WorldWideScience

Sample records for included sperm concentration

  1. Sperm origins and concentration do not impact the clinical outcomes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cen; Zhou, Ze-Hong; Zheng, Dan-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Jin; Lian, Ying; Qiao, Jie

    2018-05-25

    In the present study, we evaluated the impact of sperm origins and concentration on the clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1201 ICSI cycles were retrospectively analyzed for male azoospermia or oligozoospermia between January 2015 and December 2015 in the Peking University Third Hospital. Patients were divided into three groups (Group 1 vs Group 2/3; surgically extracted sperm vs ejaculated sperms): Group 1 included 343 ICSI cycles and Group 2 analyzed 388 cycles on semen with sperm concentration cycles with sperm concentration between 5 × 10 6 ml -1 and 15 × 10 6 ml -1 (mild oligozoospermia group). Fertilization rates, clinical pregnancy rates, and live birth rates were analyzed and compared among groups of different semen origins and concentrations on the oocyte retrieval day. Group 2 showed a lower fertilization rate than Group 3 (62.9% ± 21.6% vs 66.8% ± 22.1%,Pcycles.

  2. Office-based sperm concentration: A simplified method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Semen samples from 51 sperm donors were used. Following swim-up separation, the sperm concentration of the retrieved motile fraction was counted, as well as progressive motile sperm using a standardised wet preparation. The number of sperm in a 10 μL droplet covered with a 22 × 22 mm coverslip was ...

  3. Validation of image cytometry for sperm concentration measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte L.; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2017-01-01

    Sperm concentration is an essential parameter in the diagnostic evaluation of men from infertile couples. It is usually determined by manual counting using a hemocytometer, and is therefore both laborious and subjective. We have earlier shown that a newly developed image cytometry (IC) method may...... be used to determine sperm concentration. Here we present a validation of the IC method by analysis of 4010 semen samples. There was high agreement between IC and manual counting at sperm concentrations above 3 mill/ml and in samples with concentrations above 12 mill/ml the two methods can be used...... a lower coefficient of variation than the manual method (5% vs 10%), indicating a better precision of the IC method. In conclusion, measurement of sperm concentration by IC can be used at concentrations above 3 mill/ml and seems more accurate and precise than manual counting, making it an attractive...

  4. Effect of sperm concentration on characteristics and fertilization capacity of rooster sperm frozen in the presence of the antioxidants catalase and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbeli, Morteza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study conducted was to determine the influence of different levels of sperm concentration, including catalase (CAT) and vitamin E (VitE) in rooster semen extender on postthawed quality and fertility of rooster semen. Semen was collected twice a week from six roosters (Arian) and diluted according to experimental treatments consisting of sperm suspensions containing different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) without antioxidant supplementation as control (Con) groups (Con200, Con400, and Con600, respectively), sperm suspensions containing different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) supplemented with 5-μg/mL VitE (VitE200, VitE400, and VitE600, respectively) and different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) supplementation with 100 IU/mL CAT (CAT200, CAT400, and CAT600, respectively). After thawing; sperm motility, membrane integrity, and mitochondrial function were assessed. Fertility and hatchability rates were determined by using 100 artificially inseminated hens. The percentage of total motility (TM) and activity of mitochondria decreased (P rooster extender with different level sperm concentrations had no effect (P > 0.05) on fertility and hatchability rates. In conclusion, although adding VitE and CAT in extender with different levels of sperm concentration improved postthawed quality of rooster semen, but adding VitE and CAT in the extender have no effect on fertility rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated Analysis of Human Sperm Number and Concentration (Oligospermia) Using Otsu Threshold Method and Labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susrama, I. G.; Purnama, K. E.; Purnomo, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Oligospermia is a male fertility issue defined as a low sperm concentration in the ejaculate. Normally the sperm concentration is 20-120 million/ml, while Oligospermia patients has sperm concentration less than 20 million/ml. Sperm test done in the fertility laboratory to determine oligospermia by checking fresh sperm according to WHO standards in 2010 [9]. The sperm seen in a microscope using a Neubauer improved counting chamber and manually count the number of sperm. In order to be counted automatically, this research made an automation system to analyse and count the sperm concentration called Automated Analysis of Sperm Concentration Counters (A2SC2) using Otsu threshold segmentation process and morphology. Data sperm used is the fresh sperm directly in the analysis in the laboratory from 10 people. The test results using A2SC2 method obtained an accuracy of 91%. Thus in this study, A2SC2 can be used to calculate the amount and concentration of sperm automatically

  6. Validation of the FACSCount AF system for determination of sperm concentration in boar semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.; Christensen, P.; Stryhn, H.

    2002-01-01

    microspheres ( beads). Satisfactory staining can be achieved within 2-3 min and the following flow cytometric analysis on the FACSCount AF System rapidly provides the user with a precise and accurate assessment of the sperm concentration. In this study, the FACSCount AF System and Sperm Counting Reagent ( BD...... Biosciences) was compared with microscopic counting using a Burker-Turk haemocytometer. In addition, sperm concentration was determined using the Corning 254 spectrophotometer which is used routinely by Danish artificial insemination stations for boars. The results show that the agreement between flow...... cytometry and microscopic counting is very high. The slope for the regression line was 1.12 (SE = 0.03) with an estimated intercept with the Y-axis of 22 x 10(6) sperm/ml (SE = 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml) and an estimated error of the model of 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml. For the spectrophotometer, the slope...

  7. Effects of glyphosate exposure on sperm concentration in rodents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenyan; Ji, Ying; Song, Xianping; Guo, Haoran; Han, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hengdong; Zhu, Baoli; Xu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Correlation between exposure to glyphosate and sperm concentrations is important in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for male reproductive functions. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate, however, results are still controversial. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the association between glyphosate exposure and sperm concentrations of rodents. The aim of this study is to explore the potential adverse effects of glyphosate on reproductive function of male rodents. Systematic and comprehensive literature search was performed in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, Embase, WANFANG and CNKI databases with different combinations of glyphosate exposure and sperm concentration. 8 studies were eventually identified and random-effect model was conducted. Heterogeneity among study results was calculated via chi-square tests. Ten independent experimental datasets from these eight studies were acquired to synthesize the random-effect model. A decrease in sperm concentrations was found with mean difference of sperm concentrations(MDsperm)=-2.774×10 6 /sperm/g/testis(95%CI=-0.969 to -4.579) in random-effect model after glyphosate exposure. There was also a significant decrease after fitting the random-effect model: MDsperm=-1.632×10 6 /sperm/g/testis (95%CI=-0.662 to -2.601). The results of meta-analysis support the hypothesis that glyphosate exposure decreased sperm concentration in rodents. Therefore, we conclude that glyphosate is toxic to male rodent's reproductive system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. In vivo sodium, potassium, and sperm concentrations in the rat epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T T; Hartmann, P K; Howards, S S

    1977-02-01

    In vivo samples of epididymal fluids were obtained through the use of micropuncture techniques. Microsamples from four areas of the rat epididymis were analyzed for Na+ and K+ concentrations and for sperm density. Na+ values declined significantly from caput to corpus epididymidis (P less than 0.01), while K+ and sperm concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.01). A large water loss from the epididymal lumen was calculated, as well as net losses of both cations. Water losses may be explained on the basis of an active Na+ pump; however, the effect of the absolute values of epididymal Na+ and K+ concentrations on sperm motility and fertility remains unresolved.

  9. Grape juice concentrate alleviates epididymis and sperm damage in cadmium-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Celina de A; Cuquetto-Leite, Livia; do Nascimento da Silva, Emanueli; Thomazini, Bruna F; Cordeiro, Gabriel da S; Predes, Fabrícia de S; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of long-term grape juice concentrate (GJC) consumption conferring a protective effect against cadmium (Cd)-induced damage to the epididymis, completely preserving sperm profile, was evaluated here for the first time in the scientific literature. Male Wistar rats (n = 6/per group) received an intraperitoneal Cd injection (1.2 mg/Kg) at age 80 days and GJC (2 g/Kg) by gavage from 50 days until 136 days old. Groups receiving either Cd or GJC were added. An intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.9%) and water by gavage was administered in the absence of treatment with Cd or GJC. Animals were anaesthetized and exsanguinated at 136 days; the vas deferens, left testis and epididymis were removed; and perfusion continued with fixative. The right epididymis was collected for morphological analysis. Cd had a devastating effect demonstrated by reduced sperm count in testes and epididymis, sperm production and normal sperm count, besides increased epididymis sperm transit time and completely disorganized morphology. These alterations were attributed to higher Cd levels in the testes and a lipid peroxidation (LP) process. Consumption of GJC plus Cd intoxication was effective, reducing metal accumulation and LP. Consequently, we could identify a preserved sperm profile, with improvement in testis and epididymis sperm count, normal sperm structure and sperm transit time. Moreover, GJC extends its protective effect to the epididymis, allowing complete re-establishment of its morphology, ensuring successful sperm maturation process. In conclusion, our study indicates long-term GJC as a promising therapy against reproductive chemical intoxication injury damage, preserving sperm prior to ejaculation. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  10. Method agreement between measuring of boar sperm concentration using Makler chamber and photometer

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkun Janko; Kosec M.; Zakošek Maja; Zrimšek Petra

    2007-01-01

    Determination of boar sperm concentration using a photometer is used routinely by many artificial insemination (AI) laboratories. The agreement between determining sperm concentration using Makler chamber and a photometer has been assessed. Method agreement was evaluated on the basis of scatter plots with Deming regression line, absolute bias plots with limits of agreement, and relative bias plots. Coefficients of variance for the Makler chamber and a photometer were calculated as 6.575+3.461...

  11. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    and sperm concentration were examined over two reproductive seasons. Activation time, spermatocrit, and sperm concentration were significantly higher in 2003 than in 2004. Spermatocrit and sperm concentration showed a significant positive relationship (r2=0.79). During the 2004 reproductive season......, a significant variation was observed for spermatocrit and sperm concentration between the initial period (February 15th to March 14th) and the middle and final periods (March 15th to April 14th and April 15th to May 14th, respectively). Neither the ion concentrations nor the glucose and cholesterol...... concentrations varied between any periods of the reproductive season. Osmolality and triglyceride concentrations showed significant variations between periods during the reproductive season....

  12. Evaluation of the effect of implanted depleted uranium on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, and sperm velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfsten, Darryl P.; Schaeffer, David J.; Johnson, Eric W.; Robert Cunningham, J.; Still, Kenneth R.; Wilfong, Erin R.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) projectiles have been used in battle in Iraq and the Balkans and will continue to be a significant armor-penetrating munition for the US military. As demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War, battle injury from DU projectiles and shrapnel is a possibility, and removal of embedded DU fragments from the body is not always practical because of their location in the body or their small size. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated that implanted DU mobilizes and translocates to the gonads, and natural uranium may be toxic to spermatazoa and the male reproductive tract. In this study, the effects of implanted DU pellets on sperm concentration, motility, and male reproductive success were evaluated in adult (P1) Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with 0, 12, or 20, DU pellets of 1x2 mm or 12 or 20 tantalum (Ta) steel pellets of 1x2 mm. Twenty DU pellets of 1x2 mm (760 mg) implanted in a 500-g rat are equal to approximately 0.2 pound of DU in a 154-lb (70-kg) person. Urinary analysis found that male rats implanted with DU were excreting uranium at postimplantation days 27 and 117 with the amount dependent on dose. No deaths or evidence of toxicity occurred in P1 males over the 150-day postimplantation study period. When assessed at postimplantation day 150, the concentration, motion, and velocity of sperm isolated from DU-implanted animals were not significantly different from those of sham surgery controls. Velocity and motion of sperm isolated from rats treated with the positive control compound α-chlorohydrin were significantly reduced compared with sham surgery controls. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect of DU implantation on mating success at 30-45 days and 120-145 days postimplantation. The results of this study suggest that implantation of up to 20 DU pellets of 1x2 mm in rats for approximately 21% of their adult lifespan does not have an adverse impact on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, or sperm velocity

  13. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  14. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  15. How would a decline in sperm concentration over time influence the probability of pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, R.; Jensen, Tina Kold; Scheike, T.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports have suggested a decline in sperm concentration during the second half of the 20th century. The effect of this decline on fecundability (the monthly probability of pregnancy) could be detected in principle by a study of time to pregnancy. In practice, the amplitude of this exp......BACKGROUND: Reports have suggested a decline in sperm concentration during the second half of the 20th century. The effect of this decline on fecundability (the monthly probability of pregnancy) could be detected in principle by a study of time to pregnancy. In practice, the amplitude...... of this expected effect is not well known and the statistical power of time-to-pregnancy studies to detect it has not been explored. METHODS: We developed a nonparametric model to describe a temporal decline in sperm concentration using data on French semen donors. We then applied this model to 419 Danish couples...... planning a first pregnancy in 1992, to predict their time to pregnancy as if the pregnancy attempt had begun during earlier decades with higher sperm concentrations. Finally, we used bootstrap simulations to estimate the statistical power of prospective or retrospective studies that compared fecundability...

  16. The effect of different concentrations of citric acid on motility patterns of bovine epididymal sperms in Hams F10 milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abdy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three concentration of citric acid on motility patterns of bovine epididymal sperms. For this purpose, 50 pairs of bovine testicles were collected immediately after slaughter form urmia abattoir and transferred to the laboratory alongside 5oc ice pack. Epididymal tail sperms were collected with a few incisions in vascular areas and transferred to hams f10 milieu with 10% fetal calf serum and counted after 15 minutes of incubation at 37oc in Co2 incubator. Concentrations of 50 million sperms per ml were proposal and in the normal sperm pH rang of 6.7-7.4, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 normal concentration of citric acid were added to sperm continuity micro tubes (normal concentration of acid equals 7 mg/ml of bovine serum and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 360 minutes the motility patterns of epididymal sperms were evaluated using the computer assisted sperms analyzing (CASA method. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA using the SPSS 15 software. The results indicated significant differences in various indices of sperm motility patterns (Curvilinear   Velocity, Straight-line Velocity, Average Path Velocity, Mean Angel Degree, Amplitude of Lateral Head Displacement, Beat-Cross Frequency, Linearity, Wobble particularly at 0.3 normal concentration of citric acid compared with the control.

  17. The Effect of Different Foam Concentrations on Sperm Motility in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of foam extract on sperm motility in the male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Adult male quails (<12 weeks of heavy body weight strain were housed in individual cages and divided into 5 groups according to the size of their cloacal glands. The data indicated that the size of the cloacal gland was positively correlated with the frequency of foam secretion and total foam production. One gram of freshly collected clean foam was mixed with 1.0 mL of normal saline and homogenized for 10 minutes. After centrifugation at 35 000 rpm, the supernatant was used as 100% foam extract. The extract was diluted to 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, and 1:4 with normal saline to produce 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 25% foam extracts, respectively. 5% foam extract enhanced sperm survival at room temperature (30°–35°C for 2 to 3 hrs, whereas higher concentrations (10% and above suppressed sperm motility. From this study, it may be concluded that foam secretion and quantity of foam are directly proportional to the size of the cloacal gland and that the foam enhances and prolongs sperm motility, in vitro at an optimum concentration of 5%.

  18. The comparison of assessment of pigeon semen motility and sperm concentration by conventional methods and the CASA system (HTM IVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimowicz, M D; Nizanski, W; Batkowski, F; Savic, M A

    2008-07-01

    The aim of these experiments was to compare conventional, microscopic methods of evaluating pigeon sperm motility and concentration to those measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA system). Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons, each of 40 males (group I: meat-type breed; group II: fancy pigeon) using the lumbo-sacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected in each group were diluted 1:100 in BPSE solution and divided into two equal samples. One sample was examined subjectively by microscope and the second one was analysed using CASA system. The sperm concentration was measured by CASA using the anti-collision (AC) system and fluorescent staining (IDENT). There were not any significant differences between the methods of evaluation of sperm concentration. High positive correlations in both groups were observed between the sperm concentration estimated by Thom counting chamber and AC (r=0.87 and r=0.91, respectively), and between the sperm concentration evaluated by Thom counting chamber and IDENT (r=0.85 and r=0.90, respectively). The mean values for CASA measurement of proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) were significantly lower than the values estimated subjectively in both groups of pigeons (pCASA system is very rapid, objective and sensitive method in detecting subtle motility characteristics as well as sperm concentration and is recommended for future research into pigeon semen.

  19. Comparison of Photometer with Improved Neubauer Hemocytometer and Makler Counting Chamber for Sperm Concentration Measurement in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Atiq, Nemat Ullah1*, S. M. H. Andrabi2 and Shamim Akhter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare the photometer (Lp 300 SDM Minitüb GmHb with improved Neubauer hemocytometer and Makler counting chamber for sperm concentration measurement in cow bulls. Data were based on 35 cow bull semen samples. The average sperm concentrations (109/ml determined by photometer, hemocytometer and Makler chamber were 1.35±0.72, 1.17±0.53 and 1.49±0.60, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed that there was no difference among the three techniques of sperm concentration measurement of same semen samples in cow bulls. It was concluded that the use of photometer in semen evaluation for sperm concentration reduced chances of human error and time consumption effectively.

  20. Development of methods for cryopreservation of rooster sperm from the endangered breed "Gallina Valenciana de Chulilla" using low glycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, E; Tomás, C; Casares, L; Gómez, E A; Sansano, S; Giménez, I; Mocé, E

    2014-06-01

    Glycerol (11%; v:v) is the cryoprotectant most often used for the cryopreservation of rooster sperm. However, chicken breeds differ in the resistance of their sperm to the cryopreservation process and endangered or local breeds usually present low fertilizing ability when conventional sperm cryopreservation protocols are used. The objective of this study was to optimize the protocol for the cryopreservation of the sperm from the endangered breed "Gallina Valenciana de Chulilla". For this purpose, 10 pools of semen from 43 roosters of this breed were cryopreserved using 8%, 7%, 6%, or 4% glycerol, and the sperm quality was determined immediately after thawing and in the insemination doses. Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens (n = 40) were used for the insemination trials. The sperm quality after cryopreservation progressively decreased as the glycerol concentration was reduced (P roosters frozen using 4% glycerol exhibited lower sperm quality but similar fertilizing ability compared with samples processed using higher glycerol concentrations. These results may provide useful information for developing cryopreservation protocols for other breeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  2. The Effect of Sperm Concentration and Storage Vessel on Quercetin-Supplemented Rabbit Semen During Chilled Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johinke, D; de Graaf, S P; Bathgate, R

    2015-08-01

    Extending the shelf life of chilled rabbit spermatozoa is vital for the expansion of the farmed rabbit industry. This study evaluated the relationship between sperm concentration and packaging on in vitro quality of chilled rabbit semen over 96 h. Semen was collected from adult bucks (n = 4) and pooled at 37°C following evaluation. Pooled ejaculates were diluted with a Tris-based extender supplemented with 100 μm quercetin to a concentration of 15, 30 or 60 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml, packaged into plastic tubes or 0.5-ml straws and stored at 15°C. Sperm quality was assessed by computer-assisted sperm Analysis [total motility (tMOT)] and flow cytometry [viability, acrosome integrity, H2 O2 production, plasma membrane disorder, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation index (DFI)] at 0, 48, 72 and 96 h. From 48 h, concentrations of 30 and 60 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml reported the highest tMOT, irrespective of storage vessel (p straws reduced oxidative stress and improved plasma membrane stability. The %DFI, mean DFI and SD-DFI were increased in spermatozoa stored in tubes compared with straws (p < 0.05). Although the use of low sperm concentrations in artificial insemination doses would facilitate greater dispersion of genetically superior rabbit bucks, dilution to 15 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml had a detrimental impact on motility. As such, chilled storage at 30 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml may provide a suitable balance between motility and H2 O2 production to best maintain overall sperm function and should be evaluated in a large-scale AI trial. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  4. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of different concentrations of ccBA-GFP promoter with electroporation methods on the quality of koi sperm (Cyprinus carpio var. koi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeprijanto, A.; Aisyah, D.

    2018-04-01

    The effectiveness of the use of promoter concentration which will be inserted into the Koi sperm as the medium of gene transfer is important. The objective of this research is to find out the influence of the adding of different concentrations of the ccBA-GFP promoter with electroporation methods to the motility, viability and the fertilization rate of the Koi sperm. This study was conducted at Central Lab of Life Sciences Brawijaya University in April 2017. Electroporation methods were conducted by using 30-volt voltage, 4 times shocks with 0.5 seconds per shock. The treatment of different concentration was done through 3 types of ccBA-GFP promoter concentration, namely: 10 ng/µl, 30 ng/µl, and 50 ng/µl. The best motility percentage with the score of 4 is at the treatment A (10ng/µl concentration), the best viability percentage is 77.83 % at the treatment A (10 ng/µl concentration) and the best fertilization rate is 73.09 % at the treatment A (10 ng/µl concentration). The result shows that there is a relationship between the treatment given to the motility and viability of the Koi sperm, at which, the higher the shocks, the lower the percentage of the motility and viability of the Koi sperm.

  6. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  7. Potential Stemness of Frozen-Thawed Testicular Biopsies without Sperm in Infertile Men Included into the In Vitro Fertilization Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stimpfel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the potential stemness of a small amount of frozen-thawed testicular tissue without sperm obtained by biopsy from six patients undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. The patients were diagnosed with Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome alone or combined with maturation arrest. Trying to provide the natural stem cell niche for cultured stem cells, all isolated cells from enzymatically degraded biopsies where cultured together in different culture media and the presence of putative mesenchymal and putative pluripotent ES-like stem cells was indicated using different methods. High throughput real-time quantitative PCR followed by multivariate analysis revealed the formation of distinct cell clusters reflecting high degree of similarity and some of these cell clusters expressed the genes characteristic for pluripotent stem cells. In the presence of the follicular fluid, prepared as serum, putative testicular stem cells showed a certain degree of plasticity, and spontaneously differentiated into adipose-like and neuronal-like cells. Additionally, using differentiation protocols putative testicular stem cells were differentiated into neuronal- and pancreatic-like cells. This study shows that in assisted reproduction programmes, testicular tissue with no sperm might be an important source of stem cells, although it is discarded in daily medical practice; this requires further research.

  8. Effect of Medications for Gastric Acid-Related Symptoms on Total Motile Sperm Count and Concentration: A Case-Control Study in Men of Subfertile Couples from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Nicole A; Goijen, Hedwig J; Twigt, John M; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; Lindemans, Jan; Dohle, Gert R; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2017-03-01

    Gastric acid-related symptoms are highly prevalent in the general population (21-40%), and more than 11% of individuals use medication for the treatment of these symptoms. The uptake of micronutrients is dependent on the gastrointestinal potential of hydrogen (pH). We hypothesized that medication affecting gastrointestinal pH reduces the availability of B vitamins, thereby deranging one-carbon metabolism and detrimentally affecting spermatogenesis. This explorative nested case-control study in men of subfertile couples investigated associations between medication used for gastric acid-related symptoms and semen parameters. We included 40 men using medication for gastric acid-related symptoms and 843 men not using medication. Semen analyses were performed between 70 days before and 21 days after the visit. The use of medication was associated with a twofold higher risk of a low total motile sperm count [TMSC sperm concentration (β -0.320, p = 0.028). Red blood cell folate was positively associated with TMSC (β 0.257, p = 0.026), sperm count (β 1.679, p = 0.013) and ejaculate volume (β 0.120, p = 0.023), and total homocysteine (tHcy) was negatively associated with sperm count (β -0.077, p = 0.021). Here we delineate associations between the use of medication for gastric acid-related symptoms and poor semen quality in men of subfertile couples. The use of medication for gastric acid-related symptoms is associated with a twofold higher risk of a low TMSC and a decreased sperm concentration. Although these findings warrant further research on causality, the associations between folate, tHcy and semen quality emphasize the importance of preconception counselling in male subfertility.

  9. Sperm quality assessment via separation and sedimentation in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Yu; Chiang, Tsun-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Jong, De-Shien; Tsai, Vincent F-S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Wo, Andrew M

    2013-09-07

    A major reason for infertility is due to male factors, including the quality of spermatozoa, which is a primary factor and often difficult to assess, particularly the total sperm concentration and its motile percentage. This work presents a simple microfluidic device to assess sperm quality by quantifying both total and motile sperm counts. The key design feature of the microfluidic device is two channels separated by a permeative phase-guide structure, where one channel is filled with raw semen and the other with pure buffer. The semen sample was allowed to reach equilibrium in both chambers, whereas non-motile sperms remained in the original channel, and roughly half of the motile sperms would swim across the phase-guide barrier into the buffer channel. Sperms in each channel agglomerated into pellets after centrifugation, with the corresponding area representing total and motile sperm concentrations. Total sperm concentration up to 10(8) sperms per ml and motile percentage in the range of 10-70% were tested, encompassing the cutoff value of 40% stated by World Health Organization standards. Results from patient samples show compact and robust pellets after centrifugation. Comparison of total sperm concentration between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber reveal they agree within 5% and show strong correlation, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.97. Motile sperm count between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber agrees within 5%, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.84. Comparison of results from the Makler Chamber, sperm quality analyzer, and the microfluidic device revealed that results from the microfluidic device agree well with the Makler chamber. The sperm microfluidic chip analyzes both total and motile sperm concentrations in one spin, is accurate and easy to use, and should enable sperm quality analysis with ease.

  10. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  11. Are the optimum levels of the catalase and vitamin E in rooster semen extender after freezing-thawing influenced by sperm concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbeli, Morteza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharafi, Mohsen; Nabi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zahedi, Vahid; Sharideh, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    To date, there has no report to evaluate the interaction effects of antioxidant and sperm concentration in rooster semen cryopreservation. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin E (VitE) and catalase (CAT) at different sperm concentrations on the rooster post-thawed sperm quality. Semen samples were collected twice a week from ten roosters (ROS 308) and diluted according to experimental treatments. The treatments consist of different sperm concentrations (200, 400 and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) with supplementation VitE (5 μg/mL; VitE200, VitE400, and VitE600, respectively) or CAT (100 IU/mL; CAT200, CAT400, CAT600, respectively) and without antioxidants [Control (Con); Con200, Con400, Con600, respectively]. After thawing, motion characteristics were assessed using a CASA system. Plasma membrane integrity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were evaluated with Hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), respectively. The higher percentage of total motility, progressive motility, viability and membrane integrity were obtained in VitE400 (81.16 ± 1.21, 18.44 ± 1.19, 85.47 ± 1.07, 86.91 ± 1.16, respectively) and CAT400 (79.38 ± 1.21, 17.19 ± 1.19, 83.42 ± 1.07, 85.73 ± 1.16, respectively) compared to control groups. Moreover, the lowest percentage of MDA was measured in VitE400, VitE600 and CAT400 rather than other groups (1.489, 1.500, 1.510 ± 0.06, respectively). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that VitE (5 μg/mL) and CAT (100 IU/mL) independently at sperm concentration, 400 million sperm/mL could beneficial effect for preservation of rooster semen during cryopreservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Red wine consumption may affect sperm biology: the effects of different concentrations of the phytoestrogen myricetin on human male gamete function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Perrotta, Ida; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia

    2013-02-01

    Myricetin is a natural flavonoid, particularly enriched in red wines, whose occurrence is widespread among plants. Despite extensive research, the beneficial effects of Myricetin on human health are still controversial. Here, we tested the estrogen-like effect of the phytoestrogen Myricetin on human ejaculated sperm biology. To this aim, human normozoospermic samples were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 µM) of Myricetin. Motility, viability, capacitation-associated biochemical changes (i.e., cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation), acrosin activity, as well as glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation (i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism) were all significantly increased by low doses of Myricetin. Importantly, both estrogen receptors α and β (ERs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are activated in the presence of Myricetin since these were both abrogated by specific inhibitors of each pathway. Our results show how Myricetin, through ERs and PI3K/AKT signalings, potentiates sperm function. This effect is dose-dependent at low concentrations of Myricetin (up to 100 nM), whereas higher amounts do not seem to improve any further sperm motility, viability, or other tested features, and, in some cases, they reduced or even abrogated the efficacy exerted by lower doses. Further studies are needed to elucidate if high levels of Myricetin, which could be attained even with moderate wine consumption, could synergize with endogenous estrogens in the female reproductive tract, interfering with the physiological sperm fertilization process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  14. Sperm competition selects for sperm quantity and quality in the Australian Maluridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

    2011-01-25

    When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype.

  15. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in c...

  16. Paternal exposure to environmental 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol concentrations modifies testicular transcription, affecting the sperm transcript content and the offspring performance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarce, David G; Vuelta, Elena; Robles, Vanesa; Herráez, Maria Paz

    2017-12-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a major constituent in contraceptive pills, is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) present in the aquatic environment at concentrations of ng/L. Developmental exposure to these low concentrations in fish can induce several disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a perfect organism for monitoring the effects of environmental contaminants. Our hypothesis is that changes promoted by EE2 in the germ line of male adults could be transmitted to the unexposed progeny. We exposed male zebrafish to 2.5, 5 and 10ng/L of EE2 during spermatogenesis and mated them with untreated females. Detailed progeny development was studied concentrating to survival, hatching and malformations. Due to the high incidence of lymphedemas within larvae, we performed qPCR analysis of genes involved in lymphatic development (vegfc and vegfr3) and endothelial cell migration guidance (cxcr4a and cxcl12b). Estrogen receptor (ER) transcript presence was also evaluated in sperm, testis and embryos. Progenies showed a range of disorders although at a low incidence: skeletal distortions, uninflated swimbladder, lymphedema formation, cartilage deformities and otolith tethering. Swimming evaluation revealed less active locomotion. All these processes are related to pathways involving ERs (esr1, esr2a and esr2b). mRNA analysis revealed that environmental EE2 causes the up-regulation of esr1 an esr2b in testis and the increase of esr2b transcripts in sperm pointing to a link between lymphedema in embryos and ER expression impairment. We demonstrate that the effects induced by environmental toxicants can be paternally inherited and point to the changes on the sperm transcriptome as the responsible mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  18. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  19. What use is an infertile sperm? A comparative study of sperm-heteromorphic Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Freckleton, Robert P; Snook, Rhonda R

    2007-01-01

    Sperm size and number are important determinants of male reproductive success. The genus Drosophila exhibits a remarkable diversity of sperm production strategies, including the production of multiple sperm morphs by individual males, a phenomenon called sperm heteromorphism. Sperm-heteromorphic ......Sperm size and number are important determinants of male reproductive success. The genus Drosophila exhibits a remarkable diversity of sperm production strategies, including the production of multiple sperm morphs by individual males, a phenomenon called sperm heteromorphism. Sperm......-heteromorphic Drosophila species in the obscura group produce large numbers of infertile "parasperm" in addition to fertile eusperm. Parasperm have been hypothesized to perform a number of roles in place of fertilization, predominantly focused on their potential function in postcopulatory sexual selection. However...

  20. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires......-sited ethnography drawing on ethnographic research including observations and interviews from fertility clinics and sperm banks in Denmark during 2002/2003 and 2011- 2013, legislative documents and websites of fertility clinics and sperm banks. The presentation is methodologically inspired by Adele Clarke...

  2. Decline of semen quality among Chinese sperm bank donors within 7 years (2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen from 5210 sperm bank donors was analyzed and trends in semen quality were evaluated at Shandong Human Sperm Bank between 2008 and 2014. After 2-7 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count were performed. There were significant declining trends in semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count. Our results indicate that the quality of semen in this cohort of sperm donors had decreased during the study period.

  3. Relationship between sperm parameters and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Chaichian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: With the adventure of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, great progresses have developed in the treatment of infertility. Concentration on the properties of male’s gamete has been encouraged by the increasing concerns about the causes of ICSI failure. We hence conducted this study to investigate the probable association of sperm parameters with ISCI outcome. Methods: A total of 523 couples referred to Isfahan Fertility and Sterility Center from January 2007 to June 2008 for ICSI. Semen analysis was performed before ICSI procedure according to the WHO criteria. Patients were assigned into successful ICSI (case and failed ICSI (control groups. Sperm parameters were then compared between the 2 groups. Results: One hundred and six patients (20% had successful ICSI results (case group compared with 417 couples (80% with undesirable ICSI outcomes (control group. Among evaluated factors, sperm agglutination (p = 0.007, sperm concentration (p = 0.043, leukocytospermia (p = 0.026 and head abnormality of sperm (p = 0.019 showed statistically significant differences between two groups with differing ICSI results. None of the other semen parameters revealed significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that some sperm parameters are associated with desirable ICSI outcome. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal.

  4. Sperm competition, sperm numbers and sperm quality in muroid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-03-25

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An "overall sperm quality" parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and

  5. Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...

  6. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment: a 15-year monocentric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, P; Saias-Magnan, J; Jouve, E; Grillo, J M; Karsenty, G; Metzler-Guillemain, C; Perrin, J

    2012-03-01

    Sperm banking is an important procedure to preserve fertility before cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyse cryopreservation activity retrospectively for 1080 patients referred to the sperm bank for sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment. This study included 1007 patients diagnosed with testicular cancer (TC) (41.7%), lymphoma (26%), other haematological cancers (9.4%) or other types of cancer (22.8%); of these, 29 patients did not produce any semen sample and cryopreservation was impossible for 67 patients. Semen characteristics before treatment were within normal ranges, except moderate asthenospermia. Sperm concentration was significantly lower in TC than in non-TC. Straws from 57 patients (6.3%) were used in assisted reproductive technologies, which led to a 46.8% cumulative birth rate. Straws were destroyed for 170 patients (18.7%) and 140 patients performed semen analyses after cancer therapy. After an average delay of 22.5 months after the end of therapy, 43 patients (30.7%) exhibited azoospermia. This study of a large population of cancer patients revealed a high level of successful sperm storage. Utilization of cryopreserved spermatozoa led to good chances of fatherhood. Nevertheless, sperm banks should be aware of the low rates of straw use and straw destruction by cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sperm variables as predictors of fertility in Black Castellana roosters; use in the selection of sperm donors for genome resource banking purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Moreno, J.; Lopez Sebastian, A.; Castano, C.; Coloma, M. A.; Gomez Brunet, A.; Toledano Diaz, A.; Prieto, M. T.; Campo, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Semen was collected from 10 Black Castellana roosters and the classic sperm variables (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility) examined. In addition, the hypo-osmotic swelling test was used to investigate sperm cell membrane integrity, and acidic aniline blue staining used to screen for morphological abnormalities (including acrosome integrity) and to examine the condensation status of the chromatin. The latter was also examined by Gram staining. Large and small semen volumes were associated high and low sperm concentrations respectively (R2=0.04, P<0.05). The percentage of motile spermatozoa correlated strongly with the percentage of sperm cells showing an intact acrosome (R2=0.13, P<0.001) and with the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (R2=0.04, P<0.05). The percentage of Gram positive spermatozoa was positively correlated with semen appearance (R2=0.12, P<0.05), sperm cell concentration (R2=0.13, P<0.05), and with the sperm motility variables studied (R2=0.14, P<0.05 for percentage mobility, and R2=0.12, P<0.05 for quality of movement). Only three of the 10 roosters, all with fertilisation potentials of 80-90%, were considered potential sperm donors for genome resource banking purposes. The remaining birds were all of low fertility (. 50%); in fact, some produced semen volumes too small to perform fertility tests. Semen volume and membrane integrity were found to be the best variables for predicting the fertilisation potential of rooster ejaculates. (Author) 37 refs.

  8. A comparison of sperm agglutination and immobilization assays with a quantitative ELISA for anti-sperm antibody in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D M; Leali, B A; Howe, S E

    1986-08-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that quantitates antisperm antibody in serum was compared with standard sperm agglutination and immobilization assays with the use of sera from 40 normal and 292 subfertile individuals. Quantitation of the assay was accomplished by standardizing assay parameters, including the incorporation of a standard reference curve, the number of whole target sperm, the optimal dilution of serum, the selection of microtiter plate, and the time and temperatures involved in the adsorption and incubation phases. With this method, the level of antisperm antibody binding to target sperm in 40 normal fertile individuals was found to be 2.3 (+/- 1.1 standard deviation [SD]) fg immunoglobulin (Ig)/sperm. An increased mean level of 7.4 +/- 3.7 fg Ig/sperm was determined in 84 infertile patients with positive agglutination and/or immobilization tests. In 208 individuals with negative agglutination and immobilization tests the mean concentration of antisperm antibody was 2.5 +/- 1.3 fg Ig/sperm. Postvasectomy patients assayed by this method had a mean Ig binding value of 7.1 +/- 2.4 fg Ig/sperm. The infertile group with positive agglutination and/or immobilization tests had a significantly higher mean antisperm antibody level than the normal fertile group, according to the Student's t-test for independent samples (P less than 0.001). This indirect serum-based assay reproducibly quantitates antisperm antibody binding to whole target sperm, suggests the normal and abnormal levels of antisperm antibody, and correlates with standard functional assays.

  9. Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of 27,158 singleton infants born after fresh single-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of structural parameter included in nonlocal rock mass model on stress concentration around circular tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, SV; Mikenina, OA; Revuzhenko, AF

    2018-03-01

    A model of elastic body, including local curvature of elementary volume, is matched with a nonlocal model with a linear structural parameter in the differential approximation. The problem on deformation of rock mass around a circular cross section tunnel is solved numerically. The contours of the calculated stresses are plotted. It is shown that inclusion of local bends in the model results in expansion of influence zone of the tunnel and reduces stress concentration factor at the tunnel boundary.

  11. [The effects of exposure to ozone on sperm quality in Wuhan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X J; Wang, X C; Ye, B; Li, C L; Zhang, Y; Ma, L

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to ozone (O(3)) on sperm quality during different stages of spermatogenesis. Methods: All 1 780 subjects attending to the Reproductive Medicine Center in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were recruited from April, 4, 2013 to June, 30, 2015. The subjects were living in Wuhan more than 3 months before attending to the program, aged 20 to 40 years. Semen quality (sperm concentration and sperm count) were measured according to standardized protocols. Corresponding daily 8 hours average concentration of O(3), other polluted concentration, average temperature and relative humidity were collected in different time, including lag 0, 10, 70 and 90 d, and lag 0-9 d, lag 10-14 d, lag 70-90 d and lag 0-90 d. After controlling the age, BMI, education level and other confounders, generalized linear Model was used to investigate the association between O(3) and sperm quality during different stages of spermatogenesis. Results: Average daily concentration of O(3) during the study period was (114.20±74.88) μg/m(3) and the mean values of sperm concentration and count were (76.32±50.17) millions/ml and (164.77 ± 133.05) millions/sample, respectively. Exposure to O(3) was associated with decreasing sperm concentration and count. For every 1 μg/m(3) increase of O(3), the decrease of sperm concentration during lag 10, lag 0-9 and lag 10-14 days exposure windows were 0.040 (95% CI: 0.004-0.077) millions/ml, 0.081 (95% CI: 0.003-0.158) millions/ml and 0.059 (95% CI: 0.001-0.116) millions/ml, respectively. And the decrease of sperm count during lag 10, lag 0-9 days exposure windows were 0.105 (95% CI: 0.008-0.202) millions/sample and 0.221 (95% CI: 0.016-0.426) millions/sample. After stratification, in the ozone concentration sperm concentration was 0.249 (95% CI: 0.028-0.470) millions/ml. After sensitivity analysis, the effects of exposure to ozone on sperm concentration and sperm count remained relatively unchanged. Conclusion: Our

  12. New permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification method for native human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua, J; Medrano, L; Enciso, M; Sarasa, J; Romero, A; Fernández, M A; Gómez-Torres, M J

    2017-10-01

    Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features. New alternative methods such as vitrification have been established as a successful alternative in other reproductive cell types, but vitrification of spermatozoa is still a rather unexplored methodology, with limited studies showing its efficacy in male gametes. This study included 18 normozoospermic sperm samples from patients seeking ART treatment between 2014 and 2015. The effects of a new vitrification protocol on functional and structural sperm quality parameters in comparison to fresh and slow-frozen samples were assessed. All samples were divided into three aliquots: fresh (F), slow freezing-thawing (S) and vitrification-warming (V). Sperm concentration, motility, morphology, vitality, DNA fragmentation, cytoskeleton integrity and spontaneous acrosome reaction were assessed and compared between the groups. Results showed improved preservation of sperm features after vitrification compared to conventional freezing. Permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification presented a significantly higher percentage of live spermatozoa, than slow freezing, better preservation of acrosomes was achieved in vitrified samples and DNA fragmentation was reduced approximately one-third on average compared to slow freezing. Regarding tubulin assay, three different labelling patterns were observed. The frequency of these labelling patterns was similar in F and V groups but this was not the case of the S group. The multivariate analysis of all sperm quality parameters studied revealed

  13. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone...... testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....

  14. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: ben@pks.mpg.de, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  15. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F

    2008-01-01

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  16. Varicocele Negatively Affects Sperm Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Albani, Denise; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of varicocele on oxidative stress, sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm morphology, and semen parameters. A total of 20 patients with varicocele and 20 normozoospermic subjects without varicocele (control group) were recruited from a medical center for reproductive biology. The levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites and seminal lipid peroxides were assessed for both control and varicocele subjects. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was measured by sperm chromatin dispersion test. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. In this study, varicocele patients were compared with men without varicoceles. Oxidative stress was observed in the serum and seminal fluid of varicocele patients. These patients showed an increase of 59% (P <.05) in serum reactive oxygen metabolites and a 3-fold increase in the level of sperm lipid peroxides. A parallel and significant increase (a 2-fold increase; P <.05) in the degree of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was also observed. Varicocele patients showed a 27% decrease (P <.05) in mitochondrial respiratory activity in comparison to the control group. A 32% increase (P <.05) in sperm midpiece defects and a 41% decrease (P <.05) in sperm concentration and motility were also observed. Men with varicocele have increased markers of oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial respiratory activity. These results correlated with abnormalities in semen parameters. For morphology, these correlated with midpiece defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  18. Prospective, randomized, blinded evaluation of donor semen quality provided by seven commercial sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Douglas T; Cartmill, Deborah; Jones, Kirtly P; Hatasaka, Harry H; Peterson, C Matthew

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate variability in donor semen quality between seven commercial donor sperm banks, within sperm banks, and between intracervical insemination and intrauterine insemination. Prospective, randomized, blind evaluation of commercially available donor semen samples. An academic andrology laboratory. Seventy-five cryopreserved donor semen samples were evaluated. Samples were coded, then blindly evaluated for semen quality. Standard semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility parameters, World Health Organization criteria morphology, and strict criteria morphology. Significant differences were observed between donor semen banks for most semen quality parameters analyzed in intracervical insemination samples. In general, the greatest variability observed between banks was in percentage progressive sperm motility (range, 8.8 +/- 5.8 to 42.4 +/- 5.5) and normal sperm morphology (strict criteria; range, 10.1 +/- 3.3 to 26.6 +/- 4.7). Coefficients of variation within sperm banks were generally high. These data demonstrate the variability of donor semen quality provided by commercial sperm banks, both between banks and within a given bank. No relationship was observed between the size or type of sperm bank and the degree of variability. The data demonstrate the lack of uniformity in the criteria used to screen potential semen donors and emphasize the need for more stringent screening criteria and strict quality control in processing samples.

  19. Effect of Seminal Vesicles and Dithiotritol (Dtt on Stability of Sperm Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Nasr-Esfahani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different studies have shown that there is no relation between sperm chromatin stability and fertilization rate in both IVF and ICSI patients. However, the relation between SDS tests, as a detergent, along with DTT as reducer of disulphide bridges has not been studied so far in ICSI patients. Since different concentrations of DTT can induce different degrees of sperm chromatin decondensation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of DTT on sperm chromatin decondensation in IVF and ICSI cases. Methods: During this study, 85 patients were divided into two groups according to their treatment procedure (IVF or ICSI.Semen samples of each patient was evaluated for sperm chromatin tests including SDS, SDS+EDTA & SDS+DTT for assessment of free thiole groups level (-SH, amount of non covalent bond between Zn and thioles(-SH Zn SH- and levels of disulfide bond (-S-S- in sperm chromatin, respectively. In this study, seminal fructose concentration, corrected seminal fructose level and true corrected fructose level as indicators of seminal vesicle function on sperm chromatin stability were assessed. Results: No correlation was observed between any of the above tests and rate of fertilization, both in IVF and ICSI cases. However, in IVF patients, a significant correlation was observed between SDS, SDS+DTT test and seminal fructose level, while in ICSI patients, only a significant correlation was observed between SDS+DTT and corrected or true fructose concentration. Conclusion: Since no correlation was observed between sperm chromatin test and fertilization rate, it is suggested that the chromatin status of these samples are adequate for fertilization to take place and extent of disulphide bridges has no effect on fertilization rate. However, the amount of disulphide bound present in sperms of ICSI and IVF patients are different, and this difference is related to seminal vesicle performance in these patients.

  20. Sperm competition, immunity, selfish genes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Wedell, N

    2008-10-01

    Sperm competition is widespread and has played an important role in shaping male reproductive characters such as testis size and numbers of sperm produced, and this is reflected in the rapid evolution of many reproductive genes. Additionally, sperm competition has been implicated in the rapid evolution of seminal fluids. However, our understanding of the molecular basis of many traits thought to be important in sperm competition is rudimentary. Furthermore, links between sperm competition and a range of issues not directly related to reproduction are only just beginning to be explored. These include associations between sperm competition and selfish genes, immunity and diseases such as cancer.We briefly review these topics and suggest areas we consider worthy of additional research.

  1. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on the ultrastructure and ATP concentration of boar spermatozoa, and the efficacy of added sodium selenite in extended semen on sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Guzman, J; Mahan, D C; Whitmoyer, R

    2000-06-01

    Three experiments evaluated the effects of dietary Se and vitamin E on the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, ATP concentration of spermatozoa, and the effects of adding sodium selenite to semen extenders on subsequent sperm motility. The experiment was a 2 x 2 arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. A total of 10 mature boars were fed from weaning to 18 mo of age diets fortified with two levels of supplemental Se (0 or .5 ppm) or vitamin E (0 or 220 IU/kg diet). The nonfortified diets contained .06 ppm Se and 4.4 IU vitamin E/kg. In Exp. 1, the spermatozoa from all boars were examined by electron microscopy. Vitamin E had no effect on structural abnormalities in the spermatozoa. When the low-Se diet was fed the acrosome or nuclei of the spermatozoa was unaffected, but the mitochondria in the tail midpiece were more oval with wider gaps between organelles. The plasma membrane connection to the tail midpiece was not tightly bound as when boars were fed Se. Immature spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets were more numerous when boars were fed the low-Se diet, but the occurrence of midpiece abnormalities occurred in boars fed diets with or without Se or vitamin E. Our results suggest that Se may enhance spermatozoa maturation in the epididymis and may reduce the number of sperm with cytoplasmic droplets. In Exp. 2, the concentration of ATP in the spermatozoa was evaluated in the semen of all treatment boars. When the low-Se diet was fed, ATP concentration was lower (P boar semen with a semen extender with sodium selenite added at 0, .3, .6, or .9 ppm Se. Three ejaculates from each boar were used to evaluate these effects on sperm motility to 48 h after dilution. Sperm motility declined (P extender, and this decline was exacerbated as the concentration of added Se increased (P boars resulted in abnormal spermatozoal mitochondria, a lower ATP concentration in the spermatozoa, and a loose apposition of the plasma membrane to the helical coil of the

  2. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben

    2018-01-01

    . Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI...... inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous...... flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA.Results: Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed...

  3. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gallego-Calvo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001. No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05. After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05. These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer.

  4. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Calvo, L.; Gatica, M.C.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Guzmán, J.L.; Zarazaga, L.

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001). No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05). After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05). These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer. (Author)

  5. Low Sperm Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the fluid (semen) you ejaculate during an orgasm contains fewer sperm than normal. A low sperm ... ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of emerging out of the tip of ...

  6. Artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore for frozen sperm cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Seda; Aksünger, Özlem; Ata, Can; Sağıroglu, Yusuf; Keskin, İlknur

    2018-04-05

    Fertilization problems are the major problems that may be faced in 30-55% of the patients during an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. A successful oocyte activation depends on factors related to both sperm and oocyte, and one of the important factors that mediates the process is Ca 2+ concentration within the oocyte. Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is a method used for fertilization problems that commonly involve the usage of Ca 2+ ionophores and is usually used in problems such as total fertilization failure (TFF) and globozoospermia. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible effects of AOA for different groups of patients with fertilization failure. Four groups of patients (previous TFF, low oocyte number, severe sperm quality, and frozen sperm (FS) group) that underwent ICSI with AOA were included in the study. All groups had similar control groups with same indications except TFF, where AOA was not performed. Fertilization rates were significantly higher in the TFF group than those observed in other AOA groups. Fertilization rates and quality of embryos observed in the remaining AOA groups were higher than those of the controls, which were statistically insignificant. Prgenancy rates were higher in all AOA groups compared to the controls, although the differences were significant in FS group only. Quality of embryos and pregnancy rates were lower in the TFF group compared to the remaining AOA groups indicating possible concomitant problems. Fertilization rates, quality of embryos and pregnancy rates seemed to be increased in all indication groups suggesting that not only TFF patients but also a wide variety of patients with different indications may benefit from AOA. ICSI: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; ARTs: Assisted reproductive techniques; Ca: Calcium; AOA: Artificial oocyte activation; TFF: Total fertilization failures; OAT: Oligoasthenoteratozoospemia; IVF: In vitro fertilization; SOAT: Severe OAT; LON: Low ooctye number

  7. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM. To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  8. Ascidian Sperm Lysin System

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi, Sawada; Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University

    2002-01-01

    Fertilization is a precisely controlled process involving many gamete molecules in sperm binding to and penetration through the extracellular matrix of the egg. After sperm bind to the extracellular matrix (vitelline coat), they undergo the acrosome reaction which exposes and partially releases a lytic agent called "lysin" to digest the vitelline coat for the sperm penetration. The vitelline coat sperm lysin is generally a protease in deuterostomes. The molecular mechanism of the actual degra...

  9. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...

  10. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  11. Milk proteins interact with goat Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins and decrease their binding to sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p  0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.

  12. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization increases reactive oxygen species production and decreases mean sperm velocity but is not associated with DNA fragmentation in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treulen, F; Uribe, P; Boguen, R; Villegas, J V

    2016-02-01

    Does induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in vitro affect specific functional parameters of human spermatozoa? Our findings show that MOMP induction increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases mean sperm velocity but does not alter DNA integrity. MOMP in somatic cells is related to a variety of apoptotic traits, such as alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and increase in ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Although the presence of these apoptotic features has been reported in spermatozoa, to date the effects of MOMP on sperm function and DNA integrity have not been analysed. The study included spermatozoa from fertile donors. Motile sperm were obtained using the swim-up method. The highly motile sperm were collected and diluted with human tubal fluid to a final cell concentration of 5 × 10(6) ml(-1). To induce MOMP, selected sperm were treated at 37°C for 4 h with a mimetic of a Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic protein, ABT-737. MOMP was evaluated by relocating of cytochrome c. In addition, the effect of ABT-737 on mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization was assessed using the calcein-AM/cobalt chloride method. In turn, ΔΨm was evaluated with JC-1 staining, intracellular ROS production with dihydroethidium, sperm motility was analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Measurements were performed by flow cytometry. MOMP was associated with ΔΨm dissipation (P < 0.05), increased ROS production (P < 0.05) and decreased mean sperm velocity (P < 0.05), but it was not associated with DNA fragmentation. MOMP did not induce a large increase in ROS, which could explain the negligible effect of MOMP on sperm DNA fragmentation under our experimental conditions. The study was carried out in vitro using highly motile sperm, selected by swim-up, from healthy donors. The results obtained in this

  13. Sperm DNA damage in male infertility: etiologies, assays, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Ryan T.; Ohl, Dana A.; Sigman, Mark; Smith, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Current means of evaluation of male factor infertility remains routine semen analysis including seminal volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. However, approximately 15% of patients with male factor infertility have a normal semen analysis and a definitive diagnosis of male infertility often cannot be m...

  14. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Daniele; Vezzani, Silvia; Granata, Antonio RM; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica; Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso; Setti, Monica; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM 2.5 was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM 10 was

  15. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Daniele, E-mail: santi.daniele@gmail.com [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Vezzani, Silvia [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Granata, Antonio RM [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Setti, Monica [Service of Clinical Engineering, Azienda USL of Modena (Italy); Simoni, Manuela [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM{sub 2.5} was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM

  16. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  17. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  19. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  20. Tamoxifen is a potent antioxidant modulator for sperm quality in patients with idiopathic oligoasthenospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Jing, Jun; Feng, Yu-Ming; Yao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To explore the new mechanisms of tamoxifen (TAM) in the treatment for patients with idiopathic oligoasthenospermia-antioxidation. In a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 120 cases of idiopathic oligoasthenospermia were enrolled and randomly assigned to the indomethacin group (n = 60) treated with indomethacin (25 mg, bid) and TAM group (n = 60) treated with TAM (10 mg, bid) for 3 months. Before and after treatment, we evaluated semen parameters, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), seminal plasma MDA and TAC, spermatozoa intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), sperm succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The independent t test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to compare the variables between and within two groups. In the indomethacin group, the percentage of progressive motile sperms, total motility, sperm MMP, and ATP content were increased significantly after 3-month treatment (P sperm count, sperm concentration, the percentage of progressive motile sperms, total motility, serum and seminal plasma TAC, sperm MMP, and ATP content were significantly improved or increased (P sperm count, sperm concentration, serum TAC, seminal plasma TAC, spermatozoa intracellular ROS, and sperm SDH activity. TAM treatment can significantly improve sperm quality, which is achieved through alleviating oxidative stress, improving sperm mitochondrial functionality, and subsequently increasing sperm motility.

  1. Effect of different extenders on ram sperm traits during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hegedűšová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test commercial extenders used for short-term and long-term sperm preservation. Semen was collected in the reproduction season, i.e. from June to December. The ejaculates were obtained from single services and the routine analysis of the semen was performed immediately after the collection. The examination included semen volume, colour and texture, sperm concentration and motility, ejaculate turbulence and percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology. The semen was diluted with an extender in the ratio of 1:4. The processed semen was transported in an insulated container at 16–18 °C to the laboratory and stored in a stationary thermostat under the same temperature. Sperm motility tests were performed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the placement in to thermostat. Ejaculates diluted with Ovipro, Optidyl, Triladyl and Andromed CSS gave very good results of viability (81.23 %–83.41 % after 24 hours of storage. After 48 hours, Ovipro, Andromed, Optidyl and Triladyl gave values above 75 %. The Triladyl extender proved to be a good stabilizing agent, showing consistent results during a long-term storage. It was chosen as a control one for overall assessment. Other preservation media did not show any improving or worsening effects. The extender Ovipro showed a high motility effect in the first 48 hours only, and hence it appears to be the best solution for the short-term preservation.

  2. Severe Fertility Effects of sheepish Sperm Caused by Failure To Enter Female Sperm Storage Organs in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Tomaru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, mature sperm are transferred from males to females during copulation, stored in the sperm storage organs of females, and then utilized for fertilization. Here, we report a gene named sheepish (shps of Drosophila melanogaster that is essential for sperm storage in females. shps mutant males, although producing morphologically normal and motile sperm that are effectively transferred to females, produce very few offspring. Direct counts of sperm indicated that the primary defect was correlated to failure of shps sperm to migrate into the female sperm storage organs. Increased sperm motion parameters were seen in the control after transfer to females, whereas sperm from shps males have characteristics of the motion parameters different from the control. The few sperm that occasionally entered the female sperm storage organs showed no obvious defects in fertilization and early embryo development. The female postmating responses after copulation with shps males appeared normal, at least with respect to conformational changes of uterus, mating plug formation, and female remating rates. The shps gene encodes a protein with homology to amine oxidases, including as observed in mammals, with a transmembrane region at the C-terminal end. The shps mutation was characterized by a nonsense replacement in the third exon of CG13611, and shps was rescued by transformants of the wild-type copy of CG13611. Thus, shps may define a new class of gene responsible for sperm storage.

  3. [The effect of ambient PM(10) on sperm quality in Wuhan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Tian, X J; Ye, B; Ma, L; Zhang, Y; Yang, J

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the effect of exposure to particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) on sperm quality in different stages of sperm development. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1 827 patients attending the reproductive medicine center in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University during April 2013 to January 2015. Air pollution data from January 2013 to January 2015 was obtained from the database of Wuhan Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau. The generalized linear model was employed to assess the association between each exposure variables and sperm parameters for several exposure windows (0-9, 10-14, 15-69, 70-90, 0-90 days before sampling) . Results: The average levels of PM(10) was (116.2±71.6) μg/m(3) during the research period. Sperm volume was (75.4±49.1) ×10(6)/ml in sample population, (29.4±16.2) % in progressive motility and (51.8±21.6) % in total motility. Exposure to PM(10) was inversely associated with sperm concentration (β:-0.319; 95% CI: -0.529,-0.046) during 70-90 lag days. PM(10) exposure during the 0-90 lag days was significantly associated with progressive motility (β:-0.312; 95% CI: -0.527,-0.097) and total motility (β:-0.347; 95% CI: -0.636,-0.059) after adjusted for age, education level, BMI, smoking, abstinence time, temperature, humidity and season. Conclusion: Exposure to PM(10) was associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm concentration and motility, and the adverse impact on sperm concentration was significantly in early phases of spermatogenesis.

  4. Sperm quality in New Zealand: Is the downward trend continuing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Mary A; Peek, John; Valiapan, Sumithra

    2015-10-16

    To investigate whether the decline in sperm concentration in New Zealand sperm donors observed from 1987 to 2007 continued in the period 2008-2014. A retrospective study from 2008 to 2014. The first semen sample of 285 men presenting as sperm donors in Auckland and Wellington was analysed for sperm concentration, seminal fluid volume and the percentage of motile sperm. These results were compared to results from 1987 to 2007 from the same clinics. The decline in semen volume and sperm concentration observed between 1987 and 2007 did not continue in 2008-2014. Sperm concentration decreased from 1987 until some time between 1997 and 2001, and has remained stable at an average of 62x106/ml between 2001 and 2014. Sperm motility declined significantly (8%) in the period 2008-2014, but there was no significant change over the total period studied, between 1987 and 2014. After a decline between 1987 and sometime during 1997-2001, the sperm concentration in men presenting as donors remained unchanged between 2002 and 2014, suggesting semen quality has not changed in New Zealand men over the last decade.

  5. Evidence for decreasing sperm count in African population from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This meta-analysis, following our previous reports those documented an overall 57% diminution in mean sperm concentration around the globe over past 35 years and 32.5% decline in past 50 years in European population, attempts to report the declining trend of sperm concentrations in African population ...

  6. The Effect of Glyphosate on Human Sperm Motility and Sperm DNA Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Anifandis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the active ingredient of Roundup®, which is one of the most popular herbicides worldwide. Although many studies have focused on the reproductive toxicity of glyphosate or glyphosate-based herbicides, the majority of them have concluded that the effect of the specific herbicide is negligible, while only a few studies indicate the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 0.36 mg/L glyphosate on sperm motility and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF. Thirty healthy men volunteered to undergo semen analysis for the purpose of the study. Sperm motility was calculated according to WHO 2010 guidelines at collection time (zero time and 1 h post-treatment with glyphosate. Sperm DNA fragmentation was evaluated with Halosperm® G2 kit for both the control and glyphosate-treated sperm samples. Sperm progressive motility of glyphosate-treated samples was significantly reduced after 1 h post-treatment in comparison to the respective controls, in contrast to the SDF of glyphosate-treated samples, which was comparable to the respective controls. Conclusively, under these in vitro conditions, at high concentrations that greatly exceed environmental exposures, glyphosate exerts toxic effects on sperm progressive motility but not on sperm DNA integrity, meaning that the toxic effect is limited only to motility, at least in the first hour.

  7. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sabeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions

  8. Improving sperm banking efficiency in endangered species through the use of a sperm selection method in brown bear (Ursus arctos) thawed sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel-Lopez, L; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Álvarez, M; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C; Peña, F J; Morrell, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2017-06-26

    Sperm selection methods such as Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) have been demonstrated to be a useful tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to increase the efficiency of other artificial reproductive techniques in several species. This procedure could help to improve the quality of genetic resource banks, which is essential for endangered species. In contrast, these sperm selection methods are optimized and focused on farm animals, where the recovery task is not as important as in endangered species because of their higher sperm availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate two centrifugation methods (300 x g/20 min and 600 x g/10 min) and three concentrations of SLC media (Androcoll-Bear -80, 65 and 50%) to optimise the procedure in order to recover as many sperm with the highest quality as possible. Sperm morphology could be important in the hydrodynamic relationship between the cell and centrifugation medium and thus the effect of sperm head morphometry on sperm yield and its hydrodynamic relationship were studied. The samples selected with Androcoll-Bear 65% showed a very good yield (53.1 ± 2.9) although the yield from Androcoll-Bear 80% was lower (19.3 ± 3.3). The latter showed higher values of motility than the control immediately after post-thawing selection. However, both concentrations of colloid (65 and 80%) showed higher values of viable sperm and viable sperm with intact acrosome than the control. After an incubation of 2 h at 37 °C, the samples from Androcoll-Bear 80% had higher kinematics and proportion of viable sperm with intact acrosome. In the morphometric analysis, the sperm selected by the Androcoll-Bear 80% showed a head with a bigger area which was more elongated than the sperm from other treatments. We conclude that sperm selection with Androcoll-Bear at either 65% or 80% is a suitable technique that allows a sperm population with better quality than the initial sample to be obtained. We recommend the

  9. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales

  11. Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951

  12. Localized accumulation of cytosolic calcium near the fused sperm is associated with the calcium- and voltage-dependent block of sperm entry in the sea urchin egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonnet, Pedro I; Mohri, Tatsuma; McCulloh, David H

    2017-10-01

    Interaction of the sperm and egg depolarizes the egg membrane, allowing the sperm to enter; however, if the egg membrane is not allowed to depolarize from its resting potential (e.g., by voltage-clamp), the sperm will not enter. Previous studies demonstrated that sperm entry into sea urchin eggs that are voltage-clamped at negative membrane potentials is regulated both by the egg's membrane potential and a voltage-dependent influx of calcium into the egg. In these cases, electrical or cytoplasmic continuity (sperm-egg membrane fusion) occurs at negative membrane potentials, but subsequent loss of cytoplasmic continuity results in failure of sperm entry (unfusion). The work presented herein examined where, in relation to the sperm, and when, in relation to the sperm-induced electrophysiological events, the egg's calcium influx occurs, and how these events relate to successful or failed sperm entry. When sperm entered the egg, elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) began near the fused sperm on average 5.9 s after sperm-egg membrane fusion. Conversely, when sperm failed to enter the egg, [Ca 2+ ] i elevated near the site of sperm-egg fusion on average 0.7 s after sperm-egg membrane fusion, which is significantly earlier than in eggs for which sperm entered. Therefore, the accumulation of calcium near the site of sperm-egg fusion is spatially and temporally consistent with the mechanism that may be responsible for loss of cytoplasmic continuity and failure of sperm entry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  14. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R.; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M.; Mutter, George L.; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-08-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure.

  15. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-08-19

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure.

  16. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre......-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1. min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10. min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5. min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for

  17. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Louise; Kos, Snjezana; Beijer, Cornelis; Brinkman, Jacoline W; van der Horst, Frans A L; van den Hoven, Leonie; Kieslinger, Dorit C; van Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, Netty J; Wolthuis, Albert; Hendriks, Jan C M; Wetzels, Alex M M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. University hospital. A total of 1,166 couples visiting the fertility laboratory for their first IUI episode, including 4,251 IUI cycles. None. Sperm morphology, total progressively motile sperm count (TPMSC), and number of inseminated progressively motile spermatozoa (NIPMS); odds ratios (ORs) of the sperm parameters after the first IUI cycle and the first finished IUI episode; discriminatory accuracy of the multivariable model. None of the sperm parameters was of predictive value for pregnancy after the first IUI cycle. In the first finished IUI episode, a positive relationship was found for ≤4% of morphologically normal spermatozoa (OR 1.39) and a moderate NIPMS (5-10 million; OR 1.73). Low NIPMS showed a negative relation (≤1 million; OR 0.42). The TPMSC had no predictive value. The multivariable model (i.e., sperm morphology, NIPMS, female age, male age, and the number of cycles in the episode) had a moderate discriminatory accuracy (area under the curve 0.73). Intrauterine insemination is especially relevant for couples with moderate male factor infertility (sperm morphology ≤4%, NIPMS 5-10 million). In the multivariable model, however, the predictive power of these sperm parameters is rather low. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  19. Lifestyle influences human sperm functional quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica Ferreira; Joana Vieira Silva; Vladimiro Silva; Antnio Barros; Margarida Fardilha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of acute lifestyle changes on human sperm functional quality.Methods:In the academic festivities week, young and apparently healthy male students who voluntarily submit themselves to acute lifestyle alterations(among the potentially important variations are increase in alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco consumption and circadian rhythm shifts) were used as a model system.Sperm samples were obtained before and after the academic week and compared by traditional semen analysis(n=54) and also tested for cleavedPolyADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) protein, an apoptotic marker(n=35).Results:Acute lifestyle changes that occurred during the academic week festivities(the study model) resulted both in a significant reduction in sperm quality, assessed by basic semen analysis(decrease in sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, progressive and non-progressive motility and increase in sperm morphological abnormalities) and by an increase in the expression of the apoptotic marker, cleavedPARP, in the ejaculate.Conclusions:Acute lifestyle changes have clear deleterious effects on sperm quality.We propose cleavedPARP as a novel molecular marker, valuable for assessing spermquality in parallel with the basic semen analysis method.

  20. Mass spectrometry profiling of oxysterols in human sperm identifies 25-hydroxycholesterol as a marker of sperm function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zerbinati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a main lipid component of sperm cell that is essential for sperm membrane fluidity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction. Recent data obtained in bovine sperm showed that sperm capacitation is associated to the formation of oxysterols, oxidized products of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to profile oxysterol content in human semen, and to investigate their potential role in sperm pathophysiology. Among the 12 oxysterols analyzed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC resulted the most represented in normozoospermic samples, and its concentration positively correlated with spermatozoa number. We detected Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for 25-HC production, in human spermatozoa at the level of the neck and the post acrosomal area. Upon incubation with spermatozoa, 25-HC induced calcium and cholesterol transients in connection with the acrosomal reaction. Our results support a role for 25-HC in sperm function.

  1. Association between obesity and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraju, G A; Teppala, S; Prathigudupu, K; Kalagara, M; Thota, S; Kota, M; Cheemakurthi, R

    2018-04-01

    There is awareness of likelihood of abnormal spermatozoa in obese men; however, results from previous studies are inconclusive. Advances in computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) enable precise evaluation of sperm quality and include assessment of several parameters. We studied a retrospective cohort of 1285 men with CASA data from our infertility clinic during 2016. Obesity (BMI ≥30) was associated with lower (mean ± SE) volume (-0.28 ± 0.12, p-value = .04), sperm count (48.36 ± 16.51, p-value = .002), concentration (-15.83 ± 5.40, p-value = .01), progressive motility (-4.45 ± 1.92, p-value = .001), total motility (-5.50 ± 2.12, p-value = .002), average curve velocity (μm/s) (-2.09 ± 0.85, p-value = .001), average path velocity (μm/s) (-1.59 ± 0.75, p-value = .006), and higher per cent head defects (0.92 ± 0.81, p-value = .02), thin heads (1.12 ± 0.39, p-value = .007) and pyriform heads (1.36 ± 0.65, p-value = .02). Obese men were also more likely to have (odds ratio, 95% CI) oligospermia (1.67, 1.15-2.41, p-value = .007) and asthenospermia (1.82, 1.20-2.77, p-value = .005). This is the first report of abnormal sperm parameters in obese men based on CASA. Clinicians may need to factor in paternal obesity prior to assisted reproduction. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the quality of donated semen deteriorating? Findings from a 15 year longitudinal analysis of weekly sperm samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Har-Nir, Ruth; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Ben-Shoshan, Vered; Greenfield, Caryn; Eldar, Ido; Bdolah, Yuval; Hurwitz, Arye

    2012-06-01

    Studies suggest that global semen quality is declining, but the debate remains open owing to geographic variation. To evaluate temporal trends of sperm parameters - namely concentration, motility and total motile sperm count - in sperm donated during the period 1995-2009. In a retrospective longitudinal cohort study we analyzed the sperm count and motility of 2182 semen samples provided on a weekly basis by 58 young, healthy, fertile, university-educated, paid donors. Despite the lowering of criteria for sperm parameters satisfactory for donation that were implemented in 2004, 38% of applicants for sperm donation are now rejected based on semen quality as compared to a third of applicants 10-15 years ago (P average sperm parameters dropped from a concentration of 106 +/- 25 million spermatozoa/ml with 79% +/- 4.3% motility to 68 +/- 14 million/ ml with 66% +/- 4.5% motile sperm (P sperm count per ejaculate also decreased, from 66.4 +/- 18.2 million to 48.7 +/- 12 million (P sperm donors, only 18% of donors had an acceptable sperm quality, with an average concentration of 87 +/- 12 million spermatozoa/ml, 73% +/- 2.6% motile sperm and total motile sperm count of 53.1 +/- 3.8 million per ejaculate - still significantly lower than 15 years ago (P= 0.01, P= 0.003, P= 0.058 respectively). The rapid deterioration of sperm quality among fertile semen donors is alarming and may lead to cessation of sperm donation programs.

  4. Effect of method of euthanasia on sperm motility of mature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutler, Shannon A; Johnson, Eric W; Still, Kenneth R; Schaeffer, David J; Hess, Rex A; Arfsten, Darryl P

    2007-03-01

    Euthanasia is one of the most commonly performed procedures in laboratory animal settings. The method of euthanasia may affect experimental results in studies using animals and must be compatible with research objectives including subsequent tissue analyses. Our present study was performed to evaluate the effects of 7 euthanasia methods on sperm motility in mature rats. Rats were euthanized using CO2, 2 commercially available euthanasia solutions (Beuthanasia-D and Sleepaway), and 4 volatile anesthetics (enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane). Rats euthanized by rapid decapitation alone served as negative controls, and a-chlorohydrin-treated rats euthanized by rapid decapitation were positive controls for sperm impairment. For 5 of these methods, we also measured time to ataxia, recumbency, respiratory arrest, and no auscultable heartbeat. Immediately after euthanasia of each rat, distal caudal epididymides were removed; 1 was processed for automated sperm motility analysis, and the other was frozen for subsequent concentration analysis. Time to all measured parameters was less for volatile anesthetics than for Beuthanasia-D. Times to last respiration and no heartbeat were less for halothane and isoflurane than for enflurane and sevoflurane. Percentage motile sperm did not differ significantly between methods. Percentage progressively motile sperm did not vary significantly between methods except for Beuthanasia-D, for which it was significantly less than the negative control value. Specific sperm motion parameters for each euthanasia method except CO2 and Sleepaway varied significantly from the negative control. Our results indicate that the method of euthanasia is an important consideration when rat sperm motility parameters must be evaluated.

  5. Cryopreservation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) from endangered livebearing goodeids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Torres, Leticia; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2018-04-14

    More than half of fishes in the family Goodeidae are considered to be endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. Sperm cryopreservation is an effective tool for conserving genetic resources of imperiled populations, but development of protocols with livebearing fishes faces numerous challenges including the natural packaging of sperm into bundles. In this study the cryopreservation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) of three goodeids species was evaluated. Sperm quality was evaluated by activation with NaCl-NaOH solution (at 300 mOsmol/kg and pH 11.8), and analysis of dissociable bundles and dissociation duration. Using Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model, the effects of cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, and glycerol) with different concentrations (5-15% v/v %), equilibration exposure times (1-60 min), cooling rates (5-40 °C/min), concentrations (4 × 10 4 -4 × 10 6 bundles/ml), buffers (HBSS, PBS and NaCl), and buffer osmolalities (200-400 mOsmol/kg) were investigated. After cooling and thawing, sperm bundles maintained their packed form. A specific protocol was developed (10% dimethyl sulfoxide, 20-min equilibration, 10 °C/min cooling rate, 4 × 10 6 bundles/ml, and 300 mOsmol/kg HBSS). This protocol yielded 89 ± 5% of post-thaw dissociable bundles with 209 ± 10 s of dissociation duration for X. eiseni, 96 ± 9% with 814 ± 14 s for Blackfin Goodea (Goodea atripinni), and 66 ± 2% with 726 ± 25 s for Striped Goodeid (Ataeniobius toweri). This is the first study of cryopreservation of sperm within bundles for livebearing fishes and provides a basis for establishment of germplasm repositories for goodeids and other livebearers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HT-COMET: a novel automated approach for high throughput assessment of human sperm chromatin quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Océane; Reintsch, Wolfgang E.; Chan, Peter; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can we make the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) for human sperm a more accurate and informative high throughput assay? SUMMARY ANSWER We developed a standardized automated high throughput comet (HT-COMET) assay for human sperm that improves its accuracy and efficiency, and could be of prognostic value to patients in the fertility clinic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The comet assay involves the collection of data on sperm DNA damage at the level of the single cell, allowing the use of samples from severe oligozoospermic patients. However, this makes comet scoring a low throughput procedure that renders large cohort analyses tedious. Furthermore, the comet assay comes with an inherent vulnerability to variability. Our objective is to develop an automated high throughput comet assay for human sperm that will increase both its accuracy and efficiency. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study comprised two distinct components: a HT-COMET technical optimization section based on control versus DNAse treatment analyses (n = 3–5), and a cross-sectional study on 123 men presenting to a reproductive center with sperm concentrations categorized as severe oligozoospermia, oligozoospermia or normozoospermia. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Sperm chromatin quality was measured using the comet assay: on classic 2-well slides for software comparison; on 96-well slides for HT-COMET optimization; after exposure to various concentrations of a damage-inducing agent, DNAse, using HT-COMET; on 123 subjects with different sperm concentrations using HT-COMET. Data from the 123 subjects were correlated to classic semen quality parameters and plotted as single-cell data in individual DNA damage profiles. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We have developed a standard automated HT-COMET procedure for human sperm. It includes automated scoring of comets by a fully integrated high content screening setup that compares well with the most commonly used semi

  7. Estimativa da concentração espermática do sêmen de peixe pelo método de espermatócrito Sperm concentration estimate of fish semen using spermatocrit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a concentração espermática das espécies dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, cascudo-preto (Rhinelepis aspera e tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus pelo método de espermatócrito. Utilizaram-se 19, 58, 51, 43 e 85 reprodutores de dourado, curimba, jundiá, cascudo-preto e tilápia-do-nilo, respectivamente. Com exceção da tilápia-do-nilo, os reprodutores foram submetidos ao processo de indução hormonal e posteriormente submetidos a coleta de sêmen. Foram comparadas as técnicas de mensuração da concentração espermática do sêmen por contagem em câmara hematimétrica de Neubauer e por espermatócrito. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão a 5% de probabilidade. As concentrações espermáticas mensuradas por ambas as técnicas apresentaram relação linear, para curimbas, jundiás e tilápias-do-nilo, com equações y = 6,6624 × 10(9 + 3,68553 × 10(8x; y = 2,153 × 10(9 + 4,426 × 10(8x e y = -9,0897 × 10(8 + 6,0167 × 10(8, respectivamente. O método de espermatócrito pode ser utilizado para estimar a concentração espermática do sêmen de curimbas, jundiás e tilápias-do-nilo.The objective of this experiment was estimate sperm concentration of "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis, "curimba" (Prochilodus lineatus, "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, "cascudo-preto" (Rhinelepis aspera and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by the method of spermatocrit. It was used 19, 58, 51, 43 and 85 brood fish of "dourado", "curimba", "jundia", "cascudo-preto" and Nile tilapia, respectively. Except for the Nile tilapia, the fishes were subjected to the hormonal induction process and then submitted to the semen collection. The measurement techniques of the sperm concentration by sperm count in Neubauer chamber (CSPZ and by spermatocrit (ESPMT were compared. The results were submitted to the regression analysis at 5

  8. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, Mar?a J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Se...

  9. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function. PMID:25795911

  10. Effects of working posture and exposure to traffic pollutants on sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, B; Carbone, U; Farinaro, E; Zarrilli, S; Lombardi, G; Colao, A; De Rosa, N; De Rosa, M

    2009-05-01

    An increasing difficulty of couples in achieving pregnancy related to male infertility has been reported. Several factors have been implicated as possible causes of this decrease, including the exposure to the endocrine disruptors and the environmental toxicants, the changes in lifestyle and the exposure to heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of working posture when associated to nitrogen oxides exposure. Three hundred and seven male workers, employed in a motorway company, were enrolled into the study, underwent a complete physical examination and laboratory evaluations, endocrine screening and sperm analysis. Taking into account the exposure to fuel combustion gases and the working posture, sitting or free, the study population was divided in 4 groups. In the subjects occupationally exposed to NO2, a significant lower sperm total motility was observed than in not exposed workers. In the workers with obliged sitting working posture, lower sperm motility was also observed than in the workers with free working posture. Differences in sperm quality were strong when chemical and postural risk factors were associated. The findings of this study confirmed detrimental effects of nitrogen dioxide as a marker of traffic pollutants, showing alterations of sperm quality even if the environmental concentration of gas is very low according to the limits established by the Italian legislation. They suggest, also, the possible interaction between chemical exposure and obliged sitting position.

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.L.

    1979-11-01

    During the summers of 1976 and 1977, 570 water and 1249 sediment samples were collected from 1517 locations within the 18,000-km 2 area of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle of central Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, streams, and artifical ponds; sediment samples were collected from wet and dry streams, springs, and wet and dry ponds. All water samples were analyzed for 13 elements, including uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit to 84.60 parts per billion (ppb) with a mean of 4.32 ppb. All water sample types except pond water samples were considered as a single population in interpreting the data. Pond water samples were excluded due to possible concentration of uranium by evaporation. Most of the water samples containing greater than 20 ppb uranium grouped into six clusters that indicate possible areas of interest for further investigation. One cluster is associated with the Pumpkin Buttes District, and two others are near the Kaycee and Mayoworth areas of uranium mineralization. The largest cluster is located on the west side of the Powder River Basin. One cluster is located in the central Big Horn Basin and another is in the Wind River Basin; both are in areas underlain by favorable host units. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.08 parts per million (ppm) to 115.50 ppm with a mean of 3.50 ppm. Two clusters of sediment samples over 7 ppm were delineated. The first, containing the two highest-concentration samples, corresponds with the Copper Mountain District. Many of the high uranium concentrations in samples in this cluster may be due to contamination from mining or prospecting activity upstream from the sample sites. The second cluster encompasses a wide area in the Wind River Basin along the southern boundary of the quadrangle

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.

    1979-11-01

    During the summers of 1976 and 1977, 570 water and 1249 sediment samples were collected from 1517 locations within the 18,000-km/sup 2/ area of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle of central Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, streams, and artifical ponds; sediment samples were collected from wet and dry streams, springs, and wet and dry ponds. All water samples were analyzed for 13 elements, including uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit to 84.60 parts per billion (ppb) with a mean of 4.32 ppb. All water sample types except pond water samples were considered as a single population in interpreting the data. Pond water samples were excluded due to possible concentration of uranium by evaporation. Most of the water samples containing greater than 20 ppb uranium grouped into six clusters that indicate possible areas of interest for further investigation. One cluster is associated with the Pumpkin Buttes District, and two others are near the Kaycee and Mayoworth areas of uranium mineralization. The largest cluster is located on the west side of the Powder River Basin. One cluster is located in the central Big Horn Basin and another is in the Wind River Basin; both are in areas underlain by favorable host units. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.08 parts per million (ppm) to 115.50 ppm with a mean of 3.50 ppm. Two clusters of sediment samples over 7 ppm were delineated. The first, containing the two highest-concentration samples, corresponds with the Copper Mountain District. Many of the high uranium concentrations in samples in this cluster may be due to contamination from mining or prospecting activity upstream from the sample sites. The second cluster encompasses a wide area in the Wind River Basin along the southern boundary of the quadrangle.

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Gillette NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.G.; George, W.E.; Minor, M.M.; Simi, O.R.; Talcott, C.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Cheadle, J.M. III.

    1980-08-01

    During 1976 and 1977, 752 water and 843 sediment samples were collected from 1419 locations within the 17 700-km 2 area of the Gillette quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected primarily from wells, and also from springs, ponds, and streams; sediment samples were collected primarily from stream channels, and also from springs and ponds. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 to 212.20 ppB and have a median of 1.10 ppB. The highest background uranium concentrations, as well as the highest individual uranium values, are in areas where favorable host units for uranium mineralization crop out. These units are the Wasatch and Fort Union formations in the Powder River Basin and the Inyan Kara group in the Black Hills. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.64 to 29.83 ppM and have a median of 3.24 ppM. Background uranium concentrations are strongly controlled by the exposed geologic unit, and range from 4 to 8 ppM for the Cretaceous Colorado group to 1 to 3 ppM for the Triassic and Paleozoic units exposed in the Black Hills. Several areas where the Wasatch and Fort Union formations are exposed exhibit uranium concentrations in sediment samples that are slightly, but distinctly, above background values for these units. All of these areas are also associated with notably high uranium concentrations in water samples. Because epigenetic uranium mineralization in economically important areas can exhibit a similar geochemical signature, these areas within the Gillette quadrangle should be further examined for the possible presence of uranium mineralization

  14. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, María J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Seminal parameters values in the fertile group were very far above from those of the patients, either before or after surgery. No significant improvement in the percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.10), sperm concentration (P = 0.52), total sperm count (P = 0.76), subjective motility (%) (P = 0.97) nor kinematics (P = 0.30) was observed after varicocelectomy when all groups were compared. Neither was significant improvement found in percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.91), sperm concentration (P = 0.10), total sperm count (P = 0.89) or percentage motility (P = 0.77) after varicocelectomy in paired comparisons of preoperative and postoperative data. Analysis of paired samples revealed that the total sperm count (P = 0.01) and most sperm kinetic parameters: curvilinear velocity (P = 0.002), straight-line velocity (P = 0.0004), average path velocity (P = 0.0005), linearity (P = 0.02), and wobble (P = 0.006) improved after surgery. CASA offers the potential for accurate quantitative assessment of each patient's response to varicocelectomy.

  16. IMPACT OF BEP OR CARBOPLATIN CHEMOTHERAPY ON TESTICULAR FUNCTION AND SPERM NUCLEUS OF SUBJECTS WITH TESTICULAR GERM CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGhezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Young males have testicular germ cells tumours (TGCT as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO, the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy or chemotherapy (CT, basing on tumour histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP, after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group, 54 with carboplatin (Carb group and 58 were just surveilled (S-group. All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0 and after 12 (T1 and 24 months (T2 from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1 we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S- group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after two years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after one and two years from the end of treatment

  17. Sperm quality and DNA damage in men from Jilin Province, China, who are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D D; Hao, J L; Guo, K M; Lu, C W; Liu, X D

    2016-03-22

    Long-term radiation exposure affects human health. Ionizing radiation has long been known to raise the risk of cancer. In addition to high doses of radiation, low-dose ionizing radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, lens opacity, and some other non-cancerous diseases. Low- and high-dose exposures to ionizing radiation elicit different signaling events at the molecular level, and may involve different response mechanisms. The health risks arising from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation should be re-evaluated. Health workers exposed to ionizing radiation experience low-dose radiation and have an increased risk of hematological malignancies. Reproductive function is sensitive to changes in the physical environment, including ionizing radiation. However, data is scarce regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Sperm DNA integrity is a functional parameter of male fertility evaluation. Hence, we aimed to report sperm quality and DNA damage in men from Jilin Province, China, who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Sperm motility and normal morphology were significantly lower in the exposed compared with the non-exposed men. There was no statistically significant difference in sperm concentration between exposed and non-exposed men. The sperm DNA fragmentation index was significantly higher in the exposed than the non-exposed men. Chronic long-term exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation could affect sperm motility, normal morphology, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index in the Chinese population. Sperm quality and DNA integrity are functional parameters that could be used to evaluate occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

  18. Validation of a spectrophotometer-based method for estimating daily sperm production and deferent duct transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present work were 3-fold. First, a new method for estimating daily sperm production was validated. This method, in turn, was used to evaluate testis output as well as deferent duct throughput. Next, this analytical approach was evaluated in 2 experiments. The first experiment compared left and right reproductive tracts within roosters. The second experiment compared reproductive tract throughput in roosters from low and high sperm mobility lines. Standard curves were constructed from which unknown concentrations of sperm cells and sperm nuclei could be predicted from observed absorbance. In each case, the independent variable was based upon hemacytometer counts, and absorbance was a linear function of concentration. Reproductive tracts were excised, semen recovered from each duct, and the extragonadal sperm reserve determined by multiplying volume by sperm cell concentration. Testicular sperm nuclei were procured by homogenization of a whole testis, overlaying a 20-mL volume of homogenate upon 15% (wt/vol) Accudenz (Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corporation, Westbury, NY), and then washing nuclei by centrifugation through the Accudenz layer. Daily sperm production was determined by dividing the predicted number of sperm nuclei within the homogenate by 4.5 d (i.e., the time sperm with elongated nuclei spend within the testis). Sperm transit through the deferent duct was estimated by dividing the extragonadal reserve by daily sperm production. Neither the efficiency of sperm production (sperm per gram of testicular parenchyma per day) nor deferent duct transit differed between left and right reproductive tracts (P > 0.05). Whereas efficiency of sperm production did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high sperm mobility lines, deferent duct transit differed between lines (P < 0.001). On average, this process required 2.2 and 1.0 d for low and high lines, respectively. In summary, we developed and then tested a method for quantifying male

  19. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Jacobsen Lauvås, Anna; Christensen, Preben; Vogel, Ulla; Sørig Hougaard, Karin; Goericke-Pesch, Sandra

    2018-01-31

    Semen quality parameters are potentially affected by nanomaterials in several ways: Inhaled nanosized particles are potent inducers of pulmonary inflammation, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. Small amounts of particles may translocate from the lungs into the lung capillaries, enter the systemic circulation and ultimately reach the testes. Both the inflammatory response and the particles may induce oxidative stress which can directly affect spermatogenesis. Furthermore, spermatogenesis may be indirectly affected by changes in the hormonal milieu as systemic inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model. Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous nanomaterials were investigated by intratracheally instilling sexually mature male NMRI mice with four different carbonaceous nanomaterials dispersed in nanopure water: graphene oxide (18 μg/mouse/i.t.), Flammruss 101, Printex 90 and SRM1650b (0.1 mg/mouse/i.t. each) weekly for seven consecutive weeks. Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA. Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed sustained inflammatory response in the nanoparticle-exposed groups one week after the last instillation. No significant changes in epididymal sperm parameters, daily sperm production or plasma testosterone levels

  20. Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    Initial success in sperm cryopreservation came at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50-plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while despite work in some 200 species with well over 200 published reports, cryopreservation of aquatic species sperm remains essentially a research activity with little commercial application. Most research has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmonids, carps, and catfishes, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a handful of studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes, such as zebrafish, and in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, the lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models, or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  1. Binary mixture of DDT and Arochlor1254: effects on sperm release by Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiwa, Jules Richard Kemadjou; Müller, Paul; Klein, Roland

    2004-06-01

    A long-term toxicity test with zebrafish was carried out with different concentrations of DDT, Arochlor1254 (A54), and their 1:1 mixture under flow-through conditions. By collecting and counting the number of sperm released during separate mating events we observed that gametes are released asynchronously. Sperms are released in the form of sperm trails laid on the nest surface; subsequently active spermatozoa leave the trails and move in the water for several minutes. Sperm trails consist of bands of viscous material in which sperm are embedded. The water samples for the estimation of sperm presence were collected gradually within 180 min after 24 h, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months of exposure. It was established that the reductions in count, activity of sperm, and average life span of sperm trails were significant (Psperm release and activity as well as the life span of their trails.

  2. BMI in relation to sperm count: an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L; Shayeb, A G; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K; Van Wely, M; Cao, J; Martini, A C; Eskandar, M; Chavarro, J E; Koloszar, S; Twigt, J M; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Borges, E; Lotti, F; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Zorn, B; Polotsky, A J; La Vignera, S; Eskenazi, B; Tremellen, K; Magnusdottir, E V; Fejes, I; Hercberg, S; Lévy, R; Czernichow, S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0.93-1.43) for underweight, 1.11 (1.01-1.21) for overweight, 1.28 (1.06-1.55) for obese and 2.04 (1.59-2.62) for morbidly obese men. CONCLUSIONS Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased prevalence of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The main limitation of this report is that studied populations varied, with men recruited from both the general population and infertile couples. Whether weight normalization could improve sperm parameters should be evaluated further.

  3. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  4. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm

  5. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  6. More Pitfalls with Sperm Viability Staining and a Viability-Based Stress Test to Characterize Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Eckel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sperm viability (SV, the proportion of live sperm in a sample, is a widely applied measure of sperm quality but few studies test its robustness. At least three reasons make SV problematic as a surrogate for sperm quality. First, reviewing the ecological literature revealed that previously identified methodological pitfalls have not been overcome, including low cross-study standardization of protocols, inadequate statistical treatment, and unaccounted for within-sample heterogeneity. Second, SV is affected by biological variation such as between species, reproductive organs, or sperm age cohorts. Third, the proportion of live sperm extracted from males appears more related to male than to sperm quality in the sense of the future performance of sperm. We propose an alternative method to assess sperm quality by characterizing the temporal decrease of SV in a stressor medium and illustrate in two species, the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster how some common methodological pitfalls may be circumvented. Our data empirically support the well-known but little-considered facts that (i non-blind measurements may alter SV and (ii that SV frequently have non-significant repeatability within one sample. (iii Cross-sectional sampling of ejaculates showed that this heterogeneity even masked a biological pattern—the sperm stratification within males. We show (iv that this shortcoming can be overcome by following the temporal decline of SV of a sperm subsample in a stress test. Finally, (v comparing the staining pattern of sperm between Cimex and Drosophila, we found that in the latter, the visibility of sperm is substantially delayed (30 min when sperm density is high. We show that this delay in stained sperm visibility was, however, not biased toward dead or live sperm. To measure sperm quality, we advocate analyzing the temporal decline in SV in a stressor medium over current protocols that use SV per se and

  7. Evaluation of reproductive parameters of vas deferens sperms in Caucasian snake (Gloydius halys caucasicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Sayedeh Zahra; Shiravi, Abdolhossein; Todehdehghan, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive parameters evaluation is considered as helpful tool for gene bank formation in ecological and economically important animals species. Gloydius halys caucasicus is venomous, viviparous pit viper of northwest of Iran. In this research, the spermatic reproductive parameters of this taxon were studied. Twenty six male snakes were collected from Takht-e-Soleiman region between September and October, 2010. Findings revealed that male snakes with body length of 45.07 ± 2.83 cm and body weight of 51.50 ± 10.42 g, and right and left gonads volume of 0.12 ± 0.03 mL and 0.06 ± 0.01 mL are mature ones and sperms concentration in first, middle and final regions of vas deferens duct were, 22.30 ± 19.34 ×10(6) mL(-1), 30.34 ± 11.55 ×10(6) mL(-1), and 37.65 ± 16.46×10(6) mL(-1), respectively. The sperms motility at three regions of duct were 60.53%, 62.07%, and 60.00% and percentage of immotile sperms in these regions were 39.46%, 37.92%, and 39.84%, respectively. Percentage of morphologically normal sperms was 69.23 ± 10.57% and abnormal sperms was 30.76 ± 10.57%; including 12.69 ± 5.25% spiral tailed, 7.33 ± 4.37% coiled tailed and 4.16 ± 2.51% folded tailed sperms. Percentage of live sperms in the first, middle and final regions of duct were 55.76 ± 10.77%, 58.84 ± 12.77%, and 57.69 ± 9.91%, respectively and percentage of dead sperm in these regions were 44.23 ± 10.77%, 41.15 ± 12.77%, and 42.30 ± 9.91%, respectively. Results suggested, mature sperms with acceptable reproductive quality could be collected from Gloydius halys caucasicus snake of Iran between September and October.

  8. Evaluation of reproductive parameters of vas deferens sperms in Caucasian snake (Gloydius halys caucasicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedeh Zahra Mozafari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive parameters evaluation is considered as helpful tool for gene bank formation in ecological and economically important animals species. Gloydius halys caucasicus is venomous, viviparous pit viper of northwest of Iran. In this research, the spermatic reproductive parameters of this taxon were studied. Twenty six male snakes were collected from Takht-e-Soleiman region between September and October, 2010. Findings revealed that male snakes with body length of 45.07 ± 2.83 cm and body weight of 51.50 ± 10.42 g, and right and left gonads volume of 0.12 ± 0.03 mL and 0.06 ± 0.01 mL are mature ones and sperms concentration in first, middle and final regions of vas deferens duct were, 22.30 ± 19.34 ×106 mL-1, 30.34 ± 11.55 ×106 mL-1, and 37.65 ± 16.46×106 mL-1, respectively. The sperms motility at three regions of duct were 60.53%, 62.07%, and 60.00% and percentage of immotile sperms in these regions were 39.46%, 37.92%, and 39.84%, respectively. Percentage of morphologically normal sperms was 69.23 ± 10.57% and abnormal sperms was 30.76 ± 10.57%; including 12.69 ± 5.25% spiral tailed, 7.33 ± 4.37% coiled tailed and 4.16 ± 2.51% folded tailed sperms. Percentage of live sperms in the first, middle and final regions of duct were 55.76 ± 10.77%, 58.84 ± 12.77%, and 57.69 ± 9.91%, respectively and percentage of dead sperm in these regions were 44.23 ± 10.77%, 41.15 ± 12.77%, and 42.30 ± 9.91%, respectively. Results suggested, mature sperms with acceptable reproductive quality could be collected from Gloydius halys caucasicus snake of Iran between September and October.

  9. Parallel Evolution of Sperm Hyper-Activation Ca2+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jacob C; Phadnis, Nitin

    2017-07-01

    Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence. Here, we use a comprehensive phylogenomic approach to investigate the selective pressures on these sperm hyper-activation channels. First, we find that the entire CatSper complex evolves rapidly under recurrent positive selection in primates. Second, we find that pkd2 has parallel patterns of adaptive evolution in Drosophila. Third, we show that this adaptive evolution of pkd2 is driven by its role in sperm hyper-activation. These patterns of selection suggest that the evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery is driven by sexual conflict with antagonistic ligands that modulate channel activity. Together, our results add sperm hyper-activation channels to the class of fast evolving reproductive proteins and provide insights into the mechanisms used by the sexes to manipulate sperm behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  11. Daily Sperm Production, Gonadal and Extra-Gonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    animals fed diets 2 and 3 were similar to the control animals but they were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those fed ... Keywords: Prebiotics, probiotics, rabbits, sperm reserves, sperm production. ... Materials and methods .... In: Handbook of.

  12. Sperm proteins in teleostean and chondrostean (sturgeon) fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Hulak, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Sperm proteins in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of teleostean and chondrostean have evolved adaptations due to the changes in the reproductive environment. Analysis of the composition and functions of these proteins provides new insights into sperm motility and fertilising abilities, thereby creating possibilities for improving artificial reproduction and germplasm resource conservation technologies (e.g. cryopreservation). Seminal plasma proteins are involved in the protection of spermatozoa during storage in the reproductive system, whereas all spermatozoa proteins contribute to the swimming and fertilising abilities of sperm. Compared to mammalian species, little data are available on fish sperm proteins and their functions. We review here the current state of the art in this field and focus on relevant subjects that require attention. Future research should concentrate on protein functions and their mode of action in fish species, especially on the role of spermatozoa surface proteins during fertilisation and on a description of sturgeon sperm proteins.

  13. The impact of BMI on sperm parameters and the metabolite changes of seminal plasma concomitantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Yiqiu; Chen, Minjian; Teng, Mengying; Lu, Chuncheng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2017-07-25

    The development of male infertility increased rapidly worldwide, which coinciding with the epidemic of obesity. However, the impact of weight abnormalities on sperm quality is still contestable. To assess the correlation between BMI and sperm parameters, we searched relevant articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Wanfang database published until June 2015 without language restriction. Otherwise, we also recruited some participants who attended fertility clinic as well as some general populations in this report. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis about BMI and sperm parameters containing total sperm count, concentration, semen volume and sperm motility (overall and progressive). Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma was performed to explore the mechanism from a new perspective. This study found standardized weighted mean differences (SMD) in sperm parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, and semen volume) of abnormal weight groups decreased to different degree compared to normal weight. Dose-response analysis found SMD of sperm count, sperm concentration and semen volume respectively fell 2.4%, 1.3% and 2.0% compared with normal weight for every 5-unit increase in BMI. Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma showed that spermidine and spermine were likely to play a vital role in the spermatogenesis progress. This systematic review with meta-analysis has confirmed there was a relationship between BMI and sperm quality, suggesting obesity may be a detrimental factor of male infertility.

  14. Leukocytospermia and sperm preparation - a flow cytometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perticarari Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes represent the predominant source of reactive oxygen species both in seminal plasma and in sperm suspensions and have been demonstrated to negatively influence sperm function and fertilization rate in assisted reproduction procedures. Peroxidase test is the standard method recommended by WHO to detect semen leukocytes but it may be inaccurate. The aims of this study were (i to compare the efficiency of swim-up and density-gradient centrifugation techniques in removing seminal leukocytes, (ii to examine the effect of leukocytes on sperm preparation, and (iii to compare flow cytometry and peroxidase test in determining leukocyte concentration in semen using a multiparameter flow cytometric method. Methods Semen samples from 126 male partners of couples undergoing infertility investigations were analyzed for leukocytospermia using standard optical microscopy and flow cytometry. Sixty-nine out of 126 samples were also processed using simultaneously the swim-up and density-gradient centrifugation techniques. A multiparameter flow cytometric analysis to assess simultaneously sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm apoptosis, and leukocyte concentration was carried out on neat and prepared sperm. Results Both sperm preparation methods removed most seminal leukocytes. However, the concentration of leukocytes was significantly lower after swim-up compared to that after density-gradient centrifugation preparation. Leukocytes concentration, either initial or in prepared fractions, was not correlated with sperm parameters (optical microscopy and flow cytometry parameters after semen processing. There was no correlation between leukocyte concentration in the ejaculate and sperm recovery rate, whereas a significant correlation was found between the concentration of the residual leukocytes in prepared fractions and viable sperm recovery rate. Although the overall concordance between the flow cytometry and the optical

  15. Cephalopods in the diet of sperm whales caught commercially off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection from stomach contents of 30 sperm whales Physeter catodon comprised a total of 46 cephalopods belonging to six families. Nine species were identified, including Ommastrephes bartramii, which is recorded for the first time in the diet of sperm whales caught off South Africa, and Todarodes filippovae, which has ...

  16. Sperm-macrophage interaction in the mouse: a quantitative assay in vitro using 111indium oxine-labeled sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.L.; Weinberg, J.B.; Haney, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The role of reproductive tract macrophages in contraception and reproductive failure has become widely recognized. However, in vitro analysis of sperm phagocytosis by macrophages has relied upon a semi-quantitative method of sperm counting that is of limited accuracy and reproducibility. We have developed an assay using murine sperm labeled with 111 indium oxine, and results indicate the labeling to be rapid and efficient. Incorporation of 111 indium into sperm increased the dose and sperm concentration and reached 90% maximal uptake after 15 min incubation, with maximal uptake occurring at 30 min. No decrease in sperm motility was noted with levels of oxine in excess of those required for significant labeling. Maximal labeling efficiency occurred in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% adult bovine serum (ABS) producing significantly less uptake. Label dissociation was detectable in PBS at room temperature, but at 37 degrees C in DMEM + 10% ABS, loss of label occurred at a rate of 23.5%/h. Addition of labeled sperm to murine macrophage monolayers under optimal conditions resulted in uptake of 111 indium by macrophages, while free label was unincorporated. Results indicated assay specificity for macrophage-limited uptake, with insignificant label uptake by nonphagocytic murine fibroblasts and better sensitivity than sperm counting. Macrophages from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-infected mice resulted in a decrease in sperm uptake. Female macrophages showed greater capacity for sperm uptake than those of the male mouse. These initial studies demonstrated the utility of this model system in enhancing the understanding of sperm-macrophage interaction in the female reproductive tract

  17. Comparison of semen variables, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins in two male layer breeder lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Shanmugam; T R, Kannaki; A, Vinoth

    2016-09-01

    Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    -term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...

  19. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  20. Aggregation of human sperm at higher temperature is due to hyperactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, E L; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemotaxis of sperm cells to chemicals and hormones, such as progesterone, helps us to understand the concept of sperm transport. Here, the hypothesis was that heat increased sperm hyperactive motility, which caused the sperm to aggregate at the higher temperature. The objectives were (1) to determine the concentration of sperm at both halves of an artificial female reproductive tract made from a hermetically sealed cryopreservation straw filled with culture medium and placed with each end at different temperatures, and (2) to analyze the motility or kinematic parameters and hyperactivation of sperm found at the different temperatures. Cryopreserved-thawed human donor sperm (N = 6) were pooled and processed through 2-layer colloid solution. Analyses of the motile sperm were carried out and the washed sperm were homogeneously mixed and pipetted into several 0.5-mL French cryopreservation straws and heat-sealed. The control substance, consisting of acid-treated sperm, was also placed in several straws. The plastic straws of sperm were placed half at 23 degrees C and half was at either 37 or 40 degrees C. After 4 h, sperm at different sections of the straws were analyzed using the Hamilton Thorn motility analyzer (HTM-C). After 4 h of incubation, the concentration of sperm was doubled at the 40 degrees C heated half of the straw when compared with the other half of the straw at 23 degrees C. There were no differences in sperm concentration in the straw kept half at 37 degrees C and half at 23 degrees C. There were significantly higher percent motility, mean average path velocity, straight line velocity, lateral head displacement, and percent hyperactivation in sperm at the 40 degrees C temperature. The aggregation of sperm at the higher temperature of 40 degrees C may be due to enhanced motility, increased sperm velocities, and a 10-fold increase in hyperactivation at that temperature. The 37 degrees C temperature was not sufficient to attract sperm. Sperm cells

  1. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.

  2. Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Scaggiante, Marta; Rasotto, Maria B

    2002-07-23

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm reserves according to the level of sperm competition, defined as the probability that the sperm of two males compete for fertilizing a given set of ova. Substantial evidence from numerous animal taxa suggests that, at the individual level, sperm expenditure increases when the risk of sperm competition is greater. In contrast, according to the "intensity model" of sperm competition [Parker, G. A., Ball, M. A., Stockley, P. & Gage, M. J. G. (1996) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 263, 1291-1297], when more than two ejaculates compete during a given mating event, sperm expenditure should decrease as the number of competing males increases. Empirical evidence supporting this prediction, however, is still lacking. Here we measured sperm expenditure in two gobiid fishes, the grass (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) and black goby (Gobius niger), in which up to six sneakers can congregate around the nest of territorial males and release their sperm when females spawn. We show that, in accordance with theory, sneaker males of both species release fewer sperm as the number of competitors increases.

  3. Association between chronic pain and the sperm motion characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    significantly higher in the processed sample of the CP group. This study demonstrated that chronic pain does not affect the sperm morphology, total concentration and motility based on conventional analysis but has significant influence at the level of sperm motion kinetics which could prove to be clinically...... stimulation, it can be speculated that the observed difference in sperm kinematic parameters could be related to the alterations in serum sex hormone levels emanating from the chronic pain. Further studies are required to explain the possible mechanism of action of chronic pain on male fertility....

  4. Effects of Carnitine on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Males with Idiopathic Asthenospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Studies confirm that a number of nutritional and environmental factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and cause male infertility. Carnitine is an important factor for sperm motility. Carnitine deficiency decreases sperm motility and may cause male infertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of carnitine on sperm parameters in infertile males with idiopathic asthenospermia. Materials & Methods: This study is a before and after clinical trial performed on 40 asthenospermia men who were treated with 750 mg per/day carnitine in Fatemieh infertility research center in years 2006-2007. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS10 and paired T-test Results: The results showed a significant increase in sperm concentration, morphology, sperm total motility and rapid progressive motility after treatment by carnitine (p<0.05. Conclusion: Carnitine supplementation has a significant effect on sperm parameters in men with idiopathic asthenospermia.

  5. Polyandry in the medfly - shifts in paternity mediated by sperm stratification and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Yuval, Boaz; Schetelig, Marc F; Bassetti, Federico; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, a highly invasive agricultural pest species, polyandry, associated with sperm precedence, is a recurrent behaviour in the wild. The absence of tools for the unambiguous discrimination between competing sperm from different males in the complex female reproductive tract has strongly limited the understanding of mechanisms controlling sperm dynamics and use. RESULTS: Here we use transgenic medfly lines expressing green or red fluorescent proteins in the spermatozoa, which can be easily observed and unambiguously differentiated within the female fertilization chamber. In twice-mated females, one day after the second mating, sperm from the first male appeared to be homogeneously distributed all over the distal portion of each alveolus within the fertilization chamber, whereas sperm from the second male were clearly concentrated in the central portion of each alveolus. This distinct stratified sperm distribution was not maintained over time, as green and red sperm appeared homogeneously mixed seven days after the second mating. This dynamic sperm storage pattern is mirrored by the paternal contribution in the progeny of twice-mated females. CONCLUSIONS: Polyandrous medfly females, unlike Drosophila, conserve sperm from two different mates to fertilize their eggs. From an evolutionary point of view, the storage of sperm in a stratified pattern by medfly females may initially favour the fresher ejaculate from the second male. However, as the second male’s sperm gradually becomes depleted, the sperm from the first male becomes increasingly available for fertilization. The accumulation of sperm from different males will increase the overall genetic variability of the offspring and will ultimately affect the effective population size. From an applicative point of view, the dynamics of sperm storage and their temporal use by a polyandrous female may have an impact on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT

  6. Selective cesium and strontium removal for TRU-liquid waste including fission products and concentrated nitric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimori, T.; Miyajima, K.; Kozeki, M.; Kubota, T.; Tusa, E.; Keskinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nuclide removal system was designed for treatment of liquid radioactive waste at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Tokai site. Total system will include removal of plutonium, cesium and strontium. Removal of plutonium will be carried out by a method developed by JAERI. Removal of cesium and strontium will be carried out by the methods developed in Finland. The whole project will be implemented for JAERI in cooperation between Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding and IVO International. This project has been carried out under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan. The liquid to be treated includes 7.4x10 9 Bq/L of cesium and 7.4x10 9 Bq/L of strontium. The amount of alpha nuclides is 3.7x10 6 Bq/L. Nitric acid concentration is 1.74 mol/L. The volume of 11,000 liters had to be treated in 200 batches of operation. Removal of cesium and strontium is based on the use of new ion exchange materials developed in Finland. These inorganic ion exchange materials have extremely good properties to separate cesium and strontium from even very difficult liquids. Ion exchange material will be used in columns, where there are materials both for cesium and strontium. According to column tests with simulated waste, one 2 liter column will effectively reach the required DF during 10 batches of operation. Purified liquid can be led to further liquid treatment at the site. After treatment of liquids, both used particle filters and used ion exchange columns will be drained and stored to wait for final treatment and disposal. The designed treatment system has a special beneficial feature as it does not produce secondary waste. Final waste is in the form of particle filters or ion exchange columns with material. Used ion exchange columns and filters will be replaced with new ones by means of remote handling. Construction of the treatment system will be scheduled to commence in FY1995 and assemblying at the site in FY1996. (J.P.N.)

  7. Optimization of Saanen sperm genes amplification: evaluation of standardized protocols in genetically uncharacterized rural goats reared under a subtropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Saade, Maya F; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Hamadeh, Shady K; Mouneimne, Youssef; Kassaifi, Zeina; Kayali, Ghazi; Harakeh, Steve; Jaber, Lina S; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to optimize quantitatively the amplification of specific sperm genes in reference genomically characterized Saanen goat and to evaluate the standardized protocols applicability on sperms of uncharacterized genome of rural goats reared under subtropical environment for inclusion in future selection programs. The optimization of the protocols in Saanen sperms included three production genes (growth hormone (GH) exons 2, 3, and 4, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), and α-lactalbumin) and two health genes (MHC class II DRB and prion (PrP)). The optimization was based on varying the primers concentrations and the inclusion of a PCR cosolvent (Triton X). The impact of the studied variables on statistically significant increase in the yield of amplicons was noticed in four out of five (80%) optimized protocols, namely in those related to GH, CSN1S1, α-lactalbumin, and PrP genes (P 0.05). The applicability of the optimized protocols of Saanen sperm genes on amplification of uncharacterized rural goat sperms revealed a 100% success in tested individuals for amplification of GH, CSN1S1, α-lactalbumin, and MHC class II DRB genes and a 75% success for the PrP gene. The significant success in applicability of the Saanen quantitatively optimized protocols to other uncharacterized genome of rural goats allows for their inclusion in future selection, targeting the sustainability of this farming system in a subtropical environment and the improvement of the farmers livelihood.

  8. Sperm head's birefringence: a new criterion for sperm selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Ferraretti, Anna P; Baccetti, Baccio

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of birefringence in human sperm heads and apply polarization microscopy for sperm selection at intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Prospective randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Società Italiana Studi Medicina della Riproduzione, Bologna, Italy. A total of 112 male patients had birefringent sperm selected for ICSI (study group). The clinical outcome was compared with that obtained in 119 couples who underwent a conventional ICSI cycle (control group). The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was evaluated before and after treatment in relation to the sperm sample quality. Embryo development and clinical outcome in the study group were compared with those in the controls. Proportion of birefringent sperm heads, rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was significantly higher in normospermic samples when compared with oligoasthenoteratospermic samples with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction samples. Although fertilization and cleavage rates did not differ between the study and control groups, in the most severe male factor condition (oligoasthenoteratospermic with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction), the rates of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation were significantly higher in the study group versus the controls. The analysis of birefringence in the sperm head could represent both a diagnostic tool and a novel method for sperm selection.

  9. Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumar Mohanty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.

  10. Alteration of sperm quality and hormone levels by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on airborne particulate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Yu, Liang

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect male reproductive functions in vivo. Male reproductive parameters included testis weight, sperm counts and motility, circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. The average body weight, testis weight, and epididymis weight in the exposed group were not significantly lower than that in the control group (p sperm in the PAH-exposed groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The motility of sperm in the PAH-exposed groups was significantly less than those in the control group. Plasma LH concentrations increased at the end of the exposure period and continued to increase after post-cessation of exposure to PAHs. Testosterone decreased at the end of the exposure period and increased after post-cessation of exposure. However, the follicle-stimulation hormone level remained relatively stable during the study period. The present study showed that PAHs can compromise sperm functions and alter endocrine hormone levels.

  11. Perfringolysin O as a useful tool to study human sperm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocognoni, Cristián A; De Blas, Gerardo A; Heuck, Alejandro P; Belmonte, Silvia A; Mayorga, Luis S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate perfringolysin O, a cholesterol-dependent pore-forming cytolysin, as a tool to study several aspects of human sperm physiology. Prospective study. Basic research laboratory. Human semen samples with normal parameters obtained from healthy donors. Interaction of recombinant perfringolysin O with human spermatozoa. Assessment of perfringolysin O binding to spermatozoa, tests for acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, and acrosomal exocytosis assays. Perfringolysin O associated with human spermatozoa at 4°C. The binding was sensitive to changes in cholesterol concentrations and distribution occurring in the plasma membrane of these cells during capacitation. When perfringolysin O-treated sperm were incubated at 37°C, the plasma membrane became permeable, whereas the acrosome membrane remained intact. Permeabilized spermatozoa were able to respond to exocytic stimuli. The process was inhibited by proteins that interfere with membrane fusion, indicating that large molecules, including antibodies, were able to permeate into the spermatozoa. PFO is a useful probe to assess changes in the amount and distribution of the active sterol fraction present in the sperm plasma membrane. The toxin can be used for the efficient and selective permeabilization of this membrane, rendering a flexible experimental model suitable for studying molecular processes occurring in the sperm cytoplasm. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  13. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesook Roh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  14. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitro fertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitro using mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  15. Postmortem sperm procurement: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, S E; Seftel, A D; Resnick, M I

    1999-06-01

    Postmortem sperm procurement with subsequent artificial insemination has become a technically feasible method for posthumous conception. A variety of legal questions exist involving the rights and relationships of the deceased, his family and his issue. We addressed these questions and designed a workable protocol for postmortem sperm procurement. MEDLINE, WESTLAW and LEXIS medical literature, and case law searches were conducted. United States and international case law, United States (federal and state) statutes, Uniform Law Commissions Acts, and law review commentaries and articles were reviewed. While postmortem sperm procurement is being requested throughout the United States, no standard protocol or procedural guidelines have been established by federal or state statute. Furthermore, the courts have not yet addressed this specific scenario in reported case law. Statutes and case law do address related factual scenarios and issues, including property rights in human bodies, rules governing transplantation of human organs/body parts, rights of parties in in vivo sperm bank donations and responsibilities of parents to the conceptus of artificial insemination. A workable protocol can be established by analyzing case law and statutes addressing factually similar scenarios. Urologists must focus on the express intent of the decedent and limit any postmortem sperm retrieval to the specific requests made by the decedent. Decedent requests should be documented in writing. The decedent must be competent and of majority age. In the absence of decedent expressed affirmative directive calling for sperm retrieval, no other relative or guardian may authorize this retrieval. Issues regarding the legitimacy and inheritance rights of the conceptus will most consistently be addressed when explicitly provided for in the will of the decedent.

  16. Cryopreservation of mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO G. SANCHES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2 , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10% and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min−1 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05 was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2 with DMSO ( 10% and cooling rate of -60°C.min−1 ( P < 0.05 . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper.

  17. Activation of free sperm and dissociation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) of an endangered viviparous fish, Xenotoca eiseni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yang, Huiping; Torres, Leticia; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of sperm motility activation for viviparous fishes has been limited to study of several species in Poeciliidae, and the dissociation of sperm bundles is even less understood. The goal of this study was to use the endangered Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model to investigate the activation of sperm from viviparous fishes by study of free sperm and spermatozeugmata (unencapsulated sperm bundles). The specific objectives were to evaluate the effects of: (1) osmotic pressure and refrigerated storage (4 °C) on activation of free sperm, (2) osmotic pressure, ions, and pH on dissociation of spermatozeugmata, and (3) CaCl 2 concentration and pH on sperm membrane integrity. Free sperm were activated in Ca 2+ -free Hanks' balanced salt solution at 81-516 mOsmol/kg. The highest motility (19 ± 6%) was at 305 mOsmol/kg and swim remained for 84 h. Glucose (300-700 mOsmol/kg), NaCl (50-600 mOsmol/kg), and KCl, MgCl 2 , and MnCl 2 at 5-160 mM activated sperm within spermatozeugmata, but did not dissociate spermatozeugmata. CaCl 2 at 5-160 mM dissociated spermatozeugmata within 10 min. Solutions of NaCl-NaOH at pH 11.6 to 12.4 dissociated spermatozeugmata within 1 min. The percentage of viable cells had no significant differences (P = 0.2033) among different concentrations of CaCl 2 , but it was lower (P fishes, and for development of germplasm repositories for imperiled goodeids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm freezing to address the risk of azoospermia on the day of ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, M; Gatimel, N; Bourdet-Loubère, S; Daudin, M; Bujan, L; Mieusset, R; Isus, F; Parinaud, J; Leandri, R

    2015-11-01

    In which cases is freezing of ejaculated sperm indicated before ICSI? Sperm freezing should be performed only when out of two analyses at least one total sperm count in the ejaculate is lower than 10(6). Due to variations in individual sperm parameters, in cases of severe oligozoospermia there is a risk of absence of spermatozoa on the day of ICSI, leading to cancellation of the attempt. Sperm freezing can avoid this problem but little is known of the parameters governing the decision to freeze sperm or not. This retrospective study included 247 men who underwent sperm cryopreservation to prevent the risk of azoospermia on the day of ICSI, from 2000 to 2012. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to define the threshold value. The lowest total sperm count per ejaculate was studied as a predictive factor for the use of frozen sperm in a total of 593 ICSI attempts. Moreover, 2003 patients who had at least 4 semen analyses for andrological diagnosis have been studied to evaluate the reproducibility of sperm count. To evaluate the psychological impact of sperm freezing, a questionnaire was administered to 84 men who attended for sperm cryopreservation between June and December 2014. The cost of sperm freezing was analysed according to the French prices. When at least one total sperm count was counts were ≥10(5) (P sperm freezing is recommended when one analysis from at least two, showed a sperm count sperm freezings. The psychological impact of sperm freezing was good since >70% of men had positive feelings about this technique. This was a fairly short-term study and preservation of future fertility was not assessed. It appeared impossible to find a threshold that would predict the risk of azoospermia with 100% accuracy. Therefore there is still a risk of absence of spermatozoa on the day of ICSI despite a good negative predictive value when no total sperm count was lower than 10(5). These data suggest that sperm freezing should be proposed when

  19. Trigonellae Semen Enhances Sperm Motility and the Expression of the Cation Sperm Channel Proteins in Mouse Testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Rim Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects during spermatogenesis can lead to a reduction in sperm motility and cause male infertility. The cation channels of sperm (CatSper play a role in the regulation of hyperactivated sperm motility in mouse testes. The effect of Trigonellae Semen (TS on the male reproductive system and CatSper protein in mouse testes during spermatogenesis was examined. C57BL/c mice were divided into the following five groups: normal, cyclophosphamide- (CP- only treated (control group, and three groups treated with varying concentrations of TS with CP (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg TS and 100 mg/kg CP. Real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and a testosterone immunoassay were performed to assess CatSper protein levels in the five groups. Additionally, sperm cell counts and motility were examined. Results indicate that sperm motility and sperm counts increased in the TS treated groups in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. CatSper levels were also significantly higher in the TS treated groups compared to that of the control group (p<0.001. Therefore, TS treatment could enhance sperm function by promoting spermatogenesis and the expression of CatSper proteins in mouse testes.

  20. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentric joint space narrowing of the hip associated with hemosiderotic synovitis (HS) including pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, T.G.; Pavlov, H.; Bansal, M.; Bullough, P.

    1988-01-01

    Concentric joint space narrowing of the hip is an expected radiographic finding in cases of inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis. However, similar joint space narrowing is associated with chronic hemorrhagic conditions that produce hemosiderotic synovitis. Hemosiderotic synovitis results from chronic intraarticular bleeding such as occurs in pigmented villonodular synovitis, generalized bleeding diathesis, synovial hemangioma, and chronic trauma. Five hips in five patients with concentric joint space narrowing not associated with inflammatory arthritis or with hemophilia were reviewed clinically, radiographically, and pathologically. All patients had a hemosiderotic synovitis. The definitive diagnosis of pigmented villonodular synovitis was made pathologically in two cases that demonstrated nodular areas of giant cell proliferation, collagen production, and lipid-laden histiocytes on histologic samples. (orig.)

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Pueblo NTMS quadrangel, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This report is a supplement to the HSSR uranium evaluation report for the Pueblo quadrangle (Shannon, 1978), which presented the field and uranium data for the 861 water and 1060 sediment samples collected from 1402 locations in the quadrangle. This supplement presents those data again and the results of subsequent multielement analyses of those HSSR samples. In addition to uranium, the concentrations of 12 elements are presented for the waters and 42 elements for the sediments

  3. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, and their relationship to fitness measures in arctic shorebirds and their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2010-07-15

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and this is of particular concern in the arctic. However, little information exists on contaminant levels in arctic-breeding shorebirds, especially in Canada. We studied potential contaminants in three biparental shorebird species nesting in Nunavut, Canada: ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres), black-bellied plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) and semipalmated plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus). Blood, feathers and eggs were analyzed for As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn. We assessed whether element concentrations a) differed among species and sexes, b) were correlated among pairs and their eggs, and c) were related to fitness endpoints, namely body condition, blood-parasite load, nest survival days, and hatching success. Non-essential elements were found at lower concentrations than essential elements, with the exception of Hg. Maximum Hg levels in blood approached those associated with toxicological effects in other bird species, but other elements were well below known toxicological thresholds. Reproductive success was negatively correlated with paternal Hg and maternal Pb, although these effects were generally weak and varied among tissues. Element levels were positively correlated within pairs for blood-Hg (turnstones) and feather-Ni and Cr (semipalmated plovers); concentrations in eggs and maternal blood were never correlated. Concentrations of many elements differed among species, but there was no evidence that any species had higher overall exposure to non-essential metals. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to the majority of these elements is leading to declines of the species studied here, Hg levels were of potential concern and both Hg and Pb warrant further monitoring. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-11

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

  5. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples

  6. The effects of increased testicular temperature on testis-specific isoform of Na+/K+ -ATPase in sperm and its role in spermatogenesis and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, J C; Rajamanickam, G D; Kastelic, J P; Newton, L D

    2012-08-01

    Impaired testicular thermoregulation is commonly implicated in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm function in animals and humans, with outcomes ranging from subclinical infertility to sterility. Bovine testes must be maintained 4-5 °C below body-core temperature for normal spermatogenesis. The effects of elevated testicular temperature have been extensively studied in cattle using a scrotal insulation model, which results in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm morphology and function. Using this model and proteomic approaches, we compared normal and abnormal sperm (from the same bulls) to elucidate the molecular basis of impaired function. We identified a cohort of sperm functional proteins differentially expressed between normal vs abnormal sperm, including a testis-specific isoform of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase. In addition to its role as a sodium pump regulating sperm motility, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase is also involved as a signalling molecule during sperm capacitation. In conclusion, because of its involvement in regulation of sperm function, this protein has potential as a fertility marker. Furthermore, comparing normal vs abnormal sperm (induced by scrotal insulation) is a useful model for identifying proteins regulating sperm function. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Oxidative stress evoked damages on rat sperm and attenuated antioxidant status on consumption of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, I; Poornima, P S; Wankhar, D; Ravindran, R; Sheeladevi, R

    2017-07-01

    Although several studies on toxic effect of aspartame metabolite have been studied, controversial reports over the use of aspartame owing to the fact that it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism exist. This present study is proposed to investigate whether aspartame (40 mg kg -1 b.wt) administration for 90 days could induce oxidative stress and alter antioxidant status of epididymal sperm in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the effects of aspartame. Oral intubations of FDA approved 40 mg kg -1 b.wt aspartame were given daily for 90 days to Wistar strain male albino rats and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Sperm count, viability, morphology, morphometry and motility were assessed. A significant decrease in sperm function of aspartame treated animals was observed when compared with the control and MTX control. The free radical generation were observed in epididymal sperm by assessing the scavenging enzymes, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Result suggest that there was a significant increase glutathione-s-transferase (GST), with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione reductase concentration. The increase in free radicals generation could have ultimately caused the lipid peroxidation mediated damages on the testis. Aspartame treated animals also revealed the reduced space in seminiferous tubules, which resulted in reduced Leydig cells when compared with control in histopathology. These findings demonstrate that aspartame metabolites could be a contributing factor for development of oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm.

  9. Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces sperm quality in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; McAuliffe, P; Rodgers, R J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

    2016-08-01

    Breeding bulls are commonly fed high-energy diets, which may induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this experiment, 8 Santa Gertrudis bulls (age 20 ± 6 mo) were used to evaluate the extent and duration of effects of SARA on semen quality and the associated changes in circulating hormones and metabolites. The bulls were relocated and fed in yards with unrestricted access to hay and daily individual concentrate feeding for 125 d before SARA challenge. Semen was collected and assessed at 14-d intervals before the challenge to ensure acclimatization and the attainment of a stable spermiogram. The challenge treatments consisted of either a single oral dose of oligofructose (OFF; 6.5 g/kg BW) or an equivalent sham dose of water (Control). Locomotion, behavior, respiratory rate, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal function were intensively monitored during the 24-h challenge period. Rumen fluid samples were retained for VFA, ammonia, and lactate analysis. After the challenge, semen was then collected every third day for a period of 7 wk and then once weekly until 12 wk, with associated blood collection for FSH, testosterone, inhibin, and cortisol assay. Percent normal sperm decreased in bulls dosed with OFF after the challenge period ( < 0.05) and continued to remain lower on completion of the study at 88 d after challenge. There was a corresponding increase in sperm defects commencing from 16 d after challenge. These included proximal cytoplasmic droplets ( < 0.001), distal reflex midpieces ( = 0.01), and vacuole and teratoid heads ( < 0.001). Changes in semen quality after challenge were associated with lower serum testosterone ( < 0.001) and FSH ( < 0.05). Serum cortisol in OFF bulls tended to be greater ( = 0.07) at 7 d after challenge. This study shows that SARA challenge causes a reduction in sperm quality sufficient to preclude bulls from sale as single sire breeding animals 3 mo after the event occurred.

  10. Sperm quality and cryopreservation of Brazilian freshwater fish species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, A T M; Godinho, H P

    2009-03-01

    The Brazilian freshwater fish diversity is the richest in the world. Only 0.7% of all Brazilian species have had any aspect of their sperm biology addressed up to this date. The majority of the fish species described in this review migrate during the spawning season (a phenomenon known as piracema). Urbanization, pollution, hydroelectric dams and deforestation are some of the causes of stock depletion or even local extinction of some of these species. The knowledge concerning sperm quality and minimum sperm:egg ratio is important to maximize the use of males without reducing hatching rates. Furthermore, sperm cryopreservation and gene banking can guarantee the conservation of genetic diversity and development of adequate breeding programs of native fish species. In this review, we present and evaluate the existing information on Brazilian fish species that have been subject to sperm quality and cryopreservation studies. The following parameters were evaluated: volume of extractable sperm, sperm motility, sperm concentration, freezing media, freezing methods, and post-thaw sperm quality. Although the existing protocols yield relatively high post-thaw motility and fertilization rates, the use of cryopreserved sperm in routine hatchery production is still limited in Brazil.

  11. Delta opioid receptor on equine sperm cells: subcellular localization and involvement in sperm motility analyzed by computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalandra Giovanni M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides act not only in the control of nociceptive pathways, indeed several reports demonstrate the effects of opiates on sperm cell motility and morphology suggesting the importance of these receptors in the modulation of reproduction in mammals. In this study we investigated the expression of delta opioid receptors on equine spermatozoa by western blot/indirect immunofluorescence and its relationship with sperm cell physiology. Methods We analyzed viability, motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial activity in the presence of naltrindole and DPDPE by means of a computer assisted sperm analyzer and a fluorescent confocal microscope. The evaluation of viability, capacitation and acrosome reaction was carried out by the double CTC/Hoechst staining, whereas mitochondrial activity was assessed by means of MitoTracker Orange dye. Results We showed that in equine sperm cells, delta opioid receptor is expressed as a doublet of 65 and 50 kDa molecular mass and is localized in the mid piece of tail; we also demonstrated that naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, could be utilized in modulating several physiological parameters of the equine spermatozoon in a dose-dependent way. We also found that low concentrations of the antagonist increase sperm motility whereas high concentrations show the opposite effect. Moreover low concentrations hamper capacitation, acrosome reaction and viability even if the percentage of cells with active mitochondria seems to be increased; the opposite effect is exerted at high concentrations. We have also observed that the delta opioid receptor agonist DPDPE is scarcely involved in affecting the same parameters at the employed concentrations. Conclusions The results described in this paper add new important details in the comprehension of the mammalian sperm physiology and suggest new insights for improving reproduction and for

  12. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  13. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses.

  14. Hyaluronic acid binding ability of human sperm reflects cellular maturity and fertilizing potential: selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Gabor; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Jakab, Attila; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Sati, G Leyla; Cayli, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    The current concepts of sperm biochemical markers and the central role of the HspA2 chaperone protein, a measure of sperm cellular maturity and fertilizing potential, are reviewed. Because HspA2 is a component of the synaptonemal complex, low HspA2 levels and increased frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies are related in diminished maturity sperm. We also suggest a relationship between HspA2 expression in elongating spermatids and events of late spermiogenesis, such as cytoplasmic extrusion and plasma membrane remodeling that aid the formation of the zona pellucida binding and hyaluronic acid binding sites. The presence of hyaluronic acid receptor on the plasma membrane of mature sperm, coupled with hyaluronic acid coated glass or plastic surfaces, facilitates testing of sperm function and selection of single mature sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The frequencies of sperm with chromosomal disomy are reduced approximately fourfold to fivefold in hyaluronic acid selected sperm compared with semen sperm, comparable to the increase in such abnormalities in intracytoplasmic sperm injection offspring. Hyaluronic acid binding also excludes immature sperm with cytoplasmic extrusion, persistent histones, and DNA chain breaks. Hyaluronic acid mediated sperm selection is a novel technique that is comparable to sperm zona pellucida binding. Hyaluronic acid selected sperm will also alleviate the risks related to intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization with sperm of diminished maturity that currently cause worldwide concern.

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Bozeman NTMS quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Van Haaften, I.J.; Pirtle, J.; George, W.E.; Gallimore, D.; Apel, C.; Hansel, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report contains uranium analyses for 1251 water samples and multielement analyses for 1536 sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnasissance of the Trinidad NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Uranium and other elemental data resulting from the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Trinidad National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, Colorado, by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) are reported herein. This study was conducted as part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide improved estimates of the availability and economics of nuclear fuel resources and to make available to industry information for use in exploration and development of uranium resources. The HSSR data will ultimately be integrated with other NURE data (e.g., airborne radiometric surveys and geological investigations) to complete the entire NURE program. This report is a supplement to the HSSR uranium evaluation report for the Trinidad quadrange (Morris et al, 1978), which presented the field and uranium data for the 1060 water and 1240 sediment samples collected from 1768 locations in the quadrangle. The earlier report contains an evaluation of the uranium concentrations of the samples as well as descriptions of the geology, hydrology, climate, and uranium occurrences of the quadrange. This supplement presents the sediment field and uranium data again and the analyses of 42 other elements in the sediments. All uranium samples were redetermined by delayed-neutron counting (DNC) when the sediment samples were analyzed for 31 elements by neutron activation. For 99.6% of the sediment samples analyzed, the differences between the uranium contents first determined (Morris et al, 1978) and the analyses reported herein are less than 10%

  17. Testicular sperm is superior to ejaculated sperm for ICSI in cryptozoospermia: An update systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-No; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Wu, Chien-Chih

    2018-05-18

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is well established and provides patients with severely impaired sperm quality with an opportunity to father a child. However, previous studies do not clearly indicate whether male with cryptozoospermia should use testicular sperm or ejaculated sperm for ICSI. The newest systematic review of this topic also gave a controversial conclusion that was based on incorrect pooling result. Moreover, two clinical studies published after the systematic review. In the present update systematic review and meta-analysis, a comprehensive citation search for relevant studies was performed using the Cochrane library databases, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 2017. The search returned 313 records, in which six studies were included in quantitative synthesis. These studies involved 578 male infertility patients who had undergone 761 ICSI cycles. The risk ratios favour fresh testicular sperm for good quality embryo rate (1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.005), implantation rate (95% CI 1.02-2.26, P = 0.04), and pregnancy rate (RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.20-2.52, P = 0.004). In conclusion, the existing evidence suggests that testicular sperm is better than ejaculated sperm for ICSI in male with cryptozoospermia.

  18. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier delBarco-Trillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid. Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  19. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the thermopolis NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, L.W.

    1980-08-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for uranium in the Thermopolis National Topographic Map Series quadrangle, Wyoming. Totals of 920 water and 1821 sediment samples were collected from 1977 locations at an average density of one sample location per 9 km 2 over an 18,000-km 2 area. Water samples were collected from streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. The uranium contents of water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 307.98 ppB with a median of 0.56 ppB. Six clusters of anomalous water samples were delineated within the Wind River Basin and are associated predominantly with the Wind River formation. Two clusters of anomalous waters were collected on the southern margin of the Bighorn Basin and are associated with sandstone and shales of Permian through Cretaceous age. The uranium contents of sediment samples range from 0.43 to 94.65 ppM with a median of 2.90 ppM. Most sediment samples with uranium concentrations of greater than 12 ppM are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Wind River Range; this area contains the highest uranium values found in sediments from the Thermopolis quadrangle. Other samples containing greater than 12 ppM uranium are found associated with the Wind River and Aycross formations along the northern margin of the Wind River Basin, and one sample was collected from Precambrian granitic terrain of the Owl Creek Mountains

  1. Papillomavirus DNA in sperm from infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gennari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are causative agents of sexually transmitted disease that affect both men and women (6, 7.The genus includes more than 150 types divided in according to different tropism for skin surfaces and paved mucosal epithelia. Although HPV infection has a very high incidence in both sexes, HPV infection in men is often neglected because of its transitory nature and its lack of clinical relevance.The HPV infection in males was found to be borne by the anal region, perineum, scrotum, urethra and glans. The persistence of the virus in these sites of infection has been linked both to male infertility and to the development of neoplasia in genital areas and not. In addition, several studies have documented the presence of HPV in the semen but with conflicting results regarding the location of the virus in the various components of semen (5, 9,10. The objective of this study was to highlight the presence of HPV DNA in the sperm of patients waiting for a Medically Assisted Procreation and to evaluate if there is a correlation between the semen parameters (motility, concentration and morphology of spermatozoa and HPV infection.

  2. Relationship between conventional semen characteristics, sperm motility patterns and fertility of Andalusian donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2013-12-01

    Sperm quality has an important role in determining fertility. The aims of this study were to compare the conventional sperm parameters, plus the characteristics of the motility patterns of the different sperm subpopulations, of donkey donors with different fertility level, and to determine their relationships to fertility. Thirty ejaculates from 6 Andalusian donkeys were assessed for gel-free volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. The fertility of donkeys was classified on the basis of pregnancy rates per cycle, where donkeys with a per cycle pregnancy rate ≥60% were considered to be "fertile" (n=3) and those with a per cycle pregnancy rate donkeys with in vitro measures of sperm motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sperm cell purification from mock forensic swabs using SOMAmer™ affinity reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Carmel, Andrew B; Koss, Heidi; O'Connell, Dan; Smith, Breanna C; Sanders, Glenn M; LaBerge, Greggory S

    2018-03-27

    We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection. The quality of sperm DNA isolated from samples purified using SOMAmers is comparable to existing commercially available differential extraction-based methods at higher sperm concentrations. This purification method is simple, offers relatively rapid (forensic casework. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Flow cytometry application in the assessment of sperm DNA integrity of men with asthenozoospermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Brodowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm genomic integrity and ultrastructural features of ejaculated spermatozoa contributing to the assessment of gamete fertility potential in patients with asthenozoospermia are discussed. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in the semen of patients with low sperm motility (n=40; p<0.01 as compared to men with normal sperm motility (n=54. Sperm DNA fragmentation negatively correlated (n=94 with sperm motility, sperm concentration, and integrity of the sperm cellular membrane (HOS-test. Two categories of patients were distinguished: (1 patients (23 out of 94 subjects with < or = 4% of TUNEL-positive cells and (2 patients (71 subjects with 4% of TUNEL-positive cells. A significant difference was noted in the sperm motility and HOS-test results between patients from both groups. Large numbers of immature spermatozoa with extensive cytoplasmic retention, ultrastructural chromatin and midpiece abnormalities, and conglomerates containing sperm fragments were present more frequently in the semen of asthenozoospermic subjects with >4% of TUNEL-positive sperm cells. Low sperm motility seems to be accompanied by serious defects of gamete chromatin expressed as diminished sperm genomic integrity and abnormal DNA condensation and by defects of sperm midpiece. These abnormalities may reflect developmental failure during the spermatogenic remodeling process. The DNA fragmentation test may be considered as an additional assay for the evaluation of spermatozoa beside standard analysis and taken together with electron microscopy may help to determine the actual number of "healthy" spermatozoa thereby playing an important role during diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  5. Methods of sperm vitality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-01-01

    Sperm vitality is a reflection of the proportion of live, membrane-intact spermatozoa determined by either dye exclusion or osmoregulatory capacity under hypo-osmotic conditions. In this chapter we address the two most common methods of sperm vitality assessment: eosin-nigrosin staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, both utilized in clinical Andrology laboratories.

  6. Quantification of leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls and its correlation with antioxidant status, conventional and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) semen variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K

    2016-03-01

    The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deduction of a calcium ion circuit affecting rooster sperm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P

    2016-08-01

    Four premises for rooster sperm preservation were outlined previously. Understanding mitochondrial Ca cycling in terms of whole-cell Ca flux was one premise. The present work tested the hypothesis that sperm mitochondria can be damaged by intracellular as well as extracellular Ca. Sperm were washed by centrifugation through 12% (wt/vol) Sperm were washed by centrifugation through 12%(at/vol) Accudenz to procure sperm at a physiological concentration within a chemically-defined suspension. Five solutions were tested. Each solution contained 30 m glucose, and had an osmolality of 320 mmol/kg and a pH of 7.4. Washed sperm were diluted to 2.0 × 10 sperm/mL. Each replicate sperm suspension was cooled to 10°C. Sperm mobility was measured after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Data were plotted as a function of time in each experiment. Function type was confirmed by lack of fit analysis. A parabola with a maximum at 3.7 h was observed when sperm were suspended in 205 m taurine buffered with 50 m-tris[hydroxyl-methyl]methyl-2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid (TES). This effect was attributed to a Ca flux from the nuclear envelope into mitochondria. An exponential decay was observed when TES-buffered taurine contained 2 m Ca. This effect was attributed to mitochondrial Ca overload induced by uptake of extracellular Ca. Exponential decay also was observed when TES-buffered taurine contained a Ca chelator. This effect was attributed to a Ca flux from the nuclear envelope through mitochondria and then into an extracellular Ca sink. This possibility was supported by the response of sperm to thapsigargin. Specifically, inhibition of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase compromised sperm mobility relative to a buffer control. Finally, a 60 m phosphate buffer containing 2 m citrate yielded a linear relationship in contrast to the TES-buffered solutions tested. Sperm mobility after 24 h of storage in the phosphate buffer was 92% of that observed for prewashed sperm. The linear response was

  8. Total motile sperm count has a superior predictive value over the WHO 2010 cut-off values for the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, E; Setti, A S; Braga, D P A F; Figueira, R C S; Iaconelli, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare (i) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes among groups with different total motile sperm count ranges, (ii) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between groups with normal and abnormal total motile sperm count, and (iii) the predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and pre-wash total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, in couples with male infertility. This study included data from 518 patients undergoing their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle as a result of male infertility. Couples were divided into five groups according to their total motile sperm count: Group I, total motile sperm count sperm count 1-5 × 10(6) ; group III, total motile sperm count 5-10 × 10(6) ; group IV, total motile sperm count 10-20 × 10(6) ; and group V, total motile sperm count >20 × 10(6) (which was considered a normal total motile sperm count value). Then, couples were grouped into an abnormal and normal total motile sperm count group. The groups were compared regarding intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. The predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes were also investigated. The fertilization rate was lower in total motile sperm count group I compared to total motile sperm count group V (72.5 ± 17.6 vs. 84.9 ± 14.4, p = 0.011). The normal total motile sperm count group had a higher fertilization rate (84.9 ± 14.4 vs. 81.1 ± 15.8, p = 0.016) and lower miscarriage rate (17.9% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.041) compared to the abnormal total motile sperm count group. The total motile sperm count was the only parameter that demonstrated a predictive value for the formation of high-quality embryos on D2 (OR: 1.18, p = 0.013), formation of high-quality embryos on D3 (OR: 1.12, p = 0.037), formation of blastocysts on D5 (OR: 1.16, p = 0.011), blastocyst expansion grade on D5

  9. Effect of voltage-gated sodium channels blockers on motility and viability of human sperm in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ahmad Gakhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs blockers on the motility and viability of human sperm in-vitro and to evaluate the tested compounds as potential contact spermicidal.Methods: Sperm samples were obtained from healthy nonsmoking volunteers of age 25-30 years who had not taken any drug 3 months before and during the course of the study. The effect of VGSCs blockers evaluated from two pharmacological classes including antiarrhythmic (amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide and antiepileptic (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, and lamotrigine drugs. They were tested on the in-vitro motility and viability of human sperm using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer.Results: All tested drugs except oxcarbazepine showed dose dependent inhibition of total motility with significant reduction (P<0.05 at the maximum concentration of 200 μΜ when compared with the control. The concentrations of drugs that reduced total sperm motility to 50% of control (half maximal inhibitory concentration were 2.76, 14.16 and 20.29 μΜ for phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine, respectively; and 2.53, 5.32 and 0.37 μΜ for amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide, respectively. The anti-motility effects were reversible to various degrees. There was statistically insignificant difference in the inhibition of sperm viability among amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide. Phenytoin demonstrated the most potent spermicidal action.Conclusions: VGSCs blockers have significant adverse effects on in-vitro motility of human spermatozoa. So in-vivo studies are required to determine their potential toxicological effects on human semen quality, which is an important factor regarding fertility. Moreover, these drugs have the potential to be developed into contact spermicidal.

  10. Freezability and semen parameters in candidates of sperm bank donors: 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Shabtai, Esther; Gamzu, Ronni; Botchan, Amnon; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Hauser, Ron

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable concern worldwide about possible semen quality deterioration over the last 2 decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate freezability and semen quality of healthy young males during the years 1992-2010. A total of 1211 young (20-32 years old) candidates for sperm bank donation were recruited into the study with no exclusion criteria. They were instructed to observe 2 to 3 days of abstinence from sexual activity, and most of them supplied 2 specimens each. Average values of the various semen parameters, including freezing survival, were calculated for each participant. The change in different semen parameters over years, according to yearly and monthly average temperatures, was evaluated by SAS PROC SURVEYREG analysis. During that period, there were significant increases in motility and vitality percentages, as well as in the percentage of thawed sperm motility. The parameters of volume, concentration, normal morphology, total count, and total motile count showed a significant decrease with years (P average yearly temperature (P average monthly temperature contributed significantly to the trend of semen quality parameters (ie, specimen volume, concentration, percentage of normal morphology, and thawed motility). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the occurrence of an improvement in percent thawed motility over the years, and its significance lies in enabling a higher proportion of sperm bank candidates to be suitable for donation. It is suggested that the global warming phenomenon might have only partial contribution to semen variable changes over the years.

  11. High-dose folic acid supplementation alters the human sperm methylome and is influenced by the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; San Gabriel, Maria C; Chan, Donovan; Behan, Nathalie A; Caron, Maxime; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Zini, Armand; Trasler, Jacquetta

    2015-11-15

    Dietary folate is a major source of methyl groups required for DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that is actively maintained and remodeled during spermatogenesis. While high-dose folic acid supplementation (up to 10 times the daily recommended dose) has been shown to improve sperm parameters in infertile men, the effects of supplementation on the sperm epigenome are unknown. To assess the impact of 6 months of high-dose folic acid supplementation on the sperm epigenome, we studied 30 men with idiopathic infertility. Blood folate concentrations increased significantly after supplementation with no significant improvements in sperm parameters. Methylation levels of the differentially methylated regions of several imprinted loci (H19, DLK1/GTL2, MEST, SNRPN, PLAGL1, KCNQ1OT1) were normal both before and after supplementation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) revealed a significant global loss of methylation across different regions of the sperm genome. The most marked loss of DNA methylation was found in sperm from patients homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, a common polymorphism in a key enzyme required for folate metabolism. RRBS analysis also showed that most of the differentially methylated tiles were located in DNA repeats, low CpG-density and intergenic regions. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that methylation of promoter regions was altered in several genes involved in cancer and neurobehavioral disorders including CBFA2T3, PTPN6, COL18A1, ALDH2, UBE4B, ERBB2, GABRB3, CNTNAP4 and NIPA1. Our data reveal alterations of the human sperm epigenome associated with high-dose folic acid supplementation, effects that were exacerbated by a common polymorphism in MTHFR. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Radiolabelling of sperm cells with 99mTc-HMPAO. In vivo visualization of sperm cell migration in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN; Al-Hasani, S.; Ven, H.V.D.; Diedrich, K.; Krebs, D.; Posch, C.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper is the first descriptive radiolabeling of sperm cells in order to visualize their in vivo migration and imaging by scintigraphic technique, 99m Tc-HMPAO was used which combines favourable characteristics of both imaging modalities and radiation exposure. The radiolabeling yield was optimised for human sperm cells, and was increasing with the number of sperm cells, the amount of HMPAO, the 99m Tc-HMPAO concentration and the duration of the incubation. Incubation periods greater than 20 min, however, resulted only in a minor increase of labeling yield. A delay of more than 5 min between the labeling of the HMPAO with 99m Tc and initiation of the incubation of the sperm cells with the 99m Tc-HMPAO also decreased the maximum labeling yield. The radiolabeled cells were found to be stable and after 18 h > 93% of the activity was still bound to the sperm cells. After insemination of labeled sperm cells in ovulating rabbits the accumulation of the cells in the Fallopian tubes and their subsequent migration could be clearly visualized by scintigraphic techniques in vivo. (orig.) [de

  13. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm...... temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed...... counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period...

  14. Proteomics analysis of ram sperm by heavy ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuxuan; Li Hongyan; Zhang Hong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the proteome changes induced by heavy ion radiation using irradiated ram sperm by a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The 2D gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. Differentially expressed proteins were detected by PDQuest 8.0 software and subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a surveyor HPLC system, and differential protein spots were identified. Results showed there are five differential protein spots in irradiated sperm gels, four up-regulated protein spots and one spot missed. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified to be two up-regulated proteins including enolase, and enolase 1. It was concluded there was proteome changes induced by heavy ion radiation in ram sperm, which may be useful to clarify the physiology state of ram sperm in heavy ion radiation and provide a theoretical basis for radiation ram breeding. (authors)

  15. Sperm whale clicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.

    2000-01-01

    . A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not supported by published data for sperm whale clicks ~source levels of 180 dB re 1 mPa and little, if any......In sperm whales ~Physeter catodon L. 1758! the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey @in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 ~1972!, pp. 397–417# ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex......, directionality!. Either the theory is not borne out or the data is not representative for the capabilities of the sound-generating mechanism. To increase the amount of relevant data, a five-hydrophone array, suspended from three platforms separated by 1 km and linked by radio, was deployed at the slope...

  16. PRESENTED AT TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING IN CHAPEL HILL, NC ON 2/11/2006: SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards sub-fertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of ferti...

  17. Evaluation of ram semen quality using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, M; Ordás, L; Chamorro, C A; Martinez-Pastor, F; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-05-01

    Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of the spermatozoa, including sperm motility. Two objectives are analyzed in this study: (1) Replace the cervical mucus by a synthetic medium in a sperm penetration test, and (2) evaluating the results of this test objectively analyzing the sperm number that migrates. In experiment 1, we have tested eight concentrations of acrylamide (1%-2%). Rheological properties of media were analyzed. The plastic straws, loaded with acrylamide, were placed vertically on the semen sample tube for 15 min at 39 °C. After, the acrylamides were placed, by segments of 5 mm, into wells of a 24-well plate, dyed with Hoechst 33342 and the number of spermatozoa were calculated by automated microscopy analysis. The 1.55% and 1.6% acrylamide gel showed a number of spermatozoa emigrating closer to that seen with natural mucus. In experiment 2, we applied the sperm penetration in acrylamide 1.6% and 1.55% using fresh semen and cooled semen at 15 °C and 5 °C. The spermatozoa counts were performed for each segment of 10 mm. Semen chilled at 15 °C presented intermediate values of sperm counts in comparison with fresh semen (higher) and 5 °C chilled semen. The sperm counts do not differ between acrylamides but the rheological properties of acrylamide 1.6% were more similar to those of the natural cervical mucus. In experiment 3, we have observed significant correlations between the number of spermatozoa and several sperm quality parameters (positive: progressive motility and velocity according to the straight path; negative: damaged acrosomes and apoptotic cells) in 1.6% acrylamide media. We conclude that the size of the cell subpopulation, objectively calculated, that migrate beyond 20 mm in 0.5-mL straws filled with acrylamide is a useful parameter in ram sperm quality assessment and further studies are needed to evaluate its relationship with field fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Cryopreservation of donkey sperm using non-permeable cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Jimenez, M; Dorado, J; Ortiz, I; Consuegra, C; Pereira, B; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera, R; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, C C; Hidalgo, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sucrose combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA), as non-permeable cryoprotectants, on donkey sperm parameters after cryopreservation, in comparison to a control extender containing glycerol. Semen from five Andalusian donkeys (n = 12) were centrifuged and resuspended with a commercial extender for equine sperm (Gent A, Minitube) adding 1% BSA and different concentrations (M, mol/l) of water-diluted sucrose: 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45. Thereafter, semen (n = 24) were diluted in the same base extender containing 0.25 M sucrose (S25) or glycerol (GLY, Gent B). Sperm were slowly cooled, filled in 0.5 ml straws and frozen in nitrogen vapours. Post-thaw samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane and DNA integrity and results were compared by ANOVA. In Experiment 1, sperm motility was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for S25 than the remaining treatments, and no differences were found for plasma membrane or DNA integrity. In Experiment 2, no differences were found between S25 or GLY for sperm motility and DNA integrity but plasma membrane integrity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for S25. In conclusion, the extender with sucrose 0.25 M combined with BSA can be considered as an alternative to conventional extenders with glycerol for donkey sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile...... a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark......). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants provided a semen sample after 4-7 days of abstinence followed by another sample after only 2 h. For both ejaculates, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility groups and detailed kinematic parameters were assessed and compared by using the Sperm...

  20. CASAnova: a multiclass support vector machine model for the classification of human sperm motility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Summer G; White, Sarah; Stevans, Alicia M; Bhat, Sanjana; Kao, Chia-Yu; Jaworski, Scott; Marlowe, Tamara R; Kohlmeier, Martin; McMillan, Leonard; Zeisel, Steven H; O'Brien, Deborah A

    2017-11-01

    The ability to accurately monitor alterations in sperm motility is paramount to understanding multiple genetic and biochemical perturbations impacting normal fertilization. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) of human sperm typically reports motile percentage and kinematic parameters at the population level, and uses kinematic gating methods to identify subpopulations such as progressive or hyperactivated sperm. The goal of this study was to develop an automated method that classifies all patterns of human sperm motility during in vitro capacitation following the removal of seminal plasma. We visually classified CASA tracks of 2817 sperm from 18 individuals and used a support vector machine-based decision tree to compute four hyperplanes that separate five classes based on their kinematic parameters. We then developed a web-based program, CASAnova, which applies these equations sequentially to assign a single classification to each motile sperm. Vigorous sperm are classified as progressive, intermediate, or hyperactivated, and nonvigorous sperm as slow or weakly motile. This program correctly classifies sperm motility into one of five classes with an overall accuracy of 89.9%. Application of CASAnova to capacitating sperm populations showed a shift from predominantly linear patterns of motility at initial time points to more vigorous patterns, including hyperactivated motility, as capacitation proceeds. Both intermediate and hyperactivated motility patterns were largely eliminated when sperm were incubated in noncapacitating medium, demonstrating the sensitivity of this method. The five CASAnova classifications are distinctive and reflect kinetic parameters of washed human sperm, providing an accurate, quantitative, and high-throughput method for monitoring alterations in motility. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Association of sperm apoptosis and DNA ploidy with sperm chromatin quality in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Reda Z; Sharma, Rakesh K; Said, Tamer M; Erenpreiss, Juris; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-04-01

    To examine the relationship among sperm apoptosis, sperm chromatin status, and DNA ploidy in different sperm fractions. Prospective study. Reproductive research center in a tertiary care hospital. Sperm prepared by density gradient were evaluated for sperm count, motility, apoptosis, and sperm chromatin assessment. Sperm count, sperm motility, toluidine blue (TB) results, DNA fragmentation index (%DFI), high DNA stainability, DNA cytometry, and early and late apoptosis. Sperm motility was related to late apoptotic and subhaploid apoptotic sperm (r = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively). The sperm %DFI showed significant correlation with late apoptotic and subhaploid sperm (r = 0.62 and 0.68). TB-stained sperm were significantly correlated with late apoptotic sperm (r = 0.51). Significantly higher proportions of haploid sperm and light blue TB-stained sperm were seen in mature compared with immature fractions. Even in semen samples with low %DFI, semen processing results in a lower incidence of nuclear immaturity and subhaploidy, but the incidence of late apoptotic sperm remains unchanged. Therefore, simultaneous evaluation of apoptosis and sperm chromatin status is important for processing sperm in assisted reproductive procedures.

  2. Challenges in Development of Sperm Repositories for Biomedical Fishes: Quality Control in Small-Bodied Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Liu, Yue; Guitreau, Amy; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2017-12-01

    Quality control (QC) is essential for reproducible and efficient functioning of germplasm repositories. However, many biomedical fish models present significant QC challenges due to small body sizes (<5 cm) and miniscule sperm volumes (<5 μL). Using minimal volumes of sperm, we used Zebrafish to evaluate common QC endpoints as surrogates for fertilization success along sequential steps of cryopreservation. First, concentrations of calibration bead suspensions were evaluated with a Makler ® counting chamber by using different sample volumes and mixing methods. For sperm analysis, samples were initially diluted at a 1:30 ratio with Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS). Motility was evaluated by using different ratios of sperm and activation medium, and membrane integrity was analyzed with flow cytometry at different concentrations. Concentration and sperm motility could be confidently estimated by using volumes as small as 1 μL, whereas membrane integrity required a minimum of 2 μL (at 1 × 10 6 cells/mL). Thus, <5 μL of sperm suspension (after dilution to 30-150 μL with HBSS) was required to evaluate sperm quality by using three endpoints. Sperm quality assessment using a combination of complementary endpoints enhances QC efforts during cryopreservation, increasing reliability and reproducibility, and reducing waste of time and resources.

  3. Sperm morphological and morphometric evaluation in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. Sousa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different staining methods for the evaluation of sperm morphology by light microscopy and also to describe the morphometry of the entire sperm in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. Semen from 10 males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, and concentration. Semen smears were prepared through three different staining methods: Bengal rose, brome-phenol blue, and eosin-nigrosin. Smears were evaluated under light microscopy and sperm morphologic alterations were determined in percentage. In addition, sperm morphometric analysis was conducted by light microscopy coupled to image analyzer software. The smears stained with Bengal Rose provide the best results for the visualization of the sperm tail, midpiece, and head. The use of eosin-nigrosin stain did not allow an adequate impregnation, and some sperm presented a few contrasts with the background. A higher incidence of bent coiled tails was verified in the use of brome-phenol blue staining (P<0.05. Through morphometric evaluation, it was observed that the tail occupies the greatest proportion (89% of the sperm which presents a discretely elongated head. According to the results, the use of the Bengal Rose stain is recommended for the morphologic evaluation of the collared peccary sperm.

  4. Sperm competition in humans: mate guarding behavior negatively correlates with ejaculate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans.

  5. Addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins to the thawing extender: effects on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, C; Gómez-Fernández, J; Gómez-Izquierdo, E; Mocé, E; de Mercado, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect that the addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) to the thawing extender has on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Pooled semen (n = 5) from three boars was used for the experiments. The semen was cryopreserved with an egg-yolk-based extender, it was diluted after thawing in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) supplemented with different concentrations of CLC (0, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/500 × 10(6) sperm), and these samples were incubated at 37°C for 150 min. The following parameters of sperm quality were evaluated 30 and 150 min after incubation: sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM; %), sperm with normal acrosomal ridge (NAR; %), total motile sperm (TMS; %), progressively motile sperm (PMS; %) and kinetic parameters. Both SIPM and NAR increased (p extender was supplemented with 12.5, 25 and 50 mg CLC/500 × 10(6) sperm. Nevertheless, motility decreased (p extenders with CLC improves sperm viability and reduces acrosome damage after freezing/thawing. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Sperm quality analysis in XX, XY and YY males of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, V; François, E; Rougeot, C; Ponthier, J; Deleuze, S; Mélard, C

    2012-07-01

    In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), individuals with atypical sexual genotype are commonly used in farming (use of YY males to produce all-male offspring), but they also constitute major tools to study sex determinism mechanisms. In other species, sexual genotype and sex reversal procedures affect different aspects of biology, such as growth, behavior and reproductive success. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sexual genotype on sperm quality in Nile tilapia. Milt characteristics were compared in XX (sex-reversed), XY and YY males in terms of gonadosomatic index, sperm count, sperm motility and duration of sperm motility. Sperm motility was measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) quantifying several parameters: total motility, progressive motility, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, average path velocity and linearity. None of the sperm traits measured significantly differed between the three genotypes. Mean values of gonadosomatic index, sperm concentration and sperm motility duration of XX, XY and YY males, respectively ranged from 0.92 to 1.33%, from 1.69 to 2.22 ×10(9) cells mL(-1) and from 18'04″ to 27'32″. Mean values of total motility and curvilinear velocity 1 min after sperm activation, respectively ranged from 53 to 58% and from 71 to 76 μm s(-1) for the three genotypes. After 3 min of activity, all the sperm motility and velocity parameters dropped by half and continued to slowly decrease thereafter. Seven min after activation, only 9 to 13% of spermatozoa were still progressive. Our results prove that neither sexual genotype nor hormonal sex reversal treatments affect sperm quality in male Nile tilapias with atypical sexual genotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson; Mendiola, Jaime; Weksler-Derri, Dan; Mindlis, Irina; Pinotti, Rachel; Swan, Shanna H

    2017-11-01

    Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for English language studies of human SC published in 1981-2013. Following a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years of sample collection and covariates [fertility group ('Unselected by fertility' versus 'Fertile'), geographic group ('Western', including North America, Europe Australia and New Zealand versus 'Other', including South America, Asia and Africa), age, ejaculation abstinence time, semen collection method, method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models. SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because

  8. Association of the VDAC3 gene polymorphism with sperm count in Han-Chinese population with idiopathic male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lianjun; Liu, Qingzhen; Li, Jingyun; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xinru; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Jiehua

    2017-07-11

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a multifunctional channel protein across the outer mitochondrial membrane of somatic cells and participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Up to now, only a few studies, including our previous studies, showed that VDAC exists in mammalian spermatozoa and is involved in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. There is no report about VDAC genetic variants in germinal tissues or cells. To investigate the possible association between VDAC genetic variants and human sperm quality, we performed semen analysis and variant Genotyping of VDAC3 subtype (rs7004637, rs16891278 and rs6773) of 523 Han-Chinese males with idiopathic infertility respectively by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping assay. No significant association was found between rs7004637 and rs6773 genotypes and semen quality. However, the AG genotype of rs16891278 showed a significantly lower sperm concentration compared with the AA genotype (P = 0.044). Our findings suggest that VDAC3 genetic variants may be associated with human sperm count.

  9. Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Si, Tianlei; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Fuqiang; Wang, Lufeng; Pan, Siyi

    2015-08-04

    The decreased reproductive capacity of men is an important factor contributing to infertility. Accumulating evidence has shown that Electromagnetic radiation potentially has negative effects on human health. However, whether radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) affects the human reproductive system still requires further investigation. Therefore, The present study investigates whether RF-EMR at a frequency of 900 MHz can trigger sperm cell apoptosis and affect semen morphology, concentration, and microstructure. Twenty four rats were exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation with a special absorption rate of 0.66 ± 0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. After 50d, the sperm count, morphology, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), representing the sum of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, were investigated. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and genes, including bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. In the present study, the percentage of apoptotic sperm cells in the exposure group was significantly increased by 91.42% compared with the control group. Moreover, the ROS concentration in exposure group was increased by 46.21%, while the TAC was decreased by 28.01%. Radiation also dramatically decreased the protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increased that of bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. RF-EMR increases the ROS level and decreases TAC in rat sperm. Excessive oxidative stress alters the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and triggers sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  11. Quantification of coral sperm collected during a synchronous spawning event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Teo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of coral reproductive biology to date have focused on oocyte numbers and sizes. Only one (ex situ study has enumerated sperm numbers, even though these data have multiple potential applications. We quantified total coral sperm and eggs per gamete bundle collected from six species in situ during a synchronous spawning event in Singapore. Egg-sperm bundles were captured midwater as they floated towards the surface after being released by the colony. For each sample, a semi-transparent soft plastic bottle was squeezed and released to create a small suction force that was used to ‘catch’ the bundles. This technique provided several advantages over traditional methods, including low cost, ease of use, no diving prior to the night of collection needed, and the ability to target specific areas of the colony. The six species sampled were Echinophyllia aspera, Favites abdita, F. chinensis, Merulina ampliata, M. scabricula and Platygyra pini. The mean number of sperm packaged within one egg-sperm bundle ranged from 2.04 × 106 to 1.93 × 107. The mean number of eggs per egg-sperm bundle ranged from 26.67 (SE ± 3.27 to 85.33 (SE ± 17.79. These data are critical for fertilisation success models, but the collection technique described could also be applied to studies requiring in situ spawning data at the polyp level.

  12. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  13. Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination. PMID:24963711

  14. Evaluation of methods to determine sperm density for the european eel, anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Gallego, V.; Pérez, L.

    2013-01-01

    , computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry (FCM), using Neubauer Improved haemocytometer as benchmark. Initially, relationships between spermatocrit, haemocytometer counts and sperm motility were analysed, as well as the effect of sperm dilution on haemocytometer counts. Furthermore......, accuracy and precision of spermatocrit, applying a range of G-forces, were tested and the best G-force used in method comparisons. We found no effect of dilution on haemocytometer sperm density estimates, whereas motility associated positively with haemocytometer counts, but not with spermatocrit. Results......European eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a target species for future captive breeding, yet best methodology to estimate sperm density for application in in vitro fertilization is not established. Thus, our objectives were to evaluate methods to estimate European eel sperm density including spermatocrit...

  15. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  16. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of reacted spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna P; Crippa, Andor; Lappi, Michela; Capitani, Serena; Baccetti, Baccio

    2010-02-01

    To verify clinical outcome after injection of spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction (reacted spermatozoa) vs. those still having an intact acrosome (nonreacted spermatozoa). Prospective, randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Italian Society for the Study of Reproductive Medicine, Bologna, Italy. According to a prospective randomization including 71 couples with severe male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed under polarized light that permitted analysis of the pattern of birefringence in the sperm head. Twenty-three patients had their oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa, 26 patient's oocytes were injected with nonreacted spermatozoa, and in 22 patients both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa were injected. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed under polarized light to selectively inject acrosome-reacted and acrosome-nonreacted spermatozoa. Rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. There was no effect on the fertilizing capacity and embryo development of either type of sperm, whereas the implantation rate was higher in oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa (39.0%) vs. those injected with nonreacted spermatozoa (8.6%). The implantation rate was 24.4% in the group injected with both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa. The delivery rate per cycle followed the same trend. Spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction seem to be more prone to supporting the development of viable ICSI embryos. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a novel computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system using multitarget-tracking algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mathew James; Pooley, Karen; Simpson, Tracey; Newton, Thomas; Hopkisson, James; Jayaprakasan, Kannamanadias; Jayaprakasan, Rajisha; Naeem, Asad; Pridmore, Tony

    2010-04-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of a novel computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system by comparison with existing recommended manual methods. Prospective study using comparative measurements of sperm concentration and motility on latex beads and immotile and motile sperm. Tertiary referral fertility center with strong academic links. Sperm donors and male partners of couples attending for fertility investigations. None. Achievement of Accubead target value for high and low concentration suspensions. Repeatability as demonstrated by coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients. Correlation and limits of agreement between CASA and manual methods. The CASA measurements of latex beads and sperm concentrations demonstrated a high level of accuracy and repeatability. Repeated Accubead measurements attained the required target value (mean difference from target of 2.61% and 3.71% for high- and low-concentration suspensions, respectively) and were highly reproducible. Limits of agreement analysis suggested that manual and CASA counts compared directly could be deemed to be interchangeable. Manual and CASA motility measurements were highly correlated for grades a, b, and d but could not be deemed to be interchangeable, and manual motility estimates were consistently higher for motile sperm. The novel CASA system was able to provide semen quality measurements for sperm concentration and motility measurements which were at least as reliable as current manual methods. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm harvesting and cryopreservation during vasectomy reversal is not cost effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Karen E; Thomas, Anthony J; Marmar, Joel L; Hirshberg, Steven; Belker, Arnold M; Jarow, Jonathan P

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether sperm harvesting and cryopreservation at the time of vasectomy reversal is cost-effective. Model of actual costs and results at five institutions. Multicenter study comprising five centers, including university hospitals and private practices. Men undergoing vasectomy reversal. We established two models for vasectomy reversal. The first model was sperm harvesting and cryopreservation at the time of vasectomy reversal. The second model was sperm harvesting at the time of IVF only if the patient remained azoospermic after vasectomy reversal. Vasectomy reversal procedures modeled included bilateral vasovasostomy and bilateral epididymovasostomy. The costs for each procedure at the five institutions were collated and median costs determined. Median cost of procedure and calculated financial comparisons. The median cost of testicular sperm extraction/cryopreservation performed at the time of bilateral vasovasostomy was $1,765 (range, $1,025-$2,800). The median cost of microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration or testicular sperm extraction with cryopreservation performed at the time of epididymovasostomy was $1,209 (range, $905-$2,488). The average of the median costs for percutaneous sperm aspiration or testicular sperm aspiration for those patients with a failed vasectomy reversal was $725 (range, $400-$1,455). Sperm retrieval with cryopreservation at the time of vasectomy reversal is not a cost-effective management strategy.

  19. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  20. Impact of lymphoma treatments on spermatogenesis and sperm deoxyribonucleic acid: a multicenter prospective study from the CECOS network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujan, Louis; Walschaerts, Marie; Brugnon, Florence; Daudin, Myriam; Berthaut, Isabelle; Auger, Jacques; Saias, Jacqueline; Szerman, Ethel; Moinard, Nathalie; Rives, Nathalie; Hennebicq, Sylvianne

    2014-09-01

    To determine consequences of lymphoma treatments on sperm characteristics and sperm DNA, and to evaluate predictors of sperm recovery. Multicenter prospective longitudinal study of patients analyzed before treatment and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. University hospitals. Seventy-five Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients and a control group of 257 fertile men. Semen analyses, and sperm DNA and chromatin assessments. Comparisons of sperm characteristics before and after treatment. Patients already had altered sperm characteristics before lymphoma treatment, with no identified risk factor. Sperm count, total sperm count, motility, and vitality decreased after treatment, with lowest values at 3 and 6 months. Twelve months after treatment, mean sperm count recovered to pretreatment values after doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, darcarbacine (ABVD) or ABVD+radiotherapy, but not after doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) or mechlorethamine, oncovin, procarbazine, prednisone (MOPP) chemotherapies. It was noteworthy that 7% of patients remained azoospermic at 24 months. After 24 months, Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that more than 90% of patients will recover normal sperm count after ABVD or ABVD+radiotherapy vs. 61% for CHOP chemotherapies. In multivariate analyses including diagnosis and treatment protocol, only pretreatment total sperm count was related to recovery. Compared with a control group, lymphoma patients had higher sperm chromatin alterations and DNA fragmentation before any treatment. After treatment, DNA fragmentation assessed by TUNEL assay and sperm chromatin structure assay decreased from 3 and 6 months, respectively, while remaining higher than in the control group during follow-up. Lymphoma patients had altered sperm DNA and chromatin before treatment. Lymphoma treatment had damaging effects on spermatogenesis. These data on both the recovery period according to treatment modalities and the pre- and post

  1. Drosophila sperm swim backwards in the female reproductive tract and are activated via TRPP2 ion channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köttgen

    Full Text Available Sperm have but one purpose, to fertilize an egg. In various species including Drosophila melanogaster female sperm storage is a necessary step in the reproductive process. Amo is a homolog of the human transient receptor potential channel TRPP2 (also known as PKD2, which is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In flies Amo is required for sperm storage. Drosophila males with Amo mutations produce motile sperm that are transferred to the uterus but they do not reach the female storage organs. Therefore Amo appears to be a mediator of directed sperm motility in the female reproductive tract but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Amo exhibits a unique expression pattern during spermatogenesis. In spermatocytes, Amo is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER whereas in mature sperm, Amo clusters at the distal tip of the sperm tail. Here we show that flagellar localization of Amo is required for sperm storage. This raised the question of how Amo at the rear end of sperm regulates forward movement into the storage organs. In order to address this question, we used in vivo imaging of dual labelled sperm to demonstrate that Drosophila sperm navigate backwards in the female reproductive tract. In addition, we show that sperm exhibit hyperactivation upon transfer to the uterus. Amo mutant sperm remain capable of reverse motility but fail to display hyperactivation and directed movement, suggesting that these functions are required for sperm storage in flies.Amo is part of a signalling complex at the leading edge of the sperm tail that modulates flagellar beating and that guides a backwards path into the storage organs. Our data support an evolutionarily conserved role for TRPP2 channels in cilia.

  2. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves seminal antioxidant status and decreases sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Joan Carles; Cordobilla, Begoña; Nicolás, María; Fernández, Laura; Albero, Pilar; Gadea, Joaquín; Landeras, José

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on semen quality, fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and DNA fragmentation. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 74 subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the placebo group (n=32) or to the DHA group (n=42) to consume three 500-mg capsules of oil per day over 10 weeks. The placebo group received 1,500 mg/day of sunflower oil and the DHA group 1,500 mg/day of DHA-enriched oil. Seminal parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and vitality), total antioxidant capacity, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, and lipid composition were evaluated prior to the treatment and after 10 weeks. Finally, 57 subjects were included in the study with 25 in the placebo group and 32 in the DHA group. No differences were found in traditional sperm parameters or lipid composition of the sperm membrane after treatment. However, an increase in DHA and Omega-3 fatty acid content in seminal plasma, an improvement in antioxidant status, and a reduction in the percentage of spermatozoa with deoxyribonucleic acid damage were observed in the DHA group after 10 weeks of treatment.

  3. Big drop. [Decline in sperm counts from environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castleman, M.

    Statisticians at the University of Copenhagen have published a review of sperm-count studies carried out from 1938-1990. After controlling for such things as counting techniques and sexual activity, they found that average sperm counts have decreased 42% over the last 50 years. After eliminating possible causes such as heat and differences in counting techniques, the only plausible cause left was environmental pollution. This finding correlates with a study performed in 1979 which found abnormally high concentrations of such toxic pollutants as DDT and PCBs in semen. The Copenhagen study suggests that even at low levels of exposure, environmental pollution is having biological consequences.

  4. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  5. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with reduced variation in sperm morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calhim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary role of postcopulatory sexual selection in shaping male reproductive traits, including sperm morphology, is well documented in several taxa. However, previous studies have focused almost exclusively on the influence of sperm competition on variation among species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in sperm morphology is driven by the level of postcopulatory sexual selection in passerine birds.Using two proxy measures of sperm competition level, (i relative testes size and (ii extrapair paternity level, we found strong evidence that intermale variation in sperm morphology is negatively associated with the degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, independently of phylogeny.Our results show that the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in the evolution of sperm morphology extends to an intraspecific level, reducing the variation towards what might be a species-specific 'optimum' sperm phenotype. This finding suggests that while postcopulatory selection is generally directional (e.g., favouring longer sperm across avian species, it also acts as a stabilising evolutionary force within species under intense selection, resulting in reduced variation in sperm morphology traits. We discuss some potential evolutionary mechanisms for this pattern.

  6. Sperm counts may have declined in young university students in Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated temporal trends in semen quality in Northern Europe, but none has examined this question in Southern Europe. A prior study conducted in Almeria Province (Southern Spain) reported higher sperm count and concentration among Spanish young men recruited from 2001......, Body mass index (BMI), presence of varicocoele and prenatal exposure to tobacco) to look for a birth-cohort effect over the combined study period (2001-2011). Sperm concentration and total sperm count declined significantly with year of birth in the pooled analysis (β = -0.04 and β = -0...

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Socorro NRMS Quadrangle, New Mexico, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planner, H.N.; Fuka, M.A.; Hanks, D.E.; Hansel, J.M.; Minor, M.M.; Montoya, J.D.; Sandoval, W.F.

    1980-10-01

    Results for uranium in water samples and uranium and 42 additional elements in sediment samples are given. A total of 650 water samples was collected from wells (525), springs (99), streams (25), and one pond. Uranium concentrations for all water samples range from below the detection limit to 157.20 parts per billion (ppB). Mean concentrations in springs and well waters are 4.91 ppB and 5.04 ppB, respectively, compared to a value of 2.78 ppB in stream waters. Of the 1384 sediment samples collected, 1246 are from dry stream beds. The remaining 138 samples are from springs (68), ponds (50), and flowing streams (20). Uranium concentrations in sediments range from 0.84 to 13.40 parts per million (ppM) with the exception of a single 445.10-ppM concentration. The mean uranium content of all sediments is 3.12 ppM. Field data, recorded at the collection site, are reported with the elemental concentrations for each water and sediment sample listed in Appendixes I-A and I-B. These data include a scintillometer determination of the equivalent uranium, pH and conductivity measurements, and geographic and weather information. Appendix II explains the codes used in Appendix I and describes the standard field and analytical procedures used by the LASL in the HSSR program

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Leadville NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planner, H.N.

    1980-10-01

    A total of 1797 locations was sampled over a 19 330-km 2 area, providing an average density of one sample location per 11 km 2 . This report contains results for uranium in water samples and uranium and 42 additional elements in sediment samples. A total of 1279 water samples was collected from streams (1125) and springs (154). Uranium concentrations for all water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 37.56 ppB. Mean concentrations in streams and springs are 1.05 ppB and 1.19 ppB, respectively. A total of 1784 sediment samples was collected from streams (1590), springs (193), and one pond. Uranium concentrations in sediments range from 1.27 to 223.80 ppM. Statistical mean uranium concentrations for wet stream (8.55 ppM) and spring (7.51 ppM) sediments are found to be greater than their dry counterparts (5.13 ppM and 4.96 ppM, respectively). Field data, recorded at the collection site, are reported with the elemental concentrations for each water and sediment sample listed. These data include a scintillometer determination of the equivalent uranium, pH and conductivity measurements, and geographic and weather information

  9. Recent advances in bird sperm morphometric analysis and its role in male gamete characterization and reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Santiago-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcopulatory sexual selection through sperm competition may be an important evolutionary force affecting many reproductive traits, including sperm morphometrics. Environmental factors such as pollutants, pesticides, and climate change may affect different sperm traits, and thus reproduction, in sensitive bird species. Many sperm-handling processes used in assisted reproductive techniques may also affect the size of sperm cells. The accurately measured dimensions of sperm cell structures (especially the head can thus be used as indicators of environmental influences, in improving our understanding of reproductive and evolutionary strategies, and for optimizing assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., sperm cryopreservation for use with birds. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph provides an accurate and reliable method for assessing sperm morphometry, reducing the problem of subjectivity associated with human visual assessment. Computerized systems have been standardized for use with semen from different mammalian species. Avian spermatozoa, however, are filiform, limiting their analysis with such systems, which were developed to examine the approximately spherical heads of mammalian sperm cells. To help overcome this, the standardization of staining techniques to be used in computer-assessed light microscopical methods is a priority. The present review discusses these points and describes the sperm morphometric characteristics of several wild and domestic bird species.

  10. Validation of the sperm class analyser CASA system for sperm counting in a busy diagnostic semen analysis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Chey G; Kilburn, Sally; Lindsay, Kevin S

    2014-03-01

    Sperm counts have been linked to several fertility outcomes making them an essential parameter of semen analysis. It has become increasingly recognised that Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) provides improved precision over manual methods but that systems are seldom validated robustly for use. The objective of this study was to gather the evidence to validate or reject the Sperm Class Analyser (SCA) as a tool for routine sperm counting in a busy laboratory setting. The criteria examined were comparison with the Improved Neubauer and Leja 20-μm chambers, within and between field precision, sperm concentration linearity from a stock diluted in semen and media, accuracy against internal and external quality material, assessment of uneven flow effects and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to predict fertility in comparison with the Neubauer method. This work demonstrates that SCA CASA technology is not a standalone 'black box', but rather a tool for well-trained staff that allows rapid, high-number sperm counting providing errors are identified and corrected. The system will produce accurate, linear, precise results, with less analytical variance than manual methods that correlate well against the Improved Neubauer chamber. The system provides superior predictive potential for diagnosing fertility problems.

  11. Endocannabinoids and Human Sperm Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Zolese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acylethanolamides (NAEs are naturally occurring signaling lipids consisting of amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Usually they are present in a very small amounts in many mammalian tissues and cells, including human reproductive tracts and fluids. Recently, the presence of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, the most characterised member of endocannabinoids, and its congeners palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and oleylethanolamide (OEA in seminal plasma, oviductal fluid, and follicular fluids was demonstrated. AEA has been shown to bind not only type-1 (CB1 and type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptors, but also type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1, while PEA and OEA are inactive with respect to classical cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 but activate TRPV1 or peroxisome proliferator activate receptors (PPARs. This review concerns the most recent experimental data on PEA and OEA, endocannabinoid-like molecules which appear to exert their action exclusively on sperm cells with altered features, such as membrane characteristics and kinematic parameters. Their beneficial effects on these cells could suggest a possible pharmacological use of PEA and OEA on patients affected by some forms of idiopathic infertility.

  12. Spermiogram and sperm head morphometry assessed by multivariate cluster analysis results during adolescence (12-18 years and the effect of varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vásquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates sperm head morphometric characteristics in adolescents from 12 to 18 years of age, and the effect of varicocele. Volunteers between 150 and 224 months of age (mean 191, n = 87, who had reached oigarche by 12 years old, were recruited in the area of Barranquilla, Colombia. Morphometric analysis of sperm heads was performed with principal component (PC and discriminant analysis. Combining seminal fluid and sperm parameters provided five PCs: two related to sperm morphometry, one to sperm motility, and two to seminal fluid components. Discriminant analysis on the morphometric results of varicocele and nonvaricocele groups did not provide a useful classification matrix. Of the semen-related PCs, the most explanatory (40% was related to sperm motility. Two PCs, including sperm head elongation and size, were sufficient to evaluate sperm morphometric characteristics. Most of the morphometric variables were correlated with age, with an increase in size and decrease in the elongation of the sperm head. For head size, the entire sperm population could be divided into two morphometric subpopulations, SP1 and SP2, which did not change during adolescence. In general, for varicocele individuals, SP1 had larger and more elongated sperm heads than SP2, which had smaller and more elongated heads than in nonvaricocele men. In summary, sperm head morphometry assessed by CASA-Morph and multivariate cluster analysis provides a better comprehension of the ejaculate structure and possibly sperm function. Morphometric analysis provides much more information than data obtained from conventional semen analysis.

  13. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J.; Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K.; Dobosz, Stefan; Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg 2+ /l and 10 mg Cd 2+ /l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg 2+ /l and 10 mg Cd 2+ /l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  14. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  15. Stress preconditioning of rooster semen before cryopreservation improves fertility potential of thawed sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, S; Sharafi, M; Rahimi, S

    2018-03-22

    Avian semen cryopreservation is not as successful as that seen in mammals. This failure is mostly attributed to unique physiological characteristics of poultry semen that make it susceptible to cryo-damages. Utilization of sublethal oxidative stress for preconditioning of sperm, as an innovative approach, improves the cryo-survival of sperm in certain mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of preconditioning of rooster semen with sublethal oxidative stress [very low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO)] before cryopreservation on the quality and fertility potential of thawed sperm. Semen samples were collected from 20 roosters, twice a wk, and different concentrations of NO [0 (NO-0), 0.01 (NO-0.01), 0.1 (NO-0.1), 1 (NO-1), 10 (NO-10), and 100 μM (NO-100)] were used to investigate the effects of controlled induction of sublethal stress before semen cryopreservation on the thawed sperm performance. A significantly higher (P 0.05) affected by different concentrations of NO. Sperm exposed to NO-1 produced the highest percentage of viable spermatozoa (Annexin-/PI-), which was significantly different from the other samples. Finally, rate of fertility after artificial insemination was significantly higher (P < 0.05) following treatment with NO-1 compared to NO-0 and NO-0.1. Application of 1 μM NO as a sublethal oxidative stress before cryopreservation of sperm efficiently increased numerous quality indices of thawed sperm as well as its fertility potential.

  16. Ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation in the endangered Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Togna, Gina Della; Padilla, Luis; Smith, Diorene; Sanchez, Carlos; Pelican, Katey; Sanjur, Oris I

    2011-01-01

    There is little information on the reproductive biology of the male Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). In this study, we characterized the ejaculate traits and evaluated the efficacy of 2 cryodiluents on sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates were assessed for volume, pH, sperm motility, forward progression, osmolality, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, and acrosomal integrity. For cryopreservation, ejaculates with >50% total sperm motility were washed, and sperm pellets were resuspended in either Botu-Crio (CryoVital, Grandau, Germany) or INRA 96 containing 2% egg yolk and 2.5% each of methyl- and dimethylformamide (INRA 96), and they were cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen vapor. Thawed samples were incubated in vitro (25 °C) and evaluated for percent total sperm motility, forward progression, and acrosomal integrity at hourly intervals for 4 hours. Spermic ejaculates were obtained from all males, and the mean seminal volume, sperm concentration per milliliter, percent sperm motility, progressive status, and percent morphologically normal cells were 20.4 ± 4.3 mL, 101.2 ± 24.0 × 10(6)/mL, 46.1% ± 5.0%, 2.9 ± 0.1, and 6.9% ± 1.4%, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between percent normal sperm and animal age (r = 0.66; P tapir; demonstrate that tapir spermatozoa can be cryopreserved in diluents containing amides alone or in combination with glycerol; and provide fundamental information critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies for the Baird's tapir.

  17. Residential distance to major roadways and semen quality, sperm DNA integrity, chromosomal disomy, and serum reproductive hormones among men attending a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, Feiby L; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Ford, Jennifer B; Dadd, Ramace; Perry, Melissa J; Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2018-06-01

    We examined associations of residential distance to major roadways, as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution exposures, with sperm characteristics and male reproductive hormones. The cohort included 797 men recruited from Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center between 2000 and 2015 to participate in fertility research studies. Men reported their residential addresses at enrollment and provided 1-6 semen samples and a blood sample during follow-up. We estimated the Euclidean distance to major roadways (e.g. interstates and highways: limited access highways, multi-lane highways (not limited access), other numbered routes, and major roads) using information from the Massachusetts Department of Geographic Information Systems. Semen parameters (1238 semen samples), sperm DNA integrity (389 semen samples), chromosomal disomy (101 semen samples), and serum reproductive hormones (405 serum samples) were assessed following standard procedures. Men in this cohort were primarily Caucasian (86%), not current smokers (92%), with a college or higher education (88%), and had an average age of 36 years and BMI of 27.7 kg/m 2 . The median (interquartile range) residential distance to a major roadway was 111 (37, 248) meters. Residential proximity to major roadways was not associated with semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity, chromosomal disomy, or serum reproductive hormone concentrations. The adjusted percent change (95% CI) in semen quality parameters associated with a 500 m increase in residential distance to a major roadway was -1.0% (-6.3, 4.5) for semen volume, 4.3% (-5.8, 15.7) for sperm concentration, 3.1% (-7.2, 14.5) for sperm count, 1.1% (-1.2, 3.4) for % total motile sperm, and 0.1% (-0.3, 0.5) for % morphologically normal sperm. Results were consistent when we modeled the semen parameters dichotomized according to WHO 2010 reference values. Residential distance to major roadways, as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution exposure, was not related

  18. Short communication Relationship between sperm plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matshidiso MB. Masenya

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... observed between sperm plasma membrane integrity and fertility. There was a weak positive correlation between normal sperm morphology and conception rate (r = 0.11). Additionally ..... been approved by all of us. Authors' ...

  19. Variation in sperm morphology among Afrotropical sunbirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omotoriogun, T. C.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bowie, R. C. K.; Sedláček, O.; Hořák, D.; Ottosson, U.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2016), s. 155-166 ISSN 0019-1019 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : comparative analysis * Nectariniidae * phylogenetic signal * sperm competition * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2016

  20. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyualuronic acid gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner, Theodore L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus sperm to penetrate periovulatory cervical mucus (CM). Motile sperm concentration of pre–freeze (“fresh”) and post-thawed (“thawed”) samples from 5 different males were normalized for both computer assisted sperm motion analysis and CM penetration experiments. Sperm samples were deposited into slide chambers containing CM or gel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a surrogate for CM and numbers of sperm were recorded as they entered a video field a preset distance from the sperm suspension-CM (or HA) interface. Fresh and thawed sperm were dried on glass slides, “Pap”-stained, and assessed for changes in head dimensions and head and flagellar shape. While retaining better than 80% of fresh sperm progressive motility, thawed sperm from the same ejaculate retained on average only 18.6% of the CM penetration ability. Experiments using HA gel yielded similar results only with reduced experimental error and thus improved detection of treatment differences. Neither the percentage of abnormal forms nor head dimensions differed between fresh and thawed sperm. While findings suggests that sperm-CM interaction is a prominent factor in previous failures of vaginal AI with cryopreserved macaque sperm, neither sperm motility nor morphology appears to account for changes in the ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate CM. Our data points to a previously unidentified manifestation of cryodamage which may have implications for assessment of sperm function beyond the cervix and

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km 2 . Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  2. Associations of hypoosmotic swelling test, relative sperm volume shift, aquaporin7 mRNA abundance and bull fertility estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Kasimanickam, V R; Arangasamy, A; Kastelic, J P

    2017-02-01

    Mammalian sperm are exposed to a natural hypoosmotic environment during male-to-female reproductive tract transition; although this activates sperm motility in vivo, excessive swelling can harm sperm structure and function. Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane-channel proteins implicated in sperm osmoregulation. The objective was to determine associations among relative sperm volume shift, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm aquaporin (AQP) 7 mRNA abundances, and sire conception rate (SCR; fertility estimate) in Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination center. Three or four sires for each full point SCR score from -4 to +4 were included. Each SCR estimate for study bulls (N = 30) was based on > 500 services (mean ± SEM) of 725 ± 13 services/sire). Sperm from a single collection day (two ejaculates) from these commercial Holstein bulls were used. Relative mRNA expression of AQP7 in sperm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Mean relative sperm volume shift and percentage of sperm reacted in a HOST (% HOST) were determined (400 sperm per bull) after incubating in isoosmotic (300 mOsm/kg) and hypoosmotic (100 mOsm/kg) solutions for 30 min. There was no correlation between %HOST and SCR (r = 0.28 P > 0.1). However, there was a positive correlation between relative sperm volume shift and SCR (r = 0.65, P 2) fertility sire groups. In conclusion, bulls with higher SCR had significantly greater AQP7 mRNA abundance in frozen-thawed sperm. This plausibly contributed to greater regulation of sperm volume shift, which apparently conferred protection from detrimental swelling and impaired functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spermatogenesis, sperm DNA integrity, and testicular hormonal function are differentially affected following cytotoxic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L.S.; Schwartz, C.; Hobbie, W.; Evenson, D.; Hinkle, A.; Palisca, M.; Smudzin, T.; Centola, G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Males treated with irradiation (RT) or certain chemotherapeutic (CT) agents are at risk for testicular damage in the form of germ cell injury and hormonal dysfunction. Sperm DNA structural defects or immaturity may affect reproductive potential both in terms of the likelihood for conception and early fetal loss. Preclinical data provoked our hypothesis that patients with subnormal sperm counts due to cytotoxic therapy could be demonstrated to have defective sperm chromatin; we also questioned whether structural abnormalities might be found in the sperm of patients with normal counts. Although the RT dose threshold for ablation of spermatogenesis is known to be below that for hormonal dysfunction, the relative effects of CT are unclear, which suggested the second component of our investigation. Methods: Eligibility criteria included treatment with CT including an alkylating agent, and/or RT with scattered dose to the testes for a cancer not involving the testes, and remission duration of at least 3 years. Of the 15 study patients, 12 received CT (including cyclophosphamide in 7) and 12 received RT (with peripheral testicular doses of 0-169 cGy, and including 4 also treated to the whole brain with doses below that associated with impaired gonadotropin secretion). Sperm number, motility, morphology and pattern of movement were assessed by computer-assisted spermanalysis, and for chromatin structural integrity and maturation using dual parameter flow cytometric (FC) analysis of acid-induced DNA denaturation. The mean age at tumor diagnosis was 14.4 yrs (range 6.5-36; 12 patients were ≤ 19 years old), and at testing was 25.5 yrs (range 18-46), with a mean interval of 9.7 yrs (range 3-21). Results: Only 3 patients (20%) had normal sperm counts (> 20 million/ml), 2 of whom had not received an alkylating agent but had scattered RT testes doses of 41 cGy and 169 cGy, respectively. These 2 patients had impaired sperm motility (13% and 32%, respectively), and the

  4. Development of sperm sexing and associated assisted reproductive technology for sex preselection of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop sperm sorting and novel sperm preservation methodologies for sex predetermination in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) using artificial insemination. In Study 1, the effect of seminal plasma (SP), sperm concentration and freezing rate (FR) on in vitro sperm quality of liquid-stored, non-sorted spermatozoa was examined. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of prefreeze SP addition on post-thaw quality (progressive motility, kinetic rating, sperm motility index (SMI), viability and acrosome integrity). Post-thaw motility parameters and viability were higher (P insemination of three dolphins with sorted, frozen-thawed X-bearing spermatozoa resulted in one conception and the birth of a female calf. High-purity sorting of dolphin spermatozoa, derived from liquid-stored semen, can be achieved with minimal loss of in vitro sperm quality and samples are functional in vivo.

  5. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  6. Bioenergetics of mammalian sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods.

  7. Hyaluronic acid improves frozen-thawed sperm quality and fertility potential in rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Saied; Mehri, Morteza; Sharafi, Mohsen; Masoudi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Beneficial effects of Hyaluronic acid (HA) has not been yet assessed for cryopreservation of rooster sperm. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of HA (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8mM) in Beltsville extender on the cryopreservation of rooster sperm. Semen samples were collected from six Ross broiler breeders (24-week) using abdominal massage, then divided into five equal aliquots and cryopreserved in Beltsville extender that contained different concentrations of HA. Motion characteristics, morphology, membrane functionality, viability, acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation and fertility potential of sperm were assessed after thawing. HA at concentration of 2mM (HA2) resulted in the highest (Prooster sperm after freeze thawing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Achillea millefolium-loaded nanophytosome in the post-thawing sperm quality and oxidative status of rooster semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Davood; Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Najafi, Abouzar; Rouhollahi, Abbas Abbas; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2018-04-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of antioxidants including Achillea millefolium extract (AmE) (n0t1.5: 1.5, n0t3: 3 and n0t4.5: 4.5 mg/L) and AmE loaded in nano phytosome (n1t1.5: 1.5, n1t3: 3 and n1t4.5: 4.5 mg/L) in the freezing of Ross 308 rooster semen. Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality and enzymatic parameters (SOD, CAT and GPx) were assessed after thawing. AmE-loaded nano phytosome at a concentration of 3 mg/l resulted in significantly (P rooster sperm motility, viability and oxidative stress values during the freezing procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Microfluidic single sperm entrapment and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Berendsen, Johanna Theodora Wilhelmina; Berendsen, J.T.W.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    Selection of healthy spermatozoa is of crucial importance for the success rates of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Although sperm selection for ART procedures is predominantly based on sperm motility, successful

  10. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus ) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris ) as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied) were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph) methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  11. Comparison of sperm retrieval and reproductive outcome in azoospermic men with testicular failure and obstructive azoospermia treated for infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the rates of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, including the neonatal profile of infants conceived, in men with testicular failure. Three-hundred and sixty-five men with testicular failure who underwent micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction were included in this study. We compared their outcomes with 40 men with testicular failure who used donor sperm for injections due to failed retrieval, and 146 men with obstructive azoospermia who underwent percutaneous sperm retrieval. The retrieval rate in testicular failure was 41.4%, and the results were lower than the obstructed azoospermia (100%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.033; 95% CI: 0.007-0.164; P< 0.001. Live birth rates after sperm injections were lower in men with testicular failure (19.9% compared with donor sperm (37.5%; adjusted OR: 0.377 (95% CI: 0.233-0.609, P< 0.001 and obstructive azoospermia (34.2%; adjusted OR: 0.403 (95% CI: 0.241-0.676, P= 0.001. Newborn parameters of infants conceived were not significantly different among the groups. We concluded that the chances of obtaining sperm on retrieval and achieving a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are reduced in men with testicular failure. The profile of infants conceived after sperm injection does not seem to be negatively affected by testicular failure.

  12. Social imaginaries, sperm and whiteness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    media coverage of these new families, this article explores contemporary constructions of race, especially whiteness, and gender, and shows how imaginaries of Vikings, genes and white superiority circulate in British media and among British mothers. The article illustrates how a racial discourse, which......This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...

  13. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban Frangez, Helena; Frangez, Igor; Verdenik, Ivan; Jansa, Vid; Virant Klun, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Sperm motility is an important parameter of male fertility and depends on energy consumption. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diode (LED) is known to stimulate respiratory chain in mitochondria of different mammalian cells. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with LED on sperm motility in infertile men with impaired sperm motility-asthenozoospermia. Thirty consecutive men with asthenozoospermia and normal sperm count who visited the infertility clinic of University Medial Centre Ljubljana between September 2011 and February 2012 were included in the study. Semen sample of each man was divided into five parts: one served as a non-treated (native) control and four parts were irradiated with LED of different wavelengths: (1) 850 nm, (2) 625, 660 and 850 nm, (3) 470 nm and (4) 625, 660 and 470 nm. The percentage of motile sperm and kinematic parameters were measured using a Sperm Class Analyser system following the WHO recommendations. In the non-treated semen samples, the average ratio of rapidly progressive sperms was 12% and of immotile sperm 73%. Treating with LED significantly increased the proportion of rapidly progressive sperm (mean differences were as follows: 2.83 (1.39-4.28), 3.33 (1.61-5.05), 4.50 (3.00-5.99) and 3.83 (2.31-5.36) for groups 1-4, respectively) and significantly decreased the ratio of immotile sperm (the mean differences and 95% CI were as follows: 3.50 (1.30-5.70), 4.33 (2.15-6.51), 5.83 (3.81-7.86) and 5.50 (2.98-8.02) for groups 1-4, respectively). All differences were highly statistically significant. This finding confirmed that photobiomodulation using LED improved the sperm motility in asthenozoospermia regardless of the wavelength.

  14. Geologic sources and concentrations of selenium in the West-Central Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Colorado, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Beck, Jennifer A.; Webbers, Ank; Dupree, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek, in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, is a perennial stream in which concentrations of dissolved selenium have consistently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Recent studies of selenium in Toll Gate Creek identified the Denver lignite zone of the non-marine Cretaceous to Tertiary-aged (Paleocene) Denver Formation underlying the watershed as the geologic source of dissolved selenium to shallow ground-water and surface water. Previous work led to this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Aurora Utilities Department, which investigated geologic sources of selenium and selenium concentrations in the watershed. This report documents the occurrence of selenium-bearing rocks and groundwater within the Cretaceous- to Tertiary-aged Denver Formation in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed. The report presents background information on geochemical processes controlling selenium concentrations in the aquatic environment and possible geologic sources of selenium; the hydrogeologic setting of the watershed; selenium results from groundwater-sampling programs; and chemical analyses of solids samples as evidence that weathering of the Denver Formation is a geologic source of selenium to groundwater and surface water in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including Toll Gate Creek. Analyses of water samples collected from 61 water-table wells in 2003 and from 19 water-table wells in 2007 indicate dissolved selenium concentrations in groundwater in the west-central Denver Basin frequently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard and in some locations exceeded the primary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. The greatest selenium concentrations were associated with oxidized groundwater samples from wells completed in bedrock materials. Selenium analysis of geologic core samples indicates that total selenium

  15. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fais

    Full Text Available Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0 = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418 within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  16. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  17. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P.; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120–418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands. PMID:26999791

  18. Detailed uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the eastern portion of the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    In September and October 1979, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed geochemical survey for uranium primarily in the Sawatch Range in the eastern part of the Montrose National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, Colorado, as part of the National Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). Totals of 1034 water and 2087 sediment samples were collected from streams and springs from 2088 locations within a 5420-km 2 area. Statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples are presented. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments in appendices. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. This report contains uranium analyses for water samples and multielement analyses for sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sm, Sc, Se, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. Sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Descriptions of procedures as analytical precisions and detection limits are given in the appendix

  19. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M.; Jenssen, M.T.S.; Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.; Brantsæter, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B ln 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B ln 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different elements • The

  20. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  1. Feed-backs among inbreeding, inbreeding depression in sperm traits, and sperm competition can drive evolution of costly polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in nonselfing systems. We use a genetically explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males, rather than to avoid inbreeding, and to elucidate underlying feed-backs. Specifically, given inbreeding depression in sperm traits, costly polyandry evolved to ensure female fertility, without requiring explicit inbreeding avoidance. Resulting sperm competition caused evolution of sperm traits and further mitigated the negative effect of inbreeding depression on female fertility. The evolving mating system fed back to decrease population-wide homozygosity, and hence inbreeding. However, the net overall decrease was small due to compound effects on the variances in sex-specific reproductive success and paternity skew. Purging of deleterious mutations did not eliminate inbreeding depression in sperm traits or hence selection for polyandry. Overall, our model illustrates that polyandry evolution, both directly and through sperm competition, might facilitate evolutionary rescue for populations experiencing sudden increases in inbreeding. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Association between air pollution and sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zibing; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Meixia; Lan, Lan; Qiao, Zhijiao; Cui, Yan; An, Jinghuan; Wang, Nan; Fan, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been clearly linked to adverse reproductive outcome and fecundation index, but its effects on male semen quality are still uncertain. In this study, we reviewed information from ten studies to get the qualitative evidence of the influence of the ambient air pollution on sperm quality and collected data from six of the ten studies to conduct meta-analysis. The original studies classified participants into different exposure levels and the highest and lowest expose levels were chosen as high expose and low expose groups, respectively. The random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis with the weight mean difference (WMD) as the measure indicator. The WMDs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) of sperm volume, sperm count, semen concentration, sperm progressive motility, total motility, and normal morphology were 0.09 (−0.04, 0.23), 0.46 (−4.47, 5.39), −8.21 (−20.38, 3.96), −7.76 (−16.26, 0.74), −7.61 (−16.97, 1.74) and −3.40 (−7.42, 0.62), respectively. In conclusion, although the differences are not statistically significant between the two groups, the overall trends and evidence from this review indicate the chronic exposure to ambient pollutants at high level may alter men sperm quality. - Highlights: • Comparing to the low exposure group, the high exposure group had larger WMD of the sperm volume and sperm count. • Comparing to the low exposure group, the high exposure group had smaller WMD of the rest sperm parameters. • There was an obvious alteration of the sperm parameters in the two groups. - The overall trends and evidence from this review indicate the chronic exposure to ambient pollutants at high level may alter men sperm quality.

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Butte NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; George, W.E.; Montoya, J.V.; Martell, C.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Hanks, D.

    1980-05-01

    This report contains data collected during a geochemical survey for uranium in the Butte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle of west-central Montana. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. This report contains uranium analyses for water samples and multielement analyses for sediment samples. A supplemental report containing the results of multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Rock Springs NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains data collected by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) during a regional geochemical survey for uranium in the Rock Springs National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, southwestern Wyoming, as part of the nationwide hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). Totals of 397 water and 1794 sediment samples were collected from 1830 locations in the Rock Springs quadrangle of southern Wyoming during the summer of 1976. The average uranium concentration of all water samples is 6.57 ppb and the average sediment uranium concentration is 3.64 ppM. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments in the appendices. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. A sample location overlay (Plate I) at 1:250 000 scale for use in conjunction with the Rock Springs NTMS quadrangle sheet (US Geological Survey, 1954) is provided. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, T, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. These analytical methods are described briefly in the appendix. This report is simply a data release and is intended to make the data available to the DOE and to the public as quickly as possible

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the vernal NTMS quadrangle, Utah/Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purson, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Vernal NTMS quadrangle, Utah/Colorado, in the summers of 1977 and 1978. Totals of 422 water and 1552 sediment samples were collected from 1652 locations. These samples were collected at an average density of one sample location per 11 km 2 over an 18,800 km 2 area. Water samples were collected from streams and springs. Only those samples containing >10 ppB uranium for waters and >8 ppM uranium for sediments are discussed; however, all field and analytical data are included in the appendixes. The uranium concentrations in waters range from below the detection limit of 0.01 ppB to 108.04 ppB, with a mean uranium concentration for all water types of 3.11 ppB. Three clusters of samples containing relatively high uranium values are defined; they are associated with the Duchesne River formation, the Mancos shale, or the Uinta Mountain group and Browns Park formations. A few of the samples having the highest uranium values are associated with host rocks favorable for significant uranium mineralization. Sediments collected in this study have uranium concentrations that range between 0.70 ppM and 56.70 ppM, with a mean of 3.46 ppM. The majority of sediment samples with relatively high uranium concentrations were collected from one area in the Sand Wash basin in the northeastern corner of the quadrangle and are associated with the Wasatch formation. None of the water clusters define areas of significant interest; however, the area having high uranium values in sediments is worthy of further study

  6. Looking down on sperm motion: a useful added dimension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The assumed association of sperm motility with fertility has long been a preoccupation of clinicians. Whereas assessing fertility of a couple has relatively easy end-points (time to pregnancy, number of children, assessing motility does not. The many methods developed to determine it include assessing a sperm population subjectively (by grading and objectively (by measuring its motion-induced movement into a light beam by spectrophotometry or nephelometry, and making measurements on individual sperm cells (by stroboscopic or multiple-exposure photography or digitized video-recordings. A new technique reported recently [1] involves holography to determine unrestrained movement patterns of objects in deep chambers over long periods of time. It has been used to provide information on the temporal motility patterns of unrestrained spermatozoa swimming in three-dimensions (hence four-dimensional motility.

  7. Mercury Concentrations in Fish and Sediment within Streams are Influenced by Watershed and Landscape Variables including Historical Gold Mining in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Yee, J. L.; Ackerman, J. T.; Orlando, J. L.; Slotton, D. G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We compiled available data on total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish tissue and streambed sediment from stream sites in the Sierra Nevada, California, to assess whether spatial data, including information on historical mining, can be used to make robust predictions of fish fillet tissue THg concentrations. A total of 1,271 fish from five species collected at 103 sites during 1980-2012 were used for the modeling effort: 210 brown trout, 710 rainbow trout, 79 Sacramento pikeminnow, 93 Sacramento sucker, and 179 smallmouth bass. Sediment data were used from 73 sites, including 106 analyses of THg and 77 analyses of MeHg. The dataset included 391 fish (mostly rainbow trout) and 28 sediment samples collected explicitly for this study during 2011-12. Spatial data on historical mining included the USGS Mineral Resources Data System and publicly available maps and satellite photos showing the areas of hydraulic mine pits and other placer mines. Modeling was done using multivariate linear regression and multi-model inference using Akaike Information Criteria. Results indicate that fish THg, accounting for species and length, can be predicted using geospatial data on mining history together with other landscape characteristics including land use/land cover. A model requiring only geospatial data, with an R2 value of 0.61, predicted fish THg correctly with respect to over-or-under 0.2 μg/g wet weight (a California regulatory threshold) for 108 of 121 (89 %) size-species combinations tested. Data for THg in streambed sediment did not improve the geospatial-only model. However, data for sediment MeHg, loss on ignition (organic content), and percent of sediment less than 0.063 mm resulted in a slightly improved model, with an R2 value of 0.63. It is anticipated that these models will be useful to the State of California and others to predict areas where mercury concentrations in fish are likely to exceed regulatory criteria.

  8. Maternal exposure to a mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affects testis histology, epididymal sperm count and induces sperm DNA fragmentation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Abdolrahman; Lindeman, Birgitte; Krogenæs, Anette K; Berntsen, Hanne F; Zimmer, Karin E; Ropstad, Erik

    2017-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread throughout the environment and some are suspected to induce reproductive toxicity. As animals and humans are exposed to complex mixtures of POPs, it is reasonable to assess how such mixtures could interact with the reproductive system. Our aim is to investigate how maternal exposure to a mixture of 29 different persistent organic pollutants, formulated to mimic the relative POP levels in the food basket of the Scandinavian population, could alter reproductive endpoints. Female mice were exposed via feed from weaning, during pregnancy and lactation in 3 exposure groups (control (C), low (L) and high (H)). Testicular morphometric endpoints, epididymal sperm concentration and sperm DNA integrity were assessed in adult male offspring. We found that the number of tubules, proportion of tubule compartments and epididymal sperm concentration significantly decreased in both POP exposed groups. Epididymal sperm from both POP exposed groups showed increased DNA fragmentation. It is concluded that maternal exposure to a defined POP mixture relevant to human exposure can affect testicular development, sperm production and sperm chromatin integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cross Canada survey of sperm banking practices in pediatric oncology centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Amy Lee; Gupta, Abha; Punnett, Angela; Nathan, Paul C

    2010-12-15

    Childhood cancer survivors have identified fertility preservation as a major concern. Sperm banking is an established fertility preservation option in pubertal males. We sought to describe current practices in Canadian pediatric oncology programs, and to identify perceived barriers to sperm banking for male adolescents. A questionnaire was developed to (1) describe current sperm banking practices and facilities; (2) report on the utilization of sperm banking; and (3) identify barriers to sperm banking and possible solutions to improve current practices. A healthcare professional with an interest in fertility preservation within each institution was approached to participate in the study. Fifteen of 16 institutions participated, 2 have fertility preservation teams. Only one has written guidelines or adolescent focused educational material. Over 2 years, 50/262 (19%) adolescents in 12 institutions successfully banked a specimen. In 11 of these, additional information was available: of 85/172 (49%) adolescents offered the option to bank, 38/85 (45%) subsequently attempted. Reported barriers to sperm banking included the pressure to start therapy and restricted banking hours. Formal education of healthcare providers in fertility preservation practices, provision of financial support for families, and an adolescent focused approach were identified as important initiatives to improve sperm banking. There is a disparity in current sperm banking practices in Canada and at present, financial support, and improving knowledge translation among professionals and patients may improve the rates of banking. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2007-07-01

    Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.

  11. The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-04-01

    The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage.

  12. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yoko; Shaw, Paul; Fujiwara, Eiji; Shiba, Kogiku; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-08-10

    Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  13. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiba Kogiku

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm. Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external, whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  14. Sperm structure and motility in the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber: a case of degenerative orthogenesis in the absence of sperm competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Horst Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied sperm structure and motility in a eusocial rodent where reproduction is typically restricted to a single male and behaviourally dominant queen. Males rarely compete for access to the queen during her estrus cycle, suggesting little or no role for sperm competition. Results Our results revealed an atypical mammalian sperm structure with spermatozoa from breeding, subordinate and disperser males being degenerate and almost completely lacking a "mammalian phylogenetic stamp". Sperm structure is characterized by extreme polymorphism with most spermatozoa classified as abnormal. Sperm head shapes include round, oval, elongated, lobed, asymmetrical and amorphous. At the ultrastructural level, the sperm head contains condensed to granular chromatin with large open spaces between the chromatin. Nuclear chromatin seems disorganized since chromatin condensation is irregular and extremely inconsistent. The acrosome forms a cap (ca 35% over the anterior part of the head. A well defined nuclear fossa and neck with five minor sets of banded protein structures are present. The midpiece is poorly organized and contains only 5 to 7 round to oval mitochondria. The flagellar pattern is 9+9+2. A distinct degenerative feature of the tail principal piece is the absence of the fibrous sheath. Only 7% motile spermatozoa were observed which had exceptionally slow swimming speeds. Conclusion In this species, sperm form has simplified and degenerated in many aspects and represents a specialised form of degenerative orthogenesis at the cellular level.

  15. Time course of changes in sperm morphometry and semen variables during testosterone-induced suppression of human spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C; Liu, D Y; McLachlan, R I; Baker, H W G

    2005-11-01

    Quantification of changes in semen may give insight into the testosterone (T)-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in man. A model analogous to flushing of sperm from the genital tract after vasectomy was used to quantify the time course of semen changes in subjects participating in male contraceptive trials using 800 mg T-implant (n = 25) or 200 mg weekly intramuscular injection (IM-T; n = 33). A modified exponential decay model allowed for delayed onset and incomplete disruption to spermatogenesis. Semen variables measured weekly during a 91-day period after initial treatment were fitted to the model. Sperm concentration, total count, motility and morphometry exhibited similar average decay rates (5 day half-life). The mean delay to onset of decline in concentration was 15 (IM-T) and 18 (T-implant) days. The significantly longer (P sperm viability (43 and 55 days), and the change of morphometry to smaller more compact sperm heads are consistent with sperm being progressively cleared from the genital tract rather than continued shedding of immature or abnormal sperm by the seminiferous epithelium. A significant negative relationship was found between lag time and baseline sperm concentration, consistent with longer sperm-epididymal transit times associated with lower daily production rates.

  16. Ion permeabilities in mouse sperm reveal an external trigger for SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Chávez

    Full Text Available Unlike most cells of the body which function in an ionic environment controlled within narrow limits, spermatozoa must function in a less controlled external environment. In order to better understand how sperm control their membrane potential in different ionic conditions, we measured mouse sperm membrane potentials under a variety of conditions and at different external K(+ concentrations, both before and after capacitation. Experiments were undertaken using both wild-type, and mutant mouse sperm from the knock-out strain of the sperm-specific, pH-sensitive, SLO3 K(+ channel. Membrane voltage data were fit to the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Our study revealed a significant membrane permeability to both K(+ and Cl(- before capacitation, as well as Na(+. The permeability to both K(+ and Cl(- has the effect of preventing large changes in membrane potential when the extracellular concentration of either ion is changed. Such a mechanism may protect against undesired shifts in membrane potential in changing ionic environments. We found that a significant portion of resting membrane potassium permeability in wild-type sperm was contributed by SLO3 K(+ channels. We also found that further activation of SLO3 channels was the essential mechanism producing membrane hyperpolarization under two separate conditions, 1 elevation of external pH prior to capacitation and 2 capacitating conditions. Both conditions produced a significant membrane hyperpolarization in wild-type which was absent in SLO3 mutant sperm. Hyperpolarization in both conditions may result from activation of SLO3 channels by raising intracellular pH; however, demonstrating that SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization is achieved by an alkaline environment alone shows that SLO3 channel activation might occur independently of other events associated with capacitation. For example sperm may undergo stages of membrane hyperpolarization when reaching alkaline regions of the female genital tract

  17. The Effect of Curcumin on Intracellular pH (pHi), Membrane Hyperpolarization and Sperm Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-04-01

    Curcumin has shown to affect sperm motility and function in vitro and fertility in vivo. The molecular mechanism(s) by which curcumin affects sperm motility has not been delineated. Since modulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and plasma membrane polarization is involved in sperm motility, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of curcumin on these sperm (human and murine) parameters. The effect of curcumin on sperm forward motility was examined by counting percentages of forward moving sperm. The effect of curcumin on intracellular pH (pHi) was measured by the fluorescent pH indicator 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM). The effect of curcumin on plasma membrane polarization was examined using the fluorescence sensitive dye bis (1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC4(3)]. Curcumin caused a concentration-dependent (ppHi) in both human and mouse sperm. Curcumin induced significant (ppHi and membrane polarization that affect sperm forward motility. These exciting findings will have application in deciphering the signal transduction pathway involved in sperm motility and function and in development of a novel non-steroidal contraceptive for infertility.

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  19. Comparison of the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction between subfertile men with normal and abnormal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De Yi; Liu, Ming Li; Garrett, Claire; Baker, H W Gordon

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding (DSZPB) and defective ZP-induced acrosome reaction (DZPIAR) in subfertile men (i.e. male partners of infertile couples) with normal and abnormal semen analyses. A total of 1030 subfertile men with normal semen analysis (n=255), oligozoospermia (countsperm injection were used for sperm-ZP interaction tests. After 2 h incubation of motile sperm with four oocytes, sperm tightly bound to the ZP, and the AR of ZP-bound sperm (ZPIAR) were assessed. An average of sperm bound/ZP and sperm-ZP interaction were in the oligozoospermia and severe teratozoospermia groups. In the normal and teratozoospermia groups, subjects with a relatively low sperm concentration (20-60x10(6)/ml) had a significantly higher frequency of DZPIAR. Defective sperm-ZP interaction is a major mechanism of male infertility. DZPIAR is more frequent than DSZPB in subfertile men with either normal or abnormal semen, suggesting that sequential sperm-ZP interaction tests are essential to detect these sperm defects.

  20. Development of antifertility vaccine using sperm specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Bandivdekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm proteins are known to be associated with normal fertilization as auto- or iso-antibodies to these proteins may cause infertility. Therefore, sperm proteins have been considered to be the potential candidate for the development of antifertility vaccine. Some of the sperm proteins proved to be promising antigens for contraceptive vaccine includes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4, protein hyaluronidase (PH-20, and Eppin. Immunization with LDH-C4 reduced fertility in female baboons but not in female cynomolgus macaques. Active immunization with PH-20 resulted in 100 per cent inhibition of fertility in male guinea pigs but it induced autoimmune orchitis. Immunization with Eppin elicited high antibody titres in 78 per cent of immunized monkeys and induced infertility but the immunopathological effect of immunization was not examined. Human sperm antigen (80kDa HSA is a sperm specific, highly immunogenic and conserved sperm protein. Active immunization with 80kDa HSA induced immunological infertility in male and female rats. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of 80kDa HSA (Peptide NT and its peptides (Peptides 1, 2, 3 and 4 obtained by enzymatic digestion did not show homology with any of the known proteins in gene bank. Peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 were found to mimic immunobiological activity of native protein. Passive administration of antibodies to peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 induced infertility in male and female rats and peptide 1 was found to be most effective in suppressing fertility. Active immunization with keyhole limpet haemocynin (KLH conjugated synthetic peptide 1 impaired fertility in all the male rabbits and six of the seven male marmosets. The fertility was restored following decline in antibody titre. All these findings on 80kDA HAS suggest that the synthetic Peptide-1 of 80kDa HSA is the promising candidate for development of male contraceptive vaccine.

  1. Sperm chemorepulsion, a supplementary mechanism to regulate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidobaldi, H A; Cubilla, M; Moreno, A; Molino, M V; Bahamondes, L; Giojalas, L C

    2017-08-01

    Are human spermatozoa able of chemorepulsive behaviour? Capacitated human spermatozoa are able to be chemorepelled by synthetic Progesterone Receptor Ligands (sPRL, known as contraceptives) and zinc (a cation released by the oocyte upon fertilization). Moving cells can be oriented towards or against a molecular gradient, processes called chemoattraction and chemorepulsion, respectively, which have been described in unicellular organisms such as amoebas and bacteria, to organismic cells such macrophages and developmental cells. In the case of spermatozoa, chemoattraction may help the finding of an oocyte and has been widely studied in various invertebrate and mammalian species; however, chemorepulsion has not yet been verified in spermatozoa. This is an in vitro study involving human, rabbit and mouse spermatozoa which were used to perform 3-30 experiments per treatment. Human sperm samples were obtained by masturbation from healthy donors who gave written consent. Only those samples exhibiting normal semen parameters according to current WHO criteria were included in the study. Rabbit spermatozoa were obtained by artificial vagina whereas mice spermatozoa were obtained from epididymis. The sperm selection assay (SSA), originally designed to evaluate sperm chemoattraction towards progesterone (P), and a video-microscopy and computer motion analysis system were used to test sperm chemorepulsion. Additional kinetic parameters were also determined by video-microscopy and computer motion analysis. In some experiments, the level of induced acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was determined. Rabbit mating manipulation was achieved to perform the sperm-oocyte co-incubation assay. Sperm accumulation in the well containing 100 pg/ml of sPRL was lower than the culture medium negative control (P financial interests. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  2. Heat shock proteins on the human sperm surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaby-Hansen, Soren; Herr, John C

    2010-01-01

    The sperm plasma membrane is known to be critical to fertilization and to be highly regionalized into domains of head, mid- and principal pieces. However, the molecular composition of the sperm plasma membrane and its alterations during genital tract passage, capacitation and the acrosome reaction remains to be fully dissected. A two-dimensional gel-based proteomic study previously identified 98 human sperm proteins which were accessible for surface labelling with both biotin and radioiodine. In this report twelve dually labelled protein spots were excised from stained gels or PDVF membranes and analysed by mass spectrometry (MS) and Edman degradation. Seven members from four different heat shock protein (HSP) families were identified including HYOU1 (ORP150), HSPC1 (HSP86), HSPA5 (Bip), HSPD1 (HSP60), and several isoforms of the two testis-specific HSP70 chaperones HSPA2 and HSPA1L. An antiserum raised against the testis-specific HSPA2 chaperone reacted with three 65kDa HSPA2 isoforms and three high molecular weight surface proteins (78-79kDa, 84kDa and 90-93kDa). These proteins, together with seven 65kDa HSP70 forms, reacted with human anti-sperm IgG antibodies that blocked in vitro fertilization in humans. Three of these surface biotinylated human sperm antigens were immunoprecipitated with a rabbit antiserum raised against a linear peptide epitope in Chlamydia trachomatis HSP70. The results indicate diverse HSP chaperones are accessible for surface labelling on human sperm. Some of these share epitopes with C. trachomatis HSP70, suggesting an association between genital tract infection, immunity to HSP70 and reproductive failure. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The perspective of this work is to develop a model, which can be used to better understand and optimize wastewater treatment plants that are able to remove xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in combination with removal of traditional pollutants. Results from dynamic experiments conducted...... with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...... simultaneously utilizes steady-state background concentrations and dynamic step response data, as well as conceptual simplifications of the plant configuration. Validation results show that biodegradation of BPA is sensitive to operational conditions before and during the experiment and that the proposed model...

  4. Secular variations in sperm quality: fact or science fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Multigner

    Full Text Available The debate concerning the possible degradation in human sperm quality began in the 1970s, was revived at the beginning of the 1990s and has continued to mobilize the scientific community ever since. After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992 showing a decline in human semen quality over the last 50 years, several groups investigated the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who had provided semen at the same center for 10 to 20 years. A significant decrease in sperm concentration was reported in some studies, but not in others. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of reports suggesting that physical and chemical factors introduced and spread by human activity in the environment may have contributed to sperm decline. At the end of the 20th century the debate on declining semen quality is not closed. The lack of certainty and the serious consequences that such a decline would have on the fertility of human populations make this an important public health issue at the start of the 21st century. For this reason, intensive research should be developed in both fundamental and epidemiological domains, particularly in South America, where industrial and agricultural pollution pose a serious threat to the population.

  5. Chlamydiae in the ejaculate: their influence on the quality and morphology of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veznik, Zdenek; Pospisil, Leopold; Svecova, Drahomira; Zajicova, Atanaska; Unzeitig, Vit

    2004-07-01

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male fertility, the aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the quality of Chlamydiae-positive and -negative semen. Sperm count was performed according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, and sperm survival was assessed by a 120-min test. The evaluation of the morphological examination of ejaculates was carried out using the sasmo (strict morphological analysis of ejaculates) computer program. Chlamydiae were detected by immunofluorescent reaction using the Progen Biotechnik GmbH diagnostic set. Fisher's exact test and the chi-quadrate test were used for statistical analysis. Of the total of 627 sperm samples examined, Chlamydiae were detected in 136 cases (21.7%). Sperm analysis showed significant differences between Chlamydiae-positive and -negative samples. The Chlamydiae-contaminated group showed normal sperm morphology 14.4% lower, volume 6.4% lower, concentration 8.3% lower, motility 7.8% and velocity 9.3% lower than in Chlamydiae-negative samples. The average values for normal spermatozoa and motility in the Chlamydiae-positive group were also significantly reduced. Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be a possible factor in sperm pathology. These results could help to elucidate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility.

  6. Egg CD9 protein tides correlated with sperm oscillations tune the gamete fusion ability in mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Favier, Sophie; Perez, Eric; Gourier, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Mammalian fertilization involves membrane events -adhesion, fusion, sperm engulfment, membrane block to polyspermy- whose causes remain largely unknown. Recently, specific oscillations of the sperm in contact with the egg were shown to be necessary for fusion. Using a microfluidic chip to impose the venue for the encounter of two gametes allowed real-time observation of the membrane remodelling occurring at the sperm/egg interface. The spatiotemporal mapping of egg CD9 revealed that this protein concentrates at the egg/sperm interface as a result of sperm oscillations, until a CD9-rich platform is nucleated on which fusion immediately takes place. Within 2 to 5 minutes after fusion, most of the CD9 leaves the egg for the external aqueous medium. Then an egg membrane wave engulfs the sperm head in approximately 25 minutes. These results show that sperm oscillations initiate the CD9 recruitment that causes gamete fusion after which CD9 and associated proteins leave the membrane in a process likely to contribute to block polyspermy. They highlight that the gamete fusion story in mammals is an unexpected interplay between mechanical constraints and proteins. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sperm subpopulational dinamycs during the cryopreservation procedure in caprine (Capra aegagrus hircus ejaculates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbas JP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine specific sperm subpopulational dynamics in different processing steps during cryopreservation process by using objective functional sperm kinematic descriptors in goat ejaculates. Fresh ejaculates (n=40 collected from eight bucks were analised for volume, concentration, sperm viability, acrosome integrity, and sperm motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA system. Eight sperm kinematic descriptors (VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, BCF, ALH, and WOB were assessed using CASA system after five different handling step (1st: fresh semen collection (F; 2nd: 1st washing/centrifugation step (1WC; 3rd: 2nd washing / centrifugation step (2WC; 4th: cooling step at 4ºC (CL; and 5th: post-thawing step at 37ºC (PT during a standard cryopreservation protocol for goat semen. The results obtained from the kinematic parameters were analysed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering procedures to identify specific kinematic subpopulations and establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and the functional sperm motility in each step. Except for the 1st (SbpF1-SbpF3 and 4th (SbpCL1-SbpCL3 intervals, four sperm kinematic subpopulations (Sbp1LC1-Sbp1LC4, Sbp2LC1-Sbp2LC4 and SbpPD1-SbpPD4 were observed. Based on kinematic velocity parameters and the subpopulation disclosed, rapid, slow, vigorous, passive, non-progressive and progressive sperm were discerned. Moreover, based on kinematic linearity parameters and depending on the subpopulation uncovered, curvilinear, regular-linear, parabolic and erratic-non-linear trajectories were detected. Subpopulations remained varible throughout handling steps and multiple significant differences among the sperm kinematic parameters were observed (p<0.001 as well as in the frequency of distribution of kinematic subpopulations among steps (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study confirms the variability and

  8. Sperm competition and reproductive mode influence sperm dimensions and structure among snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Giojalas, Laura C; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    2009-10-01

    The role of sperm competition in increasing sperm length is a controversial issue, because findings from different taxa seem contradictory. We present a comparative study of 25 species of snakes with different levels of sperm competition to test whether it influences the size and structure of different sperm components. We show that, as levels of sperm competition increase, so does sperm length, and that this elongation is largely explained by increases in midpiece length. In snakes, the midpiece is comparatively large and it contains structures, which in other taxa are present in the rest of the flagellum, suggesting that it may integrate some of its functions. Thus, increases in sperm midpiece size would result in more energy as well as greater propulsion force. Sperm competition also increases the area occupied by the fibrous sheath and outer dense fibers within the sperm midpiece, revealing for the first time an effect upon structural elements within the sperm. Finally, differences in male-male encounter rates between oviparous and viviparous species seem to lead to differences in levels of sperm competition. We conclude that the influence of sperm competition upon different sperm components varies between taxa, because their structure and function is different.

  9. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Ax, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 10 7 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 10 4 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [ 3 H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  10. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  12. [Application study of human sperm motility bioassay in IVF laboratory quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xia; Pomeroy, Kimball O; Mattox, John H

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of human sperm survival bioassay to using known concentrations of potential toxin of formalin and to elevate the application value of human sperm motility assay as a quality control method in detecting the components used in IVF program. Fresh semen was obtained from healthy males at andrology laboratory by masturbation. Sperm was processed on a gradient column of isolate medium and PBS medium. In experiment 1, the medium with 0.25%, 0.75% concentration of formalin and control medium were added to the Falcon culture tubes containing HTF medium with or without 0.3% bovine albumin serum and with or without light mineral oil. In experiment 2, in 3 types of culture tubes containing HTF medium with or without 0.3% bovine albumin serum and with or without light mineral oil, the sperm was exposed to each culture tube and cultured for 24 and 48 hrs at room temperature, and the motile sperms were counted under the microscope. The average sperm motility index in the HTF medium with 0.25% formalin at 24 hrs was 0.594 +/- 0.331, significantly higher than in the HTF medium with 0.75% formalin (0.450 +/- 0.284) (P average sperm survival indexes were 0.683 +/- 0.334 and 0.527 +/- 0.345, respectively, higher than without bovine albumin serum and light mineral oil (0.394 +/- 0.311 and 0.424 +/- 0.311). The average sperm index of 7 ml tissue culture tube made in Denmark was 0.677 +/- 0.335, higher than the other two types of culture tubes made in the USA (0.551 +/- 0.317 and 0.596 +/- 0.327) (P sperm cultured in the medium with 0.3% bovine albumin serum and light mineral oil, the average sperm survival indexes were 0.821 +/- 0.259 and 0.645 +/- 0.335, respectively, higher than without bovine albumin serum or light mineral oil (0.571 +/- 0.321 and 0.395 +/- 0.245) (P sperm survival bioassay is a sensitivity quality control method to detect the components in the IVF laboratory. The 7 ml tissue culture tube made in Denmark is most suitable for culturing

  13. No evidence of trade-offs in the evolution of sperm numbers and sperm size in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourmente, M; Delbarco Trillo, J; Roldan, E R S

    2015-10-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection, in the form sperm competition, has influenced the evolution of several male reproductive traits. However, theory predicts that sperm competition would lead to trade-offs between numbers and size of spermatozoa because increased costs per cell would result in a reduction of sperm number if both traits share the same energetic budget. Theoretical models have proposed that, in large animals, increased sperm size would have minimal fitness advantage compared with increased sperm numbers. Thus, sperm numbers would evolve more rapidly than sperm size under sperm competition pressure. We tested in mammals whether sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers and size, and whether there is a trade-off between these traits. Our results showed that sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers in eutherian and metatherian mammals. There was no evidence of a trade-off between sperm numbers and sperm size in any of the two mammalian clades as we did not observe any significant relationship between sperm numbers and sperm size once the effect of sperm competition was taken into account. Maximization of both numbers and size in mammals may occur because each trait is crucial at different stages in sperm's life; for example size-determined sperm velocity is a key determinant of fertilization success. In addition, numbers and size may also be influenced by diverse energetic budgets required at different stages of sperm formation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Analysis of limited fertility in intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by electroejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Masaya; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Takeyama, Masami; Kondoh, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims:  We correlated findings in semen from patients with ejaculatory dysfunction with results of in vitro fertilization using their electroejaculated sperm. Methods and Results:  Electroejaculation was carried out in six patients with the above‐mentioned criteria for a total of eight times. Sperm was obtained in six attempts. Intracytoplasmic injection of these sperm was performed in 156 eggs. Sixty‐seven eggs were fertilized; most of these were injected with motile sperm. Two women became pregnant, both after injection with motile sperm. As previously reported, electroejaculated sperm showed low motility and a low fertilization rate, but even motile sperm had a low fertilization rate. Conclusion:  The results of the present study suggest the importance in fertilization of undetermined factors in addition to sperm motility. (Reprod Med Biol 2004; 3: 9–12) PMID:29662380

  15. Evidence for decreasing sperm count in African population from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afri Health Sci. 2017;17(2): 418-427. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i2.16. Corresponding author: Pallav Sengupta,. Physiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine .... 2018. Sperm concentration. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 100. 1965-70. 1970-75. 1975-80. 1980-85. 1985-90. 1990-95. 1995-2000. 2000-05. 2005-10. 2010- ...

  16. Effect of semen collection practices on sperm characteristics before and after storage and on fertility of stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Katila, T; Klug, E

    2004-02-01

    This study analyzed effects of different methods and intervals of semen collection on the quantity and quality of fresh, cool-stored, and frozen-thawed sperm and fertility of AI stallions. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were obtained from six stallions (72 ejaculates per stallion) using fractionated versus non-fractionated semen collection techniques. Initial sperm quality of the first three jets of the ejaculate was not different from that of total ejaculates. Centrifugation of sperm-rich fractions before freezing improved post-thaw motility and sperm membrane integrity when compared to non-centrifuged sperm-rich fractions or non-fractionated centrifuged ejaculates (Psperm concentrations, percentages of progressively motile sperm (PMS) after storage for 24h at 5 degrees C and lower percentages of midpiece alterations than single daily ejaculates. Semen collected once daily showed significantly lower values of live sperm after freezing and thawing than the first ejaculate of two ejaculates collected 1h apart every 48 h. In Experiment 3, semen was collected from 36 stallions (> or =12 ejaculates per stallion) during the non-breeding season and the time to ejaculation and the number of mounts was recorded. When time to ejaculation and the number of mounts increased, volume and total sperm count (TSC) also increased (Psperm concentration, percentage of PMS after storage for 24 h at 5 degrees C, percentage of membrane-intact sperm in fresh semen (Psperm of frozen-thawed sperm (Psperm concentration and percentage of PMS after 24-h cool-storage decreased with increasing number of mounts on the phantom (P or =1 on an average per day) showed significantly higher FRs than mares inseminated with semen from stallions with a daily collection frequency of 0.5-1 or 2.5 days.

  17. Application of FTA technology to extraction of sperm DNA from mixed body fluids containing semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    FTA technology is a novel method designed to simplify the collection, shipment, archiving and purification of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological sources. In this study, we report a rapid and simple method of extracting DNA from sperm when body fluids mixed with semen were collected using FTA cards. After proteinase K digestion of the sperm and body fluid mixture, the washed pellet suspension as the sperm fraction and the concentrated supernatant as the epithelial cell fraction were respectively applied to FTA cards containing DTT. The FTA cards were dried, then directly added to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mix and processed by PCR. The time required from separation of the mixed fluid into sperm and epithelial origin DNA extractions was only about 2.5-3h. Furthermore, the procedure was extremely simple. It is considered that our designed DNA extraction procedure using an FTA card is available for application to routine work.

  18. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, N; Kamangar, P Bahrami; Azadbakht, M; Amini, A; Amiri, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the abnormalities in sperm after exposure to hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure acting on the cells is one of the fundamental environmental mechanical forces. Disorders of relationship between the cells and this mechanical force, such as when pressure varies beyond physiological limits, can lead to disease or pathological states. Sperm exposed to different range of hydrostatic pressure within male reproductive system and after entering the female reproductive system. Sexually mature male NMRI mice, 8-12 weeks-old were sperm donors. Sperms were separated from the caudal epididymis and maintained in Ham's F-10 culture medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and divided into control and treatments. Sperm suspensions in the treatments were placed within pressure chamber and were subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure of 25, 50 and 100 mmHg (treatment I, II and III) above atmospheric pressure for 2 and 4 h. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability were assessed and compared with control. Results showed that hydrostatic pressure dependent on ranges and time manner reduced sperm quality due to adverse effect on viability, motility , morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability in all of treatments, especially after 4h (phydrostatic pressure reduces sperm quality as a consequence of adverse effects on sperm parameters and may cause male infertility or subfertility (Tab. 5, Ref. 5).

  19. Impact of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Other Germs on Sperm Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lozano-Hernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS is part of the microbiota of the male genitourinary tract, sometimes it has been considered as possible pathogenic microorganism. In the 5th version of sperm manual (WHO, 2010 sperm morphology criterion is very restricted to 4% of normal heads whereas David’s criterion evaluates several spermatic forms. The abnormalities of sperm forms were evaluated according to criteria of spermatic morphology: WHO and David in semen samples with bacterial concentrations ≤ 103, 104 and ≥ 105 CFU/mL of CoNS as of other bacteria. Spermogram, sperm culture and antibodies anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgA detection in 281 semen samples men were performed. CoNS was the most frequent germ isolated in pure culture (9.25%. Semen samples with CoNS showed higher round cells and microcephalus forms by means of David’s criterion. CoNS in higher concentrations than 104 CFU/mL may have a negative impact on sperm cellularity, sperm head and probably on fertility.

  20. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel cross-species inhibitor to study the function of CatSper Ca2+ channels in sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennhack, Andreas; Schiffer, Christian; Brenker, Christoph; Fridman, Dmitry; Nitao, Elis T; Cheng, Yi-Min; Tamburrino, Lara; Balbach, Melanie; Stölting, Gabriel; Berger, Thomas K; Kierzek, Michelina; Alvarez, Luis; Wachten, Dagmar; Zeng, Xu-Hui; Baldi, Elisabetta; Publicover, Stephen; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Strünker, Timo

    2018-05-03

    Sperm from many species share the sperm-specific Ca 2+ channel CatSper (cation channel of sperm) that controls the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and, thereby, the swimming behaviour. A growing body of evidence suggests that the mechanisms controlling CatSper activity and the role of the channel during fertilization differ among species. However, a lack of suitable pharmacological tools has hampered the elucidation of the function of CatSper. Known CatSper inhibitors exhibit considerable side effects and inhibit also Slo3, the K + channel in mammalian sperm. The drug RU1968 was reported to suppress Ca 2+ signaling in human sperm by an unknown mechanism. We resynthesized the drug and revisited its mechanism of action in sperm form humans, mice, and sea urchins. We show by Ca 2+ fluorimetry, single-cell Ca 2+ imaging, electrophysiology, opto-chemistry, and motility analysis that RU1968 inhibits CatSper in sperm from invertebrates and mammals. The drug lacks toxic side effects in human sperm, does not affect mouse Slo3, and inhibits human Slo3 with about 15-fold lower potency than CatSper. Moreover, in human sperm, the inhibitor mimics CatSper dysfunction and suppresses motility responses evoked by progesterone, an oviductal steroid that activates CatSper. Finally, we show that the drug abolishes CatSper-mediated chemotactic navigation in sea urchin sperm. We propose RU1968 as a novel tool to elucidate the function of CatSper in sperm across species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of diluting medium and holding time on sperm motility analysis by CASA in ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mostafapor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dilution rate and holding time on various motility parameters using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA. The semen samples were collected from three Ghezel rams. Samples were diluted in seminal plasma (SP, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA and Bioexcell. The motility parameters that computed and recorded by CASA include curvilinear velocity (VCL, straight line velocity (VSL, average path velocity (VAP, straightness (STR, linearity (LIN, amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH, and beat cross frequency (BCF. In all diluters, there was a decrease in the average of all three parameters of sperms movement velocity as the time passed, but density of this decrease was more intensive in SP. The average of ALH between diluters indicated a significant difference, as it was more in Bioexcell in comparison with the similar amount in SP and PBS. The average of LIN in the diluted sperms in Bioexcell was less than two other diluters in all three times. The motility parameters of the diluted sperms in Bioexcell and PBS indicated an important and considerable difference with the diluted sperms in SP. According to the gained results, the Bioexcell has greater ability in preserving motility of sperm in comparison with the other diluters but as SP is considered as physiological environment for sperm. It seems that the evaluation of the motility parameters in Bioexcell and PBS cannot be an accurate and comparable evaluation with SP.

  3. Effects of diluting medium and holding time on sperm motility analysis by CASA in ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapor, Somayeh; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dilution rate and holding time on various motility parameters using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The semen samples were collected from three Ghezel rams. Samples were diluted in seminal plasma (SP), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Bioexcell. The motility parameters that computed and recorded by CASA include curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), straightness (STR), linearity (LIN), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and beat cross frequency (BCF). In all diluters, there was a decrease in the average of all three parameters of sperms movement velocity as the time passed, but density of this decrease was more intensive in SP. The average of ALH between diluters indicated a significant difference, as it was more in Bioexcell in comparison with the similar amount in SP and PBS. The average of LIN in the diluted sperms in Bioexcell was less than two other diluters in all three times. The motility parameters of the diluted sperms in Bioexcell and PBS indicated an important and considerable difference with the diluted sperms in SP. According to the gained results, the Bioexcell has greater ability in preserving motility of sperm in comparison with the other diluters but as SP is considered as physiological environment for sperm. It seems that the evaluation of the motility parameters in Bioexcell and PBS cannot be an accurate and comparable evaluation with SP.

  4. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dixon Entrance NTMS and Prince Rupert D-6 quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.G.; Hensley, W.K.; Hanks, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    During August 1978, sediment and water samples were collected from 203 lakes, streams, and springs in the Dixon Entrance and Prince Rupert D-6 quadrangles, Alaska. Variations in concentrations of all 43 elements among the five sieve fractions at each location are generally less than analytical uncertainty. Therefore, elemental analyses are generally comparable for a wide range in sieve fractions for sediment sample locations in southeastern Alaska. However, at some few locations, several elemental concentrations increase with finer mesh size; for uranium, such an increase may be associated with mineralization. Waterborne sediment samples collected from the center of a stream yield analyses essentially identical to those collected from the adjacent bank for most elements. Chlorine concentrations are generally higher in bank sediments, probably as a result of concentration of halogens in the vegetation that stabilizes the bank. At a few locations, concentrations of the ferrous elements, particularly Mn and Co, differ notably between the stream center and bank: such behavior is characteristic of mineralized areas. Concentrations of the ferrous elements, particularly Mn and Co, are strikingly enriched in the stream sediments compared either to lake sediments or to crustal abundances. This suggests that this area might be a favorable location for strategic resources of these elements. Uranium concentrations in all 950 sediment samples of all sieve fractions range from 0.54 to 22.80 ppM, with a median of 2.70 ppM

  6. Cryopreservation of sperm of an indigenous endangered fish species Nandus nandus (Hamilton, 1822) for ex-situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarder, M Rafiqul Islam; Sarker, M F Monowar; Saha, Shankar K

    2012-12-01

    This study dealt with the development of cryopreservation protocol for Nandus nandus, which entailed a number of experiments. Sperm was collected by sacrificing males. The collected sperm was suspended in extenders. Activation of sperm motility was evaluated in different osmolalities of NaCl. Motility of sperm decreased as the osmolality of the extender increased and was completely inhibited at almost 319 mOs mol/kg. To evaluate the toxicity of cryoprotectant, sperm was incubated with DMSO, methanol and ethanol at 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations, respectively, for 5-35 min. Five and ten percent of cryoprotectants produced better motility during 5 and 10 min incubation. Sperm incubated with 15% cryoprotectant seemed to be toxic and this concentration was excluded in the subsequent trials. Three extenders, namely, Alsever's solution, egg-yolk citrate and urea egg-yolk and three cryoprotectants, DMSO, methanol and ethanol were employed to preserve the sperm. Alsever's solution with 10% DMSO showed best performance producing 90.0±1.8% and 75.0±2.5% equilibration and post-thaw motility followed by that of 82.5±4.2% and 62.5±5.5% with Alsever's solution plus methanol, respectively. Between two diluents, sperm preserved with Alsever's solution plus DMSO produced highest fertilization (76.7±3.3%) and hatching (43.8±7.9%) while fresh sperm yielded 83.3±6.7% and 64.0±10.4% fertilization and hatching, respectively. The protocol developed through the study can be applied for long-term conservation of genetic materials of the endangered fish N. nandus and the cryopreserved sperm can be used in artificial breeding for generating new individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process.

  8. The predictive value of various indicators of sperm for male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Metelev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. DNA fragmentation of sperm is one of the possible causes of reduced fertility potential of men. However, a significant correlation between conventional semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation was not found. This fact determines the relevance of the study of the influence of various parameters of sperm on male fertility.Materials and methods. The study included 60 men, aged 26–36 years (median – 30 years with idiopathic infertility and the level of DNA fragmentation of sperm is higher than 15 %. These men were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, after 3 months in vitro fertilization performed partners of these men. DNA fragmentation of sperm cells was determined by TUNEL (upper limit of normal – 15 %. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS of the ejaculate were determined by chemiluminescence (upper limit of normal – 0.64 mV/s.Results. The frequency of pregnancy in vitro fertilization was following: 62.8 and 64.7 % (p > 0.05 for the total number sperm of spermatozoa < 38 × 106 /ejaculate and ≥ 39 × 106 /ejaculate, respectively; 63.3 and 63.6 % (p > 0.05 for mobility (a + b of spermatozoa < 40 and ≥ 40 %, respectively; 58.3 and 64.6 % (p > 0.05 for normal forms of spermatozoa < 4 and ≥ 4 %, respectively; 67.3 and 20.0 % (p < 0.05 for the level of DNA fragmentation of sperm ≤ 15 and > 15 %, respectively; 64.9 and 33.3 % (p < 0.05 for the level of ROS in semen ≤ 0.64 and > 0.64 mV/s, respectively.Conclusion. The probability of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization significantly depends on the levels of sperm DNA fragmentation in the sperm and level of ROS in semen.

  9. Comparative morphology of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel sperm: Light and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G.K.; Black, M.G.; Edwards, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Adult zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels were induced to release large quantities of live spermatozoa by the administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Sperm were photographed alive using phase-contrast microscopy and were fixed subsequently with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide for eventual examination by transmission or scanning electron microscopy. The sperm of both genera are of the ect-aquasperm type. Their overall dimensions and shape allow for easy discrimination at the light and scanning electron microscopy level. Transmission electron microscopy of the cells reveals a barrel-shaped nucleus in zebra mussel sperm and an elongated nucleus in quagga mussel sperm. In both species, an acrosome is cradled in a nuclear fossa. The ultrastructure of the acrosome and axial body, however, is distinctive for each species. The structures of the midpiece are shown, including a unique mitochondrial "skirt" that includes densely packed parallel cristae and extends in a narrow sheet from the mitochondria.

  10. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency is positively correlated with human sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Provenzano, Sara Pinto; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    To correlate sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency with variations in sperm motility and with sperm morphologic anomalies. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically-treated sperm cells. A possible relationship among sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm motility, and morphologic anomalies was investigated. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was positively correlated with sperm motility and negatively correlated with the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. Moreover, midpiece defects impaired mitochondrial functionality. Our data indicate that an increase in sperm motility requires a parallel increase in mitochondrial respiratory capacity, thereby supporting the fundamental role played by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in sperm motility of normozoospermic subjects. These results are of physiopathological relevance because they suggest that disturbances of sperm mitochondrial function and of energy production could be responsible for asthenozoospermia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Janet A; Baer, David J; Khoo, Christina; Gebauer, Sarah K; Charron, Craig S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively. Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment × baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 ± 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 ± 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 ± 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 ± 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 ± 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 ± 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035). LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684. © 2015

  13. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  14. Mitochondrial PKA mediates sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Rashel; Breitbart, Haim

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of ATP to power sperm motility. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has been proposed as a major regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted analyzer, protein detection by western blotting, membrane potential by tetramethylrhodamine, cellular ATP by luciferase assay and localization of PKA by immuno-electron microscopy. Bicarbonate is essential for the creation of mitochondrial electro-chemical gradient, ATP synthesis and sperm motility. Bicarbonate stimulates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of two 60kDa proteins identified as Tektin and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by respiration inhibition and phosphorylation could be restored by glucose in the presence of bicarbonate. However, this effect of glucose cannot be seen when the mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger was inhibited indicating that glycolytic-produced ATP is transported into the mitochondria and allows PKA-dependent protein phosphorylation inside the mitochondria. Bicarbonate activates mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) which catalyzes cAMP production leading to the activation of mitochondrial PKA. Glucose can overcome the lack of ATP in the absence of bicarbonate but it cannot affect the mitochondrial sAC/PKA system, therefore the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the 60kDa proteins does not occur in the absence of bicarbonate. Production of CO2 in Krebs cycle, which is converted to bicarbonate is essential for sAC/PKA activation leading to mitochondrial membrane potential creation and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z; Takizawa, A; Peter, J; Jørgensen, N; Szecsi, P B; Meijers, J C M; Weiler, H; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Repping, S; Middeldorp, S

    2017-11-01

    Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox. We determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch, n = 627; Danish, n = 854) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. There were differences in smoking, abstinence time and age between the cohorts. We corrected for these in the primary analysis, which consisted of a mixed linear effects model, also incorporating unobjectified population differences. In public haplotype data from subjects of European descent, we explored linkage disequilibrium of FVL with all known single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 1.5 MB region around the F5 gene with an R2 cutoff of 0.8. We sequenced exons of four candidate genes hypothesized to be linked to FVL in a subgroup of FVL carriers with extreme sperm count values. The animal studies consisted of never mated 15-18-week-old C57BL/J6 mice heterozygous and homozygous for FVL and wild-type mice. We compared spermatogenesis parameters (normalized internal genitalia weights, epididymis sperm content and sperm motility) between FVL and wild-type mice. Human FVL carriers have a higher total sperm

  16. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albani Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. These data all indicate that Sp17 is widely distributed in humans, expressed not only in germinal cells and in a variety of somatic tissues, but also in neoplastic cells of unrelated origin. Methods Sp17 expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy on spermatozoa. Results Here, we demonstrate the ultrastructural localization of human Sp17 throughout the spermatozoa flagellar fibrous sheath, and its presence in spermatozoa during in vitro states from their ejaculation to the oocyte fertilization. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of Sp17 in regulating sperm maturation, capacitation, acrosomal reaction and interactions with the oocyte zona pellucida during the fertilization process. Further, the high degree of sequence conservation throughout its N-terminal half, and the presence of an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP-binding motif within this region, suggest that Sp17 might play a regulatory role in a protein kinase A-independent AKAP complex in both germinal and somatic cells.

  17. Effect of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (L. on rooster sperm motility during 4°C short-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Touazi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (L. essential oil on rooster sperm motility during 4°C short-term storage. Materials and Methods: R. officinalis essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the active components. 10 of 45-week-old Hubbard commercial broilers were subjected to biweekly semen collections during 3 weeks. At each collection, sperm was pooled and divided into four aliquots and then diluted with Tris extender supplemented with 870, 87, or 8.7 μg/ml of R. officinalis essential oil, identified as treatments R, R5, and R10, respectively. Tris-based extender without any supplementation was considered as a control group. Diluted sperm was then stored at 4°C in the refrigerator and analyzed at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Different semen parameters were measured including total motility, progressive motility, gametes velocities (straight line velocity [VSL], curvilinear velocity [VCL], and average path velocity [VAP], amplitude of the lateral head displacement [ALH], and beat-cross frequency [BCF]. Results: The phytochemical analysis of R. officinalis essential oil revealed the presence of 25 active components including seven major molecules: Camphor (18.88%, camphene (5.17%, 1,8-cineole (7.85%, β-thujene (13.66%, α-thujene (4.87%, chrysanthenone (12.05%, and β-cubenene (7.97%. The results showed a beneficial effect of R. officinalis essential oil on sperm cells motility, particularly when using the lowest concentrations, 8.7 and 87 μg/ml. Progressive motility and gametes velocities (VCL, VSL, and VAP, materializing the quality of gametes motility, showed highly statistically significant values (p<0.01 in 8.7 and 87 μg/ml treatments, especially from 6 h of storage at 4°C. Conversely, the highest concentration (870 μg/ml showed harmful effects with a total spermicidal activity after 24 h of storage

  18. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Lime Hills and Tyonek NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, S.I.; Aamodt, P.L.; Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The U contents of the 671 waters from the Lime Hills quadrangle range from below 0.02 ppB to a high of 11.29 ppB. U contents of the 667 sediments from this quadrangle range from a low of 0.1 ppM to a high of 94.9 ppM. Both waters and sediments containing relatively high U concentrations are found to cluster in association with plutonic rocks in the Alaska Range, and particularly so in the vicinity of the Tired Pup batholith and Mount Estelle pluton. The U contents of 575 waters from the Tyonek quadrangle range from below the detection limit to 13.13 ppB. Relatively high U concentrations in waters were found to cluster near the Mount Estelle pluton and undifferentiated igneous, metasedimentary, and volcanic rocks in the Alaska Range and in Pleistocene deposits along the Castle Mountain fault. Uranium contents in 502 sediments from the Tyonek quadrangle range from 0.1 to 58 ppM. Most sediment samples having high U concentrations are from locations near the Mount Estelle pluton and Styx River batholith in the Alaska Range. Data for samples collected in the Alaska Range and the two flanking lowlands were also examined separately. Water samples from all source types in the Alaska Range had a higher mean U concentration (0.85 ppB) than those from the Western Lowland (0.34 ppB) or the Susitna Lowland (0.51 ppB). The mean U concentrations for lake water samples from the Alaska Range and the lowland areas are similar. Sediment samples from streams and lakes in the Alaska Range have a markedly higher mean U concentration (7.00 ppM) than sediment samples from either the Western Lowland (2.46 ppM) or the Susitna Lowland area

  20. A Method for Preparation, Storage and Activation of Large Populations of Immotile Sea Urchin Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Fritch, Jennifer J.; Tash, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is associated with initiation and modulation of sperm flagellar motility. Many studies aimed at examining the signal transduction mechanisms underlying the expression of motility have relied on detergent-permeabilized sperm reactivated with exogenous 32 P-ATP. However, the reactivation conditions allow variable levels of motility to be expressed and phosphorylation of many proteins that appear to be unrelated to sperm motility. Thus, identification of the few relevant proteins is difficult. We have developed a method to collect and keep sperm immotile until reactivated for analysis to normal motility levels. Artificial sea water (ASW) buffered with 5 mM 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.0 and containing 50 mM KCI, allows collection and storage of immotile sea urchin sperm for up to 96 h at 4-5 C. Motility under these conditions is essentially zero, but sperm is rapidly reactivated to normal motility by diluting with ASW to standard pH (8.0) and KCI concentration (10 mM).

  1. Contrasting patterns of evolutionary constraint and novelty revealed by comparative sperm proteomic analysis in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Emma; Forsythe, Desiree; Borziak, Kirill; Karr, Timothy L; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2017-12-02

    amongst sperm proteins that may be associated with the origin of heteromorphic spermatogenesis in ancestral Lepidoptera and/or the subsequent evolution of this system. This pattern of genomic diversification is distinct from the remainder of the genome and thus suggests that this transition has had a marked impact on lepidopteran genome evolution. The identification of abundant sperm proteins unique to Lepidoptera, including proteins distinct between specific lineages, will accelerate future functional studies aiming to understand the developmental origin of dichotomous spermatogenesis and the functional diversification of the fertilization incompetent apyrene sperm morph.

  2. Image cytometer method for automated assessment of human spermatozoa concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, D L; Kjaerulff, S; Hansen, C

    2013-01-01

    In the basic clinical work-up of infertile couples, a semen analysis is mandatory and the sperm concentration is one of the most essential variables to be determined. Sperm concentration is usually assessed by manual counting using a haemocytometer and is hence labour intensive and may be subject...

  3. Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mice sperm parameters in phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Ali Akbar; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Malekinjad, Hassan; Mardani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treated mice. For this purpose, 32 NMRI mice with the age range of 8 to 10 weeks, weight average 26.0 ± 2.0 g, were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (1) received normal saline (0. 1 mL per day) by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Group 2 (PHZ group) was treated with initial dose of PHZ (8 mg 100 g(-1), IP) followed by 6 mg 100 g(-1) , IP every 48 hr. Group 3, (Group PHZ+EP) received PHZ (according to the previous prescription) with EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Ethyl pyruvate group (4) received only EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Treatment period was 35 days. After euthanasia, sperms from caudal region of epididymis were collected and the total mean sperm count, sperm viability, motility and morphology were determined. Testis tissue MDA and serum testosterone levels of all experimental groups were also evaluated. A considerable reduction in mean percentage of number, natural morphology of sperm, sperm motility and viability and serum testosterone concentration besides DNA injury increment among mice treating with PHZ in comparison with control group were observed. However, in PHZ+EP group the above mentioned parameters were improved. This study showed that PHZ caused induction of toxicity on sperm parameters and reduction of testosterone as well as the increment of MDA level and EP as an antioxidant could reduce destructive effects of PHZ on sperm parameters, testosterone level and lipid peroxidation.

  4. Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzylowska, Eliza M; Jacobson, John D; Bareh, Gihan M; Ko, Edmund Y; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effect the life-long vegetarian diet on male fertility and focused on vegetarians living in the Loma Linda blue zone, a demographic area known for life longevity. The objective was to compare sperm characteristics of vegetarian with non-vegetarian males. The cross-sectional observational study was based on semen analyses of 474 males from 2009 to 2013. Patients categorized themselves as either life-long lacto-ovo vegetarians (N=26; vegetable diet with dairy and egg products), vegans (N=5; strictly vegetables with no animal products) or non-vegetarians (N=443; no diet restrictions). Sperm quality was assessed using a computer-aided sperm analyzer and strict morphology and chromatin integrity were manually evaluated. Lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower sperm concentration (50.7±7.4M/mL versus non-vegetarians 69.6±3.2M/mL, mean±S.E.M.). Total motility was lower in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups (33.2±3.8% and 51.8±13.4% respectively) versus non-vegetarians (58.2±1.0%). Vegans had lowest hyperactive motility (0.8±0.7% versus lacto-ovo 5.2±1.2 and non-vegetarians 4.8±0.3%). Sperm strict morphologies were similar for the 3 groups. There were no differences in rapid progression and chromatin integrity. The study showed that the vegetables-based food intake decreased sperm quality. In particular, a reduction in sperm quality in male factor patients would be clinically significant and would require review. Furthermore, inadequate sperm hyperactivation in vegans suggested compromised membrane calcium selective channels. However, the study results are cautiously interpreted and more corroborative studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery of sperm after epididymal refrigeration from domestic cats using ACP-117c and Tris extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B.C. Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to compare fresh sperm and sperm cooled to 4ºC that had been recovered from the epididymides of cats using powdered coconut water (ACP-117c and Tris extenders. Sixty epididymides were divided into 6 groups: 10 fresh epididymides were recovered using Tris (T0h; 10 were kept at 4°C/2h and recovered using Tris (T2h; 10 were kept at 4°C/4h and recovered using Tris (T4h; 10 fresh were recovered using ACP-117c (A0h; 10 were kept at 4°C/2h and recovered using ACP-117c (A2h, and 10 were kept at 4°C/4h and recovered using ACP-117c (A4h. The testis-epididymis complexes (TEC control were not cooled. The others were cooled at 4°C for 2 or 4h. The epididymis was separated and the sperm was recovered by the modified flotation method. Sperm kinetic parameters were evaluated by a computer-system analysis, and vigor, viability, concentration, membrane function and morphology of the sperm were assessed under a light microscope. The progressive motility with ACP-117c declined after 2h of cooling, but did not differ between fresh and 4h. The vigor and membrane function were higher in A4h than A0h. The vigor at T2h and T4h were decreased compared to T0h. T0h was higher than A0h for vigor and sperm membrane function. However, after 4h of cooling, ACP-117c maintained a higher percentage of living cells. Feline epididymal sperm quality can be maintained to the degree necessary for artificial breeding programs following cooling and ACP-117c may be successfully used to recover cat sperm that have been cooled for up to 4h.

  6. Sperm motility in fishes. (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky

    2006-01-01

    The spermatozoa of most fish species are immotile in the testis and seminal plasma. Therefore, motility is induced after the spermatozoa are released into the aqueous environment during natural reproduction or into the diluent during artificial reproduction. There are clear relationships between seminal plasma composition and osmolality and the duration of fish sperm motility. Various parameters such as ion concentrations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+), osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and dilution rate affect motility. In the present paper, we review the roles of these ions on sperm motility in Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, Acipenseridae and marine fishes, and their relationship with seminal plasma composition. Results in the literature show that: 1. K+ is a key ion controlling sperm motility in Salmonidae and Acipenseridae in combination with osmotic pressure; this control is more simple in other fish species: sperm motility is prevented when the osmotic pressure is high (Cyprinidae) or low (marine fishes) compared to that of the seminal fluid. 2. Cations (mostly divalent, such as Ca2+) are antagonistic with the inhibitory effect of K+ on sperm motility. 3. In many species, Ca2+ influx and K+ or Na+ efflux through specific ionic channels change the membrane potential and eventually lead to an increase in cAMP concentration in the cell, which constitutes the initiation signal for sperm motility in Salmonidae. 4. Media that are hyper- and hypo-osmotic relative to seminal fluid trigger sperm motility in marine and freshwater fishes, respectively. 5. The motility of fish spermatozoa is controlled through their sensitivity to osmolality and ion concentrations. This phenomenon is related to ionic channel activities in the membrane and governs the motility mechanisms of axonemes.

  7. Impaired protamination and sperm DNA damage in a Nellore bull with high percentages of morphological sperm defects in comparison to normospermic bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Carreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The routine semen evaluation assessing sperm concentration, motility and morphology, does not identify subtle defects in sperm chromatin architecture. Bulls appear to have stable chromatin, with low levels of DNA fragmentation. However, the nature of fragmentation and its impact on fertility remain unclear and there are no detailed reports characterizing the DNA organization and damage in this species. The intensive genetic selection, the use of artificial insemination and in vitro embryo production associated to the cryopreservation process can contribute to the chromatin damage and highlights the importance of sperm DNA integrity for the success of these technologies. Frozen-thawed semen samples from three ejaculates from a Nellore bull showed high levels of morphological sperm abnormalities (55.8±5.1%, and were selected for complementary tests. Damage of acrosomal (76.9±8.9% and plasma membranes (75.7±9.3% as well as sperm DNA strand breaks (13.8±9.5% and protamination deficiency (3.7±0.6% were significantly higher compared to the values measured in the semen of five Nellore bulls with normospermia (24.3±3.3%; 24.5±6.1%; 0.6±0.5%; 0.4±0.6% for acrosome, plasma membrane, DNA breaks and protamine deficiency, respectively (P<0.05. Motility and percentage of spermatozoa with low mitochondrial potential showed no differences between groups. This study shows how routine semen analyses (in this case morphology may point to the length and complexity of sperm cell damage emphasizing the importance of sperm function testing.

  8. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  9. The effect of swim-up and gradient sperm preparation techniques on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation in subfertile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Yuksel; Guler, Ismail; Erdem, Ahmet; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Gumuslu, Seyhan; Oktem, Mesut; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Mehmet

    2018-03-23

    To compare the effect of two different sperm preparation techniques, including swim-up and gradient methods on sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation status of semen samples from unexplained and mild male factor subfertile patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI). A prospective randomized study was conducted in 65 subfertile patients, including 34 unexplained and 31 male factor infertility to compare basal and post-procedure DNA fragmentation rates in swim-up and gradient techniques. Sperm DNA fragmentation rates were evaluated by a sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test in two portions of each sample of semen that was prepared with either swim-up or gradient techniques. Sperm motility and morphology were also assessed based on WHO 2010 criteria. Swim-up but not gradient method yielded a statistically significant reduction in the DNA fragmented sperm rate after preparation as compared to basal rates, in the semen samples of both unexplained (41.85 ± 22.04 vs. 28.58 ± 21.93, p gradient) and mild male factor (46.61 ± 19.38 vs. 30.32 ± 18.20, p gradient) subgroups. Swim-up method significantly reduces sperm DNA fragmentation rates and may have some prognostic value on intrauterine insemination in patients with decreased sperm DNA integrity.

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the McGrath and Talkeetna NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.; Jacobsen, S.I.; Hill, D.E.

    1979-04-01

    During the summer of 1977, 1268 water and 1206 sediment samples were collected from 1292 lakes and streams throughout the two quadrangles in south-central Alaska. Each of the water samples was analyzed for uranium and 12 other elements and each of the sediment samples for uranium, thorium, and 41 other elements. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below 0.02 ppB to 19.64 ppB. In general, lake waters contain somewhat less uranium than stream waters, and the highest concentrations in both sample types were found in or near the Alaska Range. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.10 ppM to 172.40 ppM. The highest concentrations are found in samples collected in the Alaska Range near areas of felsic igneous rocks. Sediment samples having high thorium concentrations also come from areas underlain by felsic igneous rocks in the Alaska Range. The following areas were found to be most favorable for significant uranium mineralization: (1) the Windy Fork stock on the southeastern boundary of the McGrath quadrangle; (2) an area in the northwest corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle near the Mespelt prospects; (3) the Hidden River drainage in the northeast corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle; (4) an area near Chelatna Lake in the center of the Talkeetna quadrangle; (5) the Kichatna River drainage, near the western border of the Talkeetna quadrangle; and (6) an area near the Mount Estelle pluton in the extreme southwest corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle

  11. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km 2 area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km 2 . Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations

  13. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  14. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. McBurney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

  15. Finding out about sperm banking: what information is available online for men diagnosed with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, H; Wright, E; Pacey, A A; Eiser, C

    2012-09-01

    Sperm banking is routinely offered to men where there is a risk of infertility following cancer treatment but uptake is lower than expected. Since these men may turn to the internet for information, we used the search engine www.google.com to identify the material available about sperm banking and fertility preservation options. Sixty-six resources (NHS/Private Clinic, Charity, Press Releases, General and Forums/Blogs) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and were examined for quality including readability, layout and content. The most frequently reported information related to: (1) effects of cancer treatment on fertility (77.3%); (2) reasons to bank sperm (69.7%); and (3) fertility recovery after treatment (57.6%). Information about maintaining contact with the sperm bank (18.2%) and disposal of banked samples (10.6%) was less often included. The quality of information available on the Internet about sperm banking was variable. The readability of all resources was assessed as 'fairly difficult', i.e. reading skills required were too complex for the average member of the public to understand. Furthermore, visual presentation of material (e.g. lay out) did not facilitate easy reading. More attention should be given to information about longer-term issues, such as fertility recovery and the use or disposal of banked sperm.

  16. Protective effects of vitamin E and Cornus mas fruit extract on methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in sperms of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Zarei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE and vitamin E (Vit E on sperm quality parameters in the methotrexate (MTX-treated mice. Forty-eight young adult male mice (8-12 weeks were randomly divided into six groups including control and test groups. The control group received normal saline orally , and the test groups were treated MTX (20 mg kg-1, ip, once weekly, MTX + CMFE (250 mg kg-1, MTX + CMFE (500 mg kg-1, MTX + CMFE (1000 mg kg-1, and MTX + Vit E (100 IU kg-1, po for 35 consecutive days. On day 35, after euthanasia the epididymal sperms were isolated. Then the total mean sperm count, sperm viability and motility were determined. The total antioxidant capacity (TAOC of all experimental groups were also evaluated. The MTX-treated animals showed a significant changes in all parameters of sperm quality assessment compared to the control group. Both Vit E and CMFE were able to protect from MTX-induced effects on sperm maturity and DNA damage. Co-administration of MTX and CMFE and/or Vit E resulted in protection from MTX-reduced TAOC. In conclusion, these data suggested that MTX administration could adversely affect the sperm quality. Moreover, the protective effect of Vit E and CMFE on MTX-induced sperm toxicity was also documented.

  17. Tolerance to environmental desiccation in moss sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    • Sexual reproduction in mosses requires that sperm be released freely into the environment before finding and fertilizing a receptive female. After release from the male plant, moss sperm may experience a range of abiotic stresses; however, few data are available examining stress tolerance of moss sperm and whether there is genetic variation for stress tolerance in this important life stage. • Here, we investigated the effects of environmental desiccation and recovery on the sperm cells of three moss species (Bryum argenteum, Campylopus introflexus, and Ceratodon purpureus). • We found that a fraction of sperm cells were tolerant to environmental desiccation for extended periods (d) and that tolerance did not vary among species. We found that this tolerance occurs irrespective of ambient dehydration conditions, and that the addition of sucrose during dry-down improved cell recovery. Although we observed no interspecific variation, significant variation among individuals within species in sperm cell tolerance to environmental desiccation was observed, suggesting selection could potentially act on this basic reproductive trait. • The observation of desiccation-tolerant sperm in multiple moss species has important implications for understanding bryophyte reproduction, suggesting the presence of a significant, uncharacterized complexity in the ecology of moss mating systems. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Milla, Sylvain; Křišťan, Jiří; Golshan, Mahdi; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, vinclozolin (VZ) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. In aquatic animals, the VZ effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. To understand VZ adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal VZ concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/L) and alternations in gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sperm quality were investigated compared to the solvent control. One group was exposed to E(2) (nominal concentration of 5 μg/L), an estrogenic compound, as a negative control. Following one month exposure, GSI and HSI were unchanged in all VZ treated groups compared to solvent control. Sperm volume, motility and velocity were reduced in fish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ. This was associated with the decrease in 11-KT level, suggesting direct VZ effects on testicular androgenesis and sperm functions. In goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ, 11-KT was increased but E(2) remained unchanged. This is, probably, the main reason for unchanged sperm quality at 100 μg/L VZ. In goldfish exposed to E(2), GSI and 11-KT were decreased, E(2) was increased and no sperm was produced. The present study shows different dose-dependent VZ effects, which lead to impairment in sperm quality via disruption in steroidogenesis. In addition to VZ effects through competitive binding to AR, our data suggests potential effects of VZ by direct inhibition of 11-KT biosynthesis in fish as well as abnormalities in sperm morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Including the temporal change in PM{sub 2.5} concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwind, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gschwind@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Lefevre, Mireille, E-mail: mireille.lefevre@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Blanc, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.blanc@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Ranchin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.ranchin@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Wyrwa, Artur, E-mail: awyrwa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Drebszok, Kamila [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Cofala, Janusz, E-mail: cofala@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Fuss, Sabine, E-mail: fuss@mcc-berlin.net [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Torgauer Str. 12-15, 10829 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM{sub 2.5} concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM{sub 2.5} for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM{sub 2.5} is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM{sub 2.5} is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios.

  20. The correlation between urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and sperm quality in infertile men and rotating shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Águeda; Espino, Javier; Bejarano, Ignacio; Lozano, Graciela M; Monllor, Fabián; García, Juan F; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B

    2010-11-08

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates a wide range of neuroendocrine functions. However, excessive circulating serotonin levels may induce harmful effects in the male reproductive system. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIIA), a major serotonin metabolite, correlate with different classical seminal parameters. Human ejaculates were obtained from 40 men attending infertility counselling and rotating shift workers by masturbation after 4-5 days of abstinence. Urinary 5- HIIA concentration was quantified by using a commercial ELISA kit. Forward motility was assessed by a computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) system. Sperm concentration was determined using the haemocytometer method. Sperm morphology was evaluated after Diff-Quik staining, while sperm vitality was estimated after Eosin-Nigrosin vital staining. Our results show that urinary 5-HIIA levels obtained from a set of 20 volunteers negatively correlated with sperm concentration, forward motility, morphology normal range and sperm vitality. On the other hand, we checked the relationship between male infertility and urinary 5-HIIA levels in 20 night shift workers. Thus, urinary 5-HIIA levels obtained from 10 recently-proven fathers were significantly lower than those found in 10 infertile males. Additionally, samples from recent fathers exhibited higher sperm concentration, as well as better forward motility and normal morphology rate. In the light of our findings, we concluded that high serotonin levels, indirectly measured as urinary 5-HIIA levels, appear to play a role as an infertility determinant in male subjects.

  1. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Herreros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  2. Sperm immobilization by dental focus microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linossier, A; Thumann, A; Bustos-Obregon, E

    1982-01-01

    Focal infections and their ability to produce alterations in different tissues have been in dispute for long time. The purpose of this work was to observe "in vitro" the effect of an Escherichia coli filtrate obtained from open pulpar necrosis on human sperm motility. It was observed that the E. coli filtrate produced a loss in sperm motility. The immobilizating factor was studied and characterized as a heat-stable, resistant to lyophilization and non-dializable substance, which could via blood stream reach the male reproductive system and affect sperm motility.

  3. Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/ny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001. The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%, proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%, and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001, by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS test score, major axis (µm, minor axis (µm, total sperm motility, perimeter (µm, area (µm2, average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%. The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa.

  4. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  5. Single-layer centrifugation through colloid selects improved quality of epididymal cat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, K; Thuwanut, P; Morrell, J M

    2010-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the: 1) extent of epithelial and red blood cell contamination in epididymal cat sperm samples recovered by the cutting method; 2) efficacy of simple washing, single-layer centrifugation (SLC), and swim-up for selecting epididymal cat sperm; and 3) effects of freezing and thawing on cat sperm selected by various techniques. Ten unit samples were studied; each contained sperm from the cauda epididymides of four cats (total, approximately 200 x 10(6) sperm) and was equally allocated into four treatments: 1) simple washing, 2) single-layer centrifugation through colloid prior to cryopreservation (SLC-PC), 3) single-layer centrifugation through colloid after cryopreservation (SLC-AC), and 4) swim-up. Centrifugation (300 x g for 20 min) was done for all methods. The SLC-PC had a better recovery rate than the SLC-AC and swim-up methods (mean+/-SD of 16.4+/-8.7, 10.7+/-8.9, and 2.3+/-1.7%, respectively; Pblood cell contamination than simple washed samples (0.02+/-0.01, 0.02+/-0.04, 0.03+/-0.04, and 0.44+/-0.22 x 10(6) cells/mL, respectively; P0.05), SLC-PC yielded the highest percentage of sperm with normal midpieces and tails (P0.05). In conclusion, both SLC-PC and swim-up improved the quality of epididymal cat sperm, including better morphology, membrane and DNA integrity, and removal of cellular contamination. However, SLC had a better sperm recovery rate than swim-up. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative analysis of the morphology and evolution of permanent sperm depletion in spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Once thought to be energetically cheap and easy to produce, empirical work has shown that sperm is a costly and limited resource for males. In some spider species, there is behavioral evidence that sperm are permanently depleted after a single mating. This extreme degree of mating investment appears to co-occur with other reproductive strategies common to spiders, e.g. genital mutilation and sexual cannibalism. Here we corroborate that sperm depletion in the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes is permanent by uncovering its mechanistic basis using light and electron microscopy. In addition, we use a phylogeny-based statistical analysis to test the evolutionary relationships between permanent sperm depletion (PSD and other reproductive strategies in spiders. Male testes do not produce sperm during adulthood, which is unusual in spiders. Instead, spermatogenesis is nearly synchronous and ends before the maturation molt. Testis size decreases as males approach their maturation molt and reaches its lowest point after sperm is transferred into the male copulatory organs (pedipalps. As a consequence, the amount of sperm available to males for mating is limited to the sperm contained in the pedipalps, and once it is used, males lose their ability to fertilize eggs. Our data suggest that PSD has evolved independently at least three times within web-building spiders and is significantly correlated with the evolution of other mating strategies that limit males to monogamy, including genital mutilation and sexual cannibalism. We conclude that PSD may be an energy-saving adaptation in species where males are limited to monogamy. This could be particularly important in web-building spiders where extreme sexual size dimorphism results in large, sedentary females and small, searching males who rarely feed as adults and are vulnerable to starvation. Future work will explore possible energetic benefits and the evolutionary lability of PSD relative to other

  7. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  8. The impact of semen processing on sperm parameters and pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter-Ligeti, Jacob; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of semen processing on computer analyzed semen parameters and pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination (IUI). Over a two-year period, a total of 981 couples undergoing 2231 IUI cycles were evaluated and the freshly collected non-donor semen was analyzed before and after density gradient centrifugation (DGC). DGC led to significant increases in sperm concentration by 66±74 ×106/mL (P=0.0001), percentage of motile sperm by 24±22% (P=0.0001), concentration motile by 27±58 ×106/mL (P=0.0001), and forward sperm progression by 18±14 µ/s (P=0.0001). In 95% of cases, there was a decrease in the total motile sperm count (TMSC), with an average decrease of 50±124% compared to pre-processed samples (P=0.0001). Importantly, the decrease in TMSC did not negatively affect pregnancy rates (P=0.45). This study proves that DGC leads to significant increases in most sperm parameters, with the exception of TMSC. Remarkably, the decrease in TMSC did not affect the pregnancy rate. This should reassure clinicians when the TMSC is negatively affected by processing.

  9. Utilization of sperm banking and barriers to its use in testicular cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, D W; Brames, M J; Case-Eads, S; Einhorn, L H

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common carcinoma in 20- to 40-year-old men. Eighty percent of patients with metastases achieve disease-free status with chemotherapy with or without surgical resection. Standard first-line chemotherapy is bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) for three to four courses or etoposide and cisplatin (EP) for four courses. Forty percent of patients receiving chemotherapy will have permanently reduced sperm counts impairing future fertility. Sperm banking is an effective method of maintaining fertility. This retrospective study was performed to assess utilization and results from sperm banking, as well as the barriers to its use. Patients 18 and older who had received chemotherapy were given a five-item questionnaire on follow-up visit. This questionnaire included a mix of quantitative and qualitative questions. Two hundred patients enrolled in the study, and all 200 completed the questionnaire. Of the two hundred, 139 (70 %) patients chose not to bank sperm; 71 (51 %) of those were not interested, 25 (18 %) declined due to desire to start chemotherapy, 24 (17 %) were not offered, 12 (9 %) declined due to cost, and 7 (5 %) answered "other." The average age at cancer diagnosis of patients who banked sperm was 28.4 as opposed to 32.6 for patients who did not (p = 0.003). The percentage of patients that had children before their diagnosis was 21 % in the sperm banking group, and 50 % in the group that did not (p = 0.0002). Sixty-one (30 %) chose to bank sperm; 11 of 61 patients (18 %) utilized the banked sperm; 9 of 11 (82 %) patients that utilized were successful; and 3 of 9 (33 %) successes resulted in multiple gestations. Sperm banking provides the opportunity for paternity in testicular cancer patients with reduced sperm counts following treatment. However, the majority of these patients chose not to bank sperm or were not offered the opportunity. A range of factors such as time, emotional state, patient age, disease stage, prior

  10. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B; Dardmeh, F; Jørgensen, N; Nielsen, H I; Hnida, C

    2017-07-01

    Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile spermatozoa with higher velocity and progressiveness were detected in samples obtained after 2 h. Most studies that have assessed the effect of abstinence periods on sperm motility parameters in men with a sperm concentration below 15 million/ml have detected a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa in samples obtained after short abstinence periods. Studies of men with sperm concentrations above 15 million/ml have reported significantly decreased motile sperm counts after 24 h of abstinence compared with longer abstinence periods. This study had a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark). Participants provided a semen sample after 4-7 days of abstinence followed by another sample after only 2 h. For both ejaculates, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility groups and detailed kinematic parameters were assessed and compared by using the Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA) computer-aided sperm analysis system before and after density gradient selection. The laboratory's local manual method (Makler chamber) was used for comparison. The second raw ejaculate demonstrated lower semen volume (P sperm concentration (P = 0.003) and sperm counts in all motility sub-groups (P sperm concentration and total sperm counts in all motility sub-groups, the significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with better motility characteristics (velocity, progressiveness and hyperactivation) in the second ejaculate, may provide and allow for a simpler and more effective

  11. Inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen and sperm motion parameters as measured by a computer-assisted semen analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Yumura, Yasushi; Yasuda, Kengo; Sanjo, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between sperm motion parameters obtained by a computer-assisted semen analyzer and levels of reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen. In total, 847 patients, except for azoospermic patients were investigated. At the time of each patient's first consultation, semen parameters were measured using SMAS™ or CellSoft 3000™, and production of reactive oxygen species was measured using a computer-driven LKB Wallac Luminometer 1251 Analyzer. The patients were divided into two groups: reactive oxygen species - positive and negative. The semen parameters within each group were measured using one of the two computer-assisted semen analyzer systems and then compared. Correlations between reactive oxygen species levels and sperm motion parameters in semen from the reactive oxygen species - positive group were also investigated. Reactive oxygen species were detected in semen samples of 282 cases (33.3%). Sperm concentration (P semen damage sperm concentration, motility, and other sperm motion parameters.

  12. Use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in men with high sperm DNA fragmentation: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Garrido, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval.

  13. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  14. BSp66 protease is widespread in the acrosomal region of sperm from several mammalian species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, A.; Katunar, M.R.; Monclus, M.A.; Vincenti, A.; Fornes, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fertilization in mammals comprises a sequence of events leading to the fusion of sperm and oocyte membranes. Although proteases are known to be involved in this process, their role in fertilization is controversial. There is extensive work on the characterization of proteolytic systems, including serine proteases, which demonstrates that acrosomal proteases can be distinguished among the sperm of different mammalian species on the basis of the gelatin-hydrolyzing activity on SDS-PAGE by the quantity and variety of the enzymes. In this report, we investigated the occurrence and activity of the serine protease BSp66, previously characterized in bovine spermatozoa, in various mammalian sperm. A protein with a molecular mass of 66 kDa cross-reacted with heterologous antibodies against bovine BSp66 when sperm extracts of several mammalian species were analyzed by Western blot. In agreement, proteolytic activity corresponding to the molecular mass of BSp66 was detected by gelatin zymography in all the species analyzed. This protein was located on the acrosomal region of sperm cells by immunofluorescence methods. We concluded that BSp66 is widespread in mammalian sperm, with a conserved location in the acrosomal region

  15. Impairment of sperm DNA methylation in male infertility: a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, D; De Vincentis, S; Magnani, E; Spaggiari, G

    2017-07-01

    Considering the widespread use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), DNA methylation of specific genes involved in spermatogenesis achieves increasingly clinical relevance, representing a possible explanation of increased incidence of syndromes related to genomic imprinting in medically assisted pregnancies. Several trials suggested a relationship between male sub-fertility and sperm DNA methylation, although its weight on seminal parameters alteration is still a matter of debate. To evaluate whether aberrant sperm DNA methylation of imprinted genes is associated with impaired sperm parameters. Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials evaluating imprinted genes sperm DNA methylation comparing men with idiopathic infertility to fertile controls. Twenty-four studies were included, allowing a meta-analytic evaluation for H19, MEST, SNRPN, and LINE-1. When a high heterogeneity of the results was demonstrated, the random effect model was used. H19 methylation levels resulted significantly lower in 879 infertile compared with 562 fertile men (7.53%, 95% CI: 5.14-9.93%, p male infertility is associated with altered sperm methylation at H19, MEST, and SNRPN. Although its role in infertility remains unclear, sperm DNA methylation could be associated with the epigenetic risk in ART. In this setting, before proposing this analysis in clinical practice, an accurate identification of the most representative genes and a cost-effectiveness evaluation should be assessed in ad hoc prospective studies. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Liquid nitrogen vapor is comparable to liquid nitrogen for storage of cryopreserved human sperm: evidence from the characteristics of post-thaw human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingmei; Zhao, Shidou; Xu, Chengyan; Zhang, Lin; Lu, Shaoming; Cui, Linlin; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    To compare the differences in the characteristics of post-thaw human sperm after storage in either liquid nitrogen (LN2; -196 °C) or LN2 vapor (-167 °C). Experimental study. University hospital. Thirty healthy volunteers who agreed to donate their normal semen samples for infertility or research were included in the study. Semen samples (n = 30) were divided into eight aliquots and frozen. Four aliquots of each human semen sample were stored in LN2 (-196 °C), and the other four aliquots were stored in LN2 vapor (-167 °C). After 1, 3, 6, or 12 months, samples were thawed and analyzed. The motility was evaluated by the manual counting method. The viability was estimated by eosin staining. The morphology was analyzed by Diff-Quik staining. The sperm DNA integrity was determined with acridine orange fluorescent staining, and acrosin activity was assayed by the modified Kennedy method. The characteristics of post-thaw human sperm, including motility, viability, morphology, DNA integrity, and acrosin activity, showed no significant difference between LN2 and LN2 vapor storage for the different time periods. LN2 vapor was comparable to LN2 in post-thaw sperm characteristics, suggesting that LN2 vapor may be substituted for LN2 for the long-term storage of human sperm. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  18. Advanced forensic validation for human spermatozoa identification using SPERM HY-LITER™ Express with quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Ayari; Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited. In this study, we conducted more advanced validations of SPERM HY-LITER™ Express using our established image analysis method. Use of this method enabled objective and specific identification of fluorescent sperm's spots and quantitative comparisons of the sperm detection performance under complex experimental conditions. For body fluid mixtures, we examined interference with the fluorescence staining from other body fluid components. Effects of sample decomposition were simulated in high humidity and high temperature conditions. Semen with quite low sperm concentrations, such as azoospermia and oligospermia samples, represented the most challenging cases in application of the kit. Finally, the tolerance of the kit against various acidic and basic environments was analyzed. The validations herein provide useful information for the practical applications of the SPERM HY-LITER™ Express kit, which were previously unobtainable. Moreover, the versatility of our image analysis method toward various complex cases was demonstrated.

  19. UV-photodegradation of desipramine: Impact of concentration, pH and temperature on formation of products including their biodegradability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Nareman D.H.; Mahmoud, Waleed M.M. [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Olsson, Oliver [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.kuemmerer@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, and it is the major metabolite of imipramine (IMI) and lofepramine (LMI); IMI and LMI are two of the most commonly used tricyclic antidepressants. If DMI enters the aquatic environment, it can be transformed by the environmental bacteria or UV radiation. Therefore, photolysis of DMI in water was performed using a simulated sunlight Xenon-lamp and a UV-lamp. Subsequently, the biodegradability of DMI and its photo-transformation products (PTPs) formed during its UV photolysis was studied. The influence of variable conditions, such as initial DMI concentration, solution pH, and temperature, on DMI UV photolysis behavior was also studied. The degree of mineralization of DMI and its PTPs was monitored. A Shimadzu HPLC-UV apparatus was used to follow the kinetic profile of DMI during UV-irradiation; after that, ion-trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography were used to monitor and identify the possible PTPs. The environmentally relevant properties and selected toxicity properties of DMI and the non-biodegradable PTPs were predicted using different QSAR models. DMI underwent UV photolysis with first-order kinetics. Quantum yields were very low. DOC values indicated that DMI formed new PTPs and was not completely mineralized. Analysis by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that the photolysis of DMI followed three main photolysis pathways: isomerization, hydroxylation, and ring opening. The photolysis rate was inversely proportional to initial DMI concentration. The pH showed a significant impact on the photolysis rate of DMI, and on the PTPs in terms of both formation kinetics and mechanisms. Although temperature was expected to increase the photolysis rate, it showed a non-significant impact in this study. Results from biodegradation tests and QSAR analysis revealed that DMI and its PTPs are not readily biodegradable and that some PTPs may be human and/or eco

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Dubois NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaDelfe, C.M.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1024 water samples and 1600 sediment samples were collected from 1669 locations in the Dubois quadrangle. Water samples were taken at streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. All field and analytical data are presented for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than the upper detection limit of uranium were reanalyzed by delayed neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Dubois NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaDelfe, C.M.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1024 water samples and 1600 sediment samples were collected from 1669 locations in the Dubois quadrangle. Water samples were taken at streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. All field and analytical data are presented for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than the upper detection limit of uranium were reanalyzed by delayed neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  2. Role of Human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 in Sperm Function, Derived from Studies in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jeffrey; Sánchez, Gladis; Nangia, Ajay K.; Blanco, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Most of our knowledge on the biological role of the testis-specific Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 isoform derives from studies performed in non-human species. Here, we studied the function of human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 after its expression in transgenic mice. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct, containing the human ATP1A4 gene locus, we obtained expression of the human α4 transgene specifically in mouse sperm, enriched in the sperm flagellum. The expressed, human alpha 4 was active, and compared to wild-type sperm, those from transgenic mice displayed higher Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 activity and greater binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain, which is typical of the alpha 4 isoform. The expression and activity of endogenous alpha 4 and the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, alpha 1, remained unchanged. Male mice expressing the human ATP1A4 transgene exhibited similar testis size and morphology, normal sperm number and shape, and no changes in overall fertility compared to wild-type mice. Sperm carrying the human transgene exhibited enhanced total motility and an increase in multiple parameters of sperm movement, including higher sperm hyperactive motility. In contrast, no statistically significant changes in sperm membrane potential, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, or spontaneous acrosome reaction were found between wild-type and transgenic mice. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for an important role of human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 in sperm motility and hyperactivation, and establishes a new animal model for future studies of this isoform. PMID:25640246

  3. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  4. Intracellular pH in sperm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca(2+) channel; Slo3, a K(+) channel; the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.; Gadê lha, H.; Smith, D.J.; Blake, J.R.; Kirkman-Brown, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian

  6. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and human sperm sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a trend toward a declining proportion of male births has been noted in several, but not all, industrialized countries. The underlying reason for the drop in the sex ratio is unclear, but one theory states that widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting the male reproductive system in a negative manner could be part of the explanation. The present study was designed to investigate whether the urinary phthalate, pyrethroids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites concentrations were associated with sperm Y:X ratio. The study population consisted of 194 men aged under 45 years of age who attended infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20–300 mln/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15–20 mln/ml) (WHO, 1999). The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were measured by high performance liquid chromatography, phthalate metabolites were analyzed using a procedure based on the LC-MS/MS methods and metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids were assessed by gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. After adjustment for potential confounders (past diseases, age, abstinence, smoking, alcohol consumption, sperm concentration, motility, morphology) 5OH MEHP, CDCCA to TDCCA and 1-OHP was negatively related to Y:X sperm chromosome ratio (p = 0.033, p < 0.001, p = 0.047 respectively). As this is the first study to elucidate the association between the level of metabolites of widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (phthalates, synthetic pyrethroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on sex chromosome ratio in sperm therefore, these findings require further replication in other populations. - Highlights: • Urinary phthalate metabolites levels were significantly associated with a decrease in Y/X chromosome bearing sperm. • The levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine

  8. Confocal fluorescence microscopy in a murine model of microdissection testicular sperm extraction to improve sperm retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan P; Lowe, Greg J; Kavoussi, Parviz K; Steers, William D; Costabile, Raymond A; Herr, John C; Shetty, Jagathpala; Lysiak, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction markedly improves the sperm retrieval rates in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. However, localizing sperm foci can be time-consuming and it is not always successful. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy offers the advantage of rapid in vivo detection of fluorescently labeled sperm in the seminiferous tubules. After establishing the feasibility of fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy to identify antibody labeled sperm in vivo C57/B6 mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of busulfan to induce azoospermia. During spermatogenesis reestablishment at approximately 16 weeks the mice were anesthetized and the testes were delivered through a low midline incision. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled antibody to intra-acrosomal protein Hs-14 was injected retrograde into a single murine rete testis. The testes were imaged in vivo with fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy and sperm foci were detected. The respective seminiferous tubules were excised and squash prepared for immunofluorescence microscopy. Sperm foci were identified in the testis injected with fluorescently tagged antibody by in vivo fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy. The contralateral control testis of each mouse showed no specific signal. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the excised tubules provided morphological confirmation of the presence of labeled sperm with an absence in controls. Findings were consistent in the feasibility portion of the study and in the busulfan model of nonobstructive azoospermia. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy was feasible during microdissection testicular sperm extraction in an azoospermic mouse model to identify fluorescently labeled sperm in vivo. Translation to the clinical setting could decrease operative time and improve the sperm harvest rate. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy Evaluation of The Depth of Six Kinds of Sperm Counting Chambers for both Manual and Computer-Aided Semen Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chun Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the depth of the counting chamber is an important factor influencing sperm counting, no research has yet been reported on the measurement and comparison of the depth of the chamber. We measured the exact depths of six kinds of sperm counting chambers and evaluated their accuracy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, the depths of six kinds of sperm counting chambers for both manual and computer-aided semen analyses, including Makler (n=24, Macro (n=32, Geoffrey (n=34, GoldCyto (n=20, Leja (n=20 and Cell-VU (n=20, were measured with the Filmetrics F20 Spectral Reflectance Thin-Film Measurement System, then the mean depth, the range and the coefficient of variation (CV of each chamber, and the mean depth, relative deviation and acceptability of each kind of chamber were calculated by the closeness to the nominal value. Among the 24 Makler chambers, 5 were new and 19 were used, and the other five kinds were all new chambers. Results: The depths (mean ± SD, μm of Makler (new, Macro and Geoffrey chambers were 11.07 ± 0.41, 10.19 ± 0.48 and 10.00 ± 0.28, respectively, while those of GoldCyto, Leja and Cell-VU chambers were 23.76 ± 2.15, 20.49 ± 0.22 and 24.22 ± 2.58, respectively. The acceptability of Geoffrey chambers was the highest (94.12%, followed by Macro (65.63%, Leja (35% and Makler (20%, while that of the other two kinds and the used Makler chamber was zero. Conclusion: There existed some difference between the actual depth and the corresponding nominal value for sperm counting chambers, and the overall acceptability was very low. Moreover, the abrasion caused by the long use, as of Makler chamber, for example, may result in unacceptability of the chamber. In order to ensure the accuracy and repeatability of sperm concentration results, the depth of the sperm counting chamber must be checked regularly.

  10. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  11. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sperm quality biomarkers complement reproductive and endocrine parameters in investigating environmental contaminants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Dale, Rassa O.; Echols, Kathy R.; Torres, Leticia; Wieser, Carla M.; Kersten, Constance A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999–2006). Endpoints included sperm quality parameters of motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, count, morphology, and DNA fragmentation; plasma components were vitellogenin (VTG), 17ß-estradiol, 11-keto-testosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Fish condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and gonadal histology parameters were also measured. Diminished biomarker effects were noted in 2006, and sub-basin differences were indicated by the irregular occurrences of contaminants and by several associations between chemicals (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan) and biomarkers (e.g., plasma thyroxine, sperm motility and DNA fragmentation). By 2006, sex steroid hormone and VTG levels decreased with subsequent reduced endocrine disrupting effects. The sperm quality bioassays developed and applied with carp complemented endocrine and reproductive data, and can be adapted for use with other species.

  13. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in sperm traits in scorpionflies (Mecoptera : Panorpidae): Consequences of larval history and seasonality on sperm length and sperm transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Andreas; Engels, Sierk; Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of seasonality, larval food availability and larval rearing density on sperm length, sperm transfer rates and body size in the bivoltine scorpionfly Panorpa vulgaris. Males of the first annual generation were larger and had larger sperm. Comparing individuals of two summer

  15. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  16. Fertilidade de éguas inseminadas no corpo ou no ápice do corno uterino com diferentes concentrações espermáticas Fertility of mares inseminated in the uterine corpus or tip with different sperm concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L.G.S. Xavier

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 72 ciclos estrais de 37 éguas mestiças, com idade variando de quatro a 20 anos, distribuídas ao acaso em dois grupos experimentais (G I e G II para estudar o efeito do local de deposição do sêmen no sistema genital sobre a fertilidade. As inseminações no ápice do corno uterino (G II foram realizadas por via intravaginal profunda, utilizando-se a pipeta de inseminação IVI pippette (75cm, contendo 1/5 (3mL da dose inseminante utilizada para o corpo do útero (15mL-G I. As éguas foram rufiadas diariamente e inseminadas às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, a partir de um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5cm de diâmetro, com sêmen fresco diluído em diluidor de leite desnatado-glicose. Apenas um garanhão de 20 anos e de fertilidade conhecida foi utilizado. As taxas de concepção/ciclo para as inseminações realizadas no corpo (42,9%-15/35 e ápice do corno uterino (45,9%-17/37 com concentrações médias de 489 e 102 milhões de espermatozoides móveis, respectivamente, não foram diferentes (P>0,05.Seventy-two estral cycles of 37 mares, aging from four to 20-year-old, were randomly distributed in two experimental groups (G I and G II. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the semen deposition placed in the female genital system on the fertility. The inseminations in uterine horn tip (G II were carried out by deep intravaginal way, using the pipette of insemination IVI pippette (75cm, containing 1/5 (3mL of the inseminant dose of that utilized in uterine body or horn (15mL-G I. The mares were daily teased and inseminated on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, starting from a follicle from 3.0 to 3.5cm diameter, with fresh semen diluted in skim milk glucose extender. Only one 20 year-old stallion with wellknown fertility was utilized. The conception rates/cycles for inseminations carried out in the uterine body (42,9%-15/35 and in the uterine horn tip (45,9%-17/37 utilizing average concentrations of 489 and 102

  17. Usefulness of hemocytometer as a counting chamber in a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarah, A.; Chandler, J.; Jenkins, J.A.; Chenevert, J.; Alcanal, A.

    2013-01-01

    Several methods are used to determine sperm cell concentration, such as the haemocytometer, spectrophotometer, electronic cell counter and computer-assisted semen analysers (CASA). The utility of CASA systems has been limited due to the lack of characterization of individual systems and the absence of standardization among laboratories. The aims of this study were to: 1) validate and establish setup conditions for the CASA system utilizing the haemocytometer as a counting chamber, and 2) compare the different methods used for the determination of sperm cell concentration in bull semen. Two ejaculates were collected and the sperm cell concentration was determined using spectrophotometer and haemocytometer. For the Hamilton-Thorn method, the haemocytometer was used as a counting chamber. Sperm concentration was determined three times per ejaculate samples. A difference (P 0.05) or between the haemocytometer count and the spectrophotometer. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that the haemocytometer can be used in computerized semen analysis systems as a substitute for the commercially available disposable counting chambers, therefore avoiding disadvantageous high costs and slower procedures.

  18. Versatile action of picomolar gradients of progesterone on different sperm subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rafael Uñates

    Full Text Available High step concentrations of progesterone may stimulate various sperm physiological processes, such as priming and the acrosome reaction. However, approaching the egg, spermatozoa face increasing concentrations of the hormone, as it is secreted by the cumulus cells and then passively diffuses along the cumulus matrix and beyond. In this context, several questions arise: are spermatozoa sensitive to the steroid gradients as they undergo priming and the acrosome reaction? If so, what are the functional gradual concentrations of progesterone? Do spermatozoa in different physiological states respond differentially to steroid gradients? To answer these questions, spermatozoa were confronted with progesterone gradients generated by different hormone concentrations (1 pM to 100 µM. Brief exposure to a 10 pM progesterone gradient stimulated priming for the acrosome reaction in one sperm subpopulation, and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction in a different sperm subpopulation. This effect was not observed in non-capacitated cells or when progesterone was homogeneously distributed. The results suggest a versatile role of the gradual distribution of very low doses of progesterone, which selectively stimulate the priming and the acrosome reaction in different sperm subpopulations.

  19. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males

  20. Toward microfluidic sperm refinement: continuous flow label-free analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports upon the development of a microfluidic setup to detect and sort sperm cells from polystyrene beads label-free and non-invasively. Detection is performed by impedance analysis. When sperm cells passed the microelectrodes, the recorded impedance (19.6 ± 5.7 Ω) was higher

  1. Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Peter; Binet, Monique T; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Doyle, Christopher J; Williamson, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    Broadcast spawning marine invertebrates are susceptible to environmental stressors such as climate change, as their reproduction depends on the successful meeting and fertilization of gametes in the water column. Under near-future scenarios of ocean acidification, the swimming behaviour of marine invertebrate sperm is altered. We tested whether this was due to changes in sperm mitochondrial activity by investigating the effects of ocean acidification on sperm metabolism and swimming behaviour in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. We used a fluorescent molecular probe (JC-1) and flow cytometry to visualize mitochondrial activity (measured as change in mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP). Sperm MMP was significantly reduced in ΔpH -0.3 (35% reduction) and ΔpH -0.5 (48% reduction) treatments, whereas sperm swimming behaviour was less sensitive with only slight changes (up to 11% decrease) observed overall. There was significant inter-individual variability in responses of sperm swimming behaviour and MMP to acidified seawater. We suggest it is likely that sperm exposed to these changes in pH are close to their tipping point in terms of physiological tolerance to acidity. Importantly, substantial inter-individual variation in responses of sperm swimming to ocean acidification may increase the scope for selection of resilient phenotypes, which, if heritable, could provide a basis for adaptation to future ocean acidification. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Sperm depletion as a consequence of increased sperm competition risk in the European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Pateman-Jones, C.; Zieba, G.; Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2009), s. 1227-1233 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * European bitterling * mating system * sexual conflict * sexual selection * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2009

  3. Variation in sperm morphometry and sperm competition among barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laskemoen, T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Cepák, J.; De Lope, F.; Hermosell, I. G.; Johannessen, L. E.; Kleven, O.; Marzal, A.; Mousseau, T. A.; Moller, A. P.; Robertson, R. J.; Rudolfsen, G.; Saino, N.; Vortman, Y.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2013), s. 301-309 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Barn swallow * Extrapair paternity * Hirundo rustica * Sperm competition * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2013

  4. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  5. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  6. Testing human sperm chemotaxis: how to detect biased motion in population assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Armon

    Full Text Available Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming.

  7. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in Blantyre City on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampiao, F; Matambo, E; Banda, A

    2013-09-01

    Chinese aphrodisiacs have become popular remedy for sexual dysfunction and improvement of libido in men in Malawi. However, selling of these drugs seems not to be well regulated. Probably the aphrodisiacs that are currently on the market have unknown efficacy, potency and safety profiles. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of imported Chinese aphrodisiacs using guinea pigs as a model. Two types of drugs were purchased from vendors in Blantyre City. Tonic tea, which was purported to improve erectile function and libido, and sperm multiplier tablets which were claimed to increase the sperm count. The tonic tea was prepared by soaking one tea bag in 100ml boiling water. The tea was cooled and administered to eight male experimental animals in varying doses. Each animal was introduced into a separate cage with a female guinea pig. Sexual behaviour such as mounting, sniffing behind the female were observed and recorded. Each sperm multiplier tablet was dissolved in distilled water and administered to the experimental animals in the morning and evening for seven days. At the end of the treatment, the experimental and control animals were sacrificed, their semen collected and analysed sperm motility, concentration and morphology. For the tonic tea, there were no statistical differences between the experimental and the control animals in terms of the number of mountings and sniffing behind the female. The sperm multiplier drug showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control animals in terms of the sperm motility (78.24 ± 1.35 vs. 86.54 ± 1.88, p< 0.05), and concentration (54.28 ± 1.24 vs. 67.59 ± 2.12, p<0.05). The tonic tea did not show any efficacy in improving erection and libido. The sperm multiplier tablets, purported to increase sperm production, significantly increased the sperm motility, sperm concentration in the treated animals.

  8. Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    are able to fertilize close to 100 per cent of the eggs and that the average sperm use per egg is very low, but increases with queen age. The robustness of stored sperm was found to decrease with years of storage, signifying that senescence affects sperm either directly or indirectly via the declining...... glandular secretions or deteriorating sperm-storage organs. We evaluate our findings with a heuristic model, which suggests that the average queen has sperm for almost 9 years of normal colony development. We discuss the extent to which leaf-cutter ant queens have been able to optimize their sperm...

  9. Regulation of the sperm calcium channel CatSper by endogenous steroids and plant triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannowetz, Nadja; Miller, Melissa R; Lishko, Polina V

    2017-05-30

    The calcium channel of sperm (CatSper) is essential for sperm hyperactivated motility and fertility. The steroid hormone progesterone activates CatSper of human sperm via binding to the serine hydrolase ABHD2. However, steroid specificity of ABHD2 has not been evaluated. Here, we explored whether steroid hormones to which human spermatozoa are exposed in the male and female genital tract influence CatSper activation via modulation of ABHD2. The results show that testosterone, estrogen, and hydrocortisone did not alter basal CatSper currents, whereas the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate exerted similar effects as progesterone, likely binding to the same site. However, physiological concentrations of testosterone and hydrocortisone inhibited CatSper activation by progesterone. Additionally, testosterone antagonized the effect of pregnenolone sulfate. We have also explored whether steroid-like molecules, such as the plant triterpenoids pristimerin and lupeol, affect sperm fertility. Interestingly, both compounds competed with progesterone and pregnenolone sulfate and significantly reduced CatSper activation by either steroid. Furthermore, pristimerin and lupeol considerably diminished hyperactivation of capacitated spermatozoa. These results indicate that ( i ) pregnenolone sulfate together with progesterone are the main steroids that activate CatSper and ( ii ) pristimerin and lupeol can act as contraceptive compounds by averting sperm hyperactivation, thus preventing fertilization.

  10. Attitudes of infertile couples to sperm donation: the role of religious beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    نرگس باقری لنکرانی

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Half of infertile couples referring to health centers are infertile males. The aim of present study was considering the attitudes of infertile couples to sperm donation. This study is a qualitative content analysis research which concentrates on the opinions of the people who discuss about sperm donation in a cyberspace social network. In this field the opinions of jurists and scientific issues based on priorities of each available option for the treatment of infertility have been compared and prioritized. In order to analyze these attitudes, and according to the religion and its impact on the approach and decision making, particularly in the treatment of infertility as the completion of married life, the shadow of religion in decision-making is considered. Finally, three main themes and four sub-themes were extracted. Main themes are: the most frequent methods i.e. sperm donation, embryo donation and adoption. Due to the more negative view of sperm donation comparing to embryo donation it seems that the existence of sperm donation just increases the number of treatment options, but adds many restrictions in the whole Islamic community.

  11. Association between air pollution and sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zibing; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Meixia; Lan, Lan; Qiao, Zhijiao; Cui, Yan; An, Jinghuan; Wang, Nan; Fan, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been clearly linked to adverse reproductive outcome and fecundation index, but its effects on male semen quality are still uncertain. In this study, we reviewed information from ten studies to get the qualitative evidence of the influence of the ambient air pollution on sperm quality and collected data from six of the ten studies to conduct meta-analysis. The original studies classified participants into different exposure levels and the highest and lowest expose levels were chosen as high expose and low expose groups, respectively. The random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis with the weight mean difference (WMD) as the measure indicator. The WMDs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) of sperm volume, sperm count, semen concentration, sperm progressive motility, total motility, and normal morphology were 0.09 (-0.04, 0.23), 0.46 (-4.47, 5.39), -8.21 (-20.38, 3.96), -7.76 (-16.26, 0.74), -7.61 (-16.97, 1.74) and -3.40 (-7.42, 0.62), respectively. In conclusion, although the differences are not statistically significant between the two groups, the overall trends and evidence from this review indicate the chronic exposure to ambient pollutants at high level may alter men sperm quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute toxicity effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on sperm vitality, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jigang; Niu, Cuijuan

    2017-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has emerged as one of the most concerning contaminants in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity effect of PFOS on sperm viability, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Sperm were activated in aqueous media containing a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.9 and 9 mg/L). Viabilities and kinematics of the sperm exposed to different PFOS treatments were assessed via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) at 20, 40, 60, and 80 s after activation. PFOS exposure decreased the percentage of motile sperm, the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the mean angular displacement (MAD) of spermatozoa, but showed no influence on the straight-line velocity (VSL) or the angular path velocity (VAP). Furthermore, a significant decrease in fertilization success was observed in spermatozoa that were exposed to 0.9 mg/L PFOS or more. These findings indicate that PFOS pollution in natural aquatic environment may be a potential threaten to successful reproduction of fish.

  13. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  14. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Bjerrum, Poul J; Jessen, Torben E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human spermatozoa, and VDR-knockout mice and vitamin D (VD) deficiency in rodents results in impaired fertility, low sperm counts and a low number of motile spermatozoa. We investigated the role of activated VD (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in human...... spermatozoa and whether VD serum levels are associated with semen quality. METHODS Cross-sectional association study of semen quality and VD serum level in 300 men from the general population, and in vitro studies on spermatozoa from 40 men to investigate the effects of VD on intracellular calcium, sperm......M). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium concentration in human spermatozoa through VDR-mediated calcium release from an intracellular calcium storage, increased sperm motility and induced the acrosome reaction in vitro. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium...

  15. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Leigh W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.

  17. Relationships between seminal plasma metals/metalloids and semen quality, sperm apoptosis and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Peng; Feng, Wei; Liu, Chong; Yang, Pan; Chen, Ying-Jun; Sun, Li; Sun, Yang; Yue, Jing; Gu, Long-Jie; Zeng, Qiang; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between environmental exposure to metals/metalloids and semen quality, sperm apoptosis and DNA integrity using the metal/metalloids levels in seminal plasma as biomarkers. We determined 18 metals/metalloids in seminal plasma using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry among 746 men recruited from a reproductive medicine center. Associations of these metals/metalloids with semen quality (n = 746), sperm apoptosis (n = 331) and DNA integrity (n = 404) were evaluated using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. After accounting for multiple comparisons and confounders, seminal plasma arsenic (As) quartiles were negatively associated with progressive and total sperm motility using multivariable linear regression analysis, which were in accordance with the trends for increased odds ratios (ORs) for below-reference semen quality parameters in the logistic models. We also found inverse correlations between cadmium (Cd) quartiles and progressive and total sperm motility, whereas positive correlations between zinc (Zn) quartiles and sperm concentration, between copper (Cu) and As quartiles and the percentage of tail DNA, between As and selenium (Se) quartiles and tail extent and tail distributed moment, and between tin (Sn) categories and the percentage of necrotic spermatozoa (all P trend <0.05). These relationships remained after the simultaneous consideration of various elements. Our results indicate that environmental exposure to As, Cd, Cu, Se and Sn may impair male reproductive health, whereas Zn may be beneficial to sperm concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Trace Elements for Oxidative Status and Quality of Human Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenkova, Galina; Petrov, Lubomir; Alexandrova, Albena

    2017-08-04

    Oxidative stress affects sperm quality negatively. To maintain the pro/antioxidant balance, some metal ions (e.g. copper, zink, iron, selenium), which are co-factors of the antioxidant enzymes, are essential. However, iron and copper could act as prooxidants inducing oxidative damage of spermatozoa. To reveal a possible correlation between the concentrations of some metal ions (iron, copper, zinc, and selenium) in human seminal plasma, oxidative stress, assessed by malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels, and semen quality, assessed by the parameters count, motility, and morphology. Descriptive study. The semen analysis for volume, count, and motility was performed according to World Health Organization (2010) guidelines, using computer-assisted semen analysis. For the determination of spermatozoa morphology, a SpermBlue staining method was applied. Depending on their parameters, the sperm samples were categorized into normozoospermic, teratozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic, and oligoteratozoospermic. The seminal plasma content of iron, copper, zinc, and selenium was estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels were quantified spectrophotometrically. In the groups with poor sperm quality, the levels of Fe were higher, whereas those of Zn and Se were significantly lower than in the normozoospermic group. In all groups with poor sperm quality, increased levels of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione levels were detected as evidence of oxidative stress occurrence. All these differences are most pronounced in the asthenoteratozoospermic group where values differ nearly twice as much compared to the normozoospermic group. The Fe concentration correlated positively with the malondialdehyde (r=0.666, p=0.018), whereas it showed a negative correlation with the level of total glutathione (r=-0.689, p=0.013). The total glutathione level correlated positively with the sperm motility (r=0.589, p=0.044). The elevated

  19. Sperm production, testicular size, serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels in Merino and Corriedale breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Abella, D; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Villegas, N; Bentancur, O

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between testis size, hormone secretion and sperm production were studied during the spring (December) and autumn (May) in rams of two breeds with different breeding seasons and body weights (Corriedale and Australian Merino) maintained on native pastures and under natural photoperiods in Uruguay. Blood samples were collected at 20-min intervals during a 260-360-min period in 13 rams (four Corriedale, nine Australian Merino) during the late spring and autumn. Rams were weighed and testis size was estimated by orchimetry at each time period. Sperm production was estimated during a 2-week period, 2 months before blood collection and during each week following every blood collection. There was no relationship between testicular size and sperm production measured at the same time, nor between live weight and sperm production. In contrast, testicular volume during the late spring was correlated with sperm production in the autumn (r = 0.65; P = 0.02). The autumn serum LH was higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams. LH pulsatility was unaffected by season, but LH pulse frequency tended to be higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams, particularly in the late spring (2.37 versus 1.56 pulses/6 h; P = 0.08). Serum testosterone concentration was similar in both breeds and seasons. FSH levels were higher in the late spring than in the autumn in both breeds (Corriedale: 2.83 +/- 0.48 versus 2.17 +/- 0.24 ng x mL(-1); Merino: 2.23 +/- 0.24 versus 1.88 +/- 0.17 ng x mL(-1)). FSH and testosterone concentrations during the late spring were positively correlated with autumn sperm production (P = 0.07 and P = 0.03, respectively). In conclusion, the present experiment suggests that LH secretion is not a good parameter for the prediction of sperm production. In contrast, in our conditions (breeds and native pastures) testicular size and testosterone or FSH concentrations from the late spring may be used to predict sperm production in the autumn.

  20. Role of Trace Elements for Oxidative Status and Quality of Human Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nenkova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress affects sperm quality negatively. To maintain the pro/antioxidant balance, some metal ions (e.g. copper, zink, iron, selenium, which are co-factors of the antioxidant enzymes, are essential. However, iron and copper could act as prooxidants inducing oxidative damage of spermatozoa. Aims: To reveal a possible correlation between the concentrations of some metal ions (iron, copper, zinc, and selenium in human seminal plasma, oxidative stress, assessed by malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels, and semen quality, assessed by the parameters count, motility, and morphology. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The semen analysis for volume, count, and motility was performed according to World Health Organization (2010 guidelines, using computer-assisted semen analysis. For the determination of spermatozoa morphology, a SpermBlue staining method was applied. Depending on their parameters, the sperm samples were categorized into normozoospermic, teratozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic, and oligoteratozoospermic. The seminal plasma content of iron, copper, zinc, and selenium was estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels were quantified spectrophotometrically. Results: In the groups with poor sperm quality, the levels of Fe were higher, whereas those of Zn and Se were significantly lower than in the normozoospermic group. In all groups with poor sperm quality, increased levels of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione levels were detected as evidence of oxidative stress occurrence. All these differences are most pronounced in the asthenoteratozoospermic group where values differ nearly twice as much compared to the normozoospermic group. The Fe concentration correlated positively with the malondialdehyde (r=0.666, p=0.018, whereas it showed a negative correlation with the level of total glutathione (r=-0.689, p=0.013. The total glutathione level correlated

  1. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Epididymosomes: transfer of fertility-modulating proteins to the sperm surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins are acquired on spermatozoa from epididymal luminal fluids (ELF) during sperm maturation. These proteins serve roles in immunoprotection and in key steps of fertilization such as capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis and sperm-egg interactions. Their acquisition on sperm cells is mediated both by membrane vesicles (epididymosomes, EP) which were first reported to dock on the sperm surface, and by lipid carriers which facilitate the transfer of proteins associated with the membrane-free fraction of ELF. While the nonvesicular fraction is more efficient, both pathways are dependent on hydrophobic interactions between the GPI-anchor and the external lipid layer of the sperm surface. More recently proteomic and hypothesis-driven studies have shown that EP from several mammals carry transmembrane (TM) proteins, including plasma membrane Ca 2 + -ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Synthesized in the testis, PMCA4 is an essential protein and the major Ca 2 + efflux pump in murine spermatozoa. Delivery of PMCA4 to spermatozoa from bovine and mouse EP during epididymal maturation and in vitro suggests that the docking of EP on the sperm surface precedes fusion, and experimental evidence supports a fusogenic mechanism for TM proteins. Fusion is facilitated by CD9, which generates fusion-competent sites on membranes. On the basis of knowledge of PMCA4's interacting partners a number of TM and membrane-associated proteins have been identified or are predicted to be present, in the epididymosomal cargo deliverable to spermatozoa. These Ca 2 + -dependent proteins, undetected in proteomic studies, play essential roles in sperm motility and fertility, and their detection highlights the usefulness of the hypothesis-driven approach.

  3. Epididymosomes: transfer of fertility-modulating proteins to the sperm surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Martin-DeLeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-linked proteins are acquired on spermatozoa from epididymal luminal fluids (ELF during sperm maturation. These proteins serve roles in immunoprotection and in key steps of fertilization such as capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis and sperm-egg interactions. Their acquisition on sperm cells is mediated both by membrane vesicles (epididymosomes, EP which were first reported to dock on the sperm surface, and by lipid carriers which facilitate the transfer of proteins associated with the membrane-free fraction of ELF. While the nonvesicular fraction is more efficient, both pathways are dependent on hydrophobic interactions between the GPI-anchor and the external lipid layer of the sperm surface. More recently proteomic and hypothesis-driven studies have shown that EP from several mammals carry transmembrane (TM proteins, including plasma membrane Ca 2 + -ATPase 4 (PMCA4. Synthesized in the testis, PMCA4 is an essential protein and the major Ca 2 + efflux pump in murine spermatozoa. Delivery of PMCA4 to spermatozoa from bovine and mouse EP during epididymal maturation and in vitro suggests that the docking of EP on the sperm surface precedes fusion, and experimental evidence supports a fusogenic mechanism for TM proteins. Fusion is facilitated by CD9, which generates fusion-competent sites on membranes. On the basis of knowledge of PMCA4′s interacting partners a number of TM and membrane-associated proteins have been identified or are predicted to be present, in the epididymosomal cargo deliverable to spermatozoa. These Ca 2 + -dependent proteins, undetected in proteomic studies, play essential roles in sperm motility and fertility, and their detection highlights the usefulness of the hypothesis-driven approach.

  4. Diazinon alters sperm chromatin structure in mice by phosphorylating nuclear protamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, widely used in agriculture and pest control, are associated with male reproductive effects, including sperm chromatin alterations, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. The main toxic action of OP is related to phosphorylation of proteins. Chemical alterations in sperm nuclear proteins (protamines), which pack DNA during the last steps of spermatogenesis, contribute to male reproductive toxicity. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the ability of diazinon (DZN), an OP compound, to alter sperm chromatin by phosphorylating nuclear protamines. Mice were injected with a single dose of DZN (8.12 mg/kg, i.p.), and killed 8 and 15 days after treatment. Quality of sperm from epididymis and vas deferens was evaluated through standard methods and chromatin condensation by flow cytometry (DNA Fragmented Index parameters: DFI and DFI%) and fluorescence microscopy using chromomycin-A 3 (CMA 3 ). Increases in DFI (15%), DFI% (4.5-fold), and CMA 3 (2-fold) were observed only at 8 days post-treatment, indicating an alteration in sperm chromatin condensation and DNA damage during late spermatid differentiation. In addition, an increase of phosphorous content (approximately 50%) in protamines, especially in the phosphoserine content (approximately 73%), was found at 8 days post-treatment. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology showed significant alterations at this time. These data strongly suggest that spermatozoa exposed during the late steps of maturation were the targets of DZN exposure. The correlation observed between the phosphorous content in nuclear protamines with DFI%, DFI, and CMA 3 provides evidence that phosphorylation of nuclear protamines is involved in the OP effects on sperm chromatin

  5. Sperm Donation and the Right to Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallich, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.

  6. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% ... gonadotrophin (HCG) 5000 ID was given when the average size of three ... have a normal sperm count and motility but have lower than normal ...

  7. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  8. Short communication Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leyland Fraser

    Short communication. Sperm DNA ... (Received 21 January 2017; Accepted 28 February2017; First published online 8 March 2017) ... This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage.

  9. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. in 't Veld; F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); H.F. de France; P.L. Pearson; M.H. Pieters; R.J. van Kooij

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn infertile couple was referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of primary infertility and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) in the male. It was observed that although the sperm cells presented with an unusual head size and multiple

  10. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  11. Effect of an isotonic lubricant on sperm collection and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Malvezzi, Helena; Sharma, Rakesh

    2013-05-01

    To assess the influence of an isotonic lubricant used during sperm sample collection on [1] ease of collection and [2] resultant sperm quality. Paired randomized cross-over design. Tertiary hospital. Healthy men over 18 years old with normal semen analysis as per World Health Organization 2010 guidelines. Collection of semen sample from 22 subjects by masturbation with or without the use of Pre-Seed personal lubricant. Qualitative survey results and quantitative sperm function outcomes were measured to determine resultant sperm quality and collection experience with and without Pre-Seed lubricant. The qualitative questionnaire results showed that 73% of donors prefer the semen collection process with the isotonic lubricant and 55% recommended the use of lubricant in their everyday collection. The motility, viability, membrane integrity, levels of reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity, and percentage of DNA damage in collected semen samples were not affected by the use of the lubricant. More donors prefer, and find it easier, to collect semen samples with the use of the lubricant. The isotonic lubricant Pre-Seed did not compromise sperm quality as evaluated in an array of sperm assays, suggesting its safe use in fertility patients as required during sperm collection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sperm DNA fragmentation in boars is delayed or abolished by using sperm extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llano, Begoña; Enciso, María; García-Casado, Pedro; Sala, Rubén; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    The semen quality of seven young adult boars was assessed for percentages of sperm motility, normal acrosomes, abnormal sperm, cells positive to sHOST (short Hipoosmotic Swelling Test), HPNA cells (sHOST Positive with Normal Acrosome cells) and the percentage of sperm heads, which exhibited DNA fragmentation using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCD). These parameters were analysed in sperm samples both undiluted and diluted using a commercial extender and stored at 15 degrees C for 21 days. Results showed that semen quality decreases faster in the undiluted semen samples from day 0 to day 7 compared to diluted semen samples that remained with a high quality up to day 11. The undiluted semen exhibited a low DNA fragmentation index (DFI) during the first days and then a significant increase from day 7 up to day 21. This increase in the DFI coincided with the lowest levels of the other semen quality parameters. On the contrary, the samples diluted in the commercial extender showed very low levels of DNA fragmentation in all boars during the preservation period. When the evolution of DNA fragmentation was analysed in the undiluted samples, differences were found among boars. These differences were not shown in the samples diluted in the extender where the basal DFI remained stable during the 21 days. The main conclusion of this study was that some sperm extenders delay or partially prevent sperm DNA fragmentation.

  13. Penambahan Astaxanthin pada Pengencer Kuning Telur Berbagai Jenis Unggas Dapat Memproteksi Semen Babi Selama Penyimpanan (THE ADDITION OF ASTAXANTHIN ON SPERM DILUENTS PHOSPHATE EGGYOLK OF VARIOUS POULTRY CAN PROTECT QUALITY OF PIG SPERM DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Bebas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to formulate semen diluent of pigswith a better quality, cheap and easy toprepare using egg yolk of various poultries such as chickens, ducks and quails in combinationwithastaxanthin, a potent antioxidant. The research design used was a completely randomized factorialdesign with three different types of sperm diluents and four levels of astaxanthin concentration. Spermdiluents used were phosphate duck egg yolk, phosphate quail egg yolk and yolks phosphate supplementedrespectivelywith 0,002%, 0,004% and 0,008%astaxanthine. The treated sperm were strored at 5oC for 48hours. The sperm qualities were examined for progressive motility, spermatozoa abnormalities, viabilityand plasma membrane integrity. The result showed that sperm diluents of using duck egg yolk phosphatein combination with 0.002% astaxanthinresulted in the highest progressive motility, viability and plasmamembrane intact while abnormalities spermatozoa is lowest. It can be concluded that phosphate duck eggyolk sperm diluents with the addition of 0,002% astaxanthinappeared to be able to maintain the qualityof pig sperm stored at 5oC for 48 hours.

  14. Evolutionary genetics and ecology of sperm-dependent parthenogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Vrijenhoek, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Sperm-dependent (or pseudogamous) forms of parthenogenetic reproduction occur in a wide variety of animals. Inheritance is typically clonal and matroclinous (of female descent), but sperm are needed to initiate normal development. As opposed to true parthenogenesis (i.e., sperm-independent

  15. Effect of 4-nonylphenol on the sperm dynamic parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a compound that causes endocrine disruption and affects sperm quality of mammals and fish. However, the effects of NP on the sperm and fertilization rate of amphibians remain unknown. This study investigates the in vivo and in vitro effects of NP on the sperm dynamic parameters and fertilization ...

  16. Sperm storage and duration of fertility in female ostriches ( Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region. Fertilisation ...

  17. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a nu...

  18. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173.275... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed...

  19. Good Quality - the Routinization of Sperm Banking in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    Good Quality is an assemblage ethnography of how sperm banking came to be routinized in China. Based on 8 years of episodic fieldwork at China’s oldest and largest sperm bank in Changsha, Hunan province, the book meticulously chronicles how, beginning in the early 1980s, a unique style of sperm b...

  20. Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Effects on the Sperm Fertility Parameters, Glycated Hemoglobin and Total Cholesterol in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sookhthezari

    2016-01-01

    (R2=0.90, P=0.012 was depicted between HbA1c and sperm concentration in the diabetic group. Epithelial vaculization of semineferous tubules was observed in the diabetic group in comparison with the control group and epidydimal ducts indicated increased volume of spermatoza in the controls when compared to the diabetic rats. Conclusion: As the study findings revealed diabetes was associated with decreased sperm concentration in the cauda epididymis even two weeks after hyperglycemia induction, which can be mentioned as a predective index for subfertility. Furthermore, Glycated hemoglobin revealed a negetive relationship with sperm concentration. Hypercholestrolemia was also shown in early stages of diabetes indicating an impairment in lipids metabolism, which was confirmed by the histology changes.

  1. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) in the medical laboratory: CASA in diagnostic andrology and assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mathew J; Naeem, Asad

    2018-03-21

    CASA has been used in reproductive medicine and pathology laboratories for over 25 years, yet the 'fertility industry' generally remains sceptical and has avoided automation, despite clear weaknesses in manual semen analysis. Early implementers had difficulty in validating CASA-Mot instruments against recommended manual methods (haemocytometer) due to the interference of seminal debris and non-sperm cells, which also affects the accuracy of grading motility. Both the inability to provide accurate sperm counts and a lack of consensus as to the value of sperm kinematic parameters appear to have continued to have a negative effect on CASA-Mot's reputation. One positive interpretation from earlier work is that at least one or more measures of sperm velocity adds clinical value to the semen analysis, and these are clearly more objective than any manual motility analysis. Moreover, recent CASA-Mot systems offer simple solutions to earlier problems in eliminating artefacts and have been successfully validated for sperm concentration; as a result, they should be viewed with more confidence in relation to motility grading. Sperm morphology and DNA testing both require an evidence-based consensus and a well-validated (reliable, reproducible) assay to be developed before automation of either can be of real clinical benefit.

  2. Detection of radiation-induced genetic damage using sperm abnormality assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative experiment on radiation-induced sperm abnormalities was made with mice, golden hamsters, and crab-eating monkeys. Sperm sites showing morphological abnormalities following irradiation were divided into head, neck, head plus neck, and others (including middle piece and tail). Local x-ray irradiation (200 KVp at a rate of 30 rad min) to the testes was undertaken in mice and golden hamsters, and local gamma-ray irradiation ( 137 Cs at a rate of 30 rad min) to the testes were undertaken in crab-eating monkeys. The head and neck were sensitive to radiation, showing morphological abnormalities. The number of abnormal sperms reached the peak at 5 - 6 wk after irradiation in mice and golden hamsters; at 6 wk with 300 rad and at 8 wk with 100 and 200 rad in crab-eating monkeys. Doubling doses for sperm abnormalities were 30 rad in mice and approximately 50 rad in golden hamsters. The dose-response curves on sperm abnormalities in crab-eating monkeys approximated to those in golden hamsters. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Sperm ultrastructure of shrimps from the family Penaeidae (Crustacea: Dendrobranchiata) in a phylogenetic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Tavani Rocha; Rossi, Natalia; Castilho, Antonio L; Costa, Rogério C; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Zara, Fernando José

    2017-07-01

    We describe the sperm ultrastructure of six penaeid species, including at least one member of each tribe (Penaeini, Parapenaeini and Trachypenaeini). Fragments of the vas deferens of the Penaeidae Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, Parapenaeus americanus, Rimapenaeus constrictus and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were fixed and processed according to the routine for transmission electron microscopy. The morphological results were contextualized in an evolutionary perspective using molecular markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of this group. A phylogram was proposed by Bayesian inference based on 1007 bp of 33 sequences of the combined genes (16S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 27 dendrobranchiate specimens. Our findings show that morphological differences in the sperm ultrastructures of members among the tribes of Penaeidae can be used as a baseline to understand their evolutionary relationships. Individuals from the Penaeini tribe show plesiomorphic characteristics in the sperm ultrastructure compared to the Trachypenaeini tribe from which they were derived, such as shrimp from family Sicyoniidae. The morphological complexity of the sperm of the different penaeid members corroborated with the genetic phylogeny, which showed different clades for each tribe and the close relationship with Sicyoniidae. The sperm features of the selected species studied here reflected their evolutionary history. These features confirm the previous phylogenetic hypothesis and question the monophyly of Penaeidae, which should be verified in the future with a more complete set of representative members of each tribe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izatus Shima Taib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  5. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

  6. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  7. Effect of transfection and co-incubation of bovine sperm with exogenous DNA on sperm quality and functional parameters for its use in sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, María Elena; Sánchez-Villalba, Esther; Delgado, Andrea; Felmer, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the capacity of sperm to bind exogenous DNA and transfer it into the oocyte during fertilization. In bovines, the progress of this technology has been slow due to the poor reproducibility and efficiency of the production of transgenic embryos. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different sperm transfection systems on the quality and functional parameters of sperm. Additionally, the ability of sperm to bind and incorporate exogenous DNA was assessed. These analyses were carried out by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and motility parameters were also evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Transfection was carried out using complexes of plasmid DNA with Lipofectamine, SuperFect and TurboFect for 0.5, 1, 2 or 4 h. The results showed that all of the transfection treatments promoted sperm binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA, similar to sperm incorporation of DNA alone, without affecting the viability. Nevertheless, the treatments and incubation times significantly affected the motility parameters, although no effect on the integrity of DNA or the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed. Additionally, we observed that transfection using SuperFect and TurboFect negatively affected the acrosome integrity, and TurboFect affected the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm. In conclusion, we demonstrated binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA by sperm after transfection and confirmed the capacity of sperm to spontaneously incorporate exogenous DNA. These findings will allow the establishment of the most appropriate method [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF)] of generating transgenic embryos via SMGT based on the fertilization capacity of transfected sperm.

  8. Optimization of conditions for long-term prefreezing storage of brown bear sperm before cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Anel-López, L; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Manrique, P; Borragan, S; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2015-10-15

    Brown bear ejaculates are usually collected in field conditions and may need to be shipped to a laboratory for the application of reproductive biotechnologies before cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to extend the prefreezing step to 48 hours (1 hour vs. long-term storage [LS] to 24 and 48 hours) to enable the sample to be transported. The effects of storage temperature (experiment 1), glycerol concentration (experiment 2), and dilution rate (experiment 3) on sperm were evaluated. Electroejaculates from brown bears were stored under different experimental conditions and cryopreserved. The sperm motility and viability, apoptotic status, and acrosomal status of sperm were assessed before freezing (prefreezing), after thawing, and after 2-hour incubation at 37 °C (thermal stress test). In all experiments, one control sample was frozen using a standard protocol (control). In experiment 1, three temperatures during LS with 6% glycerol were tested: 5 °C (T5), 15 °C (T15), and room temperature (RT). The LS-T5 sample yielded the highest postthawing results for viability (42.4%), progressive motility (15.6%), and intact acrosome (83.1%) after 24 hours in comparison with the other temperatures (P bear electroejaculates are at 5 °C, at a concentration of 100 × 10(6) sperm/mL, and with 6% glycerol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sperm as an indicator of reproductive risk among petroleum refinery workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Ratcliffe, J.; Gordon, L.A.; Watchmaker, G.; Fox, S.H.; Moore, D.H.; Hornung, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    A questionnaire study of men in a wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery showed twice the rate of fetal loss in the period during employment in the plant compared with the periods before and after. Questions regarding the interpretation of that study and continuing concern about reproductive risk prompted us to perform a cross sectional evaluation of sperm concentration and morphology. After adjustment for an abstinence period, the mean sperm concentration of the 74 unexposed men did not differ significantly from that of the 34 exposed men (79.9 million/cm/sup 3/ v 68.2 million/cm/sup 3/, p(1) . 0.16). The two groups also had a similar proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology (49.1% v 44.5%, p(1) . 0.94). This lack of association remained when degree of exposure, age, use of alcohol and marijuana, past illness or fever, use of baths or sauna, and history of urological problems were considered. These results are most consistent with the absence of sperm mediated reproductive problems.

  10. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  11. The impact of varicocelectomy on sperm parameters: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Ingrid; Madersbacher, Stephan; Jost, Romy; Hübner, Wilhelm Alexander; Imhof, Martin

    2012-05-01

    We determined the impact of 3 surgical techniques (high ligation, inguinal varicocelectomy and the subinguinal approach) for varicocelectomy on sperm parameters (count and motility) and pregnancy rates. By searching the literature using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library with the last search performed in February 2011, focusing on the last 20 years, a total of 94 articles published between 1975 and 2011 reporting on sperm parameters before and after varicocelectomy were identified. Inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis were at least 2 semen analyses (before and 3 or more months after the procedure), patient age older than 19 years, clinical subfertility and/or abnormal semen parameters, and a clinically palpable varicocele. To rule out skewing factors a bias analysis was performed, and statistical analysis was done with RevMan5(®) and SPSS 15.0(®). A total of 14 articles were included in the statistical analysis. All 3 surgical approaches led to significant or highly significant postoperative improvement of both parameters with only slight numeric differences among the techniques. This difference did not reach statistical significance for sperm count (p = 0.973) or sperm motility (p = 0.372). After high ligation surgery sperm count increased by 10.85 million per ml (p = 0.006) and motility by 6.80% (p average. Inguinal varicocelectomy led to an improvement in sperm count of 7.17 million per ml (p sperm count of 9.75 million per ml (p = 0.002) and sperm motility by 12.25% (p = 0.001). Inguinal varicocelectomy showed the highest pregnancy rate of 41.48% compared to 26.90% and 26.56% after high ligation and subinguinal varicocelectomy, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.035). This meta-analysis suggests that varicocelectomy leads to significant improvements in sperm count and motility regardless of surgical technique, with the inguinal approach offering the highest pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association

  12. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4: interaction with constitutive nitric oxide synthases in human sperm and prostasomes which carry Ca2+/CaM-dependent serine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rachel E; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Deletion of the gene encoding the widely conserved plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4), a major Ca(2+) efflux pump, leads to loss of sperm motility and male infertility in mice. PMCA4's partners in sperm and how its absence exerts its effect on fertility are unknown. We hypothesize that in sperm PMCA4 interacts with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) which are rapidly activated by Ca(2+), and that these fertility-modulating proteins are present in prostasomes, which deliver them to sperm. We show that in human sperm PMCA4 is present on the acrosome, inner acrosomal membrane, posterior head, neck, midpiece and the proximal principal piece. PMCA4 localization showed inter- and intra-individual variation and was most abundant at the posterior head/neck junction, co-localizing with NOSs. Co-immunoprecipitations (Co-IP) revealed a close association of PMCA4 and the NOSs in Ca(2+) ionophore-treated sperm but much less so in uncapacitated untreated sperm. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed a similar Ca(2+)-related association: PMCA4 and the NOSs are within 10 nm apart, and preferentially so in capacitated, compared with uncapacitated, sperm. FRET efficiencies varied, being significantly (P < 0.001) higher at high cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in capacitated sperm than at low [Ca(2+)]c in uncapacitated sperm for the PMCA4-eNOS complex. These dynamic interactions were not seen for PMCA4-nNOS complexes, which had the highest FRET efficiencies. Further, along with Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent serine kinase (CASK), PMCA4 and the NOSs are present in the seminal plasma, specifically in prostasomes where Co-IP showed complexes similar to those in sperm. Finally, flow cytometry demonstrated that following co-incubation of sperm and seminal plasma, PMCA4 and the NOSs can be delivered in vitro to sperm via prostasomes. Our findings indicate that PMCA4 interacts simultaneously with the NOSs preferentially at

  13. The effects of inbreeding on sperm quality traits in captive‐bred lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1972)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, K.; Butts, I. A. E.; Smith, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of inbreeding in both captive and wild‐caught species and populations have been reported to affect a wide variety of life history traits. Recently, the effects of inbreeding on reproductive traits such as sperm quality have become a subject of particular interest for conservation...... biology, evolutionary ecology, and management of captive populations. This study investigated the effects of inbreeding on sperm quality in a captive population of experimentally inbred and outbred lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. It was found for moderately to highly inbred males (males with half......‐sib and full‐sib parents, respectively), that sperm quality traits (velocity, motility, linearity, longevity, spermatocrit and morphology) showed no apparent inbreeding depression. The apparent lack of inbreeding effects on sperm quality traits may be due to several factors including (i) no inbreeding...

  14. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.; Kos, S.; Beijer, C.; Brinkman, J.W.; Horst, F.A. van der; Hoven, L. van den; Kieslinger, D.C.; Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, N.J.; Wolthuis, A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically st