucose concentration may reflect inhibition of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and pentose phosphate shunt pathway fluxes by lactate flooding in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction...

  8. Performance measure that indicates geometry sufficiency of state highways : volume II -- clear zones and cross-section information extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Evaluationmethod employedforthe proposed corridor projects by IndianaDepartment of Transportation(INDOT) considerroad : geometry improvements by a generalized categorization. A newmethod which consi...

  9. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM, these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the “nudge” approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  10. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, L.; Leite, H.; Ponce de Leão, T.

    2012-10-01

    In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM), these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the "nudge" approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  11. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first

  12. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotional with insured periods, but after56 years enhancement of premium reserve value.

  13. [Effect of vitamin beverages on vitamin sufficiency of the workers of Pskov Hydroelectric Power-Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiricheva, T V; Vrezhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Iudina, A V; Spirichev, V B

    2010-01-01

    The research of influence of vitamin complexes in the form of a drink or kissel on vitamin sufficiency of working persons has been carried out. Long inclusion (6,5 months) in a diet of vitamin drinks containing about 80% from recommended daily consumption of vitamins, was accompanied by trustworthy improvement of vitamins C and B6 sufficiency and prevention of seasonal deterioration of beta-carotene status. As initially surveyed have been well provided with vitamins A and E, their blood serum level increase had not occurred.

  14. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  15. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Fisher

    Full Text Available The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4, and triiodothyronine (T3. Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4, and T3 in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were

  16. 76 FR 43349 - General Motors Corporation, Renaissance Center, including On-Site Leased Workers From Accretive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... firm. The workers support production of automobiles. New information shows that workers leased from... Solutions were sufficiently under the control of the subject firm to be covered by this certification. Based...

  17. Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  18. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Pareto Optimality in Infinite Horizon Cooperative Differential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, P.V.; Engwerda, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of Pareto optimal solutions for infinite horizon cooperative differential games. We consider games defined by non autonomous and discounted autonomous systems. The obtained results are used to analyze the regular

  19. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we

  20. Social Work's Response to Poverty: From Benefits Dependence to Economic Self-Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lauren B.; Koza, Jennifer; Akabas, Sheila H.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare reform in the 1990s represented a fundamental policy shift in the United States' response to poverty from supporting benefits dependency to promoting economic self-sufficiency. Social work's capacity to integrate this policy shift into practice is central to meeting its mission to alleviate poverty. This study looked at the preparation of…

  1. Decreased, but still sufficient, iodine intake of children and adults in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Dekkers, Arnold L M; van Rossum, Caroline T M

    Sufficient I intake is important for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which play an important role in normal growth and development. Our aim was to estimate habitual I intake for the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate or excessive intakes. Further, we aimed to provide an insight into the

  2. Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Local Exponential Synchronization of Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, Vincent; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Tarbouriech, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent works on transverse exponential stability, some necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a (locally) exponential synchronizer are established. We show that the existence of a structured synchronizer is equivalent to the existence of a stabilizer for the individual

  3. Sufficient Conditions for Uniform Bounds in Abstract Polymer Systems and Explorative Partition Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present several new sufficient conditions for uniform boundedness of the reduced correlations and free energy of an abstract polymer system in a complex multidisc around zero fugacity. They resolve a discrepancy between two incomparable and previously known extensions of Dobrushin’s classic

  4. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a Pareto optimal allocation in a discontinuous Gale economic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the concept of Pareto optimality in a simplified Gale economic model without assuming continuity of the utility functions. We apply some existing results on higher-order optimality conditions to get necessary and sufficient conditions for a locally Pareto optimal allocation.

  5. Some Sufficient Conditions for the Controllability of Wave Equations with Variable Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuning

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present some easily verifiable sufficient conditions that guarantee the controllability of wave equations with non-constant coefficients. These conditions work as complements for those obtained by Peng-fei Yao in SIAM J. Control Optim.1999

  6. A necessary and sufficient condition for non-smooth linear-state optimal control problems

    OpenAIRE

    Martimort, David; Stole, Lars

    2009-01-01

    We present a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a class of optimal control problems with pure state constraints for which the objective function is linear in the state variable but the objective function is otherwise only restricted to be upper semicontinuous in the control variable.

  7. Necessary and sufficient conditions for Hopf bifurcation in tri-neuron equation with a delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoming; Liao Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the delayed differential equations modeling three-neuron equations with only a time delay. Using the time delay as a bifurcation parameter, necessary and sufficient conditions for Hopf bifurcation to occur are derived. Numerical results indicate that for this model, Hopf bifurcation is likely to occur at suitable delay parameter values.

  8. The mode of operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in the thorium fuel cycle. The calculations were performed to estimate feasibility of operation of a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in the self-sufficient thorium cycle. The parameters of the active core and the scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for the standard operation in the uranium cycle. Two modes of operation are discussed in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U and the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle. For calculations for the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that plutonium was used as the additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. Plutonium was placed in fuel channels, while 232Th was located in target channels. The maximum content of 233U in the target channels was about 13 kg/t of ThO2. This was achieved by six year irradiation. The start of reactor operation in the self-sufficient mode requires content of 233U not less than 12 kg/t. For the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle, it was assumed that all the channels were loaded with the identical fuel assemblies containing ThO2 and a certain amount of 233U. It was shown that the non-uniform distribution of 233U in a fuel assembly is preferable.

  9. Can British Columbia Achieve Electricity Self-Sufficiency and Meet its Renewable Portfolio Standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2012-01-01

    British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we

  10. Sufficient Flexibility and Capacity in Electricity Markets with Renewables: A Review of Innovative Market Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekamane, Jonas Khubute; Katz, Jonas; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature collects innovative market mechanisms that tend to get overlooked in the discussion of whether unassisted energy-only markets can ensure sufficient capacity or if capacity remuneration mechanisms are required. The paper complements existing literature reviews...... and pinpoints advantageous research areas relating to the market design of electricity systems with high shares of variable renewable energy...

  11. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Feedback Nash Equilibria for the Affine Quadratic Differential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.; Salmah, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this note we consider the non-cooperative linear feedback Nash quadratic differential game with an infinite planning horizon. The performance function is assumed to be indefinite and the underlying system affine. We derive both necessary and sufficient conditions under which this game has a Nash

  12. [In-house PCR practical knowledge: a sufficient validation according to NF EN ISO 15189?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Védy, Serge; Valois, Aude; Budzilawski, David; Perez, Pascale; Puyhardy, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    As far as molecular biology is concerned, numerous are laboratories using in-house method. Used since many years, medical biologists have often a good practical knowledge about them. According to ISO 15189 accreditation, is this knowledge sufficient for the validation of these methods? We have asked this question ourselves about our in-house Leishmaniasis PCR.

  13. On Certain Sufficient Conditions For A Function To Be Close-To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We consider certain properties of 1- (zg'(z)/f'|(z)) as a sufficient condition for a function f (z) to be a close-to-convex function. Keywords: Univalent function, Convex function, Starlike function, Close-to-convex function. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 30C45.

  14. A necessary and a sufficient condition for the existence of optimizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the starting point xok and the end point xk of the kth iteration in the LEA is a non-increasing function. This is a sufficient condition for the existence optimizers of LP problems. Key Word: Linear Exchange Algorithm, Experimental Design, Linear Programming Problems, d-function. [Global Jnl Mathematical Sci Vol.2(1) 2003: ...

  15. Operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in thorium fuel cycle. Calculations are performed to estimate the feasibility of operation of heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in self-sufficient thorium cycle. Parameters of active core and scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the ...

  16. Sufficient condition for black-hole formation in spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambo, Roberto; Giannoni, Fabio; Magli, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    A sufficient condition for the validity of cosmic censorship in spherical gravitational collapse is formulated and proved. The condition relies on an attractive mathematical property of the apparent horizon, which holds if 'minimal' requirements of physical reasonableness are satisfied by the matter model. (letter to the editor)

  17. A Sufficient Condition for an Interval Matrix to have Full Column Rank

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2017), s. 59-66 ISSN 1560-7534 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * full column rank * sufficient condition * double condition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://www. ict .nsc.ru/jct/annotation/1779?l=eng

  18. Reliability of the Colorado Family Support Assessment: A Self-Sufficiency Matrix for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melissa K.; Pampel, Fred C.; Zarcula, Flavia; Howey, Virginia; McChesney, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Family support programs commonly use self-sufficiency matrices (SSMs) to measure family outcomes, however, validation research on SSMs is sparse. This study examined the reliability of the Colorado Family Support Assessment 2.0 (CFSA 2.0) to measure family self-reliance across 14 domains (e.g., employment). Methods: Ten written case…

  19. Evaluating the sufficiency of protected lands for maintaining wildlife population connectivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth; Curtis H. Flather

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the sufficiency of the network of protected lands in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountains in providing protection for habitat connectivity for 105 hypothetical organisms. A large proportion of the landscape...

  20. Lead–acid batteries coupled with photovoltaics for increased electricity self-sufficiency in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira e Silva de, Guilherme; Hendrick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid parity is reached for PV installations up to nearly 40% self-sufficiency. • Reaching beyond 40% self-sufficiency requires storage and support policies. • Peak consumption remains constant but load variability rises with self-sufficiency. • Changes in power plants portfolio and wholesale electricity prices are expected. • Limiting feed-in power is a promising solution for reducing load variability. - Abstract: With distributed generation of electricity growing in importance (especially with photovoltaics) and buildings being one of the main consumers of energy in modern societies, distributed storage of energy in buildings is expected to become increasingly present. This paper analyses the use of residential lead–acid energy storage coupled with photovoltaics and its possible interaction with the grid for different limits of feed-in power without any support policies. In the literature, these subjects are often treated independently and for very specific, non-optimised cases, thus motivating further research. Results show that reaching self-sufficiency values up to 40% is possible, close to grid parity values, and only with photovoltaics. Beyond 40%, energy storage must be used, strongly raising the cost of the electricity consumed and therefore the need for support policies for widespread adoption. Also, peak power consumption from the grid remains constant and load variability rises, suggesting that an increase in self-sufficiency would be accompanied by lower utilisation factors of power plants and, consequently, higher wholesale electricity prices during no sunshine hours. Limiting feed-in power attenuates the increased load variability and only slightly affects the economic viability of such installations. These results present a novel optimisation tool for developers and should be considered in future studies of distributed photovoltaics and energy storage as well as in energy policy.

  1. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  2. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Serrano Manuel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  3. Statistical Information: A Bayesian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. de B. Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore the meaning of information about quantities of interest. Our approach is divided in two scenarios: the analysis of observations and the planning of an experiment. First, we review the Sufficiency, Conditionality and Likelihood principles and how they relate to trivial experiments. Next, we review Blackwell Sufficiency and show that sampling without replacement is Blackwell Sufficient for sampling with replacement. Finally, we unify the two scenarios presenting an extension of the relationship between Blackwell Equivalence and the Likelihood Principle.

  4. Informal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal t...

  5. The transcension hypothesis: Sufficiently advanced civilizations invariably leave our universe, and implications for METI and SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The emerging science of evolutionary developmental ("evo devo") biology can aid us in thinking about our universe as both an evolutionary system, where most processes are unpredictable and creative, and a developmental system, where a special few processes are predictable and constrained to produce far-future-specific emergent order, just as we see in the common developmental processes in two stars of an identical population type, or in two genetically identical twins in biology. The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination. Transcension as a developmental destiny might also contribute to the solution to the Fermi paradox, the question of why we have not seen evidence of or received beacons from intelligent civilizations. A few potential evolutionary, developmental, and information theoretic reasons, mechanisms, and models for constrained transcension of advanced intelligence are briefly considered. In particular, we introduce arguments that black holes may be a developmental destiny and standard attractor for all higher intelligence, as they appear to some to be ideal computing, learning, forward time travel, energy harvesting, civilization merger, natural selection, and universe replication devices. In the transcension hypothesis, simpler civilizations that succeed in resisting transcension by staying in outer (normal) space would be developmental failures, which are statistically very rare late in the life cycle of any biological developing system. If transcension is a developmental process, we may expect brief broadcasts or subtle forms of galactic engineering to occur in small portions of a few galaxies, the handiwork of young and immature

  6. Bridging Expectations: Extension Agents’ Perception of a Gap between Expectations and Experience when Implementing the Indonesian Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Beef self-sufficiency programme (BSSP) was launched in Indonesia in 2004 in response to the massive import of beef from other countries. The objective of the present article is to explore and discuss how Indonesian extension agents perceived the practical implementation of the programme, including...

  7. Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self-Sufficiency: FY 2014. OPRE Report 2015-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Economic Independence within the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) has primary responsibility for welfare and family self-sufficiency research. OPRE's research in the area of welfare and family self-sufficiency is designed to expand knowledge about effective programs to promote employment, self-sufficiency, and…

  8. 75 FR 31805 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Awards for the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)--Service Coordinators Program for Fiscal... and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Service Coordinators Program funding for Fiscal Year 2009. This... concerning the FY 2009 Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Service Coordinators Program awards...

  9. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  10. Cre/loxP-mediated adenovirus type 5 packaging signal excision demonstrates that core element VI is sufficient for virus packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yasushi; Kimura, En; Uchida, Yuji; Nishida, Yasuto; Yamashita, Satoshi; Arima, Toshiyuki; Uchino, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Previous analyses have demonstrated that packaging of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) genome is dependent on at least seven cis-acting elements, called AI to AVII, which are located in the left-end region of the genome. These elements have different packaging efficiencies, and without AI through AV, viral DNA cannot be packaged. Here we report the identification of the cis-acting Ad5 packaging domain in vivo by using the Cre/loxP system. We found that an adenoviral DNA fragment (nt 192 to nt 358), which includes elements AI to AV, is excised by Cre recombinase and packaged into capsids. Furthermore, this mutant adenovirus replicated so efficiently by repetitive propagation that its purification by CsCI equilibrium gradient was possible. This study clarified that the region from nt 358 to nt 454 on the viral genome is sufficient for packaging. Recently, the helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDAd) construction system has been developed for the purpose of gene therapy. This system uses a helper virus with two parallel loxP sites flanking the packaging signal. This region is eliminated by Cre-mediated excision, which prevents helper virus packaging. Our data provide useful information regarding factors affecting efficient elimination

  11. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change: Reactions to Rogers' 1957 article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samstag, Lisa Wallner

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy research. He emphasized the client as arbiter of his or her own subjective experience and tested his hypothesized therapist-offered conditions of change using recorded sessions. This aided in demystifying the therapeutic process and led to a radical shift in the listening stance of the therapist. I briefly outline my views regarding the influence of the ideas presented in this work, describe the intellectual and cultural context of the times, and discuss a number of ways in which the therapist-offered conditions for psychological transformation are neither necessary nor sufficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The degree of C0-sufficiency of analytic function germs with respect to an ideal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Tien Son

    2006-07-01

    Let f:(C 2 , 0) → (C, 0) be an analytic function germ of two complex variables and let I be an ideal of C{x,y). We give some formulae for the degree of C 0 -sufficiency of f with respect to I. When I is the maximal ideal we retrieve a result of T.C. Kuo and Y.C. Lu. (author)

  13. Sufficient triangular norms in many-valued logics with standard negation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butnariu, D.; Klement, E.P.; Mesiar, Radko; Navara, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 44 (2005), s. 829-849 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : many-valued logic * sufficient t-norm * involution negation * admisible function * t-norm based tribe Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.490, year: 2005

  14. Sufficient stability condition for alpha-driven velocity-space modes in compression tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Okamoto, M.

    1982-09-01

    Magnetic compression heating may invert the velocity distribution of alpha particles, which leads to velocity-space instabilities. A sufficient stability condition is derived for these modes in compression tokamaks. High-field high-density compression scenario like Zephyr satisfies this stability condition, while medium-field high-temperature compression scheme like TFTR has some possibilities of exciting velocity-space thermonuclear instabilities. (author)

  15. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3–56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  16. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  17. Sufficient condition for generation of multiple solidification front in one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobula, E.; Kalicka, Z.

    1981-10-01

    In the paper we consider the one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys in the finite system. The authors present the sufficient condition for solidification in the liquid in front of the moving solid-liquid interface. The effect may produce a fluctuating concentration distributin in the solid. The convection in the liquid and supercooling required for homogeneous nucleation are omitted. A local-equilibrium approximation at the liquid-solid interface is supposed. (author)

  18. Economic efficiency or self-sufficiency: alternative strategies for oil consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal energy source is low cost (efficient) and reliable (secure). The high price and perceived political unreliability of Middle East oil supplies prompted a nearly worldwide trend towards energy self-sufficiency. Gains in energy efficiency, which have been most marked in the OECD, are permanent and, prompted by environmental concern, probably progressive. But the opportunity that is still available to low cost oil suppliers to regain lost markets will only be realized if those supplies are demonstrably reliable. (author)

  19. A necessary and sufficient condition for gelation of a reversible Markov process of polymerization

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D

    2003-01-01

    A reversible Markov process as a chemical polymerization model which permits the coagulation and fragmentation reactions is considered. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of a gelation in the process. We show that a gelation transition may or may not occur, depending on the value of the fragmentation strength, and, in the case that gelation takes place, a critical value for the occurrence of the gelation and the mass of the gel can be determined by close forms.

  20. Taxonomic level sufficient for assessing a moderate impact on macrobenthic communities in Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, S.P.; Cole, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Macrobenthic data obtained using three sampling schemes (0.06-sq m x 8-cm-deep sampling unit and 1.0- or 0.5-mm-mesh sieves, and 0.1-sq m x 8-cm-deep sampling unit and 1.0-mm-mesh sieve) previously identified as optimal or near-optimal for detecting differences between a reference and a moderately impacted station when animals were identified to species were reanalyzed at the genus, family, order, and phylum level to determine the taxonomic level sufficient to detect differences between the stations with t-tests on five measures of community structure. Taxonomically sufficient levels for number of taxa were family in 1.0-mm-mesh samples and species in 0.5-mm-mesh samples. Specific identification was usually required for a Dominance, Shannon's, 1 - Simpson's, and McIntosh's Index in 1.0- and 0.5-mm-mesh samples, suggesting limits to the utility of the taxonomic sufficiency concept when using those indices to detect moderate impacts. This and a previous study indicate that one could reliably (alpha = 0.05, 1 - beta about 0.80) detect moderate benthic impacts at the study site on number of taxa and five other measures of community structure with five to seven replicate 0.06-sq m x 8-cm-deep, 1.0-mm-mesh samples per station and identification to family only. Taxonomic sufficiency can vary depending upon the animal size fraction sampled and the measure used

  1. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-01-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  2. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  3. Two transcription factors, Pou4f2 and Isl1, are sufficient to specify the retinal ganglion cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuguo; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J; Sethuramanujam, Santhosh; Li, Renzhong; Jain, Varsha; Slaughter, Malcolm; Mu, Xiuqian

    2015-03-31

    As with other retinal cell types, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) arise from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and their formation is regulated by a hierarchical gene-regulatory network (GRN). Within this GRN, three transcription factors--atonal homolog 7 (Atoh7), POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2 (Pou4f2), and insulin gene enhancer protein 1 (Isl1)--occupy key node positions at two different stages of RGC development. Atoh7 is upstream and is required for RPCs to gain competence for an RGC fate, whereas Pou4f2 and Isl1 are downstream and regulate RGC differentiation. However, the genetic and molecular basis for the specification of the RGC fate, a key step in RGC development, remains unclear. Here we report that ectopic expression of Pou4f2 and Isl1 in the Atoh7-null retina using a binary knockin-transgenic system is sufficient for the specification of the RGC fate. The RGCs thus formed are largely normal in gene expression, survive to postnatal stages, and are physiologically functional. Our results indicate that Pou4f2 and Isl1 compose a minimally sufficient regulatory core for the RGC fate. We further conclude that during development a core group of limited transcription factors, including Pou4f2 and Isl1, function downstream of Atoh7 to determine the RGC fate and initiate RGC differentiation.

  4. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES – ENERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of a basic social need, namely alimentation. The aim of the research is to evaluate the energetic food self-sufficiency and its changes in the European Union countries. The research has been conducted using the author’s methodology basing on the amount of energy produced and consumed in 1990-2009. The analyses proved that within the considered period, the European Union became an importer of net energy comprised in agricultural products. The excess in produced energy was mainly observed by the countries of European lowland. Moreover in most of the countries, a decrease in the analyzed factor was observed when compared with the 1990-1999 period. On the other hand, in relation to the new member states the increase in food energetic self-sufficiency was observed. The conclusion has been drawn that, while the general food self-sufficiency is mainly determined by environmental factors, its dynamics is primarily influenced by the factors connected with agricultural policy.

  5. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as "sufficiency") and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens' heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials-that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens' heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective.

  6. On a sufficient condition for the subharmonicity of functions, satisfying the discrete mean value inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telyakovskii, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    We obtain a sufficient condition for subharmonicity of functions of two variables that uses Laplace difference operator of Schwartz type. M.A. Kreines proved that an upper semi-continuous function is subharmonic, if for some n ≥ 3 for every point ζ of its domain one can construct of a sufficiently small radius with the center at ζ such that the right n-gon can be inscribed in the circle, while the function value at the point ζ does not exceed the arithmetic mean of its values at the vertices of this n-gon. In this note the semi-continuity condition for the function is replaced by some conditions of function directional continuity an summability (with respect to the planar Lebesgue measure.) We also provide the position of nodes for the Laplace difference operator such that the proposition similar to the Kreines’s Theorem on a sufficient condition for the subharmonicity is valid for the functions of three variables.

  7. A simple, sufficient, and consistent method to score the status of threats and demography of imperiled species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob W. Malcom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managers of large, complex wildlife conservation programs need information on the conservation status of each of many species to help strategically allocate limited resources. Oversimplifying status data, however, runs the risk of missing information essential to strategic allocation. Conservation status consists of two components, the status of threats a species faces and the species’ demographic status. Neither component alone is sufficient to characterize conservation status. Here we present a simple key for scoring threat and demographic changes for species using detailed information provided in free-form textual descriptions of conservation status. This key is easy to use (simple, captures the two components of conservation status without the cost of more detailed measures (sufficient, and can be applied by different personnel to any taxon (consistent. To evaluate the key’s utility, we performed two analyses. First, we scored the threat and demographic status of 37 species recently recommended for reclassification under the Endangered Species Act (ESA and 15 control species, then compared our scores to two metrics used for decision-making and reports to Congress. Second, we scored the threat and demographic status of all non-plant ESA-listed species from Florida (54 spp., and evaluated scoring repeatability for a subset of those. While the metrics reported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS are often consistent with our scores in the first analysis, the results highlight two problems with the oversimplified metrics. First, we show that both metrics can mask underlying demographic declines or threat increases; for example, ∼40% of species not recommended for reclassification had changes in threats or demography. Second, we show that neither metric is consistent with either threats or demography alone, but conflates the two. The second analysis illustrates how the scoring key can be applied to a substantial set of species to

  8. FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION FOR THE REALISATION OF THE RIGHT TO HAVE ACCESS TO SUFFICIENT FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Terblanche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various South African government reports list food security as a development priority. Despite this prioritisation and despite the fact that South Africa is currently food self-sufficient, ongoing food shortages remain a daily reality for approximately 35 percent of the South African population. The government's commitment to food security to date of writing this contribution manifests in related policies, strategies, programmes and sectoral legislation with the focus on food production, distribution, safety and assistance. A paradigm shift in the international food security debate was encouraged during 2009, namely to base food security initiatives on the right to sufficient food. During a 2011 visit to South Africa, the Special Rapporteur for the Right to Food of the United Nations, accordingly confirmed that a human rights-based approach to food security is necessary in the South African legal and policy framework in order to address the huge disparities in terms of food security (especially concerning geography, gender and race. A human rights-based approach to food security will add dimensions of dignity, transparency, accountability, participation and empowerment to food security initiatives. The achievement of food security is further seen as the realisation of existing rights, notably the right of access to sufficient food. The right of access to sufficient food, as entrenched in section 27(1(b of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 will accordingly play a central role within a human rights-based approach to food security. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 qualifies section 27(1(b by requiring the state to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of the section 27(1 rights. The South African government's commitment to food security, as already mentioned, currently manifests in related policies

  9. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  10. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  11. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  12. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 10 10 and 1.22 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 , respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 . Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 . The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the role of budget sufficiency, cost efficiency, and uncertainty in species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Max Post; Bly, Bartholomew B.; Vercauteren, Tammy; Grand, James B.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many conservation planning frameworks rely on the assumption that one should prioritize locations for management actions based on the highest predicted conservation value (i.e., abundance, occupancy). This strategy may underperform relative to the expected outcome if one is working with a limited budget or the predicted responses are uncertain. Yet, cost and tolerance to uncertainty rarely become part of species management plans. We used field data and predictive models to simulate a decision problem involving western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) using prairie dog colonies (Cynomys ludovicianus) in western Nebraska. We considered 2 species management strategies: one maximized abundance and the other maximized abundance in a cost-efficient way. We then used heuristic decision algorithms to compare the 2 strategies in terms of how well they met a hypothetical conservation objective. Finally, we performed an info-gap decision analysis to determine how these strategies performed under different budget constraints and uncertainty about owl response. Our results suggested that when budgets were sufficient to manage all sites, the maximizing strategy was optimal and suggested investing more in expensive actions. This pattern persisted for restricted budgets up to approximately 50% of the sufficient budget. Below this budget, the cost-efficient strategy was optimal and suggested investing in cheaper actions. When uncertainty in the expected responses was introduced, the strategy that maximized abundance remained robust under a sufficient budget. Reducing the budget induced a slight trade-off between expected performance and robustness, which suggested that the most robust strategy depended both on one's budget and tolerance to uncertainty. Our results suggest that wildlife managers should explicitly account for budget limitations and be realistic about their expected levels of performance.

  14. PT symmetry as a necessary and sufficient condition for unitary time evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Philip D

    2013-04-28

    While Hermiticity of a time-independent Hamiltonian leads to unitary time evolution, in and of itself, the requirement of Hermiticity is only sufficient for unitary time evolution. In this paper, we provide conditions that are both necessary and sufficient. We show that PT symmetry of a time-independent Hamiltonian, or equivalently, reality of the secular equation that determines its eigenvalues, is both necessary and sufficient for unitary time evolution. For any PT-symmetric Hamiltonian H, there always exists an operator V that relates H to its Hermitian adjoint according to VHV(-1)=H(†). When the energy spectrum of H is complete, Hilbert space norms constructed with this V are always preserved in time. With the energy eigenvalues of a real secular equation being either real or appearing in complex conjugate pairs, we thus establish the unitarity of time evolution in both cases. We also establish the unitarity of time evolution for Hamiltonians whose energy spectra are not complete. We show that when the energy eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian are real and complete, the operator V is a positive Hermitian operator, which has an associated square root operator that can be used to bring the Hamiltonian to a Hermitian form. We show that systems with PT-symmetric Hamiltonians obey causality. We note that Hermitian theories are ordinarily associated with a path integral quantization prescription in which the path integral measure is real, while in contrast, non-Hermitian but PT-symmetric theories are ordinarily associated with path integrals in which the measure needs to be complex, but in which the Euclidean time continuation of the path integral is nonetheless real. Just as the second-order Klein-Gordon theory is stabilized against transitions to negative frequencies because its Hamiltonian is positive-definite, through PT symmetry, the fourth-order derivative Pais-Uhlenbeck theory can equally be stabilized.

  15. A Sufficient Condition on Convex Relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a sufficient condition for the convex relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in radial distribution networks as a second order cone program (SOCP) to be exact. The condition requires that the allowed reverse power flow is only reactive or active, or none. Under the proposed...... solution of the SOCP can be converted to an optimal solution of the original AC OPF. The efficacy of the convex relaxation to solve the AC OPF is demonstrated by case studies of an optimal multi-period planning problem of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution networks....

  16. Self sufficient wireless transmitter powered by foot-pumped urine operating wearable MFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, M; Stinchcombe, A; Greenman, J; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Melhuish, C; Ieropoulos, I A

    2015-12-10

    The first self-sufficient system, powered by a wearable energy generator based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is introduced. MFCs made from compliant material were developed in the frame of a pair of socks, which was fed by urine via a manual gaiting pump. The simple and single loop cardiovascular fish circulatory system was used as the inspiration for the design of the manual pump. A wireless programmable communication module, engineered to operate within the range of the generated electricity, was employed, which opens a new avenue for research in the utilisation of waste products for powering portable as well as wearable electronics.

  17. Legal Perspective of Using Philanthropy Approach for Low Income Household in Accessing Sufficient House in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efridani Lubis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2016, the backlog for housing is estimated around 13,8 million units. With the need growth 5% per year approximately, Indonesian people need 1 million houses per year. Adding to the number of backlog, it is around 1,55 million houses should be provided every year in order to meet the need in the year 2030. The number is based on the ability to pay in general of Indonesian people, which is with the price for sufficient house estimated to be 135 million rupiahs. This means low income household is out of consideration, therefore this group cannot afford the house whatsoever. In order to narrower the gap, the Government of Indonesia has built „One Million Houses Program‟ which has composition 70% for low income household. However, the program has not optimal yet. From the data from the Public Work and Housing Ministry, it is only 80% of the 1 million houses targeted that can be achieved; and from this 80%, only 569.382 units or 70,72% for the low income household. With this trend, it is difficult for the low income household to access sufficient houses in turn. The solution for this can be two alternatives: (1 the Government provide affordable houses for the group, or (2 increasing the ability to pay of the group. The alternative (1 could be difficult due to the limited budget of the Government. The possible answer is to increase the ability of the low income households, so that they can access houses either under subsides scheme from the Government or developers. In doing so, the main problem is to collect or acquire the funding for accessing the house. Using various regulations and policies that could make possible for low income households to receive the money, such as corporate social responsibility, zakat, or even philanthropy activities in Indonesia, the burden could be lessen. The importance of giving the low income households opportunity to access sufficient house is a notion that a sufficient housing can be a strategic toll for

  18. INDONESIAN FOOD POLICY: THE PROGRAMS FOR STRENGTHENING FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN REFORMATION ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrussamad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2012 decree #18, the policy on food states that objective of food implementation is to meet basic human needs and provide fair, equitable, and sustainable benefits based on food sovereignty, food self-sufficiency, and national food security. Food sovereignty, independence and security are fundamental and supports implementation of policies related to food implementation in Indonesia. The 2012 decree #18 stated that food implementation aims to improve ability to produce food independently, provide a variety of food and meet the requirements of security, quality, and nutrition for public consumption.

  19. [Risk factors and strategies of dental implants in the maxillary posterior without sufficient bone available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiansheng

    2012-02-01

    There are two ways to place dental implants in the maxillary posterior without sufficient bone available, one is the maxillary sinus floor bone augmentation technique, the other is to evade maxillary sinus. The maxillary sinus floor bone augmentation technique may result in a series of complication, and reduce obedience of patients for implant surgery. According to principles of the best bone utilization, the evaded maxillary sinus implant technique is more simple, more economic, more predictable, and more shortage of time, compared with the maxillary sinus floor bone augmentation technique, and has certain technological advantages in some special cases.

  20. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  1. Forty Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Regularity of Interval Matrices: A survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 500-512 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * necessary and sufficient condition * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp500-512.pdf

  2. On the necessity and sufficiency of local commutativity for causality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muynck, W.M. de.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the resolution of the question whether quantum mechanics admits an objectivistic interpretation if the description is restricted to the phenomenalistic domain of the quantum mechanical observables. Without touching the realism-phenomenalism dichotomy, this thesis investigates the possibility to disregard the influence of the measurement interaction on the qm measuring results. In the first part, the measuring process is studied and its influence on the objectivity of measuring results. The measurement of a local observable is interpreted as a local operation. Its local commutativity is a necessary condition for macrocausality. In the second part the converse question is studied, viz. Whether local commutativity is sufficient for macrocausality. (Auth.)

  3. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  4. 16. Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Effective disaster management requires systems for data acquisition and information management that enable responders to rapidly collect, process, interpret, distribute, and access the data and information required for disaster management. Effective information sharing depends on the types of users, the type of damage, alterations of the functional status of the affected society, and how the information is structured. Those in need of information should be provided with the information necessary for their tasks and not be overloaded with unnecessary information that could serve as a distraction. Such information systems must be designed and exercised. To disseminate and share data with the relevant users, all disaster responses must include effective and reliable information systems. This information includes that acquired from repeated assessments in terms of available and needed human and material resources, which resources no longer are needed, and the status of the relief and recovery workers. It is through this information system that vital decisions are made that are congruent with the overall picture as perceived by the most relevant coordination and control centre. It is essential that information systems be designed and tested regularly as part of preparedness. Such systems must have the capacity to acquire, classify, and present information in an organised and useful manner.

  5. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabiditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex (“cortical flow”) is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region (“cytoplasmic flow”) is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos. PMID:21730185

  6. TGF-β Signaling Is Necessary and Sufficient for Pharyngeal Arch Artery Angioblast Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Abrial

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs are transient embryonic blood vessels that mature into critical segments of the aortic arch and its branches. Although defects in PAA development cause life-threating congenital cardiovascular defects, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate PAA morphogenesis remain unclear. Through small-molecule screening in zebrafish, we identified TGF-β signaling as indispensable for PAA development. Specifically, chemical inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 impairs PAA development because nkx2.5+ PAA progenitor cells fail to differentiate into tie1+ angioblasts. Consistent with this observation, we documented a burst of ALK5-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation within PAA progenitors that foreshadows angioblast emergence. Remarkably, premature induction of TGF-β receptor activity stimulates precocious angioblast differentiation, thereby demonstrating the sufficiency of this pathway for initiating the PAA progenitor to angioblast transition. More broadly, these data uncover TGF-β as a rare signaling pathway that is necessary and sufficient for angioblast lineage commitment.

  7. Scheduling of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery without Sufficient Charging Tanks Using Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A short-term schedule for crude oil operations in a refinery should define and sequence the activities in detail. Each activity involves both discrete-event and continuous variables. The combinatorial nature of the scheduling problem makes it difficult to solve. For such a scheduling problem, charging tanks are a type of critical resources. If the number of charging tanks is not sufficient, the scheduling problem is further complicated. This work conducts a study on the scheduling problem of crude oil operations without sufficient charging tanks. In this case, to make a refinery able to operate, a charging tank has to be in simultaneous charging and feeding to a distiller for some time, called simultaneously-charging-and-feeding (SCF mode, leading to disturbance to the oil distillation in distillers. A hybrid Petri net model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Then, a scheduling method is proposed to find a schedule such that the SCF mode is minimally used. It is computationally efficient. An industrial case study is given to demonstrate the obtained results.

  8. Application of nitrogen sufficiency conversion strategy for microalgae-based ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium ([Formula: see text]-N)-rich wastewater, a main cause for eutrophication, can serve as a promising medium for fast microalgae cultivation with efficient [Formula: see text]-N removal. To achieve this goal, a well-controlled three-stage treatment process was developed. Two trophic modes (mixotrophy and heterotrophy) in Stage 1 and Stage 2, with two nitrogen availability conditions (N sufficient and N deprived) in Stage 2, and different [Formula: see text]-N concentrations in Stage 3 were compared to investigate the effects of nitrogen sufficiency conversion on indigenous strain UMN266 for [Formula: see text]-N removal. Results showed that mixotrophic cultures in the first two stages with N deprivation in Stage 2 was the optimum treatment strategy, and higher [Formula: see text]-N concentration in Stage 3 facilitated both microalgal growth and [Formula: see text]-N removal, with average and maximum biomass productivity of 55.3 and 161.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), and corresponding removal rates of 4.2 and 15.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, superior to previously published results. Observations of intracellular compositions confirmed the optimum treatment strategy, discovering excellent starch accumulating property of strain UMN266 as well. Combination of bioethanol production with the proposed three-stage process using various real wastewater streams at corresponding stages was suggested for future application.

  9. EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCE POTENTIAL AS BASIS OF FORMATION OF SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Морозюк

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose is development of practical offers of increase of efficiency of use of resource potential of rural territories for formation of self-sufficiency of territorial communities.Methodology is system approach of scientific knowledge. In thе research were used such methods аs: monographic, generalizations, comparisons, abstract and logical modeling and others.Results. The natural and resource potential of rural ter-ritories of Ukraine and Russia is considered in the article. The conclusion is drawn that at its uniqueness rural communities remain subsidized and people below the poverty line. Result of research is offered development of such directions of use of natural resources: for satisfaction of needs of a community; processing and further realization to locals or outside a community; export out of community limits. The advantages from a position of formation of self-sufficiency of rural communities are considered for each of directions, offers on improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism of their realization are developed.Practical implications. Conclusions of the research can be used in practical activities of public authorities and local government.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  10. Sufficient and necessary conditions for discrete-time nonlinear switched systems with uniform local exponential stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junjie; She, Zhikun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate sufficient and necessary conditions of uniform local exponential stability (ULES) for the discrete-time nonlinear switched system (DTNSS). We start with the definition of T-step common Lyapunov functions (CLFs), which is a relaxation of traditional CLFs. Then, for a time-varying DTNSS, by constructing such a T-step CLF, a necessary and sufficient condition for its ULES is provided. Afterwards, we strengthen it based on a T-step Lipschitz continuous CLF. Especially, when the system is time-invariant, by the smooth approximation theorem, the Lipschitz continuity condition of T-step CLFs can further be replaced by continuous differentiability; and when the system is time-invariant and homogeneous, due to the extension of Weierstrass approximation theorem, T-step continuously differentiable CLFs can even be strengthened to be T-step polynomial CLFs. Furthermore, three illustrative examples are additionally used to explain our main contribution. In the end, an equivalence between time-varying DTNSSs and their corresponding linearisations is discussed.

  11. Comparison of methods for calculating conditional expectations of sufficient statistics for continuous time Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataru Paula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs is a widely used model for describing the evolution of DNA sequences on the nucleotide, amino acid or codon level. The sufficient statistics for CTMCs are the time spent in a state and the number of changes between any two states. In applications past evolutionary events (exact times and types of changes are unaccessible and the past must be inferred from DNA sequence data observed in the present. Results We describe and implement three algorithms for computing linear combinations of expected values of the sufficient statistics, conditioned on the end-points of the chain, and compare their performance with respect to accuracy and running time. The first algorithm is based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the rate matrix (EVD, the second on uniformization (UNI, and the third on integrals of matrix exponentials (EXPM. The implementation in R of the algorithms is available at http://www.birc.au.dk/~paula/. Conclusions We use two different models to analyze the accuracy and eight experiments to investigate the speed of the three algorithms. We find that they have similar accuracy and that EXPM is the slowest method. Furthermore we find that UNI is usually faster than EVD.

  12. Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency.

  13. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as “sufficiency”) and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens’ heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials—that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens’ heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective. PMID:29016642

  14. Is docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from α-linolenic acid sufficient to supply the adult brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and can be obtained directly from the diet or synthesized in the body from α-linolenic acid (ALA). Debate exists as to whether DHA synthesized from ALA can provide sufficient DHA for the adult brain, as measures of DHA synthesis from ingested ALA are typically <1% of the oral ALA dose. However, the primary fate of orally administered ALA is β-oxidation and long-term storage in adipose tissue, suggesting that DHA synthesis measures involving oral ALA tracer ingestion may underestimate total DHA synthesis. There is also evidence that DHA synthesized from ALA can meet brain DHA requirements, as animals fed ALA-only diets have brain DHA concentrations similar to DHA-fed animals, and the brain DHA requirement is estimated to be only 2.4-3.8 mg/day in humans. This review summarizes evidence that DHA synthesis from ALA can provide sufficient DHA for the adult brain by examining work in humans and animals involving estimates of DHA synthesis and brain DHA requirements. Also, an update on methods to measure DHA synthesis in humans is presented highlighting a novel approach involving steady-state infusion of stable isotope-labeled ALA that bypasses several limitations of oral tracer ingestion. It is shown that this method produces estimates of DHA synthesis that are at least 3-fold higher than brain uptake rates in rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  16. Entropy of Quantum Dynamical Systems and Sufficient Families in Orthomodular Lattices with Bayessian State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Khare; Shraddha, Roy

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to study the entropy hs(Φ) of a quantum dynamical systems Φ = (L,s,phi), where s is a bayessian state on an orthomodular lattice L. Having introduced the notion of entropy hs(phi,Script A) of partition Script A of a Boolean algebra B with respect to a state s and a state preserving homomorphism phi, we prove a few results on that, define the entropy of a dynamical system hs(Φ), and show its invariance. The concept of sufficient families is also given and we establish that hs(Φ) comes out to be equal to the supremum of hs(phi,Script A), where Script A varies over any sufficient family. The present theory has then been extended to the quantum dynamical system (L,s,phi), which as an effect of the theory of commutators and Bell inequalities can equivalently be replaced by the dynamical system (B,s0,phi), where B is a Boolean algebra and s0 is a state on B.

  17. Entropy of Quantum Dynamical Systems and Sufficient Families in Orthomodular Lattices with Bayessian State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Mona; Roy, Shraddha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to study the entropy h s (Φ) of a quantum dynamical systems Φ = (L,s,φ), where s is a bayessian state on an orthomodular lattice L. Having introduced the notion of entropy h s (φ,A) of partition A of a Boolean algebra B with respect to a state s and a state preserving homomorphism φ, we prove a few results on that, define the entropy of a dynamical system h s (Φ), and show its invariance. The concept of sufficient families is also given and we establish that h s (Φ) comes out to be equal to the supremum of h s (φ,A), where A varies over any sufficient family. The present theory has then been extended to the quantum dynamical system (L,s,φ), which as an effect of the theory of commutators and Bell inequalities can equivalently be replaced by the dynamical system (B,s 0 ,φ), where B is a Boolean algebra and s 0 is a state on B

  18. Design of fuel cell powered data centers for sufficient reliability and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Alexa J.; Brouwer, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    It is challenging to design a sufficiently reliable fuel cell electrical system for use in data centers, which require 99.9999% uptime. Such a system could lower emissions and increase data center efficiency, but the reliability and availability of such a system must be analyzed and understood. Currently, extensive backup equipment is used to ensure electricity availability. The proposed design alternative uses multiple fuel cell systems each supporting a small number of servers to eliminate backup power equipment provided the fuel cell design has sufficient reliability and availability. Potential system designs are explored for the entire data center and for individual fuel cells. Reliability block diagram analysis of the fuel cell systems was accomplished to understand the reliability of the systems without repair or redundant technologies. From this analysis, it was apparent that redundant components would be necessary. A program was written in MATLAB to show that the desired system reliability could be achieved by a combination of parallel components, regardless of the number of additional components needed. Having shown that the desired reliability was achievable through some combination of components, a dynamic programming analysis was undertaken to assess the ideal allocation of parallel components.

  19. Specific loss of CatSper function is sufficient to compromise fertilizing capacity of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hannah L; Mansell, Steven; Alasmari, Wardah; Brown, Sean G; Wilson, Stuart M; Sutton, Keith A; Miller, Melissa R; Lishko, Polina V; Barratt, Christopher L R; Publicover, Steven J; Martins da Silva, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Are significant abnormalities of CatSper function present in IVF patients with normal sperm concentration and motility and if so what is their functional significance for fertilization success? Sperm with a near absence of CatSper current failed to respond to activation of CatSper by progesterone and there was fertilization failure at IVF. In human spermatozoa, Ca(2+) influx induced by progesterone is mediated by CatSper, a sperm-specific Ca(2+) channel. A suboptimal Ca(2+) influx is significantly associated with, and more prevalent in, men with abnormal semen parameters, and is associated with reduced fertilizing capacity. However, abnormalities in CatSper current can only be assessed directly using electrophysiology. There is only one report of a CatSper-deficient man who showed no progesterone potentiated CatSper current. A CatSper 2 genetic abnormality was present but there was no information on the [Ca(2+)]i response to CatSper activation by progesterone. Additionally, the semen samples had indicating significant abnormalities (oligoasthenoteratozoospermia) multiple suboptimal functional responses in the spermatozoon. As such it cannot be concluded that impaired CatSper function alone causes infertility or that CatSper blockade is a potential safe target for contraception. Spermatozoa were obtained from donors and subfertile IVF patients attending a hospital assisted reproductive techniques clinic between January 2013 and December 2014. In total 134 IVF patients, 28 normozoospermic donors and 10 patients recalled due to a history of failed/low fertilization at IVF took part in the study. Samples were primarily screened using the Ca(2+) influx induced by progesterone and, if cell number was sufficient, samples were also assessed by hyperactivation and penetration into viscous media. A defective Ca(2+) response to progesterone was defined using the 99% confidence interval from the distribution of response amplitudes in normozoospermic donors. Samples showing a

  20. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer...... trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  1. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  2. Requirements on qualification, competence and sufficient number of personnel for NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The safe operation of NPPs presupposes qualified personnel on site in sufficient numbers. While the acquisition and preservation of technical expertise and the qualification of the shift personnel and other staff is well regulated by regulatory guidelines in Germany, there is a lack of such regulations with the exception for shift personnel - for the minimum number of technical personnel required for safe operation of a NPP. By order of the BMU, an attempt was made with this study to work out the requirements for qualification, competence and number of personnel to be maintained at the plant, representing the minimum requirements for safe operation of a NPP. The scope of the project was restricted to requirements for technical plant personnel. The aim was to work out requirements which would be as independent as possible of the existing organisation in a particular power plant. This study therefore does not assume a given organisational structure but was rather more oriented on the work processes in a NPP which are the basis for planning and performing routine work in the plant. For the study a work process model of typical tasks in a NPP had to be developed. Then, the tasks to be performed within the so defined work processes were described (task profiles) on the basis of existing manuals for plant organisation. From these task profiles such tasks were defined or selected which shall not be delegated to external personnel for specific reasons, and which were called vital competences. To keep these vital competences at the plant, an assessment and/or calculation of the necessary number of plant technical personnel was made using the task profiles for responsible personnel, but also by the evaluation of thousands of work orders for maintenance personnel. On the basis of these data, a proposal was made for the minimal number of technical personnel which is necessary to operate a NPP unit safely. Beside of this number, general criteria were developed which should be

  3. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  4. Informal Taxation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993

  5. Powerful functional imaging of respiratory nuclear medicine. Is CT imaging alone really sufficient for diagnosis and pathophysiologic assessment of lung diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation (V)-perfusion (Q) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides important information of functional impairment in various lung diseases, and often sensitively detects CT-undetectable lesions. V·Q SPECT also provides objective and quantitative assessment of severity of lung functional impairment. Functional-morphological correlation on V·Q SPECT-CT fusion images further facilitates these advantages of V·Q SPECT. This article describes clinical feasibility of V·Q SPECT in functional assessment and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung diseases, and lung right-to-left shunt diseases. This article hopefully provides sufficient responses to the crucial query of ''Is CT imaging alone really sufficient for diagnosis and pathophysiological assessment of various lung diseases?'' (author)

  6. Educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults after childhood bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Omland, Lars Haukali; Skinhoj, Peter; Rothman, Kenneth J; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2013-04-24

    To our knowledge, no previous study has examined functioning in adult life among persons who had bacterial meningitis in childhood. To study educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults diagnosed as having bacterial meningitis in childhood. Nationwide population-based cohort study using national registries of Danish-born children diagnosed as having meningococcal, pneumococcal, or Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in the period 1977-2007 (n=2784 patients). Comparison cohorts from the same population individually matched on age and sex were identified, as were siblings of all study participants. End of study period was 2010. Cumulative incidences of completed vocational education, high school education, higher education, time to first full year of economic self-sufficiency, and receipt of disability pension and differences in these outcomes at age 35 years among meningitis patients, comparison cohorts, and siblings. By age 35 years, among persons who had a history of childhood meningococcal (n=1338), pneumococcal (n=455), and H. influenzae (n=991) meningitis, an estimated 11.0% (41.5% vs 52.5%; 95% CI, 7.3%-14.7%), 10.2% (42.6% vs 52.8%; 95% CI, 3.8%-16.6%), and 5.5% (47.7% vs 53.2%; 95% CI, 1.9%-9.1%) fewer persons, respectively, had completed high school and 7.9% (29.3% vs 37.2%; 95% CI, 1.6%-14.2%), 8.9% (28.1% vs 37.0%; 95% CI, 0.6%-17.2%), and 6.5% (33.5% vs 40.0%; 95% CI, 1.4%-11.6%) fewer had attained a higher education compared with individuals from the comparison cohort. Siblings of meningococcal meningitis patients also had lower educational achievements, while educational achievements of siblings of pneumococcal and H. influenzae meningitis patients did not differ substantially from those in the general population. At end of follow-up, 3.8% (90.3% vs 94.1%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.5%), 10.6% (84.0% vs 94.6%; 95% CI, 5.1%-16.1%), and 4.3% (90.6% vs 94.9%; 95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%) fewer meningococcal, pneumococcal, and H. influenzae meningitis patients

  7. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-11-14

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  8. Household behaviour crowds out support for climate change policy when sufficient progress is perceived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Seth H.

    2017-07-01

    Household actions and government policies are both necessary to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, household behaviour may crowd out public support for government action by creating the perception of sufficient progress. Here we demonstrate this crowding-out effect in public opinion using survey experiments with more than 14,000 participants in Japan. Subjects who were randomly assigned to report their energy-saving actions following the shutdown of the Fukushima power plant were less likely to support a tax increase on carbon emissions. Treatment effects were larger for subjects who had completed more actions. Further evidence suggests that the crowding-out effect may have been driven by an increase in the perceived importance of individual actions relative to government regulation and a decrease in the perceived issue importance of energy and environmental sustainability.

  9. Sufficient conditions for optimality for a mathematical model of drug treatment with pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczyński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for a general mathematical model of drug treatment with a single agent. The control represents the concentration of the agent and its effect (pharmacodynamics is modelled by a Hill function (i.e., Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The aim is to minimize a cost functional consisting of a weighted average related to the state of the system (both at the end and during a fixed therapy horizon and to the total amount of drugs given. The latter is an indirect measure for the side effects of treatment. It is shown that optimal controls are continuous functions of time that change between full or no dose segments with connecting pieces that take values in the interior of the control set. Sufficient conditions for the strong local optimality of an extremal controlled trajectory in terms of the existence of a solution to a piecewise defined Riccati differential equation are given.

  10. Ultrasound of the hand is sufficient to detect subclinical inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Hilde Berner; Kvien, Tore K; Terslev, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) is a sensitive method for detecting joint/tendon inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Subclinical inflammation is often found in patients with RA in composite score remission. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether US of only...... the hands is sufficient to identify subclinical inflammation in patients with established RA in clinical remission. METHODS: A total of 209 patients with established RA (81% women, mean [SD] age 53.3 (13.2) years, disease duration 10.0 [8.8] years) were examined when initiating biologic disease...... inflammation and could be feasible for assessing bDMARD-treated patients with RA in remission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12610000284066 . Registered on 8 April 2010....

  11. On the Number of Synchronous Rounds Sufficient for Authenticated Byzantine Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2009-01-01

    of rounds. In this paper we examine the question of how many initial synchronous rounds are required for Byzantine agreement in the worst case if we allow to switch to asynchronous operation afterward. Let n = h + t be the number of parties where h are honest and t are corrupted. As the main result we show...... that, in the model with a public-key infrastructure and signatures (aka authenticated Byzantine agreement), d + O(1) deterministic synchronous rounds are sufficient where d is the minimal integer such that n − d > 3(t − d). This improves over the t + 1 necessary deterministic rounds for almost all...

  12. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  13. Co‐immobilized Phosphorylated Cofactors and Enzymes as Self‐Sufficient Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco‐Lozano, Susana; Benítez‐Mateos, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enzyme cofactors play a major role in biocatalysis, as many enzymes require them to catalyze highly valuable reactions in organic synthesis. However, the cofactor recycling is often a hurdle to implement enzymes at the industrial level. The fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts co‐immobilizing phosphorylated cofactors (PLP, FAD+, and NAD+) and enzymes onto the same solid material is reported to perform chemical reactions without exogeneous addition of cofactors in aqueous media. In these self‐sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts, the immobilized enzymes are catalytically active and the immobilized cofactors catalytically available and retained into the solid phase for several reaction cycles. Finally, we have applied a NAD+‐dependent heterogeneous biocatalyst to continuous flow asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, thus demonstrating the robustness of this approach for large scale biotransformations. PMID:28000978

  14. The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Défréville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-11-01

    The "bag-of-frames" (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscape modeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be.

  15. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  16. Observation and manipulation of glial cell function by virtue of sufficient probe expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyo eNatsubori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of gene-encoded indicators and actuators to observe and manipulate cellular functions is being advanced and investigated. Expressing these probe molecules in glial cells is expected to enable observation and manipulation of glial cell activity, leading to elucidate the behaviors and causal roles of glial cells. The first step toward understanding glial cell functions is to express the probes in sufficient amounts, and the Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression (KENGE-tet system provides a strategy for achieving this. In the present article, three examples of KENGE-tet system application are reviewed: depolarization of oligodendrocytes, intracellular acidification of astrocytes, and observation of intracellular calcium levels in the fine processes of astrocytes.

  17. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  18. Sufficient optimality conditions and duality for nonsmooth multiobjective optimization problems via higher order strong convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay Balendu B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define some new generalizations of strongly convex functions of order m for locally Lipschitz functions using Clarke subdifferential. Suitable examples illustrating the non emptiness of the newly defined classes of functions and their relationships with classical notions of pseudoconvexity and quasiconvexity are provided. These generalizations are then employed to establish sufficient optimality conditions for a nonsmooth multiobjective optimization problem involving support functions of compact convex sets. Furthermore, we formulate a mixed type dual model for the primal problem and establish weak and strong duality theorems using the notion of strict efficiency of order m. The results presented in this paper extend and unify several known results from the literature to a more general class of functions as well as optimization problems.

  19. Generalized Use of Past Tense Verbs in Children with Autism Following a Sufficient Exemplar Training Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund ELDEVIK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate a procedure for sufficient exemplar training that can potentially lead to generalized responding. Based on this procedure, we taught four children with autism, generalized use of regular past tense verbs. We applied a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across the participants. The dependent variable was the number of verbs that needed to be trained for generalization to untrained verbs to occur. The number of verbs that needed to be trained varied considerably across participants as did the number of trials. We concluded that the procedure was validated and that it was easy to implement and it allows for individualization. We discuss the practical implications of our findings for teaching a wide range of skills using the same type of training procedure and data display strategies we provided in this study.

  20. Generalized use of past tense verbs in children with autism following a sufficient exemplar training procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Eldevik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate a procedure for sufficient exemplar training that can potentially lead to generalized responding. Based on this procedure, we taught four children with autism, generalized use of regular past tense verbs. We applied a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across the participants. The dependent variable was the number of verbs that needed to be trained for generalization to untrained verbs to occur. The number of verbs that needed to be trained varied considerably across participants as did the number of trials. We concluded that the procedure was validated and that it was easy to implement and it allows for individualization. We discuss the practical implications of our findings for teaching a wide range of skills using the same type of training procedure and data display strategies we provided in this study.

  1. Muscular sufficiency, serum protein, enzymes and bioenergetic studies in chronic malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Mittal, R.D.; Agarwal, K.N.; Agarwal, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Muscle sufficiency was significantly lower in 1336 children with chronic malnutrition of moderate to severe degree. 18 children with a chronic moderate degree of malnutrition and 8 well-nourished age-matched controls were selected for biochemical and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31-P MRS) studies. The results shows that: a) serum total protein, albumin, iron, calcium and inorganic phosphate were similar in both groups; b) serum enzyme levels were significantly increased in the malnuourished group; c) 31-P MRS showed significantly higher means for total ATP, β-ATP, α-ATP and inorganic phosphate for the malnourished compared to the control group. In chronic malnutrition, proteins are maintained by degradation in muscle resulting in release of amino acids and enzymes. 31-P MRS studies showing increases in total ATP, β-ATP and inorganic phosphate and a decrease in phosphocreatine suggest that ATP is maintained at the cost of phosphocreatine. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig

  2. Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrutin, V; Granados, A; Schanz, M

    2011-01-01

    Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs

  3. Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrutin, V.; Granados, A.; Schanz, M.

    2011-09-01

    Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs.

  4. Is the current level of training in the use of equipment for prehospital radio communication sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jimmy Højberg

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians working in prehospital care are expected to handle radio communication both within their own sector as well as with other divisions of the National Emergency Services. To date, no study has been conducted on the level of training received by physicians in the use...... by questionnaire circulated to all 454 physicians working in the Danish Emergency Medical Services. RESULTS: A lack of training was found among physicians working in prehospital care in Denmark in relation to the proper use of essential communication equipment. Prior to starting their first shift in a prehospital...... setting 38% of physicians reported having received no training in the use of the equipment, while 80% of physicians reported having received one1 hour of training or less. Among the majority of physicians their current level of training was sufficient for their everyday needs for prehospital communication...

  5. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo, E-mail: yjlee@sejong.ac.kr

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  6. Gestalt assessment of online educational resources may not be sufficiently reliable and consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Keeth; Thoma, Brent; Trueger, N Seth; Lin, Michelle; Chan, Teresa M

    2017-04-01

    Online open educational resources are increasingly used in medical education, particularly blogs and podcasts. However, it is unclear whether these resources can be adequately appraised by end-users. Our goal was to determine whether gestalt-based recommendations are sufficient for emergency medicine trainees and attending physicians to reliably recommend online educational resources to others. Raters (33 trainees and 21 attendings in emergency medicine from North America) were asked to rate 40 blog posts according to whether, based on their gestalt, they would recommend the resource to (1) a trainee or (2) an attending physician. The ratings' reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Associations between groups' mean scores were assessed using Pearson's r. A repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) was completed to determine the effect of the level of training on gestalt recommendation scale (i. e. trainee vs. attending). Trainees demonstrated poor reliability when recommending resources for other trainees (ICC = 0.21, 95% CI 0.13-0.39) and attendings (ICC = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.09-0.30). Similarly, attendings had poor reliability when recommending resources for trainees (ICC = 0.27, 95% CI 0.18-0.41) and other attendings (ICC = 0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.35). There were moderate correlations between the mean scores for each blog post when either trainees or attendings considered the same target audience. The RM-ANOVA also corroborated that there is a main effect of the proposed target audience on the ratings by both trainees and attendings. A gestalt-based rating system is not sufficiently reliable when recommending online educational resources to trainees and attendings. Trainees' gestalt ratings for recommending resources for both groups were especially unreliable. Our findings suggest the need for structured rating systems to rate online educational resources.

  7. Is Moderate Intensity Cycling Sufficient to Induce Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Modifications of Subsequent Running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joel A; Dawber, James P; Lepers, Romuald; Brown, Marc; Stapley, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Walsh, JA, Dawber, JP, Lepers, R, Brown, M, and Stapley, PJ. Is moderate intensity cycling sufficient to induce cardiorespiratory and biomechanical modifications of subsequent running? J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1078-1086, 2017-This study sought to determine whether prior moderate intensity cycling is sufficient to influence the cardiorespiratory and biomechanical responses during subsequent running. Cardiorespiratory and biomechanical variables measured after moderate intensity cycling were compared with control running at the same intensity. Eight highly trained, competitive triathletes completed 2 separate exercise tests; (a) a 10-minute control run (no prior cycling) and, (b) a 30-minute transition run (TR) (preceded by 20-minute of variable cadence cycling, i.e., run versus cycle-run). Respiratory, breathing frequency (fb), heart rate (HR), cost of running (Cr), rate constant, stride length, and stride frequency variables were recorded, normalized, and quantified at the mean response time (MRT), third minute, 10th minute (steady state), and overall for the control run (CR) and TR. Cost of running increased (p ≤ 0.05) at all respective times during the TR. The V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]CO2 and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly (p minute of the TR. Furthermore, overall mean increases were recorded for Cr, V[Combining Dot Above]E, V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]CO2, RER, fb (p minutes (p cycling influences the cardiorespiratory response during subsequent running. Furthermore, prior cycling seems to have a sustained effect on the Cr during subsequent running.

  8. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Ward

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.

  9. Full Length Bid is sufficient to induce apoptosis of cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Manus W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2 homology domain (BH 3-only proteins are pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family that couple stress signals to the mitochondrial cell death pathways. The BH3-only protein Bid can be activated in response to death receptor activation via caspase 8-mediated cleavage into a truncated protein (tBid, which subsequently translocates to mitochondria and induces the release of cytochrome-C. Using a single-cell imaging approach of Bid cleavage and translocation during apoptosis, we have recently demonstrated that, in contrast to death receptor-induced apoptosis, caspase-independent excitotoxic apoptosis involves a translocation of full length Bid (FL-Bid from the cytosol to mitochondria. We induced a delayed excitotoxic cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by a 5-min exposure to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 300 μM. Results Western blot experiments confirmed a translocation of FL-Bid to the mitochondria during excitotoxic apoptosis that was associated with the release of cytochrome-C from mitochondria. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis of Bid translocation during excitotoxic cell death using an antibody raised against the amino acids 1–58 of mouse Bid that is not able to detect tBid. Finally, inducible overexpression of FL-Bid or a Bid mutant that can not be cleaved by caspase-8 was sufficient to induce apoptosis in the hippocampal neuron cultures. Conclusion Our data suggest that translocation of FL-Bid is sufficient for the activation of mitochondrial cell death pathways in response to glutamate receptor overactivation.

  10. Necessary, but not sufficient: links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia are moderated by disorganized symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Intact neurocognition has been posited as a necessary, but not sufficient prerequisite for efficient social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia. Disorganized symptoms likely play a prominent role in these cognitive processes, given the detrimental effects of disorganization on one's ability to synthesize discrete information into an organized whole. However, the relationship between disorganized symptoms and cognitive processes remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether disorganized symptoms: 1) exhibited stronger inverse relationships with cognitive processes than other symptoms, and 2) moderated links between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition. Trained raters assessed psychotic symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in patients with schizophrenia from a Midwestern VA Medical Center (n=68) using validated, clinician-rated instruments. We observed significantly greater inverse associations with cognitive processes for disorganized compared to reality distortion symptoms; inverse associations with neurocognition and social cognition were significantly greater for disorganized than negative symptoms. Our hypotheses that disorganized symptoms would moderate relationships between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition were also supported. These findings highlight the importance of disorganized symptoms in elucidating links between neurocognition and social cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Future work should assess whether similar findings occur across the schizophrenia-spectrum, and investigate if targeting disorganization can ameliorate social cognitive and metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  12. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  13. Development of community based model of Tawanchai Center: sufficiency economy principles for community Development an applicability at Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrmaneetaweetong, Unchana; Choopen, Hhakuan; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the present study are 1) to study the application of sufficiency economy philosophy in community development as a model for future application of community health care program of Tawanchai Center, 2) study the administrative model for self sufficiency economy community in Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province. The integrated study model included qualitative research by collecting data from documents, textbook, article, report, theory concept, researches and interviewing of relevant persons and the quantitative research by collecting data from questionnaires. The findings of study included objectives for development model of sufficiency economy for understanding of people, and use the philosophy of sufficiency economy model which compose of decrease expenditure, increase income activities, saving activities, learning activities and preservation of environment and sustainable natural resources activities. Decrease in expenditure activities included household gardening, and no allurements leading to ruin. Increase in income activities included supplement occupation and appropriate use of technology. Saving activities included creating saving group in household and community level. Learning activities included community use of local wisdom, and household learnt philosophy of sufficiency economy in daily living. Preservation of environment and sustainable natural resources activities included the use of sustainable raw materials in occupation. The generosity of one another activities included helping each other and solving problems for the poor and disable persons. The community development at in Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province followed all of the above scope and guidelines and is the model for application of sufficiency community philosophy. We recommended method for successful implementation, including the starting from group process with capability of

  14. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Joshua M; Pokorny, Jennifer J; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L; Morrison, Violet M B; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L; Duchatelier, Alicia P; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  15. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus to find hidden food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Plotnik

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7 in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  16. Is Transducer Hygiene sufficient when Vaginal Probes are used in the Clinical Routine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, E

    2016-04-01

    special virucidal wipes on the probes is considered low-level disinfection. Primarily quaternary ammonia compounds are employed for this procedure. This method is easily applicable, has good cleaning characteristics, is effective against HPV and has high skin tolerance. However, it has the disadvantage of not removing all microorganisms during the disinfection process. Immersion procedures are high-level disinfection methods during which the transducer head is dipped in a special fluid for a certain amount of time. The disinfectants used for this include e. g. preparations based on glutaraldehyde or succinic aldehyde. However, in practice immersion disinfection has a number of disadvantages 13: 1. The procedure cannot be validated. 2. The probe permanently attached to the device must be placed in a separate holder and disinfected for at least 15 minutes. This is impracticable in routine operations in a clinic, outpatient facility or practice with a high number of examinations. 3. After this disinfection method, the probe has to be thoroughly rinsed with potable or higher-quality water in order to remove remnants of allergenic or locally toxic substances. 4. Frequently examinations take place in small interior areas with poor ventilation, thus under some circumstances posing an inhalant-related health hazard. 5. The required virucidal effect is frequently not achieved within 15 minutes 13. Furthermore, extended probe contact with liquid disinfecting agents in the long run results in increased wear of the transducer head membrane.Therefore it was interesting to note that in 2009 a fully-automatic disinfection system for ultrasound probes was introduced to the market (Trophon(EPR). This product, developed in Australia, promised relatively rapid high-level disinfection (HLD). During this software-controlled, mechanical disinfection procedure, the entire ultrasound probe (transducer head and handle) is placed in a sealed disinfection chamber, then hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is

  17. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    conceptions and learning experiences of students, information literacy initiatives and IL learning challenges in higher .... is familiar with and able to effectively engage in new technology environments, including social media, and. • is able to ... The study demonstrated that a lack of information literacy skills in university.

  18. Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarga, Alberto; Beloqui, Izaskun; Martin, Angel G

    2017-01-01

    The collection and storage of human tissue samples has been undertaken in medicine for centuries; however, biobanking has only recently become a dedicated activity. The technological developments that have allowed the procurement and long-term storage of viable human cells ex vivo, and to obtain relevant scientific information, including genetic information, provide tremendous possibilities for advancing biomedical research. At the same time, these possibilities have raised complex information management issues regarding samples, processing, donor information, traceability, and use of the sample. This chapter considers the requirements for managing information within biobanks, critical to their operation. Special consideration is given to Laboratory Information Managing Systems (LIMS) as a tool for comprehensive access and storage of information.

  19. ANL CP-5 decontamination and decommissioning project necessary and sufficient pilot. Report of the standards identification team on the selection of the necessary and sufficient standards set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The CP-5 reactor was a heavy-water moderated and cooled, highly-enriched uranium-fueled thermal reactor designed for supplying neutrons for research. The reactor was operated almost continuously for 25 years until its final shutdown in 1979. It is situated on approximately three acres in the southwestern section of Argonne National Laboratory. In 1980, all nuclear fuel and the heavy water that could be drained from the process systems were shipped off-site, and the CP-5 facility was placed into lay-up pending funding for decommissioning. It was maintained in the lay-up condition with a minimum of maintenance until 1990, when the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project began. This D and D project provides for the disassembly and removal of all radioactive components, equipment, and structures that are associated with the CP-5 facility. The experimental area around the CP-5 reactor has been prepared for D and D, and the area outside the facility has been remediated. The reactor primary coolant and support systems have been removed and packaged as waste. The significant remaining tasks are (1) removal of the reactor internals and the biological shield structure; (2) decontamination of the rod storage area; (3) decontamination of the various radioactive material storage and handling facilities, including the fuel pool; and (4) decontamination and dismantlement of the building. This report describes the scope of the project, identification of standards for various aspects of the project, the lessons learned, and consideration for implementation

  20. Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D sufficiency in growing pigs fed a diet formulated to exceed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E

    2017-04-01

    Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D 3 /kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P P D for all pigs. March pigs, obtained from a Midwest producer, had lower (P D than June pigs born on-farm. Initial sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P D decreased (P D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight exposure. Expression of CYP27B1 was decreased (P = 0.04) in the kidney but tended to be increased (P = 0.06) in the liver after sun exposure. These results suggest limited sun exposure can

  1. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  3. Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-01-23

    In white biotechnology biocatalysis represents a key technology for chemical functionalization of non-natural compounds. The plasmid-born overproduction of an alcohol dehydrogenase, an L-alanine-dependent transaminase and an alanine dehydrogenase allows for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols in whole cell biotransformation. Here, conditions to optimize the whole cell biocatalyst presented in (Bioorg Med Chem 22:5578-5585, 2014), and the role of L-alanine for efficient amine functionalization of 1,10-decanediol to 1,10-diaminodecane were analyzed. The enzymes of the cascade for amine functionalization of alcohols were characterized in vitro to find optimal conditions for an efficient process. Transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum, TaCv, showed three-fold higher catalytic efficiency than transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis, TaVf, and improved production at 37°C. At 42°C, TaCv was more active, which matched thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase and improved the 1,10-diaminodecane production rate four-fold. To study the role of L-alanine in the whole cell biotransformation, the L-alanine concentration was varied and 1,10.diaminodecane formation tested with constant 10 mM 1,10- decanediol and 100 mM NH4Cl. Only 5.6% diamine product were observed without added L-alanine. L-alanine concentrations equimolar to that of the alcohol enabled for 94% product formation but higher L-alanine concentrations allowed for 100% product formation. L-alanine was consumed by the E. coli biocatalyst, presumably due to pyruvate catabolism since up to 16 mM acetate accumulated. Biotransformation employing E. coli strain YYC202/pTrc99a-ald-adh-ta Cv, which is unable to catabolize pyruvate, resulted in conversion with a selectivity of 42 mol-%. Biotransformation with E. coli strains only lacking pyruvate oxidase PoxB showed similar reduced amination of 1,10-decanediol indicating that oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate by PoxB is primarily

  4. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, C.; Nucara, A.; Pietrafesa, M.; Pudano, A.

    2013-01-01

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50

  5. Information Literacy and Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Baysen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teachers play a key role in raising individuals equipped with literacy skills that societies need in the 21st century. Therefore, teacher candidates should be equipped with such skills first. Thus those programs that aim to help teacher candidates gain these skills should be included in the curriculums of education faculties. Based on this framework, the aim of the study is to both reveal if the information literacy program is considered in both national policies, in laws and in teacher qualification and also determine the existence of information literacy program in departments of educations’ teacher training curriculum. For this purpose, qualitative research approaches have been utilized in the study for determining the existing situation. The data is collected from documents of laws, national policies and action plans, national education council decisions, teacher competencies which were produced by Ministry of Education of both Turkey and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC and other related institutions and ministries and missions and programs of primary sources of governmental and foundation universities including education faculties in Ankara-Turkey and TRNC. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. The analysis showed that information literacy education is not addressed sufficiently both in Turkey and TRNC in teacher education programs, there is a lack of awareness on information literacy education program in the education faculties. At the end of this study, evaluation of the obtained data was made and suggestions were made for future researches.

  6. Rhesus Cochlear and Vestibular Functions Are Preserved After Inner Ear Injection of Saline Volume Sufficient for Gene Therapy Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenkai; Lehar, Mohamed; Sun, Daniel Q; Rvt, Lani Swarthout; Carey, John P; MacLachlan, Tim; Brough, Doug; Staecker, Hinrich; Della Santina, Alexandra M; Hullar, Timothy E; Della Santina, Charles C

    2017-08-01

    Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome. The primary goal of the present study was to assess that risk in rhesus monkeys, which closely approximates humans with regard to middle and inner ear anatomy. Secondary goals were to identify the best delivery route into the primate ear from among two common surgical approaches (i.e., via an oval window stapedotomy and via the round window) and to determine the relative volumes of rhesus, rodent, and human labyrinths for extrapolation of results to other species. We measured hearing and vestibular functions before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after unilateral injection of phosphate-buffered saline vehicle (PBSV) into the perilymphatic space of normal rhesus monkeys at volumes sufficient to deliver an atoh1 gene therapy vector. To isolate effects of injection, PBSV without vector was used. Assays included behavioral observation, auditory brainstem responses, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and scleral coil measurement of vestibulo-ocular reflexes during whole-body rotation in darkness. Three groups (N = 3 each) were studied. Group A received a 10 μL transmastoid/trans-stapes injection via a laser stapedotomy. Group B received a 10 μL transmastoid/trans-round window injection. Group C received a 30 μL transmastoid/trans-round window injection. We also measured inner ear fluid space volume via 3D

  7. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. The Aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 tail is necessary and sufficient to recognize modified microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Seidel

    Full Text Available Posttranslational microtubule modifications (PTMs are numerous; however, the biochemical and cell biological roles of those modifications remain mostly an enigma. The Aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 UncA uses preferably modified microtubules (MTs as tracks for vesicle transportation. Here, we show that a positively charged region in the tail of UncA (amino acids 1316 to 1402 is necessary for the recognition of modified MTs. Chimeric proteins composed of the kinesin-1 motor domain and the UncA tail displayed the same specificity as UncA, suggesting that the UncA tail is sufficient to establish specificity. Interaction between the UncA tail and alpha-tubulin was shown using a yeast two-hybrid assay and in A. nidulans by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. This is the first demonstration of how a kinesin-3 motor protein distinguishes among different MT populations in fungal cells, and how specificity determination depends on the tail rather than the motor domain, as has been demonstrated for kinesin 1 in neuronal cells.

  9. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  10. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  11. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullington, M.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE Standards Committee's Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ''commercial'' bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein

  12. Sufficient Condition for Estimation in Designing H∞ Filter-Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aqilah Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman filter (EKF is often employed in determining the position of mobile robot and landmarks in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. Nonetheless, there are some disadvantages of using EKF, namely, the requirement of Gaussian distribution for the state and noises, as well as the fact that it requires the smallest possible initial state covariance. This has led researchers to find alternative ways to mitigate the aforementioned shortcomings. Therefore, this study is conducted to propose an alternative technique by implementing H∞ filter in SLAM instead of EKF. In implementing H∞ filter in SLAM, the parameters of the filter especially γ need to be properly defined to prevent finite escape time problem. Hence, this study proposes a sufficient condition for the estimation purposes. Two distinct cases of initial state covariance are analysed considering an indoor environment to ensure the best solution for SLAM problem exists along with considerations of process and measurement noises statistical behaviour. If the prescribed conditions are not satisfied, then the estimation would exhibit unbounded uncertainties and consequently results in erroneous inference about the robot and landmarks estimation. The simulation results have shown the reliability and consistency as suggested by the theoretical analysis and our previous findings.

  13. On the enduring and substantial influence of Carl Rogers' not-quite necessary nor sufficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' 1957 paper (see record 2007-14639-002) is arguably the most successful of his many attempts to clarify and render testable the ideas behind client-centered therapy. While each of the conditions that Rogers postulated has been linked to positive therapeutic outcome, taken together they have never been conclusively proved (nor disproved) to be either necessary or sufficient for positive outcome. Nevertheless, the overriding "take-home" message in this classic paper--that the therapist's attitude and caring presence is critical for therapeutic success--is one that has had virtually unparalleled influence in every segment of the psychotherapeutic community. Clinical and theoretical innovations in the psychoanalytic community serve as examples of the following proposition: that Rogers' concepts, while accepted more than ever by a remarkably wide variety of psychotherapists, remain essentially unacknowledged as originating with him or in the tradition of humanistic and client-centered therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Association between breakfast intake and quality of life among self-sufficient Chilean elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Milla, Paula; Candia Johns, Priscila; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    Elderly people are becoming more prevalent in our country, which studies in this group are relevant. Moreover, the health impact of breakfast consumption is demonstrated in school groups. To determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with better quality of life in self-sufficient Chilean elderly. We interviewed 1,285 elderly (> 60 years) of both sexes. We applied two surveys (food and healthy lifestyles surveys), then an anthropometric evaluation was conducted. 5.6% of older adults does not consume breakfast. Those who consume breakfast had a better quality of life (p = 0.004), specifically in men breakfast intake is associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002). Moreover, the results indicate that the proportion of elderly who smokes and does not take breakfast is higher, as well as, greater responsibility in health, nutrition, stress management are greater in those that take breakfast. Finally there was an association between breakfast consumption and better nutrition (p = 0.01) and self-realization (p = 0.005). Consumption of breakfast in older adults is associated with better quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Rspo1-activated signalling molecules are sufficient to induce ovarian differentiation in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Charkraborty, Tapas; Zhou, Qian; Mohapatra, Sipra; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Yueguang

    2016-01-19

    In contrast to our understanding of testicular differentiation, ovarian differentiation is less well understood in vertebrates. In mammals, R-spondin1 (Rspo1), an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is located upstream of the female sex determination pathway. However, the functions of Rspo1 in ovarian differentiation remain unclear in non-mammalian species. In order to elucidate the detailed functions of Rspo/Wnt signaling pathway in fish sex determination/differentiation, the ectopic expression of the Rspo1 gene was performed in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes). The results obtained demonstrated that the gain of Rspo1 function induced femininity in XY fish. The overexpression of Rspo1 enhanced Wnt4b and β-catenin transcription, and completely suppressed the expression of male-biased genes (Dmy, Gsdf, Sox9a2 and Dmrt1) as well as testicular differentiation. Gonadal reprograming of Rspo1-over-expressed-XY (Rspo1-OV-XY) fish, induced the production of female-biased genes (Cyp19a1a and Foxl2), estradiol-17β production and further female type secondary sexuality. Moreover, Rspo1-OV-XY females were fertile and produced successive generations. Promoter analyses showed that Rspo1 transcription was directly regulated by DM domain genes (Dmy, the sex-determining gene, and Dmrt1) and remained unresponsive to Foxl2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that Rspo1 is sufficient to activate ovarian development and plays a decisive role in the ovarian differentiation in medaka.

  16. D-T seeded, deuterium-layered, tritium self-sufficient pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.; Lee, D.; Powell, C.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric studies are presented for a layered-pellet design for inertial fusion that consists of a D-T core surrounded by a D-layer and an appropriate tamper. This pellet is designed to minimize ignition requirements by providing for shock heating of the small D-T core; the surrounding deuterium layer is subsequently ignited by burn propagation through a matchhead effect, i.e., by fusion-born alpha particle heating. A design is also sought which supplies maximum tritium from the D-D burn in order to obtain reduced breeding requirements, i.e., gain flexibility in the reaction vessel and blanket design. Optimum performance is found for radii of the core and the deuterium layers of approx. 150μ and 400μ, respectively, with the tamping factor of 3. Results indicate that (a) a pellet energy multiplication over 1500 with a 2-MJ input energy is possible, and (b) sufficient tritium is supplied from the D-D burn to compensate for tritium consumed by the D-T core

  17. Humoral Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Is Sufficient for Inducing Breast Cancer Microcalcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangbing Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcalcifications are an important diagnostic marker for breast cancer on mammograms, yet the mechanism of their formation is poorly understood. Indeed, there is presently no short-latency, high-yield, syngeneic rodent model of the process. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 is a key mediator of physiologic bone formation and pathologic vasculature calcification, but its role in breast cancer microcalcification is unknown. In this study, R3230 rat breast tumors were adapted to cell culture, transduced with adenoviral BMP-2, and inoculated into a syngeneic host. Tumor growth and calcium salt deposition were quantified in living animals over time using micro–computed tomography and probed chemically using near-infrared fluorescence. Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified over time by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within 3 weeks, 100% of the breast tumors developed microcalcifications, which were absent from all normal tissues. Importantly, when two tumors were initiated in a single host, the ipsilateral tumor expressing BMP-2 was able to induce microcalcification in the contralateral tumor that was not expressing BMP-2, suggesting that BMP-2 can act humorally. Taken together, we describe the first reproducible rodent model of breast cancer microcalcification, prove that BMP-2 expression is sufficient for initiating the process, and lay the foundation for a new generation of targeted diagnostic agents.

  18. Humoral bone morphogenetic protein 2 is sufficient for inducing breast cancer microcalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangbing; Bloch, Nathalie; Bhushan, Kumar R; De Grand, Alec M; Tanaka, Eiichi; Solazzo, Stephanie; Mertyna, Pawel M; Goldberg, Nahum; Frangioni, John V; Lenkinski, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an important diagnostic marker for breast cancer on mammograms, yet the mechanism of their formation is poorly understood. Indeed, there is presently no short-latency, high-yield, syngeneic rodent model of the process. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a key mediator of physiologic bone formation and pathologic vasculature calcification, but its role in breast cancer microcalcification is unknown. In this study, R3230 rat breast tumors were adapted to cell culture, transduced with adenoviral BMP-2, and inoculated into a syngeneic host. Tumor growth and calcium salt deposition were quantified in living animals over time using micro-computed tomography and probed chemically using near-infrared fluorescence. Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified over time by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within 3 weeks, 100% of the breast tumors developed microcalcifications, which were absent from all normal tissues. Importantly, when two tumors were initiated in a single host, the ipsilateral tumor expressing BMP-2 was able to induce microcalcification in the contralateral tumor that was not expressing BMP-2, suggesting that BMP-2 can act humorally. Taken together, we describe the first reproducible rodent model of breast cancer microcalcification, prove that BMP-2 expression is sufficient for initiating the process, and lay the foundation for a new generation of targeted diagnostic agents.

  19. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  20. Overexpression of the sodium chloride cotransporter is not sufficient to cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, James A; Nelson, Joshua H; Yang, Chao-Ling; Curry, Joshua N; Ellison, David H

    2011-11-01

    The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the primary target of thiazides diuretics, drugs used commonly for long-term hypertension therapy. Thiazides also completely reverse the signs of familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the primary defect in FHHt is increased NCC activity. To test whether increased NCC abundance alone is sufficient to generate the FHHt phenotype, we generated NCC transgenic mice; surprisingly, these mice did not display an FHHt-like phenotype. Systolic blood pressures of NCC transgenic mice did not differ from those of wild-type mice, even after dietary salt loading. NCC transgenic mice also did not display hyperkalemia or hypercalciuria, even when challenged with dietary electrolyte manipulation. Administration of fludrocortisone to NCC transgenic mice, to stimulate NCC, resulted in an increase in systolic blood pressure equivalent to that of wild-type mice (approximately 20 mm Hg). Although total NCC abundance was increased in the transgenic animals, phosphorylated (activated) NCC was not, suggesting that the defect in FHHt involves either activation of ion transport pathways other than NCC, or else direct activation of NCC, in addition to an increase in NCC abundance.

  1. Water quality assessment for self-sufficient water resources for DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanidar, R.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    DKI Jakarta, Indonesia (106.22’42” S and 106.58’18”E) is passed by the 13 major rivers. However, only Krukut River, in South Jakarta has contributed 5.7% for supply the 60,27% coverage service of the10.178 million populations (2015). This paper is preliminary research to find the potential water resources for self-sufficient water supply. This study used multivariate analyzed of Factor Analyzed (FA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) for the archive river water quality data set covers the period from 2010 to 2015 from the Environment Department of DKI Jakarta. They selected the main pollution parameter and the potential raw water resources which necessary to study severely. The FA identified the two groups of water quality variables, which explain majority of the experimental data, and resulted organic pollutant as main factor that influenced DKI Jakarta river water quality. Therefore, BOD and COD used as main parameter for water quality further assessment. CA grouped 43 sampling sites into four clusters. 5 sampling locations on 4 rivers need further study for additional raw water sources.

  2. Effect of Energy Price Liberalization on Corn self-sufficiency in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza pakravan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available liberalization of energy price increases costs of agricultural inputs and costs of agricultural production. All these changes may affect the overall competitiveness of domestic products with similar foreign products. As a result of that, total cost of agricultural products are increased and profitability are decreased. In this paper, energy consumption for producing Corn were calculated using cost- production database from Jahad-Keshavarzi for the years 2001-2010. Then, the cost function, production function and demand function for this crop were estimated in the form of panel data structure. Furthermore, the import function of corn and the associated elasticity were calculated using time series data for the years 1981-2000. The results show that, for the corn production, the elasticity of energy input and price elasticity of energy demand are 2.47 and -0.005, respectively. Considering to the fact that the production elasticity in the import function is -0/83, every one percent increase in the price of fuel due to the energy price liberalization policy increases the import of corn by 0/01 percent. Accordingly, increasing energy price has a negative effect on the food self-sufficiency that is one of the main objectives of the fifth national development plan. Ultimately, it is proposed that policy makers provide corn producers with more supports in order to reduce the negative effect of energy price liberalization on the national corn products.

  3. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  4. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): sufficiently sensitive screening test for native valve infective endocarditis (IE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brian P; Cunha, Burke A; Choi, David; Cohen, Jerald; Hage, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We recently reviewed our experience with paired transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) studies for the diagnosis of native valve infective endocarditis. In patients with normal heart valves, we demonstrated that a normal TTE effectively rules out infective endocarditis and a TTE is unnecessary. In patients with abnormal heart valves, a TEE did not enhance the diagnostic yield in most patients (12/15). We reviewed 87 paired TTEs and TEEs, that is, TEE with a preceding TTE performed for the evaluation of native valve IE. Of 87 paired echocardiograms, 72 of 87 had normal TTEs and TEEs, with no evidence of a vegetation indicative of infective endocarditis. A total of 15 of 87 TTEs had thickened/calcified valves without a definite vegetation. Of these, only 3 of 15 were subsequently shown to have a vegetation indicative of endocarditis by TEE. In patients with possible native valve infective endocarditis, before blood culture results are known, a negative TTE was sufficiently specific to rule out native valve infective endocarditis. Our data showed that the negative predictive value of a normal TTE in the evaluation of possible native valve endocarditis is 90% or greater. In those with some valve abnormality (ie, thickened/calcified heart valves), subsequent TTE did not materially increase vegetation detection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    . Furthermore, we have computed the Majorana neutrino production rate itself in chapter 6 to test our numerical procedure. In this context we have calculated the tree-level result as well as the gauge corrected result for the Majorana neutrino production rate. Finally in chapter 7, we have implemented the Majorana neutrino ladder rung diagram into our setup for leptogenesis: As a first consideration, we have collected all gauge corrected diagrams up to three-loop order for the asymmetry-causing two-loop diagrams. However, the results of chap. 5 showed that it is not sufficient to just include diagrams up to three-loop level. Due to the necessity of resumming all n-loop diagrams, we have constructed a cylindrical diagram that fulfils this condition. This diagram is the link between the Majorana neutrino ladder rung diagram calculated before on the one hand and the lepton asymmetry on the other. Therefore we have been able to derive a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all leading order corrections. The numerical analysis of this lepton number matrix needs a great computational effort since for the resulting eight-dimensional integral two ordinary differential equations have to be computed for each point the routine evaluates. Thus the result remains yet inaccessible. Research perspectives: Summarising, this thesis provides the basis for a systematic inclusion of gauge interactions in thermal leptogenesis scenarios. As a next step, one should evaluate the expression for the integrated lepton number numerically to gain a value, which can be used for comparison to earlier results such as the solutions of the Boltzmann equations as well as the Kadanoff-Baym ansatz with the implemented Standard Model widths. This numerical result would be the first quantitative number, which contains leading order corrections due to all interactions of the Majorana neutrino with the Standard Model particles. Further corrections by means of including washout effects

  7. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Juizo, Dinis; Vilanculos, Agostinho; Bolding, Alex; Uiterweer, Nynke Post

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use irrigation (4000 ha). This development includes the expansion of sugar cane production for the production of ethanol as a biofuel. Total additional water requirements may amount to 1.3 × 10 9 m 3/a or more. A simple river basin simulation model was constructed in order to assess different irrigation development scenarios, and at two storage capacities of the existing Massingir dam. Many uncertainties surround current and future water availability in the Lower Limpopo River Basin. Discharge measurements are incomplete and sometimes inconsistent, while upstream developments during the last 25 years have been dramatic and future trends are unknown. In Mozambique it is not precisely known how much water is currently consumed, especially by the many small-scale users of surface and shallow alluvial groundwater. Future impacts of climate change increase existing uncertainties. Model simulations indicate that the Limpopo River does not carry sufficient water for all planned irrigation. A maximum of approx. 58,000 ha of irrigated agriculture can be sustained in the Mozambican part of the basin. This figure assumes that Massingir will be operated at increased reservoir capacity, and implies that only about 44,000 ha of new irrigation can be developed, which is 60% of the envisaged developments. Any additional water use would certainly impact downstream users and thus create tensions. Some time will elapse before 44,000 ha of new irrigated land will have been developed. This time could be used to improve monitoring networks to decrease current uncertainties. Meanwhile the four riparian Limpopo States are preparing a joint river basin study. In this study a methodology could be

  8. Sufficient Protein Quality of Food Aid Varies with the Physiologic Status of Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Meghan; Oyama, Momo; Manary, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Protein quality scores use the amino acid (AA) requirements of a healthy North American child. AA requirements vary with physiologic status. We estimated AA requirements for healthy North American children, children with environmental enteric dysfunction, children recovering from wasting, and children with an acute infection. The protein quality of food aid products was then calculated to determine whether it was sufficient in all these groups, and we found that it may not be adequate for all of them. Physiologic status is important when assessing the protein quality of food aid. Rates of weight gain from 8 published trials treating children with moderate acute malnutrition were abstracted, and protein quality scores from the corresponding food aid products were calculated with the use of the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). Two DIAAS values were calculated, one in healthy children aged 1-3 y as a reference population and the other in malnourished children aged 1-3 y as a reference population. These data were used to calculate the best fit regression line between weight gain and protein quality. The slope of the regression line was greater when malnourished children were used as a reference population than when healthy children were used (0.128; 95% CI: 0.118, 0.138 compared with 0.097; 95% CI: 0.090, 0.105 measured in g · kg -1 · d -1 · DIASS U -1 ). These findings suggest that adjusting AA requirements for physiologic status may more accurately estimate the minimum protein quality of food aid products. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  10. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dewar

    Full Text Available People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  11. Maternal obesity and vitamin D sufficiency are associated with cord blood vitamin D insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefson, Jami L; Feinglass, Joseph; Rademaker, Alfred W; Metzger, Boyd E; Zeiss, Dinah M; Price, Heather E; Langman, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relationship between total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) and increased adiposity has been established in children, adolescents, and adults. However, the relationship between neonatal adiposity and vitamin D status has not been reported. Both maternal obesity and vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy are common and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between vitamin D levels in mothers and newborns, as influenced by maternal obesity, and evaluate these associations with neonatal adiposity. Sixty-one maternal-neonatal pairs participated in this cross-sectional study at an academic medical center. Mothers had a prepregnancy body mass index that was normal or obese. Maternal and cord blood sera were assayed for 25-OH D, and neonatal body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography. Mothers had similar and sufficient levels of 25-OH D when measured at 36-38 wk gestation, irrespective of body mass index category (normal weight, 46.05, vs. obese, 49.84 ng/ml; P = not significant). However, cord blood 25-OH D was higher in neonates of normal-weight mothers compared to neonates of obese mothers (27.45 vs. 20.81 ng/ml; P = 0.02). The variance in cord blood 25-OH D was explained by four factors: maternal 25-OH D level, the presence of maternal obesity, maternal age, and neonatal adiposity (r(2) = 0.66). Obese women transfer less 25-OH D to offspring than normal-weight women, despite similar serum levels. Cord blood 25-OH D levels directly correlate to neonatal percentage body fat. These novel findings underscore the evolving relationships between maternal obesity, vitamin D nutritional status, and adiposity in the neonatal period that may influence subsequent childhood and adulthood vitamin D-dependent processes.

  12. The Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Contributes to but Is Not Sufficient for Virulence In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison; Marzi, Andrea; Hoenen, Thomas; Herwig, Astrid; Gardner, Don; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Among the Ebola viruses most species cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans; however, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) has not been associated with human disease despite numerous documented infections. While the molecular basis for this difference remains unclear, in vitro evidence has suggested a role for the glycoprotein (GP) as a major filovirus pathogenicity factor, but direct evidence for such a role in the context of virus infection has been notably lacking. In order to assess the role of GP in EBOV virulence, we have developed a novel reverse genetics system for REBOV, which we report here. Together with a previously published full-length clone for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), this provides a unique possibility to directly investigate the role of an entire filovirus protein in pathogenesis. To this end we have generated recombinant ZEBOV (rZEBOV) and REBOV (rREBOV), as well as chimeric viruses in which the glycoproteins from these two virus species have been exchanged (rZEBOV-RGP and rREBOV-ZGP). All of these viruses could be rescued and the chimeras replicated with kinetics similar to their parent virus in tissue culture, indicating that the exchange of GP in these chimeric viruses is well tolerated. However, in a mouse model of infection rZEBOV-RGP demonstrated markedly decreased lethality and prolonged time to death when compared to rZEBOV, confirming that GP does indeed contribute to the full expression of virulence by ZEBOV. In contrast, rREBOV-ZGP did not show any signs of virulence, and was in fact slightly attenuated compared to rREBOV, demonstrating that GP alone is not sufficient to confer a lethal phenotype or exacerbate disease in this model. Thus, while these findings provide direct evidence that GP contributes to filovirus virulence in vivo, they also clearly indicate that other factors are needed for the acquisition of full virulence. PMID:22876185

  13. Is LMWH Sufficient for Anticoagulant Prophylaxis in Bariatric Surgery? Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaad, Farraj; Zakhar, Bramnik; Anton, Kvasha; Moner, Merie; Wisam, Sbeit; Safy, Farraj; Igor, Waksman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the coagulation profile by thromboelastography in morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Morbid obesity entails increased risk for thromboembolic events. There is no clear protocol for thromboembolic prophylaxis, regarding timing and length of treatment, in bariatric surgery. Thromboelastography provides data on a coagulation process from creation of the clot until the fibrinolysis. Ninety-three morbidly obese patients were prospectively recruited within a 2-year period. Coagulation profile was measured by thromboelastography before surgery, in the immediate postoperative period, within 3 h from surgery, and in the late postoperative period, within 10-14 days after surgery. Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis was achieved by giving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), once a day. Of the eligible patients, 67 underwent sleeve gastrectomy while 23 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Normal values of coagulation factor function, clotting time, and fibrin function, as measured by R, K, and α (angle), were demonstrated in addition to higher maximal amplitude (MA) values, reflecting increased function of platelets. The average MA value before the surgery was above normal and continued rising consistently in the immediate postoperative as well as in the early postoperative period. Morbidly obese patients have a strong tendency toward thrombosis, as demonstrated by pathologically elevated MA values. Altered coagulation profiles were demonstrated 2 weeks postoperatively; thus, prophylaxis that continued at least for 2 weeks after bariatric surgery should be considered. Since LMW heparin is not sufficient alone as thromboembolic prophylaxis, we recommend adding antiplatelet therapy. Further evaluation of appropriate thromboprophylaxis is warranted.

  14. Neural dynamics necessary and sufficient for transition into pre-sleep induced by EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinreich, Sivan; Podlipsky, Ilana; Jamshy, Shahar; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2014-08-15

    The transition from being fully awake to pre-sleep occurs daily just before falling asleep; thus its disturbance might be detrimental. Yet, the neuronal correlates of the transition remain unclear, mainly due to the difficulty in capturing its inherent dynamics. We used an EEG theta/alpha neurofeedback to rapidly induce the transition into pre-sleep and simultaneous fMRI to reveal state-dependent neural activity. The relaxed mental state was verified by the corresponding enhancement in the parasympathetic response. Neurofeedback sessions were categorized as successful or unsuccessful, based on the known EEG signature of theta power increases over alpha, temporally marked as a distinct "crossover" point. The fMRI activation was considered before and after this point. During successful transition into pre-sleep the period before the crossover was signified by alpha modulation that corresponded to decreased fMRI activity mainly in sensory gating related regions (e.g. medial thalamus). In parallel, although not sufficient for the transition, theta modulation corresponded with increased activity in limbic and autonomic control regions (e.g. hippocampus, cerebellum vermis, respectively). The post-crossover period was designated by alpha modulation further corresponding to reduced fMRI activity within the anterior salience network (e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula), and in contrast theta modulation corresponded to the increased variance in the posterior salience network (e.g. posterior insula, posterior cingulate cortex). Our findings portray multi-level neural dynamics underlying the mental transition from awake to pre-sleep. To initiate the transition, decreased activity was required in external monitoring regions, and to sustain the transition, opposition between the anterior and posterior parts of the salience network was needed, reflecting shifting from extra- to intrapersonal based processing, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Analyzing components of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT): Is treatment entry training sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Benishek, Lois A; Kerwin, MaryLouise E; Dugosh, Karen L; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Bresani, Elena; Haugh, James A; Washio, Yukiko; Meyers, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) assists family members with a treatment-resistant loved one. The most consistent outcome of CRAFT is increased treatment entry of the identified treatment-resistant person (IP). This led us to question whether all 6 components of CRAFT are necessary. In a randomized clinical trial, 115 concerned significant others (CSOs) of an IP received 12-14 sessions of the full CRAFT intervention, 4-6 sessions focused on Treatment Entry Training (TEnT), or 12-14 sessions of Al-Anon/Nar-Anon Facilitation (ANF). We monitored treatment entry, attendance, and substance use of the IP and the CSO's mood and functioning. Data were collected at baseline and 4, 6, and 9 months after the baseline. We found significant reductions in time to treatment entry (χ(2)2 = 8.89, p = .01) and greater treatment entry rates for CRAFT (62%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-6.9) and TEnT (63%; OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.5) compared with ANF (37%), but CRAFT and TEnT did not differ significantly from each other (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-2.7). No between-group differences in IP drug use were reported by CSOs, but days of drug use decreased over time for all groups (F(3, 277) = 13.47, p CRAFT produces greater treatment entry rates than ANF and found similar treatment entry rates for CRAFT and TEnT. This suggests that treatment entry training is sufficient for producing the best established outcome of CRAFT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents: Is Routine Nutrient Supplementation Sufficient to Avoid Anemia Following Bariatric Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Hanna R; Chin, Vivian L; Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Zhang, Chengchen; Williams, Kristen M; Oberfield, Sharon; Fennoy, Ilene

    2017-08-01

    Anemia following bariatric surgery is a known complication. To prevent nutrient deficiencies, adolescents require multivitamin/mineral supplementation following bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate if routine multivitamin/mineral supplementation is sufficient to prevent anemia in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery, particularly sleeve gastrectomy (SG), a procedure that may induce nutrient malabsorption. We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients who underwent SG (34 patients) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) (141 patients) (January 2006 through December 2013). We examined anemia marker levels (iron, ferritin, folate, B 12 , hemoglobin, and hematocrit) at first visit and 3, 6, and 12 months postsurgery by repeated-measures analysis adjusting for weight loss. Following SG, folate levels decreased 3 and 6 months postsurgery but returned to baseline levels at 12 months. Furthermore, the SG group demonstrated lower folate levels compared with LAGB at 3 and 6 months. B 12 levels decreased 6 months post-SG but returned to baseline at 12 months. Following LAGB, B 12 levels decreased 12 months postsurgery compared with baseline. Ferritin levels decreased 3 months post-LAGB but returned to baseline levels at 6 months. There were no changes within groups or differences between groups in iron, hemoglobin, or hematocrit. While anemia did not occur in any patients while on recommended routine supplementation, folate levels were significantly reduced following SG and were lower in SG compared with LAGB patients. Additional folate supplementation seemed to improve folate levels, which highlights the importance of ongoing surveillance by primary care providers and the need for additional folate supplementation following SG.

  17. White matter hyperintensities and cerebral amyloidosis: necessary and sufficient for clinical expression of Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Frank A; Muraskin, Jordan; Tosto, Giuseppe; Narkhede, Atul; Wasserman, Ben T; Griffith, Erica Y; Guzman, Vanessa A; Meier, Irene B; Zimmerman, Molly E; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-04-01

    Current hypothetical models emphasize the importance of β-amyloid in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis, although amyloid alone is not sufficient to account for the dementia syndrome. The impact of small-vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging scans, may be a key factor that contributes independently to AD presentation. To determine the impact of WMHs and Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) positron-emission tomography-derived amyloid positivity on the clinical expression of AD. Baseline PIB-positron-emission tomography values were downloaded from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Total WMH volume was derived on accompanying structural magnetic resonance imaging data. We examined whether PIB positivity and total WMHs predicted diagnostic classification of patients with AD (n = 20) and control subjects (n = 21). A second analysis determined whether WMHs discriminated between those with and without the clinical diagnosis of AD among those who were classified as PIB positive (n = 28). A third analysis examined whether WMHs, in addition to PIB status, could be used to predict future risk for AD among subjects with mild cognitive impairment (n = 59). The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative public database. The study involved data from 21 normal control subjects, 59 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and 20 participants with clinically defined AD from the Alzheimer Disease's Neuroimaging Initiative database. Clinical AD diagnosis and WMH volume. Pittsburgh Compound B positivity and increased total WMH volume independently predicted AD diagnosis. Among PIB-positive subjects, those diagnosed as having AD had greater WMH volume than normal control subjects. Among subjects with mild cognitive impairment, both WMH and PIB status at baseline conferred risk for future diagnosis of AD. White matter hyperintensities contribute to the presentation of AD and, in the context of

  18. Sufficient numbers of early germ cells are essential for female sex development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyan Dai

    Full Text Available The sex determination for zebrafish is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The determination of sex in zebrafish has been suggested to rely on a mechanism that is affected by germ cell-derived signals. To begin our current study, a simplified and efficient germ cell-specific promoter of the dead end (dnd gene was identified. Utilizing the metrodinazole (MTZ/ bacterial nitroreductase (NTR system for inducible germ cell ablation, several stable Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP(-3'UTR and Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP(+3'UTR zebrafish lines were then generated with the identified promoter. A thorough comparison of the expression patterns and tissue distributions of endogenous dnd and ntr-egfp transcripts in vivo revealed that the identified 2032-bp zebrafish dnd promoter can recapitulate dnd expression faithfully in stable transgenic zebrafish. The correlation between the levels of the germ cell-derived signals and requirement for maintaining the female fate has been also explored with different durations of the MTZ treatments. Our results revealed the decreasing ratios of female presented in the treated transgenic group are fairly associated with the reducing levels of the early germ cell-derived signals. After the juvenile transgenic fish treated with 5 mM MTZ for 20 days, all MTZ-treated transgenic fish exclusively developed into males with subfertilities. Taken together, our results identified here a simplified and efficient dnd promoter, and provide clear evidence indicating that it was not the presence but the sufficiency of signals derived from germ cells that is essential for female sex development in zebrafish. Our model also provides a unique system for sex control in zebrafish studies.

  19. GATA4 Is Sufficient to Establish Jejunal Versus Ileal Identity in the Small IntestineSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayla A. Thompson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions. The molecular mechanisms determining regionally defined enterocyte functions, however, are poorly delineated. We previously showed that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4 is essential to define jejunal enterocytes. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal identity within the intestinal epithelium. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel Gata4 conditional knock-in mouse line and expressed GATA4 in the ileum, where it is absent. Results: We found that GATA4-expressing ileum lost ileal identity. The global gene expression profile of GATA4-expressing ileal epithelium aligned more closely with jejunum and duodenum rather than ileum. Focusing on jejunal vs ileal identity, we defined sets of jejunal and ileal genes likely to be regulated directly by GATA4 to suppress ileal identity and promote jejunal identity. Furthermore, our study implicates GATA4 as a transcriptional repressor of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15, which encodes an enterokine that has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases. Conclusions: Overall, this study refines our understanding of an important GATA4-dependent molecular mechanism to pattern the intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis by elaborating on GATA4’s function as a crucial dominant molecular determinant of jejunal enterocyte identity. Microarray data from this study have been deposited into

  20. Inactivation of p53 Is Sufficient to Induce Development of Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats.

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    S Jacquin

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH show similarities to cancer cells. Due to the growth-suppressive and pro-apoptotic effects of p53 and its inactivation in cancer, we hypothesized that the p53 pathway could be altered in PAH. We therefore explored the involvement of p53 in the monocrotaline (MCT rat model of pulmonary hypertension (PH and the pathophysiological consequences of p53 inactivation in response to animal treatment with pifithrin-α (PFT, an inhibitor of p53 activity.PH development was assessed by pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and arterial wall thickness. The effect of MCT and PFT on lung p53 pathway expression was evaluated by western blot. Fourteen days of daily PFT treatment (2.2 mg/kg/day, similar to a single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg, induced PH and aggravated MCT-induced PH. In the first week after MCT administration and prior to PH development, p53, p21 and MDM2 protein levels were significantly reduced; whereas PFT administration effectively altered the protein level of p53 targets. Anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative effects of PFT were revealed by TUNEL and MTT assays on cultured human PA-SMCs treated with 50 μM PFT.Pharmacological inactivation of p53 is sufficient to induce PH with a chronic treatment by PFT, an effect related to its anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative properties. The p53 pathway was down-regulated during the first week in the rat MCT model. These in vivo experiments implicate the p53 pathway at the initiation stages of PH pathogenesis.

  1. Social Experience Is Sufficient to Modulate Sleep Need of Drosophila without Increasing Wakefulness.

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    Shahnaz Rahman Lone

    Full Text Available Organisms quickly learn about their surroundings and display synaptic plasticity which is thought to be critical for their survival. For example, fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster exposed to highly enriched social environment are found to show increased synaptic connections and a corresponding increase in sleep. Here we asked if social environment comprising a pair of same-sex individuals could enhance sleep in the participating individuals. To study this, we maintained individuals of D. melanogaster in same-sex pairs for a period of 1 to 4 days, and after separation, monitored sleep of the previously socialized and solitary individuals under similar conditions. Males maintained in pairs for 3 or more days were found to sleep significantly more during daytime and showed a tendency to fall asleep sooner as compared to solitary controls (both measures together are henceforth referred to as "sleep-enhancement". This sleep phenotype is not strain-specific as it is observed in males from three different "wild type" strains of D. melanogaster. Previous studies on social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement presumed 'waking experience' during the interaction to be the primary underlying cause; however, we found sleep-enhancement to occur without any significant increase in wakefulness. Furthermore, while sleep-enhancement due to group-wise social interaction requires Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF positive neurons; PDF positive and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY positive circadian clock neurons and the core circadian clock genes are not required for sleep-enhancement to occur when males interact in pairs. Pair-wise social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement requires dopamine and olfactory signaling, while visual and gustatory signaling systems seem to be dispensable. These results suggest that socialization alone (without any change in wakefulness is sufficient to cause sleep-enhancement in fruit fly D. melanogaster males, and that its neuronal control is

  2. EMDialog: bringing information visualization into the museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Uta; Schmidt, Holly; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2008-01-01

    Digital information displays are becoming more common in public spaces such as museums, galleries, and libraries. However, the public nature of these locations requires special considerations concerning the design of information visualization in terms of visual representations and interaction techniques. We discuss the potential for, and challenges of, information visualization in the museum context based on our practical experience with EMDialog, an interactive information presentation that was part of the Emily Carr exhibition at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary. EMDialog visualizes the diverse and multi-faceted discourse about this Canadian artist with the goal to both inform and provoke discussion. It provides a visual environment that allows for exploration of the interplay between two integrated visualizations, one for information access along temporal, and the other along contextual dimensions. We describe the results of an observational study we conducted at the museum that revealed the different ways visitors approached and interacted with EMDialog, as well as how they perceived this form of information presentation in the museum context. Our results include the need to present information in a manner sufficiently attractive to draw attention and the importance of rewarding passive observation as well as both short- and longer term information exploration.

  3. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  4. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

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    Shaghaghi A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  5. Critical Defense Materials: Government Collected Data Are Sufficiently Reliable to Assess Tantalum Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Committee Report on a bill for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 included a provision for GAO to examine the global...The House Armed Services Committee Report on a bill for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 included a provision for GAO to...in numerous military applications such as capacitors used in electronics equipment including computers, turbine engines for aircraft, and the

  6. The impact of sensory skills treatment on self-sufficiency skills in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Matelytė, Birutė

    2016-01-01

    Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine Department of Rehabilitation, Physical and Sports Medicine Rehabilitation Master's program THE IMPACT OF SENSORY SKILLS TREATMENT ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY SKILLS ON CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS Rehabilitation Master's Thesis The Author: Birutė Matelytė Academic advisor:Prof.dr. Juozas Raistenskis The aim of research work:evaluate children with autism spectrum disorders, sensory skills treatment on self-sufficiency skills. Tasks of work: 1. Set the ...

  7. Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Järvelin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval (IS&R which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze IS&R. Past research is then contrasted with the dimensions and shown not to cover the dimensions sufficiently. Based on an analysis of the goals of information seeking research, and a view on human task performance augmentation, it is then shown that information seeking is intimately associated with, and dependent on, other aspects of work; tasks and technology included. This leads to a discussion on design and evaluation frameworks for IS&R, based on which two action lines are proposed: information retrieval research needs extension towards more context and information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology.

  8. Meta-epidemiologic analysis indicates that MEDLINE searches are sufficient for diagnostic test accuracy systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, Wynanda A.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Whiting, Penny; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Hooft, Lotty

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how the summary estimates in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews are affected when searches are limited to MEDLINE. A systematic search was performed to identify DTA reviews that had conducted exhaustive searches and included a meta-analysis. Primary studies included in

  9. Do sufficient vitamin D levels at the end of summer in children and adolescents provide an assurance of vitamin D sufficiency at the end of winter? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Habibesadat; Pournaghi, Seyed-Javad; Hashemi, Javad; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Akaberi, Arash

    2017-10-26

    The changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adolescents from summer to winter and optimal serum vitamin D levels in the summer to ensure adequate vitamin D levels at the end of winter are currently unknown. This study was conducted to address this knowledge gap. The study was conducted as a cohort study. Sixty-eight participants aged 7-18 years and who had sufficient vitamin D levels at the end of the summer in 2011 were selected using stratified random sampling. Subsequently, the participants' vitamin D levels were measured at the end of the winter in 2012. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine optimal cutoff points for vitamin D at the end of the summer to predict sufficient vitamin D levels at the end of the winter. The results indicated that 89.7% of all the participants had a decrease in vitamin D levels from summer to winter: 14.7% of them were vitamin D-deficient, 36.8% had insufficient vitamin D concentrations and only 48.5% where able to maintain sufficient vitamin D. The optimal cutoff point to provide assurance of sufficient serum vitamin D at the end of the winter was 40 ng/mL at the end of the summer. Sex, age and vitamin D levels at the end of the summer were significant predictors of non-sufficient vitamin D at the end of the winter. In this age group, a dramatic reduction in vitamin D was observed over the follow-up period. Sufficient vitamin D at the end of the summer did not guarantee vitamin D sufficiency at the end of the winter. We found 40 ng/mL as an optimal cutoff point.

  10. Unwanted scour holes in morphodynamic experiments: seeking necessary and sufficient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Marra, Wouter; Leuven, Jasper; Braat, Lisanne; Baar, Anne; Nabi, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Morphodynamic landscape experiments of river reaches, deltas and estuaries often feature unrealistically large scour holes, which are on average 2 cm deep and 5 cm long. Such scours occur under similar conditions as current ripples (as opposed to other bedforms such as dunes. It has long been suspected that they form on hydraulically smooth boundaries, which occur at low boundary Reynolds numbers, typically induced in fine sand and under relatively low sediment mobility. Until now three strategies exist to prevent the unwanted scour holes. The first is to use use coarser sand to disrupt the laminar sublayer, but this means low or no mobility. The second is to use fine but poorly sorted sand where the coarser material disrupts the laminar sublayer and the small caliber causes higher mobility, and the third is to use coarse granular material which has a low-density that increases mobility. However, we lack systematic study to determine causes of the scour holes, on which to base experimental design and material choice. Here we present experiments in which we systematically varied sediment types and used various methods to provoke scour holes or removal thereof. We also conducted model runs of Computational Fluid Dynamics and sediment transport in which bedforms automatically emerge. All model runs and most experiments confirm that ripples and scour holes both form in hydraulic smooth conditions induced by low boundary Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, they are absent in coarser sediment and poorly sorted sediment. The experiments also show that scours can be provoked by perturbations even below generalised sediment motion. However, granular material of intermediate density and poor sorting deviated in behaviour: this formed scours despite the addition of coarser fractions that were sufficient to prevent scours in the case of sand. We observed this unexplained behaviour also in channelisation experiments, where peculiar, sharp bends with unrealistically deep outer

  11. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  12. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine

  13. Functional connectivity in resting-state fMRI: Is linear correlation sufficient?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan; Vejmelka, Martin; Mantini, D.; Corbetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2011), s. 2218-2225 ISSN 1053-8119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 200728 - BRAINSYNC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fMRI * functional connectivity * Gaussianity * nonlinearity * correlation * mutual information Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.895, year: 2011

  14. [Google translate is not sufficient to overcome language barriers in neonatal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, N; Sponholz, S; König, K; Brodkorb, S; Bührer, C; Roehr, C C

    2013-12-01

    Language barriers hinder the interaction with patients and relatives. The use of language services increases knowledge, satisfaction and the use of medical care and thus improves patient's clinical outcome. The recommended use of professional interpreters (PI) is not always feasible. We tested an online translation tool as an alternative for PI for the transla-tion of standardized sentences from a neonatal doctor-/nurse-relative-interview.Translation of 20 sentences from a German neonatal intensive care unit parent information brochure to English, Portuguese and Arabic, using Google Translate (GT). Assessment of accuracy concerning grammar and content, in a second step simplification of all incorrect sentences, translation by GT and critical re-assessment and evaluation.An average of 42% of the sentences was correctly translated concerning grammar and content. The proportion of incorrectly translated sentences varied between 45-70%. By simpli-fication another 23% were translated correctly.Translations by GT were often incorrect in content and grammar. We suppose that the design of GT, which is a statistical translation engine, might be an explanation for this phenomenon. Presently, GT cannot guarantee unambiguous translations and cannot substitute PIs, only in particular circumstances, the use of GT or similar engines may be justified. For future use of electronic translation services, we suggest to compile a catalogue of sentences containing central information, which can be translated into defined foreign languages without misinterpretation or loss of information. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. National Security Strategy and the Munitions' Paradox: Self-Sufficiency or Maximum Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ... that the United States military strategy may not be credible to likely regional aggressors. Conversely, DoD acquisition leadership believes industry consolidation should continue and the munitions base should be expanded to include US allies...

  16. 75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Permits Division, Office of Wastewater Management (4203M), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200.... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address... ``permitting authorities''). These point source dischargers include publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and...

  17. FFRRO Program Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes information related to Cleanups at Federal Facilities. Information is provided about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities,...

  18. Quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Quantum information- the subject- is a new and exciting area of science, which brings together physics, information theory, computer science and mathematics. "Quantum Information"- the book- is based on two successful lecture courses given to advanced undergraduate and beginning postgraduate students in physics. The intention is to introduce readers at this level to the fundamental, but offer rather simple, ideas behind ground-breaking developments including quantum cryptography,teleportation and quantum computing. The text is necessarily rather mathematical in style, but the mathema

  19. Activation of MEK2 is sufficient to induce skin papilloma formation in transgenic zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi-Chung; Su, San; Chen, Gen-Der; Huang, Kai-Yun; Lien, Huang-Wei; Huang, Chang-Jen; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Background Mutations in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 1 (MEK1) that occur during cell proliferation and tumor formation are well described. Information on the roles of MEK2 in these effects is still limited. We established a constitutive MEK2 transgenic zebrafish, Tg(krt14:MEK2S219D-GFP), to elucidate the role of MEK2 in skin tumor formation. Results We found that both constitutive MEK2 and MEK1 are able to phosphorylate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) prot...

  20. Metabolic hormone FGF21 is induced in ground squirrels during hibernation but its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany T Nelson

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a natural adaptation that allows certain mammals to survive physiological extremes that are lethal to humans. Near freezing body temperatures, heart rates of 3-10 beats per minute, absence of food consumption, and depressed metabolism are characteristic of hibernation torpor bouts that are periodically interrupted by brief interbout arousals (IBAs. The molecular basis of torpor induction is unknown, however starved mice overexpressing the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 promote fat utilization, reduce body temperature, and readily enter torpor-all hallmarks of mammalian hibernation. In this study we cloned FGF21 from the naturally hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus and found that levels of FGF21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in serum are elevated during hibernation torpor bouts and significantly elevated during IBAs compared to summer active animals. The effects of artificially elevating circulating FGF21 concentrations 50 to 100-fold via adenoviral-mediated overexpression were examined at three different times of the year. This is the first time that a transgenic approach has been used in a natural hibernator to examine mechanistic aspects of hibernation. Surgically implanted transmitters measured various metrics of the hibernation phenotype over a 7-day period including changes in motor activity, heart rate and core body temperature. In April fed-state animals, FGF21 overexpression decreased blood insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, effects similar to those seen in obese mice. However, elevated FGF21 concentrations did not cause torpor in these fed-state animals nor did they cause torpor or affect metabolic parameters in fasted-state animals in March/April, August or October. We conclude that FGF21 is strongly regulated during torpor and IBA but that its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor in naturally hibernating ground squirrels.

  1. The Hox cooperativity motif of the chimeric oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1 is necessary and sufficient for oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C P; de Vivo, I; Cleary, M L

    1997-01-01

    E2a-Pbx1 chimeric oncoproteins result from fusion of the E2A and PBX1 genes at the sites of t(1;19) chromosomal translocations in a subset acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Experimentally, E2a-Pbx1 transforms a variety of cell types, including fibroblasts, myeloid progenitors, and lymphoblasts. Structure-function studies have shown that contributions from both E2a and Pbx1 are necessary for oncogenesis, but the Pbx1 homeodomain is dispensable and the required portion of Pbx1 has not been delineated. In this study, we used deletional and site-directed mutagenesis to identify portions of Pbx1 necessary for oncogenic and transcriptional activities of E2a-Pbx1. These studies defined a motif (named the Hox cooperativity motif [HCM]) carboxy terminal to the Pbx homeodomain that is required for cooperative DNA binding, cellular transcriptional activity, and the oncogenic potential of E2a-Pbx1. The HCM is highly conserved throughout the Pbx/exd subfamily of divergent homeodomain proteins and functions in DNA-binding assays as a potential contact site for Hox dimerization. E2a-Pbx1 proteins with interstitial deletion or single-point mutations in the HCM could neither activate transcription in cellular assays nor transform NIH 3T3 cells. An E2a-Pbx1 mutant containing 50 amino acids of Pbx1b spanning the HCM but lacking the homeodomain was capable of inducing fibroblast transformation. Thus, the HCM is a necessary and sufficient contribution of Pbx1 for oncogenesis induced by E2a-Pbx1 and accounts for its homeodomain-independent transforming properties. Since subtle alterations of the Pbx HCM result in complete abrogation of transforming activity whereas the homeodomain is entirely dispensable, we conclude that interactions mediated by the HCM are more important for transformation by E2a-Pbx1 than interactions with cognate Pbx DNA sites.

  2. Serine protease EspP from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is sufficient to induce shiga toxin macropinocytosis in intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie; Lukyanenko, Valeriy; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Hubbard, Ann L; Delannoy, Michael; Hansen, Anne-Marie; Kaper, James B; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James P; Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar C; Girón, Jorge A; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Life-threatening intestinal and systemic effects of the Shiga toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) require toxin uptake and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC infection of intestinal epithelial cells stimulates toxin macropinocytosis, an actin-dependent endocytic pathway. Host actin rearrangement necessary for EHEC attachment to enterocytes is mediated by the type 3 secretion system which functions as a molecular syringe to translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into host cells. Actin-dependent EHEC attachment also requires the outer membrane protein intimin, a major EHEC adhesin. Here, we investigate the role of type 3 secretion in actin turnover occurring during toxin macropinocytosis. Toxin macropinocytosis is independent of EHEC type 3 secretion and intimin attachment. EHEC soluble factors are sufficient to stimulate macropinocytosis and deliver toxin into enterocytes in vitro and in vivo; intact bacteria are not required. Intimin-negative enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) O104:H4 robustly stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis into intestinal epithelial cells. The apical macropinosomes formed in intestinal epithelial cells move through the cells and release their cargo at these cells' basolateral sides. Further analysis of EHEC secreted proteins shows that a serine protease EspP alone is able to stimulate host actin remodeling and toxin macropinocytosis. The observation that soluble factors, possibly serine proteases including EspP, from each of two genetically distinct toxin-producing strains, can stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis and transcellular transcytosis alters current ideas concerning mechanisms whereby Shiga toxin interacts with human enterocytes. Mechanisms important for this macropinocytic pathway could suggest new potential therapeutic targets for Shiga toxin-induced disease.

  3. Serine protease EspP from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is sufficient to induce shiga toxin macropinocytosis in intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie In

    Full Text Available Life-threatening intestinal and systemic effects of the Shiga toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC require toxin uptake and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC infection of intestinal epithelial cells stimulates toxin macropinocytosis, an actin-dependent endocytic pathway. Host actin rearrangement necessary for EHEC attachment to enterocytes is mediated by the type 3 secretion system which functions as a molecular syringe to translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into host cells. Actin-dependent EHEC attachment also requires the outer membrane protein intimin, a major EHEC adhesin. Here, we investigate the role of type 3 secretion in actin turnover occurring during toxin macropinocytosis. Toxin macropinocytosis is independent of EHEC type 3 secretion and intimin attachment. EHEC soluble factors are sufficient to stimulate macropinocytosis and deliver toxin into enterocytes in vitro and in vivo; intact bacteria are not required. Intimin-negative enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC O104:H4 robustly stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis into intestinal epithelial cells. The apical macropinosomes formed in intestinal epithelial cells move through the cells and release their cargo at these cells' basolateral sides. Further analysis of EHEC secreted proteins shows that a serine protease EspP alone is able to stimulate host actin remodeling and toxin macropinocytosis. The observation that soluble factors, possibly serine proteases including EspP, from each of two genetically distinct toxin-producing strains, can stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis and transcellular transcytosis alters current ideas concerning mechanisms whereby Shiga toxin interacts with human enterocytes. Mechanisms important for this macropinocytic pathway could suggest new potential therapeutic targets for Shiga toxin-induced disease.

  4. Serum zinc concentration in cystic fibrosis patients with CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulWahab, Atqah; Abushahin, Ahmed; Allangawi, Mona; Chandra, Prem; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Osman; Soliman, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    To determine serum zinc (Zn) level among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency (PS). A cross-sectional study was conducted including both pediatric and adult CF patients. Data on age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, FEV1, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were collected. Serum Zn, albumin, and total proteins were measured and analyzed. Forty-five CF patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation belonging to a large Arab kindred tribe and eight CF patients with other mutations associated with pancreatic insufficiency (PI). Patient's age ranged from 2 to 49 years with a mean age of 15.1 ± 9.1 years and mean plasma Zn of 0.78 ± 0.15 mcg/mL. Seven (13.2%) patients with CFTR I1234V and PS had low Zn levels (<0.6 mcg/mL). Mean age among Zn deficient group was significantly older. The mean FEV1 in the deficient group was found to be insignificant low. Persistent P. aeruginosa colonization was more prevalent in Zn deficient group. BMI Z-scosre of CF patients were positively correlated with Zn levels. Forty-five healthy subjects belonging to the same Arab tribe were selected in order to assess their Zn levels and their mean plasma Zn of 0.84 ± 0.11 mcg/mL (range 0.65-1.1 mcg/mL) with mean age 20.4 ± 10.1 years (range 6-40 years). These findings suggest that Zn deficiency can occur in CF patients with PS. The association of Zn levels and the frequency of P. aeruginosa isolated in CF patients need further investigation. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Metabolic hormone FGF21 is induced in ground squirrels during hibernation but its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bethany T; Ding, Xunshan; Boney-Montoya, Jamie; Gerard, Robert D; Kliewer, Steven A; Andrews, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is a natural adaptation that allows certain mammals to survive physiological extremes that are lethal to humans. Near freezing body temperatures, heart rates of 3-10 beats per minute, absence of food consumption, and depressed metabolism are characteristic of hibernation torpor bouts that are periodically interrupted by brief interbout arousals (IBAs). The molecular basis of torpor induction is unknown, however starved mice overexpressing the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) promote fat utilization, reduce body temperature, and readily enter torpor-all hallmarks of mammalian hibernation. In this study we cloned FGF21 from the naturally hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and found that levels of FGF21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in serum are elevated during hibernation torpor bouts and significantly elevated during IBAs compared to summer active animals. The effects of artificially elevating circulating FGF21 concentrations 50 to 100-fold via adenoviral-mediated overexpression were examined at three different times of the year. This is the first time that a transgenic approach has been used in a natural hibernator to examine mechanistic aspects of hibernation. Surgically implanted transmitters measured various metrics of the hibernation phenotype over a 7-day period including changes in motor activity, heart rate and core body temperature. In April fed-state animals, FGF21 overexpression decreased blood insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, effects similar to those seen in obese mice. However, elevated FGF21 concentrations did not cause torpor in these fed-state animals nor did they cause torpor or affect metabolic parameters in fasted-state animals in March/April, August or October. We conclude that FGF21 is strongly regulated during torpor and IBA but that its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor in naturally hibernating ground squirrels.

  6. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaijk Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease. Discussion Since 2001, the MenC conjugate vaccine has been implemented in the Netherlands by offering a single dose to all children aged 14 months. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine into the national immunisation programme, a catch-up vaccination campaign was initiated in which a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine was offered to all children aged from 14 months up to and including 18 years. Since then, there has been no report of any case of MenC disease among immunocompetent vaccinees. Administration of a single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine after infancy could be beneficial considering the already complex immunisation schedules with large numbers of vaccinations in the first year of life. The present paper deals with the advantages and critical aspects of a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine. Summary A single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months in combination with a catch up vaccine campaign appeared to be a successful strategy to prevent MenC disease in the Netherlands, thereby confirming that a single dose of the vaccine could sufficiently protect against disease. Nevertheless, this approach can only be justified in countries with a relatively low incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the first year of life. Furthermore, a good surveillance programme is recommended for timely detection of vaccine breakthroughs and outbreaks among non-vaccinees, since long-term protection after a single dose in the second year of life cannot currently be guaranteed.

  7. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  8. Necessary versus Sufficient Conditions for Using New Languages in South African Higher Education: A Linguistic Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesthrie, Rajend

    2008-01-01

    This paper critically examines one particular issue against the background of changes in South Africa's higher education system consequent upon the advent of a non-racial democracy--the possibility of implementing multilingual instructional polices that include indigenous African languages in its universities. Currently, a great deal of applied…

  9. Is fasting glucose sufficient to define diabetes? Epidemiological data from 20 European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DECODE-study group, [Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. The World Health Organization Consultation recommended new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus including: lowering of the diagnostic fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol/l and introduction of a new category: impaired fasting glycaemia. The diagnostic 2-h glucose concentrations

  10. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell.

  11. Storage of Verbal Associations Is Sufficient to Activate the Left Medial Temporal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Mayes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory encoding activates the medial temporal lobe (MTL. Many believe that these activations are related to novelty but it remains unproven which is critical - novelty detection or the rich associative encoding it triggers. We examined MTL activation during verbal associative encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First, associative encoding activated left posterior MTL more than single word encoding even though novelty detection was matched, indicating not only that associative encoding activates the MTL particularly strongly, but also that activation does not require novelty detection. Moreover, it remains to be convincingly shown that novelty detection alone does produce such activation. Second, repetitive associative encoding produced less MTL activation than initial associative encoding, indicating that priming of associative information reduces MTL activation. Third, re-encoding familiar associations in a well-established way had a minimal effect on both memory and MTL activation, indicating that MTL activation reflects storage of associations, not merely their initial representation.

  12. Two local observables are sufficient to characterize maximally entangled states of N qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting; Chitambar, Eric

    2011-02-01

    Maximally entangled states (MES) represent a valuable resource in quantum information processing. In N-qubit systems the MES are N-GHZ states [i.e., the collection of |GHZN>=(1)/(2)(|00…0>+|11…1>)] and its local unitary (LU) equivalences. While it is well known that such states are uniquely stabilized by N commuting observables, in this article we consider the minimum number of noncommuting observables needed to characterize an N-qubit MES as the unique common eigenstate. Here, we prove, rather surprisingly, that in this general case any N-GHZ state can be uniquely stabilized by only two observables. Thus, for the task of MES certification, only two correlated measurements are required with each party observing the spin of his or her system along one of two directions.

  13. The physical performance test predicts aerobic capacity sufficient for independence in early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Eric D; Billinger, Sandra A; Lee, Charesa; Hamilton, Jenna; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Early identification of physical impairment related to Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasingly identified as an important aspect of diagnosis and care. Clinically accessible tools for evaluating physical capacity and impairment in AD have been developed but require further characterization for their effective use. To assess the utility of the Physical Performance Test (PPT) for identifying functionally limiting aerobic capacity in older adults with AD and without dementia. Secondary analysis of a dataset of community dwelling older adults, 70 without dementia and 60 with early-stage AD. Participants were administered the PPT and performed a graded maximal exercise test. The clinical utility of 2 versions of the PPT was described by determining sensitivity and specificity to functionally limiting aerobic capacity. The 9-item PPT is predictive of diminished aerobic capacity in older adults with AD. A score of 28 or less indicates likelihood of functionally limiting aerobic capacity that would limit independent function with 67% sensitivity and 67% specificity. The 4-item mini-PPT demonstrates improved capability for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity with 85% sensitivity and 62% specificity. The PPT was not useful for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity in older adults without dementia. The PPT, which incorporates basic and instrumental activities of daily living as test items, and the mini-PPT which focuses on basic activities of daily living and simple physical functions, are both clinically useful tool for the evaluation for individuals in the earliest stages of AD and both provide important information about functional performance. The mini-PPT additionally inform the clinician as to whether or not individual with early-stage AD is likely to have insufficient aerobic capacity to perform instrumental daily functions.

  14. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  15. Do final-year medical students have sufficient prescribing competencies? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, David J; Tichelaar, Jelle; Graaf, Sanne; Otten, René H J; Richir, Milan C; van Agtmael, Michiel A

    2018-04-01

    Prescribing errors are an important cause of patient safety incidents and are frequently caused by junior doctors. This might be because the prescribing competence of final-year medical students is poor as a result of inadequate clinical pharmacology and therapeutic (CPT) education. We reviewed the literature to investigate which prescribing competencies medical students should have acquired in order to prescribe safely and effectively, and whether these have been attained by the time they graduate. PubMed, EMBASE and ERIC databases were searched from the earliest dates up to and including January 2017, using the terms 'prescribing', 'competence' and 'medical students' in combination. Articles describing or evaluating essential prescribing competencies of final-year medical students were included. Twenty-five articles describing, and 47 articles evaluating, the prescribing competencies of final-year students were included. Although there seems to be some agreement, we found no clear consensus among CPT teachers on which prescribing competencies medical students should have when they graduate. Studies showed that students had a general lack of preparedness, self-confidence, knowledge and skills, specifically regarding general and antimicrobial prescribing and pharmacovigilance. However, the results should be interpreted with caution, given the heterogeneity and methodological weaknesses of the included studies. There is considerable evidence that final-year students have insufficient competencies to prescribe safely and effectively, although there is a need for a greater consensus among CPT teachers on the required competencies. Changes in undergraduate CPT education are urgently required in order to improve the prescribing of future doctors. © 2018 VU University Medical Centre. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Do final‐year medical students have sufficient prescribing competencies? A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichelaar, Jelle; Graaf, Sanne; Otten, René H. J.; Richir, Milan C.; van Agtmael, Michiel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aims Prescribing errors are an important cause of patient safety incidents and are frequently caused by junior doctors. This might be because the prescribing competence of final‐year medical students is poor as a result of inadequate clinical pharmacology and therapeutic (CPT) education. We reviewed the literature to investigate which prescribing competencies medical students should have acquired in order to prescribe safely and effectively, and whether these have been attained by the time they graduate. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and ERIC databases were searched from the earliest dates up to and including January 2017, using the terms ‘prescribing’, ‘competence’ and ‘medical students’ in combination. Articles describing or evaluating essential prescribing competencies of final‐year medical students were included. Results Twenty‐five articles describing, and 47 articles evaluating, the prescribing competencies of final‐year students were included. Although there seems to be some agreement, we found no clear consensus among CPT teachers on which prescribing competencies medical students should have when they graduate. Studies showed that students had a general lack of preparedness, self‐confidence, knowledge and skills, specifically regarding general and antimicrobial prescribing and pharmacovigilance. However, the results should be interpreted with caution, given the heterogeneity and methodological weaknesses of the included studies. Conclusions There is considerable evidence that final‐year students have insufficient competencies to prescribe safely and effectively, although there is a need for a greater consensus among CPT teachers on the required competencies. Changes in undergraduate CPT education are urgently required in order to improve the prescribing of future doctors. PMID:29315721

  17. Lessons learned in the implementation of Integrated Safety Management at DOE Order Compliance Sites vs Necessary and Sufficient Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at an Order Compliance Site (Savannah River Site) and a Necessary and Sufficient Site (Nevada Test Site). A discussion of each core safety function of ISM is followed by an example from an Order Compliance Site and a Necessary and Sufficient Site. The Savannah River Site was the first DOE site to have a DOE Headquarters-validated and approved ISM System. The NTS is beginning the process of verification and validation. This paper defines successful strategies for integrating Environment, Safety, and Health management into work under various scenarios

  18. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  19. Statistical Information:. a Bayesian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. B.; Pereira, C. A. De B.

    2012-12-01

    We explore the concept of information in statistics: information about unknown quantities of interest, the parameters. We discuss intuitive ideas of what should be information in statistics. Our approach on information is divided in two scenarios: observed data and planning of an experiment. On the first scenario, we discuss the Sufficiency Principle, the Conditionality Principle, the Likelihood Principle and their relationship with trivial experiments. We also provide applications of some measures of information to an intuitive example. On the second scenario, the definition and new applications of Blackwell Sufficiency are presented. We discuss a new relationship between Blackwell Equivalence and the Likelihood Principle. Finally, the expected values of some measures of information are calculated.

  20. Yesterday's Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Martin D.; Stout, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses access to Internet resources in school libraries, including the importance of evaluating content and appropriate use. The following online services that provide current factual information from legitimate resources are described: SIRS (Social Issues Resource Series), InfoTrac, EBSCO Host, SearchBank, and the Electric Library. (MES)

  1. An LCD Monitor with Sufficiently Precise Timing for Research in Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Nikolić, Danko

    2011-01-01

    Until now, liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors have not been used widely for research in vision. Despite their main advantages of continuous illumination and low electromagnetic emission, these monitors had problems with timing and reliability. Here we report that there is at least one new inexpensive 120 Hz model, whose timing and stability is on a par with a benchmark cathode-ray tube monitor, or even better. The onset time was stable across repetitions, 95% confidence interval (the error) of which was LCD monitor seems suitable for many applications in vision research, including the studies that require combined accuracy of timing and intensity of visual stimulation.

  2. Colonoscopy and computerised tomography scan are not sufficient to localise right sided colonic lesions accurately.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline Gemma

    2009-11-23

    : Aim: accurate pre-operative localisation of colonic lesions is critical especially in laparoscopic colectomy where tactile localisation is absent particularly in screen-detected tumours. The study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of colonoscopy and double-contrast computerised tomography (CT) to localise lesions treated by right hemicolectomy. Method: a retrospective chart review was performed of patients treated by right hemicolectomy under the colorectal service between July 2003 and October 2006. Pre-operative tumour location determined by CT scan and colonoscopy were compared with the intra-operative and histopathologic findings. Results: of 101 patients, 73 (73%) were for adenoma or cancer, with a final diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in 59 (59%). Pre-operative localisation was inaccurate in 29% of lesions using both CT and colonoscopy. In the transverse colon colonoscopy alone was only 37.5% accurate, increasing to 62.5% when information from the CT scan was added. Conclusion: pre-operative localisation of right-sided colon cancers using colonoscopy and CT scanning is unreliable in at least 29% of cases. Inaccurate localisation of transverse colon tumours risks inadequate lymphadenectomy with an adverse cancer outcome. Pre-operative abdominal CT scan improves accuracy but endoscopic tattoo localisation should be employed routinely especially in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection.

  3. Women Farmer’s Participation And Empowerment To Support Family Food Self- Sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Safrina Suraningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development is currently prioritizing on the technical aspects and pays less attention to human factors which resulting in low empowerment of farmers. The patriarchal system which still prevails in rural areas causing the involvement of women in the decision-making process is still very low, so as the importance of empowering women in rural areas in order to make them more confident about themselves and are able to formulate and convey the problems efficiently. The research objectives are (1 to analyze the level of women farmers’ empowerment, and (2 to analyze factors affecting the level of participation and empowerment of women farmers. Data were processed using quantitative analysis supported by qualitative analysis. The results obtained the level of women farmer’s empowerment in medium category, the activities of Women Farmers Group (KWT categories of low in making decisions, increasing the additional income and distribute production, the medium category, namely access to information and regulate family food consumptions, and high category that aspect of utilizing their yards. Factors that mostly affect the empowerment of women farmers are a long time to cultivate the farm yard, the level of income, cosmopolitan level, motivation level, intensity of interaction within the groups, the development of technical capabilities, the intensity of the assistance, government policy support, social environment conduciveness, interpersonal, group, behavior in using media, planning, income utilization, and monitoring and evaluation activities.

  4. Forest understory trees can be segmented accurately within sufficiently dense airborne laser scanning point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamraz, Hamid; Contreras, Marco A; Zhang, Jun

    2017-07-28

    Airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) point clouds over large forested areas can be processed to segment individual trees and subsequently extract tree-level information. Existing segmentation procedures typically detect more than 90% of overstory trees, yet they barely detect 60% of understory trees because of the occlusion effect of higher canopy layers. Although understory trees provide limited financial value, they are an essential component of ecosystem functioning by offering habitat for numerous wildlife species and influencing stand development. Here we model the occlusion effect in terms of point density. We estimate the fractions of points representing different canopy layers (one overstory and multiple understory) and also pinpoint the required density for reasonable tree segmentation (where accuracy plateaus). We show that at a density of ~170 pt/m² understory trees can likely be segmented as accurately as overstory trees. Given the advancements of LiDAR sensor technology, point clouds will affordably reach this required density. Using modern computational approaches for big data, the denser point clouds can efficiently be processed to ultimately allow accurate remote quantification of forest resources. The methodology can also be adopted for other similar remote sensing or advanced imaging applications such as geological subsurface modelling or biomedical tissue analysis.

  5. Gravitationally Induced Entanglement between Two Massive Particles is Sufficient Evidence of Quantum Effects in Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletto, C; Vedral, V

    2017-12-15

    All existing quantum-gravity proposals are extremely hard to test in practice. Quantum effects in the gravitational field are exceptionally small, unlike those in the electromagnetic field. The fundamental reason is that the gravitational coupling constant is about 43 orders of magnitude smaller than the fine structure constant, which governs light-matter interactions. For example, detecting gravitons-the hypothetical quanta of the gravitational field predicted by certain quantum-gravity proposals-is deemed to be practically impossible. Here we adopt a radically different, quantum-information-theoretic approach to testing quantum gravity. We propose witnessing quantumlike features in the gravitational field, by probing it with two masses each in a superposition of two locations. First, we prove that any system (e.g., a field) mediating entanglement between two quantum systems must be quantum. This argument is general and does not rely on any specific dynamics. Then, we propose an experiment to detect the entanglement generated between two masses via gravitational interaction. By our argument, the degree of entanglement between the masses is a witness of the field quantization. This experiment does not require any quantum control over gravity. It is also closer to realization than detecting gravitons or detecting quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations.

  6. Failure, The Next Generation: Why Rigorous Standards are not Sufficient to Improve Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Antony Bair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many states in the United States are adopting policies that require all students to complete college-preparatory science classes to graduate from high school, such policies have not always led to improved student outcomes. There is much speculation about the cause of the dismal results, but there is scant research on the processes by which the policies are being implemented at the school level, especially in schools that enroll large numbers of historically non-college-bound students. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a four-year ethnographic case study of policy implementation at one racially and socioeconomically diverse high school in Michigan. Guided by the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens (1984, we gathered and analyzed information from interviews with administrators and science teachers, observations of science classes, and relevant curriculum and policy documents. Our findings reveal the processes and rationales by which a state policy mandating three years of college-preparatory science for all students was implemented at the school. Four years after the policy was implemented, there was little improvement in science outcomes. The main reason for this, we found, was the lack of correspondence between the state policy and local policies developed in response to that state policy.

  7. Gravitationally Induced Entanglement between Two Massive Particles is Sufficient Evidence of Quantum Effects in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletto, C.; Vedral, V.

    2017-12-01

    All existing quantum-gravity proposals are extremely hard to test in practice. Quantum effects in the gravitational field are exceptionally small, unlike those in the electromagnetic field. The fundamental reason is that the gravitational coupling constant is about 43 orders of magnitude smaller than the fine structure constant, which governs light-matter interactions. For example, detecting gravitons—the hypothetical quanta of the gravitational field predicted by certain quantum-gravity proposals—is deemed to be practically impossible. Here we adopt a radically different, quantum-information-theoretic approach to testing quantum gravity. We propose witnessing quantumlike features in the gravitational field, by probing it with two masses each in a superposition of two locations. First, we prove that any system (e.g., a field) mediating entanglement between two quantum systems must be quantum. This argument is general and does not rely on any specific dynamics. Then, we propose an experiment to detect the entanglement generated between two masses via gravitational interaction. By our argument, the degree of entanglement between the masses is a witness of the field quantization. This experiment does not require any quantum control over gravity. It is also closer to realization than detecting gravitons or detecting quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations.

  8. Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Meta-epidemiologic analysis indicates that MEDLINE searches are sufficient for diagnostic test accuracy systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enst, Wynanda A; Scholten, Rob J P M; Whiting, Penny; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Hooft, Lotty

    2014-11-01

    To investigate how the summary estimates in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews are affected when searches are limited to MEDLINE. A systematic search was performed to identify DTA reviews that had conducted exhaustive searches and included a meta-analysis. Primary studies included in selected reviews were assessed to determine whether they were indexed on MEDLINE. The effect of omitting non-MEDLINE studies from meta-analyses was investigated by calculating the summary relative diagnostic odds ratio (RDORs) = DORMEDLINE only/DORall studies. We also calculated the summary difference in sensitivity and specificity between all studies and only MEDLINE-indexed studies. Ten reviews contributing 15 meta-analyses met inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. The RDOR comparing MEDLINE-only studies with all studies was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95, 1.15). Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity remained almost unchanged (difference in sensitivity: -0.08%; 95% CI -1% to 1%; difference in specificity: -0.1%; 95% CI -0.8% to 1%). Restricting to studies indexed on MEDLINE did not influence the summary estimates of the meta-analyses in our sample. In certain circumstances, for instance, when resources are limited, it may be appropriate to restrict searches to MEDLINE. However, the impact on individual reviews cannot be predicted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Are the current chronic allograft nephropathy grading systems sufficient to predict renal allograft survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Moscoso-Solorzano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in renal transplantation is identifying a grading system that can predict long-term graft survival. The present study determined the extent to which the two existing grading systems (Banff 97 and chronic allograft damage index, CADI correlate with each other and with graft loss. A total of 161 transplant patient biopsies with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN were studied. The samples were coded and evaluated blindly by two pathologists using the two grading systems. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the best predictor index for renal allograft loss. Patients with higher Banff 97 and CADI scores had higher rates of graft loss. Moreover, these measures also correlated with worse renal function and higher proteinuria levels at the time of CAN diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, hepatitis C virus (HCV, tubular atrophy, and the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF were associated with graft loss in the CADI, while the use of ACEI, HCV, moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and the use of MMF were associated in the Banff 97 index. Although Banff 97 and CADI analyze different parameters in different renal compartments, only some isolated parameters correlated with graft loss. This suggests that we need to review the CAN grading systems in order to devise a system that includes all parameters able to predict long-term graft survival, including chronic glomerulopathy, glomerular sclerosis, vascular changes, and severity of chronic interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.

  11. Are the current chronic allograft nephropathy grading systems sufficient to predict renal allograft survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Moscoso-Solorzano

    Full Text Available A major problem in renal transplantation is identifying a grading system that can predict long-term graft survival. The present study determined the extent to which the two existing grading systems (Banff 97 and chronic allograft damage index, CADI correlate with each other and with graft loss. A total of 161 transplant patient biopsies with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN were studied. The samples were coded and evaluated blindly by two pathologists using the two grading systems. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the best predictor index for renal allograft loss. Patients with higher Banff 97 and CADI scores had higher rates of graft loss. Moreover, these measures also correlated with worse renal function and higher proteinuria levels at the time of CAN diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, hepatitis C virus (HCV, tubular atrophy, and the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF were associated with graft loss in the CADI, while the use of ACEI, HCV, moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and the use of MMF were associated in the Banff 97 index. Although Banff 97 and CADI analyze different parameters in different renal compartments, only some isolated parameters correlated with graft loss. This suggests that we need to review the CAN grading systems in order to devise a system that includes all parameters able to predict long-term graft survival, including chronic glomerulopathy, glomerular sclerosis, vascular changes, and severity of chronic interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.

  12. A Model for Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an approach drawn from the ideas of computer systems modelling to produce a model for information itself. The model integrates evolutionary, static and dynamic views of information and highlights the relationship between symbolic content and the physical world. The model includes what information technology practitioners call “non-functional” attributes, which, for information, include information quality and information friction. The concepts developed in the model enable a richer understanding of Floridi’s questions “what is information?” and “the informational circle: how can information be assessed?” (which he numbers P1 and P12.

  13. Moderate weight loss is sufficient to affect thyroid hormone homeostasis and inhibit its peripheral conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihothri, Ritesh V; Courville, Amber B; Linderman, Joyce D; Smith, Sheila; Brychta, Robert; Remaley, Alan; Chen, Kong Y; Simchowitz, Louis; Celi, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important determinants of energy expenditure, and in rodents, adipose tissue affects thyroid hormone homeostasis via leptin signaling. The relationship between thyroid hormones and nutritional status in humans has been assessed primarily in drastic dietary or bariatric surgery interventions, while limited information is available on serial assessment of this axis during moderate, prolonged dietary restriction. To evaluate the effects of moderate dietary restriction on thyroid hormone homeostasis, 47 subjects with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-45 kg/m(2) were enrolled in a longitudinal intervention study; 30 nonoverweight volunteers were also enrolled as controls. Overweight and obese subjects underwent a 12-month individualized dietary intervention aimed at achieving a 5-10% weight loss. The intervention resulted in a 6.3±0.9 kg (6.5±1.0%) weight loss. At baseline, thyrotropin (TSH) and T3 concentrations correlated significantly with fat mass (R=0.257, p=0.024 and R=0.318, p=0.005, respectively). After weight loss, T3 decreased significantly (from 112.7±3.1 to 101.8±2.6 ng/dL, p5% body weight. T3 concentration closely correlates with individual nutritional status, and moderate weight loss results in a decrease in T3 with minimal changes in other thyroid hormone homeostasis parameters. The data suggest that a decrease in peripheral conversion of the prohormone T4 into its hormonally active metabolite T3 is at least in part responsible for the observed changes in thyroid hormone homeostasis.

  14. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Implementation: Is Sufficient Evidence Available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sophie; Dixon, Simon; Faria, Rita; Walker, Simon; Palmer, Stephen; Sculpher, Mark; Radford, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Timely implementation of recommended interventions can provide health benefits to patients and cost savings to the health service provider. Effective approaches to increase the implementation of guidance are needed. Since investment in activities that improve implementation competes for funding against other health generating interventions, it should be assessed in term of its costs and benefits. In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence released a clinical guideline recommending natriuretic peptide (NP) testing in patients with suspected heart failure. However, its implementation in practice was variable across the National Health Service in England. This study demonstrates the use of multi-period analysis together with diffusion curves to estimate the value of investing in implementation activities to increase uptake of NP testing. Diffusion curves were estimated based on historic data to produce predictions of future utilization. The value of an implementation activity (given its expected costs and effectiveness) was estimated. Both a static population and a multi-period analysis were undertaken. The value of implementation interventions encouraging the utilization of NP testing is shown to decrease over time as natural diffusion occurs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the value of the implementation activity depends on its efficacy and on the population size. Value of implementation can help inform policy decisions of how to invest in implementation activities even in situations in which data are sparse. Multi-period analysis is essential to accurately quantify the time profile of the value of implementation given the natural diffusion of the intervention and the incidence of the disease. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is cell death a critical end point for anticancer therapies or is cytostasis sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixe, Olivier; Fojo, Tito

    2007-12-15

    Since the discovery of conventional chemotherapy and the development of new target-based agents, the importance of cytostasis in anticancer activity has been debated. This review examines the relative importance of both cytostasis and cytotoxicity based on both preclinical data and clinical reports. Several limitations of our basic and clinical methods to evaluate cytostasis and cytotoxicity will be highlighted. Molecular mechanisms of cytostasis will be analyzed, including interference with the cell cycle as well as putative links with necrosis and autophagy. Finally, we will cite evidence that most older and newer compounds are both cytostatic and cytotoxic. The relative role of cytostasis and cytotoxicity on future drug screening and clinical development will be explored.

  16. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  17. Strategies to evaluate goodness of reference strips for in-season, field scale, irrigated corn nitrogen sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) sufficiency approach to assess plant N status for in-season N management requires a non-N-limiting reference to make N recommendations. Use of reference strips in fields with spatially variable soils and the impact this variability has within N enriched reference strips are not we...

  18. Comparison of transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect using the Amplatzer septal occluder associated with deficient versus sufficient rims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-Dong; Koenig, Peter; Cao, Q-Ling; Waight, David; Heitschmidt, Mary; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2002-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs) associated with deficient rims (rim of 0 to 4 mm (n = 20), an inferior rim of 2 mm (n = 2), or a posterior rim of 4 mm (n = 1) as assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) or intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). Forty-eight patients with sufficient rims (>5 mm) who underwent closure served as controls. There were no differences between the 2 groups in ASD stretched diameter and device size (p >0.05). Of 23 patients with deficient rims, 17 (74%) had immediate complete closure compared with 44 of 48 patients (92%) with sufficient rims (p rims vs 94% for patients with sufficient rims at 24 hours and 100% vs 93% at 6 months, respectively). The fluoroscopic time and procedure time were longer in patients with deficient rims (13 +/- 7 and 72 +/- 26 minutes, respectively) compared with those with sufficient rims (10 +/- 4 and 61 +/- 22 minutes, respectively). No major complications were encountered either during or after the closure procedure in both groups. Thus, transcatheter closure of ASDs associated with small anterior, inferior, or posterior rims is feasible using an ASO. Long-term follow-up data are still needed to assess long-term safety and efficacy.

  19. Modelling cereal crops to assess future climate risk for family food self-sufficiency in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, Bouba; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Wijk, van Mark T.; Corbeels, Marc; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Future climate change will have far reaching consequences for smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of whom depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Here we assessed the farm-level impact of climate change on family food self-sufficiency and evaluated potential adaptation

  20. Necessary and sufficient conditions for global-in-time existence of solutions of ordinary, stochastic, and parabolic differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for global-in-time existence of solutions of ordinary differential, stochastic differential, and parabolic equations. The conditions are formulated in terms of complete Riemannian metrics on extended phase spaces (conditions with two-sided estimates or in terms of derivatives of proper functions on extended phase spaces (conditions with one-sided estimates.