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Sample records for included socio-demographic characteristics

  1. original article socio-demographic characteristics of patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    young men and 36% among young women. While among youths aged 13 to 19 years, 57% of reported. HIV infections occurred among women and 43% among young men (3). Giri et al (4) in their study on the socio-demographic characteristics of HIV infection in northern Italia 134 patients testing positive to HIV antibody, ...

  2. Socio-demographic characteristics, maternal and fetal outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To document the socio-demographic characteristics, maternal and foetal outcome of booked patients presenting in second stage labour and compare them with those who presented in spontaneous active phase, first stage labour, delivering normally and without oxytocin augmentation. Method: Retrospective case ...

  3. Socio-demographic characterists of adolescent post-abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unsafe sex, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion are some of the emerging adolescent reproductive health challenges in Malawi. Objectives: To study socio-demographic characteristics of adolescent post-abortion patients and that of their male partners, with the aim of better understanding the ...

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory study of men having sex with men (MSM) was conducted in central and southern Malawi in order to understand their socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and perceptions about confidentiality and stigma. A total of 97 men participated in the study of whom 84 (86.6%) were in the age group ...

  5. Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of Dog Meat Consumers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to understand consumer spread prompted this study, which had the general objective of understanding the socio-demographic characteristics of dog meat consumers Calabar area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Thirty two (32) dog meat joints, 16 in Calabar Municipality, and 16 in Calabar South Local Government ...

  6. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with HIV and syphilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate socio-demographic factors associated with HIV and syphilis seroreactivity in pregnant Malawians presenting for antenatal care in late third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Between December 2000 and March 2004 at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital Blantyre, Malawi, we collected ...

  8. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of asthmatic children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with variable air flow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It is characterised clinically by recurrent episodes of cough, difficulty in breathing and wheezing which resolves spontaneously or with treatment. The socio-demographic and clinical ...

  9. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

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    Vuksanović Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. The differences were examined via two-factor ANOVA analysis of variance. The obtained results indicate that there are differences between age groups, in the level of education, monthly income and countries that foreign tourists come from, whereas there is no difference between genders in relation to the perception of local gastronomy. At the same time, the findings indicate that there are no differences in the perception of local gastronomy between the cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade. The results confirm previous studies and point out the significance of socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in their perception of local gastronomy and adapting it to the visitors, regardless of the city they visited.

  10. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...

  11. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

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    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  12. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.

  13. [Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) and Professional Training (30.5%) and low sleep quality (78.8%). The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.

  14. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  15. Maternal mortality and delay: Socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the contribution of delay to maternal deaths and also determined the socio¬demographic characteristics of patients with maternal deaths with associated delay. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of all maternal deaths in Irrua specialist Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January 1999 ...

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark in 2010. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once......BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics of a semi-urban community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study revealed that more frequent ad-hoc small-scale intensive surveys are needed to obtain valid, reliable demographic information for planning health intervention programmes and allocation of scarce resources to relevant sectors. KEY WORDS: Socio-Demographic characteristics; Semi urban ...

  18. The effect of socio-demographic characteristics of the dog owners on dog breed choices

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Mustafa; Ekiz, Bülent; Öztürk, Nurşen; Berk, Özlem Sertel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of the professional, semi-professional and non-professional dog owners who participate/interested are in any of association, social platform, pet fair and pet show related with dogs. Furthermore, it was purposed to determine the choices of owners from different demographic characteristics on size, dominance statue and function of the dog. This study was conducted by an online survey. The link of this survey was sent t...

  19. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

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    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  20. Relation Between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Depressive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Sayeda Ahmed; Hussien, El-Sayed Saleh; Hamed, Warda Elshahat; Zoromba, Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to assess the emotional intelligence in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders. A descriptive correlational study was utilized with a sample of (106) depressed patients who were diagnosed by a psychiatrist with depressive disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics in Mansoura University Hospital. Data were collected through assessing socio demographic and clinical characteristics, assessing level of depression using Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II, and assessing emotional intelligence using Barchard emotional intelligence scales. Results revealed that emotional intelligence not related significantly to socio demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders, there is a highly significant relationship between emotional intelligence in relation to level of depression and other practices used to alleviate depression. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a periodical workshops and training programs for adolescents and young in the universities, schools, social clubs, camps and youth organizations to enhance their emotional intelligence in order to prevent depression. In addition, assessing the effect of emotional intelligence programs on preventing and managing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics on Physical Activity of Pregnant Women at Referral Hospital in Riyadh, KSA

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    Shaffi Ahamed Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.

  2. Socio-demographic and health characteristics of elderly individuals: support for health services

    OpenAIRE

    Pilger, Calíope; Menon, Mario Humberto; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    This is a sectional epidemiological study including a household survey. It describes the socio-demographic and health conditions of elderly individuals residing in Guarapuava, PR, Brazil. The study's sample consisted of 359 elderly individuals enrolled in primary health care units in the city. Interviews were conducted from January to April 2010 using sections I and II of the Brazil Old Age Schedule questionnaire. The results revealed that most interviewees were women (64.3%), health self-per...

  3. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  4. Interior Design Styles and Socio-demographic Characteristics in Egypt: From the concept of Zeitgeist

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    Rasha Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interior design plays an important role in reflecting the social and cultural environments of countries and showing the characteristics of the age. The previous literature has suggested that people’s preferences for interior design styles are influenced by social distinctions, based on education level and age. In this study, we have argued more precisely socio – demographic factors (gender, age, income, major and city that affect the Egyptians’ preferences for interior design styles, and have discussed to what extent do the people preferences reflect Zeitgeist in Egypt. The findings supported the idea that socio-demographic factors can explain people’s design preferences.

  5. [Community attitudes towards mental illness and socio-demographic characteristics: an Italian study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Ponteri, Marco; Vittorielli, Michela; Corradi, Angela; Minicuci, Nadia; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    To assess the association between socio-demographic characteristics and community attitudes towards mentally ill people. We assessed a sample of 280 subjects, stratified for sex and age, which has identified using the electoral registers of Brescia. A letter was sent to everyone in order to introduce the future potential study participant to the topics of the public attitudes towards mental illness and it included an invitation to take part in the study. After, 280 subjects were contacted by telephone. Finally, 174 persons, who expressed their willingness to collaborate, were visited by a team of four trained interviewers. The instruments used were: a semi-structured interview; the Community Attitudes to the Mentally Ill (CAMI) inventory, which is composed by 40 statements, concerning the degree of acceptance of mental health services and mentally ill patients in the community; and the Fear and Behavioural Intentions (FABI) inventory, which is composed by 10 items, concerning fears and behavioural intentions towards mentally ill people. 106 subjects refused to participate. Factor analysis of the CAMI revealed three components Physical distance and fear, Social isolation and Social responsibility and tolerance. Factor 1 is associated with: people >61 years old; people being divorced/widowed/living separated; people who haven't participated in social or volunteer activities. Factor 2 is associated with: people > 41 years old; people being schooled at a level that's higher than elementary level; unemployed people. Factor 3 doesn't present any associations. The results of this study outline the need to: a) promote interventions focused to improve the general attitude towards people with mental illness; b) to favour specific actions in order to prevent or eliminate prejudices in subgroups of the population.

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics and career choices amongst Chilean dental students.

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    Karla Gambetta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and career choice characteristics of dental students in two publicly funded universities in Chile. A total of 601 dental students participated in the study with a 53% response rate.The written survey covered age, gender, type of school attended, place of residence, parental occupation, level of education, tuition fees payment methods, along with motivations and preferences towards dentistry as a career. The respondents had an average age of 22 years old. Sixty one percent of respondents were female, and the majority had completed secondary education in private and subsidized schools with only 21.5% having finished in public schools. Most of the students covered their tuition fees with parental money (37.1%, followed by any type of loan (27.9%. The majority of students (63.8% had placed dentistry as their first career choice with self-motivation being the most important reason for their decision. This study provides a description of the socio-demographic and economic profile of Chilean dental students and provides insights about career decision issues. It also purposes areas for further research and management by academics for future program development.

  7. WHAT SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS DO INFLUENCE THE LEVEL OF TOURIST’S SATISFACTION IN MONTENEGRO? EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

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    Đurđica PEROVIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Montenegro as tourist destination is committed to providing a high quality experience for the tourists while carefully managing the use of a rare natural resource. In order to achieve the strategic objectives in sustainable tourism development in the future, the main focus should be given to the analysis of the main determinants of tourist satisfaction. Using a database that provides information on tourist travel behaviour and satisfaction during her/his stay in Montenegro, we have conducted empirical analysis to understand if the socio-demographic characteristics are associated with the level of tourist’s satisfaction. The effect of socio-demographic characteristics is measured through five dimensions: gender, age, country of residence, occupation and wage. Using multinomial logit model we analyze above mentioned socio-demographic characteristics and their influence on the level of tourist’s satisfaction in Montenegro.

  8. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics among snus users and dual tobacco users in Stockholm County, Sweden

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    Galanti Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of snus users have not been systematically described. Such knowledge is pivotal for tobacco control efforts and for the assessment of health effects of snus use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on the Stockholm Public Health Survey, including a population-based sample of 34,707 men and women aged 18-84 years. We examined how socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related characteristics were associated with the prevalence of current daily snus use, smoking and dual tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios of prevalence (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Low educational level (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.41-1.81 and OR = 1.49, CI = 1.17-1.89, for men and women respectively, as well as occupational class and low income were associated with snus use. Some unfavourable lifestyle characteristics, including risky alcohol consumption (males: OR = 1.81, CI = 1.63-2.02; females: OR = 1.79, CI = 1.45-2.20, binge drinking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables were also associated with snus use. In contrast, physical inactivity and overweight/obesity were not, nor was perceived health. The prevalence of smoking followed steeper gradients for social as well as lifestyle characteristics. Overweight and obese men were however less often smokers. Perceived poor general health and psychological distress were highly related to smoking. Social disadvantage, as well as unhealthy lifestyle and self-reported poor health were strongly associated with dual use. There were limited differences between men and women. Conclusions The social, lifestyle and health profiles of exclusive snus users in Stockholm County are less favourable than those of non-users of tobacco, but more advantageous than those of exclusive smokers. This knowledge should guide tobacco control measures as well as the interpretation of health risks linked to snus use.

  9. [Nurses of large public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro: socio demographic and work related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed at analyzing socio-demographic and working characteristics of nurses from public hospitals. It was carried out a cross-sectional study, involving 3.229 nurses from the eighteen largest public hospitals of the city of Rio de Janeiro. It was observed a feminine predominance (87.3%), with mean age of 39.9 ± 10 years. Around 7% referred having master or doctorate degree, 58.5% got their degree from public institutions and 24.5% used to work at the health sector before becoming nurses. Half the group has thought of abandoning their career, and almost a quarter is unsatisfied with their profession. Around 10% searched for a job outside nursing area in the previous month and 30% searched for a job in the same working area. Night work, engagement in more than one job and long professional work hours were more frequently found among men. The study has pointed challengeable aspects of nurses' profession. Results can subsidize support strategies to improve the working conditions in public hospitals due to their comprehensiveness.

  10. The Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle of Consumers in Determinig Buying Tendency

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    Ana Slišković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a three-dimensional conceptualization of the buying tendency stemming from cognitive and affective impulsivity and susceptibility to the situational factors of buying. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of different dimensions of buying tendency to basic socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles of consumers. The study was conducted using a survey on a sample of 194 respondents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The obtained results indicate greater levels of cognitive and affective buying impulsivity in women compared to men, with no gender differences identified in the susceptibility to buying situational factors. Furthermore, significant effects were obtained by the level of total monthly family income of respondents in all dimensions of buying tendency, while the level of respondents' monthly income had a significant effect only on cognitive impulsivity. Employment status and education level had no significant effect on the buying tendency. Among the four studied consumers’ lifestyles (innovative, family, social and leadership oriented, innovatively oriented lifestyle has the strongest correlation to all three dimensions of buying tendency. In other words, innovatively oriented subjects are more prone to impulsive buying and susceptible to buying situational factors. In addition to the innovative orientation lifestyle, impulsive buying was also associated with the leadership orientation, but to a lesser extent. Susceptibility to buying situational factors was associated with all lifestyle orientations, apart from the family orientation.

  11. The Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Snorkeling Satisfaction in Pulau Payar Marine Park, Kedah

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    Nurbaidura Salim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its popularity and lucrative business opportunity, snorkeling has become the predominant activity in many marine parks. Continuous growth in the number of tourists and mass tourism has resulted in uncontrolled number of tourists, sometimes to pass over the carrying capacity of the site. Due to the lack of control and enforcement, many tour boat operators are seen bringing snorkelers to small fragile sites at the same timeframe. Such situation has resulted in reduced quality of tourist experience and satisfaction level as they need to cram in with others at the designated snorkeling areas. This study analyzes the influence of tourist demographic profile on the satisfaction level with snorkeling experience in the Pulau Payar Marine Park, a small coral island in Malaysia. A total of 259 snorkelers answered the survey that forms the basis of this paper. The results tested using t-tests and ANOVA, show significant differences between satisfaction level and respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics. Findings of the study indicated that only origin and education level positively associated with visitor satisfaction. Several issues, such as limiting the numbers of boats to be allowed at the site and facilities management such as toilets, changing rooms and solid waste management were among issues need to be considered by the Marine Park Department, in order to protect the island and its sustainability. This study highlights the importance of site management, in environmentally sensitive areas, for marine park managers and tour operators toward developing strategic marketing mixes for the different market segments.

  12. General and Special Education Teachers' Relations within Teamwork in Inclusive Education: Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…

  13. Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of Adults Screened For Hiv/Aids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS in Nigeria with a prevalence rate of 9.3 among adults aged 15 to 45 years. Yet, there is paucity of information on the socio-demographic factors associated with this level of prevalence. We hereby report the prevalence and ...

  14. Vulnerability to exercise addiction, socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics of runners at risk for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lodovico, Laura; Dubertret, Caroline; Ameller, Aurely

    2018-02-01

    Excessive exercise is frequently associated with eating disorders and may degenerate into exercise addiction. We still don't know whether runners at risk for eating disorders are at risk for exercise addiction. Our aim is to assess: 1) risk for exercise addiction in runners at risk for eating disorders and 2) socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing runners at-risk from not-at-risk for eating disorders. We assessed risk for eating disorders and exercise addiction using the SCOFF questionnaire and the Exercise Addiction Inventory personality traits with the Big-Five Inventory Test, socio-demographic data, eating and training habits in a sample of 154 healthy runners. Twenty five subjects had a score of ≥2 at the SCOFF and were included in the group "at risk for eating disorders". In this group, we found a higher percentage of subjects at risk for exercise addiction (p=0.01) and higher average scores at the Exercise Addiction Inventory (p=0.01) than runners not at risk (N=136). Runners at risk were statistically younger (p=0.03), women (p=0.001), started running to lose weight more often (p=0.03), lost more kilos since affiliation in their running club (p=0.04), and were characterized by neurotic traits using the Big-Five-Inventory Test (p=3.10 -6 ). Screening for exercise addiction and mood disorders could lead to a more accurate management of runners at risk for eating disorders. Identifying vulnerable individuals will facilitate the prevention of eating disorders and preserve the benefits of sport practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

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    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  16. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qobadi, Mina; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-03-03

    Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used in this study ( n = 3794). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS's multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7, ref = male) after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25-44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6, ref ≥ 64 years), those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5, ref = physically active) or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, ref = college graduate) or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, ref = college graduate) were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, ref = male) and those aged 18-24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21-0.9, ref ≥ 64 years) were less likely to be obese.

  17. Counterproductive Work Behaviors: a Socio-Demographic Characteristic-Based Study among Employees in the Nigerian Maritime Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche Ignatius Ikechukwu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB does not only differ across industries but also varies significantly according to socio-demographic characteristics. This study examines CWB and socio-demographic characteristics among selected employees in the Nigerian maritime industry. Causal research design was adopted to survey 1,000 employees selected through multistage sampling approach in three selected parastatals (Nigerian Ports Authority, Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency, and Nigerian Shippers Council. The data obtained were analyzed with ANOVA and t-test. Based on the analysis carried out, CWB was found to be significantly related to gender, age, marital status, employee cadre, and income, while employees’ level of educational attainment is not significantly related to CWB. Based on the abovementioned findings, the study concludes that the level of education is not significantly connected to the employees’ propensity towards CWB, while other socio-demographic variables are strongly associated to CWB in the workplace. The study recommends that management should develop a mechanism for identifying and selecting their potential employees as a guide against poor organizational fit of employees and that of the organization. Likewise, effort should be intensified to develop and improve organizational culture that will propel citizenship behavior in the workplace.

  18. Spatially Analyzing the Inequity of the Hong Kong Urban Heat Island by Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Peng, Fen; Zou, Bin; Shi, Wen Zhong; Wilson, Gaines J

    2016-03-12

    Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs). Lastly, inequity "hotspots" were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs) larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect.

  19. Spatially Analyzing the Inequity of the Hong Kong Urban Heat Island by Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs. Lastly, inequity “hotspots” were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect.

  20. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vainer Anna; Yaari Einat; Peled Ronit; Wilf-Miron Rachel; Porath Avi; Kokia Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan) providing healthcare services to 1.9 million memb...

  1. The Association of Point-of-Sale E-cigarette Advertising with Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; McCarthy, Molly; Ramos, Athena; Correa, Antonia

    2018-03-21

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area. We used Geographic Information Systems to map POS e-cigarette advertisement density for the entire study area. Linear regression was used to examine the association between socio-demographic factors and POS e-cigarette advertising density. E-cigarette advertising density exhibited an obviously uneven geographic pattern in Omaha. Higher level of POS e-cigarette advertising was significantly related to lower median household income, higher percentage of Hispanics, and higher percentage of young adults. However, after adjusting for covariates, only median household income remained significantly associated with POS e-cigarette advertising. We found geographic, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic disparities in exposure to POS e-cigarette advertising in Omaha, Nebraska. Future studies are needed to understand how these disparities influence e-cigarette adoption by different social groups and how to use such information to inform e-cigarette prevention strategies.

  2. Tuberculosis among homeless population from Medellín, Colombia: associated mental disorders and socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Sarmiento, José Mauricio; Correa, Nidia; Correa, Marta; Franco, José Gabriel; Alvarez, Matilde; Ramírez, Clara; Gómez, Lina M; Toro, Antonio Carlos; Londoño, Nora Helena; Martínez, Milton; Restrepo, Mary Alejandra; Zapata, Elsa; Mejía, Gloria Isabel; Robledo, Jaime

    2013-08-01

    Homeless people are highly susceptible to tuberculosis. It has been suggested that this population have high rates of mental disorders associated with tuberculosis. We assessed tuberculosis incidence, its transmission patterns and association with socio-demographic factors and mental disorders in Colombian homeless people. Prospective study which socio-demographic characteristics and mental disorders were assessed through interviews. Sputa from patients with respiratory symptoms were processed and clinical isolates analyzed by IS6110-RFLP. Multivariate analysis performed by logistic regression model. From 426 homeless studied, tuberculosis incidence found was 7.9 %. 44 % of isolates were clustering. It was found high risk of having tuberculosis associated with income from drugs trade (OR: 3.40 [95 % CI: 1.28-9.05]), dysthymia (OR: 2.54 [95 % CI: 1.10-5.86]) and receiving food from other homeless (OR: 2.47 [95 % CI: 1.16-5.25]). Tuberculosis incidence and degree of transmission are high in homeless studied. Implementing programs to better control tuberculosis among homeless population must consider socio-demographic factors and mental disorders associated with the disease.

  3. What children do on the Internet: domains visited and their relationship to socio-demographic characteristics and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Samona, Ricky; Moomaw, Jeff; Ramsay, Lauren; Murray, Christopher; Smith, Amy; Murray, Lindsay

    2007-04-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Participants included 140 children, mostly 13-year-old African American (83%) boys (58%), living in single-parent households (75%) where the median annual income was $15,000 (USD). This report focuses on children's Internet activities, socio-demographic characteristics related to their Internet activities, and the relationship between academic performance and Internet activities. Overall, findings indicate that low-income children initially use the Internet primarily for entertainment. As home Internet use loses its novelty children become more focused in their Internet activities, reducing the number of websites they visit and visiting more websites targeted to their specific interests. Pornography websites are popular initially, especially among boys, but their popularity decreases dramatically after 3 months. Age, race, and sex have little influence on which websites are most popular. Academic performance predicts subsequent Internet activities, and Internet activities predict subsequent academic performance. Directions for future research to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between Internet activities and academic performance and implications for the digital divide are discussed.

  4. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years. Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77 years (range: 2 months to 12 years, with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%, followed by alcohol drinking (27.8% and recreational drug use (18.8%. Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  5. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-08

    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  7. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  8. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (Psuicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; Psuicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients.

  9. Disparities in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Mesbah F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption are significant and widely documented. However, many individuals self-report low F&V consumption frequency per day. This paper examines the disparities in the frequency of F&V consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Method This study uses a representative sample of 93,719 individuals from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007. A quantile regression model is estimated in order to capture the differential effects of F&V determinants across the conditional distribution of F&V consumption. Results The conditional and unconditional analyses reveal the existence of a socioeconomic gradient in F&V consumption frequency, in which the low income-education groups consume F&V less frequently than the high income-education groups. We also find significant disparities in F&V consumption frequency by demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The frequency of F&V consumption is relatively lower among: males, those in middle age, singles, smokers, individuals with weak social interaction and households with no children. The quantile regression results show that the association between F&V consumption frequency, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors varies significantly along the conditional F&V consumption distribution. In particular, individual educational attainment is positively and significantly associated with F&V consumption frequency across different parts of the F&V distribution, while the income level matters only over the lower half of the distribution. F&V consumption follows a U-shaped pattern across the age categories. Those aged 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years consume F&V less frequently than those aged 18-29 years. The smallest F&V consumption is among the middle aged adults (40-49. Conclusions Understanding the socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of individuals with low F&V consumption frequency could increase the

  10. Socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors in eleven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G; de Mouzon, J; Shenfield, F; Ferraretti, A P; Mardesic, T; Ruiz, A; Goossens, V

    2014-05-01

    Do the socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ in European countries? The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ considerably across countries. There have been no other international studies comparing the characteristics of oocyte donors. Regarding their motivations, most studies indicate mixed motives. The proposed study was a transversal epidemiological study. Data were collected from 63 voluntarily participating assisted reproduction technology centres practising oocyte donation in 11 European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, UK and Ukraine). The survey was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012 and ran for 1-6 calendar months depending on the number of cycles of oocyte donation performed at the centre. The sample size was computed in order to allow an estimate of the percentage of a relatively rare characteristic (∼2%) with a precision (95% confidence interval) of 1%. The calculation gave 1118 donors. In total, 1423 forms were obtained from oocyte donors. All consecutive donors in these centres filled out an anonymous questionnaire when they started their hormonal stimulation, asking for their socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics, their motivations and compensation. Population characteristics were described and compared by country of donation. Motives for donation and mean amount of money were compared between countries and according to the donors characteristics. The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors varied enormously across European countries. The number of received forms corresponded with a participation rate of 61.9% of the cycles performed by the participating centres. Mean age was 27.4 years. About 49% of donors were fully employed, 16% unemployed and 15% student. The motivation in the total group of

  11. Local Community, Mobility and Belonging. Identification of and Socio- demographic Characteristics of Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    to calculate aggregate measures of the neighbourhoods’ stability regarding population composition, family structures and migration patterns, and, subsequently, 2) Qualitative interviews focusing on sense of belonging are conducted with individuals selected from the knowledge on the characteristics...... of the neighbourhoods. What is presented here is the sociodemographic characteristics of the neighbourhoods in Aalborg municipality as identified by a combination of GIS and individual register data, the selection of communities for and preliminary results from the qualitative part of the study....... the surrounding villages’ more mixed populations to depopulated small towns in the periphery. We are exploring the association between characteristics of the local communities and the inhabitants’ sense of belonging. As characteristics of the areas is included information on mobility (moving in-and out...

  12. Do sedentary behaviors mediate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and BMI in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Abbott, Gavin; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ball, Kylie

    2015-04-09

    Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors could explain the relation between socio-demographic variables and BMI (BMI) in this risk group. Women aged 18-46 years were recruited from 40 urban and 40 rural deprived neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. In total, 3879 women reported socio-demographic variables (age, educational level, employment status, marital status, number of children, residential location and country of birth), sedentary behaviors (television time, computer time, total screen time and total sedentary time), physical activity, and height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI. For each socio-demographic variable, four single mediation models were conducted using two-level mixed-models regression analyses. Mediating effects were examined using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients procedure and the Sobel test. All socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with sedentary behaviors. Single mediation analyses revealed that television time (αβ = 0.017, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.030) and total screen time (αβ = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.012) mediated 14.1% and 4.9% of the relationship between educational level and BMI, respectively. Total screen time mediated 45.1% of the relationship between employment status and BMI (αβ = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.033, -0.006), and television time mediated 8.2% of the relationship between country of birth and BMI (αβ = -0.008, 95% CI = -0.016, -0.001). Sedentary behaviors differed depending on socio-demographic characteristics, and partly

  13. Quality of life of caregivers for patients of cerebrovascular accidents: association of (socio-demographic characteristics and burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ferreira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigating the association between quality of life with socio-demographic characteristics and the burden of caregivers for individuals with cerebrovascular accident sequelae. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample composed of 136 caregivers. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire, the Barthel, Burden Interview and Short-Form-36 scales were used. Correlation analysis, t-Student test and F-test were used for the analysis in order to compare averages. RESULTS Significant averages in quality of life were demonstrated in association with female caregivers and those over 60 years in the field 'functional capacity,' and in the domains of 'mental health' and 'vitality' for those with higher income. Regarding burden association, the highlighted areas were 'functional capacity,' 'physical aspects,' 'emotional aspects' and 'pain.' CONCLUSION The creation of public policies and social support to effectively reduce the burden on caregivers is a necessity.

  14. Impact of socio-demographic characteristics on travel expenditures of Hungarian tourists in the village of Skorenovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejić Živana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of rural tourism in Vojvodina affects the survival of village and livelihoods of its people. Despite the numerous problems that villages of Vojvodina face, an example of good practice is the village of Skorenovac in the municipality of Kovin in Banat. Local culture, traditions and legends of the distant past, and a unique way of life of the population of this village are the primary motives and grounds of the arrival of tourists and they affect the development of rural tourism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the consumption of Hungarian tourists in the village Skorenovac in relation to age, level of education and gender. The results of research should serve as encouragement of rural households to monitor socio-demographic characteristics of tourists to suitably form the tourist offer in order to increase profit.

  15. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lin Siew; Chin, Yit Siew; Gan, Wan Ying; Nasir, Mohd Taib Mohd

    2017-03-01

    To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors. The Pubertal Development Scale and the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) were used to assess pubertal status and disordered eating, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of disordered eating. The prevalence of disordered eating was 30.8% (32.8% in boys and 29.7% in girls). However, the sex difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant. Age, ethnicity and pubertal status were significantly associated with disordered eating in univariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, being either in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=8.64) and older age group (adjusted OR=2.03) were risk factors of disordered eating. However, among girls, being a Malay (adjusted OR=3.79) or Indian (adjusted OR=5.04) in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=2.34) and older age group (adjusted OR=1.53) were risk factors of disordered eating. This study found one in three children had disordered eating. Since ethnicity and pubertal status were identified as risk factors, ethnicity-specific intervention programs on the prevention of disordered eating among children should take into consideration their pubertal status.

  16. Association of Socio-demographic Characteristics with Pattern of Health Seeking Behavior among Hepatitis C Patients in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirani, S.; Ali, T.S.; Allana, S.; Ismail, F.W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To identify association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of health seeking behavior among hepatitis C patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A descriptive, cross-sectional study done at Aga Khan University Hospital and the Civil Hospital Karachi between March and May 2013. Patients and Methods: Hepatitis C patients who were coming for treatment at the above 2 sites underwent a filling of questionnaire by the researcher. The questionnaire collected basic demographic information and their health seeking behavior i.e. visit to traditional healer or spiritual healer or medical doctor. Sample size of 250 patients was calculated. Analysis was done by using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test. p-value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 250 hepatitis patients were interviewed. The study showed that patient's occupation and educational level had significant association with their first visit either to a spiritual healer or traditional healer. More educated group consulted the medical doctor while those with none or low education initially went to see spiritual healers (p < 0.008) and second visit was made to traditional healers (p < 0.002). Patients with larger number of children went less often to visit a medical doctor on their second visit (p = 0.007), and family members belonging to the medical field were more likely to make their first visit to doctors (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Socio-demographic characteristics greatly influence the pattern of health seeking behavior among hepatitis C patients. (author)

  17. Antropometric assessment of nutritional status and socio-demographic characteristics in children up to 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, A.; Ramzan, A.; Memon, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)

  18. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coping strategies and socio-demographic characteristics among Jordanian caregivers of patients receiving hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Alnazly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver′s sociodemographic characteristics.

  20. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background. Social differences in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality might be related to testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although routine PSA screening is not recommended in Denmark, testing without clinical indication increased during the past decade. We evaluated...... associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  1. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  2. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattari Mohammadreza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.

  3. Behavioural and socio-demographic characteristics of Dutch neighbourhoods with high prevalence of childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Elske; Schokker, Dieuwke F; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Renders, Carry M

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neighbourhoods with increased prevalence of overweight children and to examine whether the association between neighbourhood and overweight can be explained by demographic characteristics and energy-related behaviours. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among

  4. Gender differences in socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and psychiatric diagnosis in/of suicide attempters in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Peralta-Jiménez, Yesenia; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool-García, Sherezada; Velázquez-Sánchez, Martha Patricia; López-Narváez, Lilia; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as psychiatric diagnoses to identify gender differences in patients with attempted suicide in a Mexican population. Between September 2010 and September 2012, 140 suicide attempts were documented in the Department of Psychiatry at the General Hospital of Comalcalco (Hospital General de Comalcalco in Spanish) in Tabasco, Mexico. Diagnoses were established using the DSM-IV questionnaire in which Axis I and II were considered. The Suicide Intent Scale was also applied. In our sample, 63.6% were females and 36.4% males. With regard to socio-demographic characteristics, the predominant marital status in males was single, and in females married (χ2=5.93, df=2, p=0.05). In occupation the male group was mainly unemployed and housewife in females (χ2=55.51, df=4, psuicide attempt are different by gender in the Mexican population. Interventions are necessary for the development of prevention strategies that may lead to a reduction in suicidal behaviour. These preventive activities should consider the occupation for the female group and consumption of alcohol, cannabis or tobacco in the male group.

  5. Female migrants, family members and community socio-demographic characteristics influence facility delivery in Rufiji, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levira, Francis; Gaydosh, Lauren; Ramaiya, Astha

    2014-09-23

    Health professionals and public health experts in maternal and newborn health encourage women to deliver at health facilities in an effort to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. In the existing literature, there is scant information on how migration, family members and community influence facility delivery. This study addresses this knowledge gap using 10 years of longitudinal surveillance data from a rural district of Tanzania. Multilevel logistic regression was used to quantify the influence of hypothesized migration, family and community-level factors on facility delivery while adjusting for known confounders identified in the literature. We report adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Overall, there has been an increase of 14% in facility delivery over the ten years, from 63% in 2001 to 77% in 2010 (p characteristics play a role as well; women in communities with higher socioeconomic status and older women of reproductive age had increased odds of facility delivery; AOR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.88-2.98 and AOR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32 respectively. Although there has been an increase in facility delivery over the last decade in Rufiji, this study underscores the importance of female migrants, family members and community in influencing women's place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that future interventions designed to increase facility delivery must integrate person-to-person facility delivery promotion, especially through women of the community and within families. Furthermore, the results suggest that investment in formal education of the community and increased community socio-economic status may increase facility delivery.

  6. Soy food intake behavior by socio-demographic characteristics of Korean housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-June; Park, Ok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the soy food intake behaviors including perception and intake frequency of soybean foods by sociodemographic variables were analyzed in housewives. The perception of housewives for soy foods showed that soybean paste, soybean curd, and Dambuk were high in the descending order for nutritional quality and health promotion effect, and soybean paste received the highest score in taste and flavor. Soybean sprouts received the highest evaluation score in the economic aspect. In the a...

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of quality of life and depression of older people in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana N.

    2014-01-01

    . The persons who are still married are more satisfied with marriage and their own parenthood, with well-being, have a higher level of satisfaction with their religious and cultural life, while there is a lower level of depressiveness in regard to the persons who are not married. The respondents who have some kind of a chronic disease are less satisfied with life, generally speaking, because of poor health; they have a lower level of independence and satisfaction with their own home and neighbourhood, a lower level of well-being and less satisfaction with their monthly income. However, they showed a lower level of depressiveness in regard to the ones who have no chronic diseases. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, as well as somatic chronic disease and depressiveness are significant indicators of the quality of life of older people. Being aware of the already known quality of life of older people can point out some practical implications important for creating and implementing the programmes intended for older people, while being focused on the improvement of the quality of life and standards.

  8. Out-of-School and "At Risk?" Socio-Demographic Characteristics, AIDS Knowledge and Risk Perception among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…

  9. Socio-demographic characteristics of traditional gold smelters in Makassar, south Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habo Abbas, Hasriwiani; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Hakim Arma, Lukmanul; Hardi Yanti, Iva

    2017-06-01

    The traditional gold smelting in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, is an informal work with the manufacture of gold jewelry as the core activity. Stages of the gold processing include panning, smelting, and refining with mercury. In the current study, we used a social demography analysis to classify the traditional gold smelter workers in this region. Data (e.g. sex, age, education level, time working, and income) were obtained from a questionnaire survey of 58 smelter workers in the Wajo and Tallo Sub-districts of Makassar. Results showed that 84.5% of the workers were males aged from 21 to 50 years with on the average 15 year of work. The gold smelter were last educated in elementary school (31.0%), junior high school (36.2%), and senior high school (27.6%) levels whereas 5.1% have no education. We found that the monthly income of an un-skilled worker was ∼Rp. 2 million (USD 147.0) whereas that of a skilled worker was between Rp. 2.5 million (USD 183.76) and Rp. 5 million (USD 367.51). An owner could earn over Rp. 5 million (USD 367.51) per month. The result suggested that the traditional gold smelting used rudimentary technique and attracted young people with a low education level. This business continues to exist because the worker earn sufficient income and may higher through mastering gold smelter proficiency.

  10. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Baron

    Full Text Available Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011, consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE. Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 7.0-15.4, being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7 and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0. Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5. Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  11. Soy food intake behavior by socio-demographic characteristics of Korean housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-June; Park, Ok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the soy food intake behaviors including perception and intake frequency of soybean foods by sociodemographic variables were analyzed in housewives. The perception of housewives for soy foods showed that soybean paste, soybean curd, and Dambuk were high in the descending order for nutritional quality and health promotion effect, and soybean paste received the highest score in taste and flavor. Soybean sprouts received the highest evaluation score in the economic aspect. In the aspect of safe food, soybean paste received the highest evaluation score, as mush as a traditional food. The analysis of perception by sociodemographic variables showed that soybean curd, Dambuk, and soybean sprouts had higher perceptions as education level increased, and soy milk had higher perceptions in subjects with younger age and with employment. In the intake frequency, more than 50% of the subjects had soybean curd, soybean sprouts, and soybean paste more than once a week. The analysis for correlation between the intake frequency of soy foods and the degree of perception showed that taste and flavor had high correlation with the intake frequency of soy foods except soybean sprouts. The intake frequency of soybean paste, Dambuk, and soy milk had positive correlations to familiarity and that of soy milk had positive correlations to nutrition and health perception, and those of soybeam paste, soybean sprouts, and soy milk had positive correlations to safe food perception. From the above results, housewives in Korea had very high perceptions to nutritional quality and health promotion effect of soy foods and the degree of perception and accompanied intake frequency had significant differences by age, education level, and economic level among sociodemographic variables.

  12. [Socio-demographic characteristics of females who had undergone induced abortion in a public hospital in Bucaramanga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Roa, Eliana M; Ortiz-Serrano, Ricardo; Ochoa-Vera, Miguel E; Consuegra-Rodríguez, Mónika P; Oliveros, Carol A

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of females who admitted to having previously undergone induced abortion who were attended at Hospital Local del Norte in Bucaramanga from the viewpoint of distributive justice. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of patients who consulted the Hospital Local del Norte's Emergency Gynaecology-Obstetrics Service in Bucaramanga between March 1/2008 and February 28/2009 who had a diagnosis of abortion in any of their presentations. The sample involved 93 patients, 16 of whom accepted that they had undergone an induced abortion. Factors associated with the event were belonging to a low socioeconomic stratum, lacking adequate health care and education in family planning, lack of a stable partner or that their relationship was dysfunctional and that the couple had pressured for an induced abortion for economic reasons or that their desire for parenting had already been satisfied. Contrasting these results with existing health legislation bioethics from a social justice in health viewpoint revealed that current legislation is deficient in both its coverage and extension to educational activity regarding sexual and reproductive health. Enabling patients to enjoy their sexuality responsibly and improving opportunities for access to better economic options may reduce induced abortions in the population living in Bucaramanga's northern commune.

  13. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  14. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainer Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan providing healthcare services to 1.9 million members. Utilization of breast cancer (BC and colorectal cancer (CC screening were analyzed by socio-economic ranks (SERs, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab, immigration status and ownership of voluntarily supplemental health insurance (VSHI. Results Data on 157,928 and 303,330 adults, eligible for BC and CC screening, respectively, were analyzed. Those having lower SER, Arabs, immigrants from Former Soviet Union countries and non-owners of VSHI performed fewer cancer screening examinations compared with those having higher SER, non-Arabs, veterans and owners of VSHI (p Conclusion Patients from low socio-economic backgrounds, Arabs, immigrants and those who do not own supplemental insurance do fewer tests for early detection of cancer. These sub-populations should be considered priority populations for targeted intervention programs and improved resource allocation.

  15. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial consequences of sickle cell disease: the case of patients in a public hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzika, Vincent A; Glozah, Franklin N; Ayim-Aboagye, Desmond; Ahorlu, Collins S K

    2017-01-31

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is of major public health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Ghana. The objective of this study was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. A cross-sectional research design was used that involved the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life, coping mechanisms, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results showed that majority of the patients were single, female, less than 39 years old and had attained secondary school level of education or less. Also, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends and relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having faith in God was the most frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. It is recommended that a holistic intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.

  17. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning.Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors.Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents.Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00.Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  18. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Me...

  19. Trends in energy intake from alcoholic beverages by socio-demographic characteristics among US adults, 1989–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. Objective This study examines shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. Design This study was a repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from the 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; 2003–2006 and 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants/setting Adults ≥19 years (N = 39,298); a subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n = 7,081) were studied. Statistical analyses performed Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and non-consumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Results Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/cap/d in 1989–1991 to 109 kcal/cap/d in 2003–2006 (palcoholic beverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989–1991 to 2009–2012 (p for overall increasing trend alcoholic beverage calories increased between 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 (palcohol, yet had higher per consumer calorie intakes compared to adults with a college degree. Women and adults ≥ 60 years experienced a shift away from liquor/mixed drinks towards wine between 2003–2006 and 2009–2012. Beer contributed roughly 70% to total alcoholic beverage intake for less educated consumers across time. Conclusions These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day, and an increase in calories consumed

  20. Suicides in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia, and associated socio-demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarokov, Yury A.; Brenn, Tormod; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.; Nilssen, Odd

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe suicide rates in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in 2002–2012, as well as associated socio-demographic characteristics. Study design Retrospective population-based mortality study. Methods Data from autopsy reports were used to identify 252 cases of suicide in the NAO in 2002–2012. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of these cases were obtained from passports and medical records at local primary health care units, and were then linked to total population data from the Censuses in 2002 and 2010. Suicide rates for the indigenous Nenets population and the non-indigenous population were standardized to the European standard population. The rates were also estimated according to different socio-demographic characteristics and compared by calculating relative risks. Results The crude suicide rates were 79.8 per 100,000 person-years (PYs) in the Nenets population and 49.2 per 100,000 PYs in the non-indigenous population. The corresponding standardized estimates were 72.7 per 100,000 PYs and 50.7 per 100,000 PYs. The highest suicide rates in the Nenets population were observed in the age group 20–29 years (391 per 100,000 PYs), and in females aged 30–39 years (191 per 100,000 PYs). Socio-demographic characteristics associated with high suicide rates in the Nenets population were age 20–39 years, male, urban residence, having secondary school or higher education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Males aged 20–29 years, and females aged 30–39 and aged 70 years and above had the highest suicide rates in the non-indigenous population (137.5, 21.6 and 29.9 per 100,000 PYs, respectively). The elevated suicide rates observed in the non-indigenous population were associated with male sex, rural residence, secondary school education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Conclusions Suicide rates in the NAO were substantially higher among

  1. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects. Biometric measurements including weight, height and waist circumference were also recorded. Results: Serum testosterone levels of Ugandan men were within the normal physiological ranges. Married participants and ...

  2. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant and puerperal crack-cocaine using women: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LUCRÉCIA SCHERER ZAVASCHI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The literature provides several studies on the effects of cocaine when exposed to the fetus. However, the majority of these data comes from animal models. Objective The objective of this study is to present socio-demographic and clinical data in crack-cocaine using pregnant women and their babies, as compared to non-users. Methods Cross-sectional study, comprised by 56 dyads of crack-cocaine using mothers-babies and 89 control dyads. In addition to the socio-demographic data and the babies’ information, data collection was based on ABIPEMI for socioeconomic level, WAIS for IQ, MINI for psychopathology and ASSIST for drug use. Results Most crack users, in comparison to non-users, did not have a partner (10.52% vs 4.4%, P = 0.001 and presented lower IQ (78.15, +/-8.07 vs 84.27 +/- 9.87; P = 0.002. The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder and suicide risk in users was higher than in non-users (24.44% vs none, P < 0.001; 28.26% vs 10.46% P = 0.01. Most of the users did not participate in prenatal care (75%. The babies that the crack-cocaine using mothers gave birth to weighed significantly less than the controls (2.858 g vs 3.240 g, P = 0.002. Discussion Users had a higher degree of psychopathology and lower attendance in prenatal care. There was an overlap of adverse factors, both for exposed mothers and babies. The sum of these vulnerabilities could result in significant harm to the developing infant.

  3. Overweight and obesity and their relation to dietary habits and socio-demographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Ali, Ayub

    2008-09-01

    Several studies were carried out to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Saudi children, but those assessed the association between eating habits, socio-demographic differentials and obesity in these children are scarce. To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary schoolchildren and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight with dietary habits and socio-demographic differentials among them. A cross-sectional descriptive study including 1,139 Saudi male enrolled in the fifth and sixth grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, KSA, through a multistage random sampling technique, submitted to interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, some dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with calculation of body mass index, the interpretation of which was based on using Cole's tables for standard definition of overweight and obesity. Socio-demographics data were collected through parental questionnaire form. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 12 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA), univariate as well as multivariate analyses were conducted. The age ranged from 10 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the included subjects was 14.2% while obesity was 9.7%, more in urban, older age students, mothers of obese and overweight were less educated, more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy product per day, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the included male schoolchildren. The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures reported in the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor food choices may be responsible for this high prevalence.

  4. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Adults Screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Ahoada–East Local Government Area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Azuonwu; Osaro, Erhabor; Nnenna, Frank-Peterside

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using “Determine” (Abbott Laboratories, Japan), Start–Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea). All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Subjects included 152) consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25±7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%). HIV infection was higher among females (10.9%) compared to males (10.1%) and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1%) (P= 0.08). HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74%) compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection. PMID:22223994

  5. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Adults Screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Ahoada-East Local Government Area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Azuonwu; Osaro, Erhabor; Nnenna, Frank-Peterside

    2011-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. AIMS, SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. HIV antibodies were detected using "Determine" (Abbott Laboratories, Japan), Start-Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea). All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers' instructions. Subjects included 152) consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25±7.02 years. Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%). HIV infection was higher among females (10.9%) compared to males (10.1%) and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1%) (P= 0.08). HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74%) compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection.

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ahoada-East local government area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

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    Azuonwu Obi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using "Determine" (Abbott Laboratories, Japan, Start-Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Subjects included 152 consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25΁7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%. HIV infection was higher among females (10.9% compared to males (10.1% and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1% (P= 0.08. HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74% compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection.

  7. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTED MALARIA CASES IN BANGKA DISTRICT, BABEL ISLAND PROVINCE, INDONESIA DURING 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodianal; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Malaria is a major health problem in many developing countries including Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics and geographic distribution of malaria cases in Bangka District, Bangka-Belitung Island Province, Indonesia. Bangka District is a malaria endemic area of Indonesia. We analyzed the epidemiological data of all reported malaria cases during 2008-2012 in Bangka District. Of the 4,756 malaria-confirmed cases reported during the study period, 3,234 (68. 0%) were among persons aged ≥ 15 years, 1,024 (21.5%) were among persons aged 5-14 years and 498 (10.5%) were among persons aged < 5 years. Malaria cases were primarily located along the sea coast and less frequently in inland. Malaria cases were found not only among the local population but also among migrant workers. The monthly incidence of reported malaria cases in the study population ranged from 0.06 to 1.06 per 1,000 person-months. The cases were mostly due to Plasmodium vivax (57.1%) followed by Plasmodiumfalciparum (40.2%). Plasmodiumfalciparum was more common among migrant workers while Plasmodium vivax was more common among the local population (Odds ratio 1.2; p = 0.03). The main transmission vector found in the coastal area was Anopheles sundaicus. An. letifer and An. barbirostris were found inland. We identified "malaria hot-spots" in the study area using a Geographic Information System. The results of this study will contribute to the malaria control program.

  8. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Zhang, Fan; Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Du, Weijing

    2017-07-14

    National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools' doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8-10 years (N = 3922). A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  9. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China

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    Ling Qian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Methods Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools’ doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8–10 years (N = 3922. Results A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. Conclusion The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  10. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Patients with Diagnosis of Leukemia in Bosnia and Herzegovina During Six-year Period

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    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Begic, Nedim; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Begic, Zijo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Malignancies in children are second most frequent cause of death after accidents in pediatric age, while leukemias represents 30% of all malignancies of children age. Aim: To present the social and demographic characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of leukemia in Bosnia and Herzegovina during six years period. Patients and Methods: The study included 97 patients (from birth to 18 years old) with diagnosis of acute leukemia. Results: During the aforementioned period at the ...

  11. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

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    Tatiana García-Betancourt

    Full Text Available The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach.Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information.Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3. The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking.It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation.

  12. A tale of two epidemics: gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors among HIV positive individuals in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; González, Andrea; Volkow, Patricia

    2015-12-16

    To date, the HIV epidemic in Mexico has been concentrated mainly among men who have sex with men, butheterosexual transmission, particularly to women, is increasingly important. This study examine gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of HIV positive individuals in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,490 clinic patients (male:female ratio 8:1) with HIV inMexico City in 2010. We examined socio-demographic characteristics, risk behavior, and history of HIV infection.From multivariate non-linear probability (probit) models we calculated predicted probabilities by sex of several outcomes: marginalization, demographic and sexual risk behaviors. Significant differences were found between men and women. Multivariate models suggest that women had lower schooling levels; were less likely to have been employed in the past month and earn more than the minimal wage; more likely to have children, to have been sexually abused, to never have used condoms and to report having been infected by a stable partner. Additionally, women were less likely to report having a partner with a history of migration to the USA and to have engaged in transactional sex. Significant differences exist between men and women with HIV in Mexico City in terms of their socioeconomicand behavioral profiles, which translate into differences in terms of exposure to HIV infection. Women face social and economic vulnerability while men tend to have riskier sexual behavior. Gender issues must be approached in prevention and treatment efforts, using diverse methods to target those most vulnerable and at risk.

  13. Health related quality of life of people with non-epileptic seizures: The role of socio-demographic characteristics and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Catherine; Myers, Lorna; Pretorius, Chrisma; Lian, Olaug S; Reuber, Markus

    2018-02-01

    People with non-epileptic seizures (NES) consistently report poorer Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) than people with epilepsy. Yet, unlike in epilepsy, knowledge of how social factors influence the HRQoL of adults with NES is limited. To add to the evidence base, this study explores the relationship between HRQoL and perceived stigma among adults with NES, and the role of socio-demographic characteristics. Data was gathered from a survey of 115 people living with the condition, recruited from online support groups. Participants provided socio-demographic and health-related data and completed a series of questions investigating their HRQoL (QOLIE-31) and stigma perceptions (10-item Epilepsy Stigma Scale). Participants were found to experience high levels of perceived stigma (median 5.2, mean 4.9). A significant and moderate inverse correlation was observed between HRQoL and stigma (r s  - 0.474, p = stigma contribute to poorer HRQoL among adults with NES. Stigma perceptions were found to be most strongly associated with the seizure worry (r s  = - 0.479), emotional wellbeing (r s  = - 0.421), and social functioning (r s  = 0.407) HRQoL domains. Participants who reported being in employment or education were found to have significantly better HRQoL than those who were not (p = < 0.001). More (qualitative and quantitative) research is justified to understand how - and why - those with the condition experience stigmatisation, and the factors that impede and help facilitate the participation of people with NES in education and employment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Patients with Diagnosis of Leukemia in Bosnia and Herzegovina During Six-year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Begic, Nedim; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Begic, Zijo

    2016-12-01

    Malignancies in children are second most frequent cause of death after accidents in pediatric age, while leukemias represents 30% of all malignancies of children age. To present the social and demographic characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of leukemia in Bosnia and Herzegovina during six years period. The study included 97 patients (from birth to 18 years old) with diagnosis of acute leukemia. During the aforementioned period at the Pediatric Clinic of University Clinical Centre Sarajevo, 244 patients with the diagnosis of malignancy were treated (99 children were with leukemia (40.6%). Acute leukemia's were diagnosed in 97 patients and chronic in 2 patients. Out of 97 treated patients with acute leukemia, they almost of all cantons of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brcko District and the Republic Srpska. Patients were usually coming from the Tuzla Canton Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (28 patients). Based on the cytomorphological diagnosis of patients according to the FAB classification, the most was a present ALL-L1 type of acute leukemia's. Mortality of patients with ALL was 15,3%, while mortality of patient with AML was 36,8%. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, during six year period, the largest number of patients with leukaemia came from Tuzla Canton. The most common age of patients was preschool and school ages. Male sex was dominant in patients with diagnosis AML. According to the FAB classification, ALL-L1 type of acute leukemia was the most common.

  15. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle-Related Characteristics Associated with Self-Reported Any, Daily and Occasional Smoking during Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Heijmans, M.W.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who

  16. Are park proximity and park features related to park use and park-based physical activity among adults? Variations by multiple socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Besenyi, Gina M; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Oestman, Katherine B; Bergstrom, Ryan; Potwarka, Luke R; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2014-12-06

    Parks are valuable resources for physical activity (PA) given their widespread availability and low cost to maintain and use. Both proximity to parks and the availability of particular features are important correlates of PA. However, few studies have explored multiple measures of proximity simultaneously or the specific facilities associated with park use and park-based PA among adults, let alone differences across socio-demographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between park proximity and park facilities and adults' park use and park-based PA, while also exploring differences by gender, age, race, and income. Data on monthly park use and weekly amount of PA undertaken in parks were collected via a mail survey of adults from randomly-selected households (n = 893) in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO) in 2010-2011. Three measures of park proximity were calculated within 1 mile of participating households: distance to the closest park, number of parks, and total park area. All parks in KCMO were audited using the Community Park Audit Tool to determine the availability of 14 park facilities within 1 mile of each participant (e.g., trail, playground, tennis court). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each of park use and park-based PA and 1) three measures of park proximity, and 2) the availability of 14 park facilities within 1 mile of participants. Separate analyses were conducted by gender, age, race, and income, while controlling for all socio-demographic characteristics and BMI. Across all sub-samples, distance to the closest park was not significantly related to either park use or park-based PA. However, numerous significant associations were found for the relationship of number of parks and amount of park space within 1 mile with both outcomes. As well, diverse facilities were associated with park use and park-based PA. For both park proximity and facilities, the significant

  17. Cigarette smoking in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia in Taiwan: relationships to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Cheng, Tsung-Hsing; Chou, Ming-Kuen

    2011-12-30

    In individuals with schizophrenia, the prevalence of cigarette smoking is significantly higher than that of the general population; this appears to be associated with specific psychosocial and clinical characteristics. Indeed, some evidence suggests an increased risk of suicide among smokers with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of smokers with schizophrenia in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, 95 outpatients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and independently interviewed for nicotine dependency with tobacco use. The effects of cigarette smoking on the various measures, especially suicidality, were investigated. The results revealed that smokers with schizophrenia had higher rates of hospitalization, lifetime suicide attempts, antipsychotic treatment side effects, psychopathology, impulsivity, depression, anxiety, and suicidal risk than non-smokers with schizophrenia. When separate analyses were conducted in male and female patients, depressive symptoms were significant predictors of suicidality among males, whereas heavy smoking, anxious symptoms, and hopelessness were significant predictors among females. From this study, we may gain insights into the role of cigarette smoking in patients of schizophrenia in Taiwan. Furthermore, cigarette smoking may influence aspects of suicidality in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Problematic Gaming Behavior Among Finnish Junior High School Students: Relation to Socio-Demographics and Gaming Behavior Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Myllymäki, Laura; Miettunen, Jouko; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-09-14

    Multiplatform digital media use and gaming have been increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographics and digital gaming behavior characteristics (i.e., gaming time, medium, and genres) with problematic gaming behavior in adolescents. A convenience sample of Finnish junior high school students (n = 560; mean age 14 years, ranging from 12 to 16 years) participated in the cross-sectional survey, of which, 83% (n = 465) reported having played digital games regularly. Sociodemographic data, different forms of digital media use, gaming behavior characteristics and problematic gaming behavior was assessed. Study participants spent on average one hour per day playing digital games; casual games (23.9%), shooting games (19.8%), and sport games (12.9%), were the most popular games among participants. By using regression analysis, a blended family structure and gaming time related positively to problematic gaming behavior. Preferences for game genres such as solo, Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing and strategy-management games were also positively associated with problematic use of digital games. These findings provide knowledge that can be utilized in the prevention of the possible negative consequences of digital gaming.

  19. Twenty years trends and socio-demographic characteristics of HIV prevalence in women giving birth in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Montoliu, Alexandra; Marín, José Luis; Almeda, Jesús; González, Victoria; Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and new influenza A (H1N1

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    Luana Lenzi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of new influenza A (H1N1 has spread rapidly throughout the world, characterized by high transmissibility, but low pathogenicity and virulence. The aim of this study was to understand the pandemic event and available technologies for disease surveillance, prevention, control and management. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we used data from patients in the State of Paraná who had been diagnosed with the disease during the 2009 pandemic. Data were collected from the disease notification form and the study only included patients with confirmed laboratory diagnosis by RT-PCR. RESULTS: We present the epidemiological profile of 4,740 patients that met the inclusion criteria. The variables age, level of schooling and gestational age were shown to be associated with mortality due to the infection. Gender and race/ethnicity were not associated with the outcome of the infection. CONCLUSION: These results underscore the importance of knowing the variables associated with unfavorable outcomes of pandemic influenza infection in order to minimize the health related consequences. Attention should be given to its forms of transmission and to the frailty of certain age groups that have no cross-immunity.

  1. The influence of personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics on paediatric nurses' compassion satisfaction and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Pin; Tsai, Jung-Mei; Lu, Ming-Huei; Lin, Li-Man; Lu, Ching-Hui; Wang, Kai-Wei K

    2017-12-21

    To explore the level of and the association between, compassion satisfaction and fatigue of paediatric nurses; to determine the association between personality traits and compassion satisfaction and fatigue; to identify the determinants of compassion satisfaction and fatigue. Paediatric nurses are prone to experiencing compassion fatigue associated with caring for children with illness and their families, yet its connection with nurses' personality traits remains unknown. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. The data collection used three instruments measuring socio-demography, responses to the compassion satisfaction and fatigue test and the revised NEO personality inventory. The study used descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analysis for the data collected between April - July 2014. From 173 female paediatric nurses, two-thirds worked in critical care units and indicated a satisfactory level of compassion satisfaction and a low level of compassion fatigue, despite a lack of association between the two concepts. Four determinants-agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness and engaging with outdoor activities-were predictive and explained 43.6% of total variance of compassion satisfaction. Two risk factors of compassion fatigue identified were less emotional stability and singlehood (marital status) and these explained 26.1% of total variance of compassion fatigue. Support for improving agreeableness and emotional stability in paediatric nurses' workplaces including involvement in the outdoor activities and an increase in social connection may enhance compassion satisfaction and prevent exhaustive compassion fatigue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

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    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  3. Predictors of mortality: an international comparison of socio-demographic and health characteristics from six longitudinal studies on aging: the CLESA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noale, M.; Minicuci, N.; Bardage, C.; Gindin, J.; Nikula, S.; Pluijm, S.M.F.; Rodriguez-Laso, A.; Maggi, S.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Multiple factors contribute to mortality in the elderly, but the extent to which traditional factors contribute independently to mortality in different countries is not known. Our objective is to determine the differential impact of socio-demographic variables, selected diseases, health

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of parents and emotional burden on discovery of disabilities of their children in a South African community

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    U. Useh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the socio-demographic characteristicsof parents of children with disabilities in a South African community. Also studiedwere their emotional responses. Design and methodology: A social survey research and focus group designs wereemployed in this study to explore and describe parental emotions Participants: 174 parents of children with disabilities were randomly selected andinterviewed by this author and four research assistants at different locations in theVenda area of Limpopo Province of South Africa. Results: Out of the 174 parents interviewed 95 (54.6% were parents of children with physical impairment (PCWPI,51 (29.3% parents of children with hearing impairment (PCWHI and 28 (16.1% were parents of children with visual impairment (PCWVI.  Only 16 (9.2% of the parents interviewed had tertiary education with a majority (121 (or 69.5% of them unemployed. These unemployed parents solely relied on the monthly, government disabilitygrant of R620 (or US$89. Responses to grief, anger, shame were highest amongst PCWVI, while PCWPI were most worried (64.2% and demonstrated the highest percentage emotions of fear (22.1% and guilt (221.1%. The following percentage of emotions were expresses by parents with formal tertiary education, anger (44%, shame (37.5%, disbelief (25%, guilt (6.3%, worry (50% and fear (25%. While participants with the highest income (over R1800or about US$257, expressed the following percentage of emotions: grief (70.6%, and disbelief (47.1%. Conclusion: Physiotherapist working with the disabled and their carers in the community within the concept of community based rehabilitation and social model of care would need to understand the characteristics and their emotional burden prior to assisting in creating an enabling environment and holistic empowering activities that wouldassist all.

  5. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Adult Epileptic Patients Applying to the Neurology Clinic of Erciyes University and the Relation of These Phenomena to Depression

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    Vesile Şenol

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The epidemiological characteristics of epilepsy vary from society to society. Epilepsy, whose prevalence is between 0.5-1.0%, is usually seen in early and late ages, at the both of ends of life, and more often in males, and in people who have low income and education. Besides ıts neuropsychologic effects, epilepsy is a disease which has psychological, socilogical aspects such as social isolation, low self-esteem and depression. Depression is seen more often in people with epilepsy than people who don’t have this disease. The percentage of depression for the whole life-time for people with epilepsy is 10-30%. Age at onset of epilepsy, seizure type, frequency, time and the type of treatment (mono-poly therapy affect the incidence and degree of depression. OBJECTIVES: To define the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy cases, to determine the percentage of depressive disorders in epilepsy cases, to probe the characteristics of epileptic seizure and its relation to depression. METHODS: The study was conducted through a face-to-face survey of 102 adult epileptic patients who applied to the Erciyes University Epilepsy Outpatient Clinic between October 2004 and 2005. In order to gather the data, which was prepared by the researcher “A survey form for the epileptic individuals” and “The Turkish Version of Beck Depression Inventory”, whose accuracy and validity was checked by Hisli, was used. RESULTS: The average age for the cases is 34.3±12.6, the average age at seizure onset is 21.4±14.6 and in 66% of them the seizure started when they were under 25. Majority of the cases were male and lower than the minimum wage. Among the patients, 45.6% had generalized (tonic-clonic seizures, and 36% had been ≥1/month seizures and 32% seizure-free during the previous year. CONCLUSION: The average of depressive disorder was 29.4%. 15.7% of the cases were with major depression. Age at onset epilepsy, seizure type and

  6. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenstr?m, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50–100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on A...

  7. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of re-presentation to an Australian inner-city emergency department: implications for service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manias Elizabeth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who have complex health care needs frequently access emergency departments for treatment of acute illness and injury. In particular, evidence suggests that those who are homeless, or suffer mental illness, or have a history of substance misuse, are often repeat users of emergency departments. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of emergency department re-presentations. Re-presentation was defined as a return visit to the same emergency department within 28 days of discharge from hospital. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted of emergency department presentations occurring over a 24-month period to an Australian inner-city hospital. Characteristics were examined for their influence on the binary outcome of re-presentation within 28 days of discharge using logistic regression with the variable patient fitted as a random effect. Results From 64,147 presentations to the emergency department the re-presentation rate was 18.0% (n = 11,559 of visits and 14.4% (5,894/40,942 of all patients. Median time to re-presentation was 6 days, with more than half occurring within one week of discharge (60.8%; n = 6,873, and more than three-quarters within two weeks (80.9%; n = 9,151. The odds of re-presentation increased three-fold for people who were homeless compared to those living in stable accommodation (adjusted OR 3.09; 95% CI, 2.83 to 3.36. Similarly, the odds of re-presentation were significantly higher for patients receiving a government pension compared to those who did not (adjusted OR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.63 to 1.84, patients who left part-way through treatment compared to those who completed treatment and were discharged home (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.99, and those discharged to a residential-care facility compared to those who were discharged home (adjusted OR 1.46: 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.06. Conclusion Emergency department re-presentation rates cluster

  8. The impact of multi-morbidity on disability among older adults in South Africa: do hypertension and socio-demographic characteristics matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Philippa; van der Wielen, Nele; Banda, Pamela Chirwa; Channon, Andrew Amos

    2017-04-08

    Alongside the global population ageing phenomenon, there has been a rise in the number of individuals who suffer from multiple chronic conditions. Taking the case of South Africa, this study aims, first, to investigate the association between multi-morbidity and disability among older adults; and second, to examine whether hypertension (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) mediates this relationship. Lastly, we consider whether the impact of the multi-morbidity on disability varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2007-08) of the South African Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Disability was measured using the 12-item World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0. Scores were transformed into a binary variable whereby those over the 90 th percentile were classified as having a severe disability. The measure of multi-morbidity was based on a simple count of self-reported diagnosis of selected chronic conditions. Self-reports of diagnosed hypertension, in addition to blood pressure measurements at the time of interview, were used to create a three category hypertension variable: no hypertension (diagnosed or measured), diagnosed hypertension, hypertension not diagnosed but hypertensive measured blood pressure. Interactions between the number of chronic diseases with sex, ethnicity and wealth were tested. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships. 25.4% of the final sample had one and 13.2% two or more chronic diseases. Nearly half of the respondents had a hypertensive blood pressure when measured during the interview, but had not been previously diagnosed. A further third self-reported they had been told by a health professional they had hypertension. The logistic regression showed in comparison to those with no chronic conditions, those with one or two or more had significantly higher odds of severe disability. Hypertension was insignificant and did not change the direction or size of the

  9. Women who finished a violent relationship: personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics [Mujeres que finalizaron una relación maltratante: características de personalidad, psicopatológicas y sociodemográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marcela Preciado-Gavidia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics of women that concluded a violent partner relationship (n=54, comparing them with women that continued with this type of relationship (n=41. The participants are between 18-60 years (M=37.4. The applied instruments were a socio-demographic survey, the Big Five Questionnaire of Personality (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni & Perugini, 1995, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Sheehan & Lecrubier, 2000. The participants that finished the abusive relationship presented bigger punctuations in the dimensions of Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness, a lower number of children, bigger help-seeking in government institutions after the violence episodes, and a lower prevalence of mayor depressive episode, dysthymia, low suicidal risk, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety.

  10. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  11. Caffeinated-beverage consumption and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and self-perceived academic stress in first and second year students at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Josué L; Betancourt, Jesmari; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Anaisa M; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    To determine the association between caffeinated-beverage consumption, self-perceived academic load, and self-perceived stress levels in first and second year students at UPR-MSC. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire given to a representative stratified sample of 275 students. Questions included information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, academic load and stress indicators, and caffeinated-beverage consumption. Chi2 was used to assess the associations between these variables. Most participants were women (68%), aged 21-30 years (88%), with low annual household incomes (43%). Most perceived their academic loads as being heavy (68%), and most perceived their academic stress levels as being moderate (37%). Academic load was significantly correlated with stress level (pstress, and many (49%) reported that these beverages were useful for coping with stress. Energy drinks, in particular, were consumed more often by men compared to women (pstress or load. Consuming caffeinated beverages is a popular practice among participants in this sample, with soft drinks and coffee being the ones that are the most frequently consumed. No associations were found between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and academic stress or load.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Work–home interference: Examining socio-demographic predictors in the South African context

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    Marissa de Klerk

    2010-04-01

    Research purpose: The main research aim of the study was to investigate the socio-demographic predictors of negative and positive work–home interaction of South African employees. Motivation for the study: Little information is known about the prevalence of work–home interaction within groups. This study is aimed at enabling the researcher and organisations to identify those groups that are at risk of negative interference and which are prone to positive interaction, to allow for the development of appropriate strategies and intervention programmes. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in the study. A sample (N = 2040 was taken from four South African industries (i.e. the police service, the earthmoving equipment industry, mining and nursing. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Survey Work–Home Interaction-Nijmegen (SWING were used. Main findings: The results indicated that robust predictors included occupation, gender and language for negative work–home interference; occupation, age and language for positive work–home interference; occupation and language for negative home–work interference; and occupation, age, education and language for positive home–work interference. Practical/managerial implications: The implications of the study are that negative and positive work–home interaction is uniquely associated with socio-demographic characteristics. Work–life balance initiatives should, therefore, be carefully tailored to address the needs of each socio-demographic group. Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study suggest answers to the management of the work–home interaction among various socio-demographic groups in organisations.

  14. Alcohol consumption and smoking and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and perceived academic stress in Puerto Rican college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Anaisa M; Cruz, Sonia Y; Ríos, Josué L; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Betancourt, Jesmari; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; González, Michael J; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    College students often use different strategies, such as consuming alcohol and smoking, to cope with stress. We examined the associations between self-perceived academic stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, and dietary patterns in graduate students. A representative stratified sample of 275 students from each school of the Medical Science Campus of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR-MSC) completed a 48-item questionnaire that solicited the following: socio-demographic data, estimates of self-perceived stress, estimates of the frequency of alcohol consumption and the type(s) of alcohol consumed, details regarding smoking habits, and information associated with diet (i.e., dietary patterns). Fisher's exact test and the Chi2 test were used to assess the associations between the different study variables. Only 3% were considered smokers (defined as > 1 cigarettes per day), with the greatest number of smokers among those aged 21-30 y (phabits was not associated with academic load/stress or with dietary pattern. Most smokers reported that their main reason for using cigarettes was to cope with stress. About 70% of the students were considered drinkers (defined as > 0 drink/day), with a higher proportion found among women (63.5%), among those aged 21-30 years (90.6%), and among those with a low or moderate household income (p0.05). Most subjects classified as drinkers reported that alcohol consumption was not (in their experience) an effective strategy for the management of stress (81%). Alcohol consumption was only associated with academic stress. No associations were found between smoking habits and academic stress/load and dietary patterns.

  15. Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of college students exposed to traumatic experiences: a census of seven college institutions in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Liana R Netto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that most of the adult population will be exposed to at least one potentially traumatic event in the course of his/her life; adolescence and early adulthood are the most vulnerable periods of life for exposure to traumatic experiences (70% of their deaths are due to external causes. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is characterized by the development of dysfunctional symptoms that cause distress or social, academic, or occupational impairment, as result of exposure to a traumatic event. The aim of this multicentric study is to establish the proportion of college students, within seven institutions in Northeastern Brazil, who were exposed to traumatic experience and met PTSD criteria. METHODS/DESIGN: A one-phase census protocol of seven college institutions in three metropolitan regions in Northeastern Brazil was performed (April to July 2011. All students aged 18 years or older, matriculated and attending their first or final semester were eligible. The self-applied protocol consisted of a socio-demographic questionnaire and the following scales adjusted to Brazilian Portuguese standards Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ, PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C, Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. Data were entered into SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: 2213 (85.5% students consented to participate, and completely filled in the protocols. Of these, 66.1% were woman, mean age 23.9 (SD 6.3, 82.7% were single, and 57.3% attended university outside their native cities. The total PTSD prevalence was 14%, and the median for frequency of trauma exposure was 5 events. CONCLUSION: A high frequency of exposure to violence, as well as a high rate of PTSD, suicide attempts, and high-risk sexual behavior was found in Brazilian college students. This highlights the importance of effective public health actions in relation to the prevention and treatment of PTSD and other dysfunctional behaviors resulting from traumatic exposure in young individuals

  16. Prevalence of common phobias and their socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, extra-curricular activities and hobbies, behaviour at home and various phobic fears and it was distributed among children aged 6 to 18 years. Psychiatrists determined the definitive diagnosis for various phobias by checking and screening their symptoms. Results: ...

  17. Socio-demographic determinants of malnutrition among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Several factors including the parental literacy, illness, socioeconomic status, poor sanitation and hygienic practices affect the physical growth of children. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-demographic determinants of malnutrition among primary school aged children in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: ...

  18. The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex information on romantic love levels among Jimma university students. ... Socio-demographic factors including gender, religion, ethnicity, place of origin (urban/rural), and level of education did not have a statistically significant effect on the romantic love level of the ...

  19. Motivations of Marathoners by socio demographic and training variables

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    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available in the growing population of Spanish and Mexican route runners we analyze their main motivations for running and their main bio-socio-demographic characteristics. It also analyzes the influence on the score of these variables in each of the motivational subscales in both Spanish as in Mexican route runners sample. This gives valuable data describing their motivations and socio-demographic characteristics and training, and concludes that in the Mexican sample route runners were obtained significantly higher scores than in the Spanish in each of the motivations for running analyzed . Moreover, the two motivations accounted for both samples are the most self-determined (meaning of life, self-esteem and health orientation and least valued was the least self-determined (recognition. Also that in bio-socio-demographic characteristics of the Mexican sample, there are many significant differences by gender, while the Spanish sample there are only on primary work activity and BMI. Finally, the influence of biological variables sociodemographic scores on each of the motivational subscales analyzed, there are many significant differences, both by gender and between Spanish and Mexican samples.

  20. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  1. Socio-demographic and other patient characteristics associated with time between colonoscopy and surgery, and choice of treatment centre for colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsbury, David; Harris, Mark Fort; Pascoe, Shane; Olver, Ian; Barton, Michael; Spigelman, Allan; O'Connell, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate key patient clinical and demographic characteristics associated with time between colonoscopy and surgery, and choice of treatment centre for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This will add to the little published research examining the pathway following CRC diagnosis and prior to surgery. Design Retrospective cohort analysis of linked data. Setting A population-based sample of people diagnosed August 2004 to December 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. Participants ...

  2. The socio-demographic aspects of building social infrastructure in the city of Moscow

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    Strashnova Yuliya gennad’evna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the influence of the socio-demographic factor on the development of the network of facilities of the social infrastructure of the city (on the example of Moscow is explored. The interrelation between socio-demographic development and the formation of the consumer demand for services and various types of facilities is revealed. The main socio-demographic concepts and measures determining a need to develop and site the facilities throughout the city are considered. Thus, the social, age and family structure of the resident population determine the typology and functional structure of facilities. The “daytime” population, its structure and concentration areas determine the volume and the new construction sites of residential buildings. The “temporary” population (including tourists, transit passengers, business travelers and other population categories, staying in the city for more than 24 hours specifies the need for the construction of hotels, hostels and other collective accommodation facilities. Economically active population creates demand for jobs, including those created on the basis of social infrastructure. Objectives: to explain the need for taking into account the modern and perspective trends in population development during the preparation of the territorial and urban planning documents; to consider the particularities of the socio-demographic characteristics included when forecasting the need to develop the social facilities, creating workplaces, taking into account the transition to the economy of services and information technologies, in designing a citywide system, including transport hubs. Materials and methods: the research was conducted on the basis of official statistics (Rosstat, Mosgorstat, of line departments and offices of the city of Moscow. Statistical, analytical, sociological methods of research, expert assessments, analogies, field survey, mathematical modeling are used. Results: modern and perspective

  3. Sense of coherence and socio-demographic characteristics predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and recovery in the aftermath of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Zysberg, Leehu; Hantman, Shira; Enosh, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sense of coherence (SOC) as a mediator between demographic attributes of individuals (gender, age, economic situation, and exposure to traumatic events during the war) and two war outcomes (postwar stress symptoms and perceived posttraumatic recovery). The participants were 870 adults (ages ranged between 20 and 85), who were affected by the Second Lebanon War and were evacuated from their home town. They were administered the research questionnaire approximately one year after this war. Path analysis indicated the following: gender, age, economic situation, and exposure were significantly associated with level of symptoms as well as perceived recovery. However, three of these connections (age, economic, and exposure) were partially mediated by SOC which was linked with lower levels of stress symptoms and higher levels of perceived posttraumatic recovery. Unlike our hypothesis, exposure by age interaction was not significantly associated with SOC and the two war outcomes. Results supported the hypotheses that SOC mediates between demographic characteristics and negative (symptoms) as well as positive (perceived recovery) war outcomes.

  4. Socio-demographic psychosocial and clinical characteristics of participants in e-HealthyStrides©: an interactive ehealth program to improve diabetes self-management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemu, Priscilla E; Quarshie, Alexander Q; Josiah-Willock, R; Ojutalayo, Folake O; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians' Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study participants are reported. Of those approached, 13.8% agreed to participate. Among participants, 96% were Black, 77% female; age 56±9.2 years; education: 44% college or higher and 15% less than 12th grade; 92.5% with home computers. Over half (51%) failed the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Nearly half (47%) were at goal A1C; 24% at goal blood pressure; 3% at goal LDL cholesterol level. Median (SD) Diabetes Empowerment Scale score = 3.93 (0.72) but managing psychosocial aspects = 3.89 (0.89) scored lower than other domains. There was low overall confidence for DSM behaviors. Assistance with healthy eating was the most frequently requested service. Requestors were more obese with worse A1C than others. Chronic care delivery scored average with high scores for counseling and problem solving but low scores for care coordination and follow up.

  5. PREVALENCE OF MAJOR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND ITS SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULT POPULATION OF BLOCK HAJIN, BANDIPOORA J & K

    OpenAIRE

    Showkat Ahmad; Rafiq; Anjum; Rohul; Syed Shuja; Rifat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease is a medical condition or disease which non-infectious, of long duration and generally of slow progression. Major NCDs include cardiovascular diseases, strokes, diabetes mellitus, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases. They account for a significant part of overall mortality, morbidity & disability, result in huge economic losses to nations, are a cause of psychosocial suffering and are therefore recognized as major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To ...

  6. Suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students: prevalence and association with socio-demographic characteristics and psychoactive substances use: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, Btissame; Bendaou, B; Elkinany, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2015-11-14

    Suicidal behavior is a major cause of injury and death worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have tackled this issue in the Arab world. The present study investigated the prevalence and the risk factors of suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students. From April 2012 to November 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the North-Centre region of Morocco among students in public secondary schools selected using stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected via anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used in its Moroccan Colloquial Arabic version to assess suicidality according to the DSM-IV criteria. A total of 3020 students (53 % boys) aged 11-23 years (average age = 16 ± 2.1 years) were included in the study. The prevalence of suicide ideation, suicide planning and suicide attempts during the last month were 15.7, 6.3, and 6.5 % respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that suicidal behaviors followed different epidemiological patterns. According to the multivariate analyses, the risk factors for all suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students were the female gender, middle school level, urban locations, low family income, parents' divorce, tobacco consumption and psychoactive substances (alcohol and cannabis) use. The intervention of preventive programs has become an emergency to overcome the issue of suicidality in Morocco. Further researches on adolescents' suicidal behaviors are suggested to update temporal data and assess the effectiveness of potential interventions.

  7. Mental Health Among Adolescents Exposed to a Tornado: The Influence of Social Support and its Interactions with Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Disaster Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Felton, Julia W.; Adams, Zachary W.; Welsh, Kyleen; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of youths experience a natural disaster and many experience disaster-related distress, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study contributes to the literature by examining PTSD and depressive symptoms among 2,000 adolescents (50.9% female, 70.5% White) assessed after exposure to tornadoes in 2011. The authors hypothesized that greater tornado exposure, female sex, and younger age would be associated with distress, and that social support would interact with these associations. Analyses showed that PTSD symptoms were predicted by lower levels of social support (β = −.28, p tornado exposure (β = .14, ptornado exposure, sex, and social support (β = −.06, p = .017). For boys, the influence of tornado exposure on PTSD symptoms increased as social support decreased. Regardless of level of tornado exposure, low social support was related to PTSD symptoms for girls; depressive symptom results were similar. These findings are generally consistent with the literature and provide guidance for intervention development focused on strengthening social support at the individual, family, and community levels. PMID:26031997

  8. Variation in the costs of dying and the role of different health services, socio-demographic characteristics, and preceding health care expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolden, Herbert J A; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2014-11-01

    The health care costs of population ageing are for an important part attributable to higher mortality rates in combination with high costs of dying. This paper answers three questions that remain unanswered regarding the costs of dying: (1) contributions of different health services to the costs of dying; (2) variation in the costs of dying; and (3) the influence of preceding health care expenses on the costs of dying. We retrieved data on 61,495 Dutch subjects aged 65 and older from July 2007 through 2010 from a regional health care insurer. We included all deceased subjects of whom health care expenses were known for 26 months prior to death (n=2833). Costs of dying were defined as health care expenses made in the last six months before death. Lorenz curves, generalized linear models and a two-part model were used for our analyses. (1) The average costs of dying are €25,919. Medical care contributes to 57% of this total, and long-term care 43%. The costs of dying mainly relate to hospital care (40%). (2) In the costs of dying, 75% is attributable to the costliest half of the population. For medical care, this distribution figure is 86%, and for long-term care 92%. Age and preceding expenses are significant determinants of this variation in the costs of dying. (3) Overall, higher preceding health care expenses are associated with higher costs of dying, indicating that the costs of dying are higher for those with a longer patient history. To summarize, there is not a large variation in the costs of dying, but there are large differences in the nature of these costs. Before death, the oldest old utilize more long-term care while their younger counterparts visit hospitals more often. To curb the health care costs of population ageing, a further understanding of the costs of dying is crucial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  10. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen.......68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All...

  11. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenfang; Li, Xu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuiping; Liu, Liming; Wang, Xiang; Li, Weimin

    2012-12-29

    The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0-18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infantsanemia with non-anemic group as a reference. We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and malnutrition in young

  12. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for

  13. Depression in adolescence: social skills and socio-demographic variables as risk factors/protection

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Rosa Campos; Almir Del Prette; Zilda Aparecida Pereira Del Prette

    2014-01-01

    Social skills and socio-demographic variables have been identified as risk/protective factors that may be predictive of adolescent depression. However, it is not yet clear which classes of social skills and which socio-demographic variables which would be critical in this relation. This study had as aim the investigation of which of these variables could be risk or protection factors of depression in adolescence, as well as evaluate the predictive power of a model that includes these variable...

  14. Who is a dangerous driver? Socio-demographic and personal determinants of risky traffic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Peplińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to search for comprehensive socio-demographic and personal (personality and temperamental determinants of risky on-the-road behavior. Based on the results of previous studies, we assumed that the main predictors of dangerous traffic behavior include: internal locus of control, sensation seeking, risk seeking and risk acceptance, as well as high self-esteem, a low level of reactivity combined with a high level of endurance and activity (which together determine a strong need for stimulation and a preference for hedonistic values; and among socio-demographic variables – age, gender, education and duration of having a driving license. Participants and procedure The study included a group of 380 participants, aged between 19 and 61 years (Me = 24. In order to verify the hypothesis, a battery of research tools measuring personality and temperamental variables was adopted, namely: the Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Questionnaire, Rotter I-E Scale, Risk Acceptance Scale, Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory, Scheler Value Scale, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results The dangerous driver syndrome was found to be promoted by high levels of experience and sensation seeking, low levels of tolerance to boredom and monotony, high need for stimulating risk and high risk acceptance, high self-esteem, a preference for hedonistic values coupled with aversion towards moral values, as well as low sensory sensitivity, and was especially visible among older men with short driving experience. Conclusions It can be concluded that both socio-demographic and psychological variables, such as temperament and personality, are significant predictors of dangerous traffic behavior.

  15. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peizhi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-06-10

    The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 %) which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  16. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Results Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 % which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. Conclusions The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  17. Main Sources, Socio-Demographic and Anthropometric Correlates of Salt Intake in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Hasenegger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake is known to increase blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, salt intake exceeds the recommendations in most countries. To face this problem, it is important to identify high consumers as well as the main contributors of salt intake. Overall, data of 2018 adults between 18 and 64 years were analysed to determine the main sources, socio-demographic and anthropometric correlates of salt intake. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h-recalls, information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a questionnaire and anthropometric data were measured. Salt intake was significantly higher in males than in females. There was a significant positive association between salt intake and body mass index. No significant differences in salt intake were observed for other variables including affluence, educational level, smoking status and physical activity. The main contributor to salt intake were condiments including table salt (32.6%, followed by cereals and cereal products (27.0%, meat and meat products (16.1% and dairy products (14.0%. These results highlight that specific population groups need to be targeted by public health initiatives and that a reduction in salt intake can only be achieved in tandem with the food producers by the reduction of salt in processed foods.

  18. Socio-demographic and health characteristics of elderly individuals: support for health services Características sociodemográficas y de salud de ancianos: contribuciones para los servicios de salud Características sociodemográficas e de saúde de idosos: contribuições para os serviços de saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Calíope Pilger; Mario Humberto Menon; Thais Aidar de Freitas Mathias

    2011-01-01

    This is a sectional epidemiological study including a household survey. It describes the socio-demographic and health conditions of elderly individuals residing in Guarapuava, PR, Brazil. The study's sample consisted of 359 elderly individuals enrolled in primary health care units in the city. Interviews were conducted from January to April 2010 using sections I and II of the Brazil Old Age Schedule questionnaire. The results revealed that most interviewees were women (64.3%), health self-per...

  19. Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. DO Onu. Abstract. The study investigates selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. Structured questionnaire was administered to 87 ...

  20. Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    primary understanding of the influence of socio-demographic factors on dengue and may be used to develop ... Studies on dengue risk factors associated with socio-demographic factors have not been conducted ..... houses with pipes, such houses are likely to have gardens and other vegetation that could support mosquito ...

  1. Modeling of budgetary funding influence on socio-demographic processes of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasil'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes reflect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of fiscal spending on socially significant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of influence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.

  2. Identifying the socio-demographic and clinical determinants of family functioning in Greek patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2015-05-01

    Studies on determinants affecting family functioning of patients with psychosis are still limited in Greece. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with family functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Crete, Greece. A total of 100 patients and their caregivers agreed to participate in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion, adaptability, communication and satisfaction dimensions (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV Package), expressed emotion (Family Questionnaire), family burden (Family Burden Scale) and caregivers' psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28). Multivariate linear regression models were implemented to examine the associations between each one of the family measures and different social and clinical characteristics. With regard to the caregivers' characteristics, gender, employment status, origin, residence, financial status, relation to the patient, contact with the patient and family structure were among the most significant determinants of family functioning. Also, patients' socio-demographic characteristics, including age, education, origin, residence and employment status, as well as illness-related factors, such as onset of mental illness, number of hospitalisations, last hospitalisation, longer hospitalisation and clinical diagnosis impacted intrafamilial relationships. The results of this study suggest that a number of social and clinical factors contributed to the family environment of patients with psychosis. Identifying the determinants of family functioning in psychosis is instrumental in developing understandings regarding the factors which may contribute to the rehabilitation or relapse of the patient and the support required to strengthen positive family interactions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard E.G. Mboera ...

  4. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  5. Hong Kong Chinese parental attitudes towards vaccination and associated socio-demographic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda Dong-Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fielding, Richard

    2016-03-14

    Most previous studies on parental attitudes towards vaccination focused on a disease-specific vaccine. In this study we describe general attitudes towards vaccination in Chinese parents and associated socio-demographic disparities. Data were collected from a random sample of 1996 Hong Kong Chinese parents by telephone interviews (response rate 60%). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Most parents believed vaccination to be effective (91.6%) and beneficial (78.7%), though many considered optional vaccines unimportant (39.5%) and unnecessary (62.1%). Demographic characteristics associated with parental negative attitudes to vaccination included being female, born in Hong Kong, married, having fewer children, and children ever experienced vaccination side effects. Lower personal income and religious affiliation were associated with more hesitant attitudes towards optional vaccines. Segments of the population hold significantly negative attitudes towards vaccination and optional vaccines, suggesting a need for targeted efforts on vaccination communication in these groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Socio-demographic factors and substance use in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances

  7. Association of smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, work, lifestyle and mental health of Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhen; Sekine, Michikazu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined the individual and social impact of smoking behavior in the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, mental health and work characteristics of Japanese civil servants. A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,439 employees (821 men and 618 women) aged 20-64 yr was conducted in a local government department in 2001. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic factors, education level, grade of employment, lifestyle, affect balance scale, and work characteristics. Smoking status was divided into current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoked. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between smoking and the other items. Men presented a higher smoking prevalence rate than women (53.1% vs. 4.9%). In men, a strong relationship between current smoker and advanced age (40 yr or older), low education level, less physical activity, irregular breakfast and negative affect balance was found. Among men with a low education, the prevalence of smoking cessation was significantly lower in comparison to men with a high education. In women, being young (20-29 yr), unmarried (single or other), having a hobby, and irregular breakfast were associated with smoking behavior. Furthermore, smoking cessation was significantly associated with having a hobby and negative affect balance. The above results suggest that socio-demographic, lifestyle and mental health characteristics are independently associated with current smoking. These factors should be considered in smoking cessation policies as program components.

  8. Selected socio-demographic variables and their effect on the quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : The aim of this study was to determine the effect of some socio demographic variables on the quality of life of elderly individuals aged 60 to 75years in Nnewi North Local Government area of Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Method: A total of 169 subjects which included 80 females and 89 males who ...

  9. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  10. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  11. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral health related quality of life among Tanzanian adults: a national pathfinder survey. ... A higher proportion of those who reported poor conditions of teeth had difficulties in chewing and sleeping was often interrupted. Multivariate analysis indicated that those who ...

  12. Socio demographic profile and presentations of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To study the Socio-demographic profiles and mode of clinical presentations of with uterine rupture in pregnancy in Calabar, Nigeria. Method: Medical records of 67 patients managed for ruptured gravid uterus over 10 years in Maternity section of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar, Nigeria ...

  13. Socio-Demographic Predictors of Domestic Outsourcing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paid labour, for women, affects the traditional roles typical in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. This study examined the socio-demographic factors predisposing working women to outsource domestic tasks. The paper engages the factors highlighted by 140 of the 528 sampled working women who engaged domestic ...

  14. Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic factors in Oyo town, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Contemporary life-styles have made street foods to be an important meal option in Nigeria. They contribute ... Nutrition education is suggested for people to make a better choice of nourishing street foods.

  15. 1. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    INTRODUCTION. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for. Mental Illness Among Inmates at Lusaka Central. Prison, Zambia. 1. 2*. Mweene Tembalami Nseluke , S Siziya. 1 Clinical Care Department, Chainama Hills College Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2 Public Health Unit, Clinical Sciences Department, School of ...

  16. Socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours: A cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of great worry is that unrestricted/uncontrolled adolescents sexual behaviours may expose them to sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortion and dropping out of school. Thus comprehensive sex education was recommended. Keywords: Socio-Demographic, Correlates, Sexual, ...

  17. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use disorders. The estimated prevalence of alcohol related problems was 39.4% with 28.8% harmful drinking and 10.6% hazardous drinking (alcohol ...

  18. Socio-demographic factors associated with intimate partner violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was done of 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health center in Ile-Ife. The objective of this study was to determine, among a sample of women attending a primary health center in Ile-Ife, the socio-demographic factors associated with intimate ...

  19. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Urban Unemployment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the association between socio-demographic variables and unemployment in urban Ethiopia with a special emphasis on Addis Ababa using data taken from CSA's National Labor Force Surveys of 1999 and 2005. Differences in the labor market outcomes are observed due to variations in ...

  20. Association of some socio-economic and socio- Demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of some socio-economic and socio- Demographic variables with wasting among pre-school children of north Bengal, India. ... Abstract. Backgrounbd: Undernutrition is a global public health problem that causes premature morbidity and ill-health conditions and has long-lasting physiological effects in children.

  1. Socio-demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a Nigerian university teaching hospital. ... CONCLUSION:Among other social factors female education improved women's ability to take decisions on reproductive matters. Poor education and low socioeconomic status not only increase women's vulnerability ...

  2. Socio-Demographic Factors As Predictor Of Parents' Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlational Research design was adopted to examine the predictive influence of some socio-demographic variables on perspectives of parents towards the inclusion of HIV and AIDS education in Lagos State schools. Four hundred parents of pupils and students of four primary and secondary schools with diverse ...

  3. Vitamin D deficiency rickets: socio-demographic and clinical risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D deficiency rickets: socio-demographic and clinical risk factors in children seen at a referral hospital in Addis Ababa. ... Intervention strategies targeting vitamin D deficiency rickets should give emphasis to children with protein energy malnutrition. Further work will be required to detine the causal links between ...

  4. The Relationship Between Socio-Demographic Factors and Severity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late presentation continues to be a major problem of patients with primary open angle glaucoma. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic factors, which affect the severity of visual field loss at initial presentation. A prospective study of 154 new patients with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma ...

  5. Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes mellitus in Onitsha-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus in relation to its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment modalities and risk factors.

  6. Socio-Demographic and Clinical features of Adolescents Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim:To find out the socio-demographic and clinical features of adolescent who attended the outpatient psychiatric clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu over a five-year period (1995 – 1999) Method:Case notes of all the patients who attended this clinic for this five-year period were extracted from the ...

  7. Interaction of Socio-Demographic Background Variables with Inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of Socio-Demographic Background Variables with Inter-Spousal Communication Among Married Couples in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. ... marriage will increase from 20-24years to 25-29years due to the number of years of couple's educational pursuit in Lagos state of Nigeria.

  8. The role of socio demographic variables in predicting patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiological examination remains a vital and integral aspect of health services delivery and patient satisfaction with radiological service remains beneficial both to patients and hospitals. Aim: To evaluate the influence of patient's socio demographic variables on satisfaction with radiological services. Subjects ...

  9. Socio-Demographic Factors in Under Five Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute diarrhoea. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Children's Emergency Room and Children's Outpatient Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects: One hundred and seventy-four ...

  10. Some Socio-demographic attributes as covariates in tooth wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Association between some socio-demographic attributes and tooth wear among adult male population in a rural community of Igbo-ora, Southwestern Nigeria was investigated in this cross-sectional study. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among 200 consenting adult males in Igbo-ora was carried out ...

  11. Gender inequality on the example of socio-demographic structures of Belgrade population

    OpenAIRE

    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the numb...

  12. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bac...

  13. Stress, anxiety & depression among medical undergraduate students & their socio-demographic correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shawaz; Gupta, Sandhya; Venkatarao, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Presence of psychological morbidity in medical undergraduate students has been reported from various countries across the world. Indian studies to document this burden are very few. Therefore, the presence of depression, anxiety and stress among medical undergraduate students was assessed using a previously validated and standardized instrument, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) and the associations with their socio-demographic and personal characteristics wer...

  14. Socio-demographic and clinical factors related to mortality among the geriatric suicide attempters admitted to the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality. Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January 1, 2004 and December 30, 2014, were included into this retrospective cross-sectional study. Relationship between suicide attempt and mortality was investigated in regard to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they survived or died. Results: Of the 107 patients included in the study, 68.2% were female and 31.8% were male; 34.6% were married. Common reasons for suicide attempt were depression (34.6% and domestic violence (30.8%. Analgesics (33.6% were the most common drugs used in suicide attempts. The analysis of the factors related to suicide attempt and mortality revealed that significant factors were loneliness, being widowed, being retired, having adjustment disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Loneliness, being widowed, being retired, adjustment disorder, and anxiety disorder were found as the risk factors affecting mortality in geriatric suicide attempts.

  15. [Characterization of parent-adolescent communication: a study of socio-demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Alda Patrícia Marques; Alberto, Isabel Maria Marques

    2015-05-01

    Parent-adolescent communication seems to depend largely of some socio-demographic characteristics. The main goal of this research is the analysis of parent-adolescent perception about their communication considering some socio-demographic variables: sex, residence, socioeconomic status, education and family composition. A quantitative cross-sectional design was used to analyze the perception of 336 parents and 268 children about the quality of communication using the Perception Scale of Parenting Communication.: It was revealed that: boys tend to share their problems mostly with fathers; mothers have better perception of communication; there weren't statistical differences on communicational conflict in the sex variable; members of high socioeconomic classes and urban contexts have better perception about communication; and adolescents of post-divorce families tend to share their problems mostly with mothers than adolescents of intact nuclear families. Considering the influence of some socio-demographic variables on parent-adolescent communication, it is possible design concrete clinical interventions. It suggests the need to pay attention to particular contexts (rural places and low socioeconomic classes). These results demystify the belief that post-divorce families have more difficulties than nuclear intact families.

  16. Dimension and Socio-demographic Correlates of Domestic Violence: A study from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Prasanta Kr; Kundu, Azad S; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2017-05-01

    Present study was aimed to find out dimension and socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence in Assam, Sikkim and Meghalaya, Northeast India. Two districts from each state were selected at random and women aged 18-35 years from rural and urban localities were interviewed to obtain relevant information. The study included a total of 2249 participants (Rural = 1577 and Urban = 672) from Assam (650), Sikkim (1148) and Meghalaya (451). Domestic violence was recorded in 26.4% of study participants and highest in Meghalaya. Of all types, psychological violence was predominant. A number of socio-demographic factors have been identified as independent predictors for domestic violence in pooled and state specific analysis. Findings of our study may help in formulating strategies to prevent domestic violence.

  17. Why travel motivations and socio-demographics matter in managing a National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Addo Elephant National Park is one of only a few national parks in the world that offers the Big 7 experience and is therefore one of South Africa’s prime tourism destinations. The park plays an important role in the regional economy and has become a hub for tourism development. The aim of this article is to determine the extent to which socio-demographic and behavioural and motivational indicators influence the spending of tourists to the park. A better understanding of the latter could help marketers and planners to increase the economic impact of the park. Since 2001, surveys have been conducted among tourists to the park and have included a number of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivational questions. In this analysis, 537 questionnaires were used. The methodology used includes factor analysis, cross-sectional regression analysis and pseudo-panel data analysis to determine and compare possible influences on spending. The research identifies six motives for tourists travelling to the Addo Elephant National Park; these are nature, activities, family and socialisation, escape, attractions and photography. The research found that a combination of socio-demographic and motivational factors influences visitor spending decisions. Added to this, the research confi rms that tourist attractions, including national parks, differ from one another and that the variables that influence spending therefore also differ.

  18. Why travel motivations and socio-demographics matter in managing a National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Addo Elephant National Park is one of only a few national parks in the world that offers the Big 7 experience and is therefore one of South Africa’s prime tourism destinations. The park plays an important role in the regional economy and has become a hub for tourism development. The aim of this article is to determine the extent to which socio-demographic and behavioural and motivational indicators influence the spending of tourists to the park. A better understanding of the latter could help marketers and planners to increase the economic impact of the park. Since 2001, surveys have been conducted among tourists to the park and have included a number of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivational questions. In this analysis, 537 questionnaires were used. The methodology used includes factor analysis, cross-sectional regression analysis and pseudo-panel data analysis to determine and compare possible influences on spending. The research identifies six motives for tourists travelling to the Addo Elephant National Park; these are nature, activities, family and socialisation, escape, attractions and photography. The research found that a combination of socio-demographic and motivational factors influences visitor spending decisions. Added to this, the research confi rms that tourist attractions, including national parks, differ from one another and that the variables that influence spending therefore also differ.

  19. Socio-demographic analysis of Festival Entrepreneurs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jonker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the socio-demographic differences between entrepreneurs at National Arts festivals in South Africa. Language, and specifically Afrikaans, English and African languages, was used as the dependent variable. The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK in Oudtshoorn and the Grahamstown National Arts Festival (GNAF are the two largest arts festivals in South Africa. The research was conducted by means of a questionnaire survey (N=500. The data from KKNK and GNAF were combined and factor analyses were applied to determine the role and attributes of entrepreneurs. Cross-tabulation analyses were used to illustrate the comparison of language with socio-demographical variables (marital status, qualification, province, family business, personal attributes, business premises and resourcefulness and the role and attributes of entrepreneurs. In addition, the association of language with independent variables was examined by means of one-way ANOVA for the three language groups. Findings suggest that there are significant differences in festival entrepreneurs from different cultures (languages, especially in terms of socio-demographic variables such as marital status, education, province, business and personal attributes (resourcefulness. Keywords and phrases: Klein Karoo National Arts Festival, Grahamstown National Arts Festival, festival entrepreneur, factor analysis, cross-tabulation analysis, ANOVA, entrepreneurs, language

  20. Socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of burns in children: an overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnababtah, Khalid; Khan, Salim; Ashford, Robert

    2016-02-01

    In most countries, socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of burns in children. The aims of this literature review were therefore to identify which of those factors are linked to an increase in the prevalence and identify ways of enhancing burn prevention programmes and preventing practices which play a role in the occurrence of burns in children. A comprehensive search (no time limit) of primary studies, titles and abstracts was undertaken in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Socio-demographic factors which were linked to an increased incidence of burns include low household income, living in deprived areas, living in rented accommodation, young mothers, single-parent families and children from ethnic minorities. The level of parental education, parental occupation, and the type and size of accommodation were also cited. A range of socio-demographic factors result in an increase in the prevalence of burns, and the risk is even greater in children who are exposed to a number of these factors. Such information will be useful for planning prevention strategies and identifying further research questions that need to be answered.

  1. Does exclusion of cancers registered only from death-certificate information diminish socio-demographic disparities in recorded survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Roder, David; Morrell, Stephen; You, Hui; Currow, David C

    2017-06-01

    Death Certificate Only (DCO) cancer cases are commonly excluded from survival analyses due to unknown survival time. This study examines whether socio-demographic factors are associated with DCO diagnosis, and the potential effects of excluding DCO cases on socio-demographic cancer survival disparities in NSW, Australia. NSW Cancer Registry data for cases diagnosed in 2000-2008 were used in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of DCO registration by socio-demographic sub-group (socio-economic disadvantage, residential remoteness, country of birth, age at diagnosis). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the probability of death from cancer by socio-demographic subgroup when DCO cases were included and excluded from analyses. DCO cases consisted of 1.5% (n=4336) of all cases (n=299,651). DCO diagnosis was associated with living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas (most disadvantaged compared with least disadvantaged quintile: odds ratio OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40), living in inner regional (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.08-1.25) or remote areas (OR 1.48, 95%CI 1.01-2.19), having an unknown country of birth (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.47-1.81) and older age. Including or excluding DCO cases had no significant impact on hazard ratios for cancer death by socio-economic disadvantage quintile or remoteness category, and only a minor impact on hazard ratios by age. Socio-demographic factors were associated with DCO diagnosis in NSW. However, socio-demographic cancer survival disparities remained unchanged or varied only slightly irrespective of including/excluding DCO cases. Further research could examine the upper limits of DCO proportions that significantly alter estimated cancer survival differentials if DCOs are excluded. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BARRIERS, FACILITATORS AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDOM USAGE AMONGST MALE HIV INTEGRATED COUNSELLING AND TESTING CENTRE ATTENDEES AT THE GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL OF THORACIC MEDICINE, AN HIV TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mahajan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV is transmitted largely through sexual route which can be prevented by using condoms. The objectives of this study were to describe condom usage with various barriers, facilitators and to determine association between different socioeconomic characteristics among male Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC attendees. Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study (n=300. Clients (18-45years attending ICTC for first time, between June-October ‘2010, were interviewed with structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Description of demographic characteristics of respondents; univariate, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for estimation of association. Results: Among respondents, awareness of HIV and condom were 80% and 85.3% respectively; Knowledge of prevention from STI/HIV (97.7% was most common facilitator while forgetfulness after drinking alcohol (64.1% was most common barrier to use condom; Respondents who had education up to secondary or above level were more associated with condom usage (AOR 2.9,95%CI1.34-6.24, after adjusting for income compared to non educated respondents; considering less than Indian rupee (INR 3000 per month as reference category, there were association of condom usage among relatively higher income groups between INR.3000 to 5000 per month (AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.38-5.0,adjusting education and income above INR5000 per month (AOR 2.85,95%CI1.37-5.9, adjusting education. Conclusions: Condom usage was independently associated with education and income level of respondents. Forgetfulness after drinking alcohol was main barrier; knowledge of prevention from HIV was main facilitator of condom usage. Dissemination of knowledge regarding facilitator of condom usage and implementation of Rapid Needs Assessment Tool for Condom Programming can encourage condom use.

  3. Functional disability of adult individuals with spinal cord injury and its association with socio-demographic characteristics Incapacidad funcional y asociaciones con aspectos socio-demográficos en adultos con lesión medular Incapacidade funcional e associações com aspectos sociodemográficos em adultos com lesão medular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Silva Coura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the Functional Disability degree in adults with spinal cord injury and its association with socio-demographic characteristics. The Barthel Index was used and 75 subjects answered a questionnaire with socio-demographic variables. The Chi-Square, Cronbach's Alpha and Fisher tests were used in the analysis. The mean age was 42.23 years. Cronbach's Alpha for the Barthel Index was 0.807. The activities that were more difficult to perform were Climbing and Descending Stairs (92% and Walking (82.7%. The mean Barthel Index score was 64 points. The tests of association demonstrated values with p>0.05. Even though this population demonstrated a low degree of dependency and no association was identified between the socio-demographic variables and Functional Disability, the study contributes to nursing care for individuals with spinal cord injury, considering the limitations the condition imposes on their self-care.El objetivo fue investigar el grado de Incapacidad Funcional de adultos con lesión medular y su asociación con las características socio-demográficas. Se utilizó el Índice de Barthel y un cuestionario con variables socio-demográficas. Participaron 75 sujetos. Se efectuaron las pruebas: Chi-cuadrado, Cronbach y Fisher. El promedio de edad fue de 43,23 años. El Alfa de Cronbach para el Índice de Barthel fue de 0,807. Las actividades en las cuales se verificó mayor dificultad de realización fueron Subir y Bajar escaleras (92% y Deambular (82,7%. La mediana del Índice de Barthel fue de 64 puntos. Las pruebas de asociación presentaron valores de p>0,05. A pesar de que la población presenta un grado leve de dependencia y no se identificaron asociaciones entre las variables socio-demográficas y la Incapacidad Funcional, se considera que el estudio contribuye para la asistencia de enfermería, debido a algunas limitaciones que la lesión medular impone en el auto-cuidado.Objetivou-se investigar o grau de

  4. Towards effective interventions for transgender people and their clients to prevent HIV infection and transmission : A study of the psychological determinants, sexual behavior s, and socio-demographic characteristics related to condom use and health care use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, transgender people (waria) have the second highest HIV prevalence (21.9%), the first being people who inject drugs (36.4%). To reduce HIV incidence among transgender people and prevent HIV transmission, they should have access to all prevention services including education, prevention

  5. The Incidence of Problem Gambling in a Representative Cohort of Swedish Female and Male 16-24 Year-Olds by Socio-demographic Characteristics, in Comparison with 25-44 Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Frida; Rosendahl, Ingvar K; Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Tengström, Anders; Hallqvist, Johan

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to estimate the incidence of a first episode of problem gambling among Swedish 16-24 year-olds by demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and to compare the incidence between 16-24 and 25-44 year-olds, and between young women and men. Other aims were to estimate the proportions of recovery and incidence in recurrent problem gambling, and prevalence of problem gambling among 16-44 year-olds in Sweden. We selected 4,358 participants aged 16-44 from the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The primary outcome measure was a first episode of problem gambling during 12 months before the follow-up as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index among participants without a history of problem gambling at baseline. The incidence proportion of a first episode of problem gambling among 16-24 year-olds was 2.26% (95% confidence interval 1.52-3.36); three times lower among females (1.14; 0.42-3.07%) than males (3.32; 2.19-5.01%). Young age and household financial problems were associated with first episode problem gambling among young women. Among 25-44 year-olds, the incidence proportion of a first episode of problem gambling was 0.81% (0.41-1.56). Recovery from problem gambling was high, in particular among females. Individual transitions from problem gambling to recovery and to recurrent problem gambling, between baseline and follow-up, were common regardless of age. This study adds further evidence to research suggesting that there is a high mobility in and out of problem gambling over time on an individual level. The high incidence of first episode problem gambling among youth in Sweden stresses the importance of prevention of problem gambling at an early age.

  6. Mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero: características sociodemográficas das mulheres residentes na cidade de Recife, Pernambuco Uterus cervix cancer mortality: socio-demographic characteristics of women living in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Guimarães de Mendonça

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever as características sociodemográficas dos óbitos por câncer do colo uterino em residentes de Recife, Pernambuco, ocorridos entre 2000 e 2004. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo transversal, populacional, com a inclusão de 323 óbitos por câncer do colo uterino, dos quais 261 encontravam-se registrados no Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e 62 foram identificados após investigação das mortes por câncer em porção não especificada do útero. Obteve-se a mortalidade proporcional para todas as variáveis e foram calculadas medidas estatísticas de tendência central e dispersão para a idade. Quanto ao local de residência e faixa etária, realizou-se o teste do χ2 e obteve-se o coeficiente de mortalidade. RESULTADOS: houve predomínio de óbitos em mulheres com idade inferior a 60 anos (54,7%, negras (60,5%, sem companheiro (67,7%, donas de casa (71,2% e residentes em bairros com baixa condição de vida (53,3%. A maioria das mortes foi hospitalar (85,1%, das quais 90,2% ocorreram na rede do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O coeficiente de mortalidade variou de 0,3 (na faixa etária inferior a 30 anos a 54,9/100.00 (em maiores de 80 anos. Comparando-se os óbitos por faixa etária e distrito sanitário com as características da população feminina residente na cidade, evidenciaram-se diferenças estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of deaths caused by uterine cervix cancer in women living in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2000 to 2004. METHODS: a transversal populational study, including 323 deaths by uterine cervix cancer, among which 261 were recorded in the Information System about Mortality and 62 were identified after investigation on deaths by cancer at non-specified sites of the uterus. Mortality rate for all the variables was obtained and statistics for central tendency and variance were calculated. The χ2 test was performed to obtain the

  7. Vape Shop Density and Socio-Demographic Disparities: A US Census Tract Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang; Catley, Delwyn

    2017-11-01

    Vape shops are an emerging business specializing in the sales and promotion of e-cigarette, e-juice, and other vaping products. This study sought to evaluate the associations between vape shop density and socio-demographic characteristics at the US census tract level. Vape shop data (n = 9943) were collected from three online directories: Yelp.com, Yellowpages.com, and Guidetovaping.com. Addresses of vape shops were geocoded and the density per 10 000 people was estimated at each US census tract. Zero inflated negative binomial regression model was performed to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with vape shop density. Overall, there was a higher vape shop density in urban versus nonurban census tracts. In urban areas, higher vape shop density was associated with larger proportions of Hispanics and Asians, adults aged 18-44 years old and higher poverty, while the decrease in vape shop density was associated with larger proportions of population under 18 years old, higher education, larger household size, and a higher percentage of owner occupied housing units. In nonurban areas, higher vape shop density was associated larger proportions of African Americans and Hispanics, smaller household size and a lower percentage of owner occupied housing units. At the national level, there are inequalities of vape shop density by some socio-demographic characteristics and heterogeneity between urban and nonurban areas. Vape shops are more likely to be concentrated in areas where people with a higher risk for vaping and smoking reside. Our findings could inform initiatives aimed at a stronger licensing requirement for vape shops and federal and state-level regulations of this industry to prevent vape shop from targeting minority and other socially disadvantaged groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, dietary pattern, and perceived academic load and stress in college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Jesmari; Ríos, Josué L; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; González, Anaisa M; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Michael J; Rivera, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Stress can have deleterious effects on health and academic performance. Common stress-relieving activities among college students include the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). The aim of this study was to determine the associations between self-perceived academic load and stress, NMUPD (stimulants, depressants, and sleeping medication), and dietary pattern in college students in PR. A questionnaire to evaluate academic load and stress, NMUPD, and dietary pattern was used on a representative sample of 275 first- and second-year students from one campus. In total, 27.6% reported NMUPD in the past 6 months, with higher use among students aged 21-30 years (93.4%) than in those aged 31-53 years (6.6%; p=0.062). Those with high levels of stress had higher NMUPD (42.1%) than did those with low (26.3%) or moderate (31.6%) stress levels, after controlling for age and sex (p=0.03). Among those who reported NMUPD over the previous 6 months, 74% reported that such use was effective as a coping strategy, and 35% reported that it helped them to improve academic performance. Although no significant association was found between NMUPD and dietary pattern, 57% of the participants reported that their appetites decreased when they engaged in NMUPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has associated self-perceived academic load and stress, NMUPD, and dietary pattern among college students in Puerto Rico. NMUPD's prevalence was 27.6%, which prevalence appeared to be higher in students aged 21-30 years than in those of any other age. High levels of stress were significantly related to high NMUPD in this sample.

  9. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Brown, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult

  10. Clinical and Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Children who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Severe anaemia requiring urgent blood transfusion is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world. This often tasks the blood transfusion services of any typical tropical leading to transfusion of blood obtained from private laboratories whose services are often questionable.

  11. 58 original article socio-demographic characteristics of adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    **Odimayo, M.S., *Adediran, S.O. and *Araoye, M.A. **Department of Microbiology & Parasitology, And. *Department Of Medicine ..... occupational groups. (18.8%). (Figure 2). e subjects believed. 85.6% were well mode of transmission ures. Majority (65.4%). HIV/AIDS patients and 60.8% had seen ie of AIDS in the last.

  12. Socio - demographic characteristics of HIV patients diagnosed at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four mothers and infants tested positive for HIV antibodies. After confirmatory tests using HIV Deoxyribosenucleic acid (DNA PCR), 14(58.3%) out of 24 antibody seropositive infants were infected. The transmission rate after confirmation was 58.3%. Conclusion: Parental education, social class and low maternal ...

  13. Socio-demographic characteristics of young adults with anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regards to occupation; the odds of having anterior tooth loss were 0.41 times higher when the young adult is unemployed/student and 2.6 times higher when a semi-skilled than a professional. With a year increase in age of the young adults they are more likely to have anterior tooth loss. Oral health inequalities exist as ...

  14. original article socio-demographic characteristics of patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Data was collected from Accra and Kumasi on socio-economic backgrounds such as age, sex, education, marital status, household size ... the number of sexual partners, encouraging delays in the onset of sexual activity among others. INTRODUCTION ... example, data from the Untied States of America. (USA) show that ...

  15. Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents Variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age at immunization. Frequency (n = 257). Percent. At birth. BCG. 124. 48.2. DPT1. 34. 13.2. OPV2. 12. 4.7. Don't know. 87. 33.9. Total. 257. 100. 6 week. DPT1. 120. 46.7. DPT2. 19. 7.4. HBV2. 1. 0.4. OPV2. 30. 11.7. Don't know. 87. 33.8. Total. 257. 100. 9 month. DPT2. 2. 0.8. Measles. 99. 38.5. Yellow fever. 69. 26.8.

  16. Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Patients Diagnosed with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is RNA virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In Ghana the AIDS epidemic is spreading very fast in densely populated areas with higher numbers of cases occurring in the southern regions especially the densely populated capitals such as Kumasi, Koforidua ...

  17. Herbal Medicines: Socio-Demographic Characteristics And Pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal medicines are used by patients, mostly without the knowledge of their Doctors and other Health providers. The presentation, course and outcomes of the patient's condition may thus be affected. There has been a lot of concern recently about the use of herbal medicines. The Ghana Food and Drugs Board has come ...

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work with MSM in these settings where MSM is illegal. The available evidence however highlights to multiple opportunities for interventions that may reduce health risk. In a study in South Africa, Parry et al. (2008) have reported high HIV knowledge, low prevention practice and associated drug use among. MSM. Baral et al.

  19. Socio - demographic characteristics of HIV patients diagnosed at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-12

    Sep 12, 2016 ... the treatment programme. All HIV positive mothers were referred for treatment. Refusal to participate in the study carried no penalty. Data were recorded and standard statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical package version 20. Continuous variables were summarized using means,.

  20. E-inclusion: Beyond individual socio-demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva

    Full Text Available The changing demographic structure of the population, resulting in unparalleled growth of the elderly population, means that e-inclusion of this population group is considered to be a social and political priority in the context of the Information Society. Most research studies have only considered individual variables -such as age, gender, education, income and health- in the explanatory models of e-inclusion of senior citizens, while ignoring macro variables, such as the welfare systems and public policies in each country. Simultaneously, most studies focus on small-scale samples, lack international comparisons and do not consider the combined effect of several variables that influence Internet use. This study aims to analyse possible differences between two countries that have different welfare systems and public policies, after controlling for the effects of the individual variables that have been identified in the literature as relevant for Internet use. The study focuses on a sample of 8639 individuals, aged 50 years and over, residing in Portugal and Estonia, who participated in the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The results of the logistic regression analysis demonstrate that welfare systems and public policies have an impact on the likelihood of Internet use, thus reinforcing the importance of developing public policies to foster e-inclusion of senior citizens.

  1. E-inclusion: Beyond individual socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Alice Delerue; Martinez-Pecino, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The changing demographic structure of the population, resulting in unparalleled growth of the elderly population, means that e-inclusion of this population group is considered to be a social and political priority in the context of the Information Society. Most research studies have only considered individual variables -such as age, gender, education, income and health- in the explanatory models of e-inclusion of senior citizens, while ignoring macro variables, such as the welfare systems and public policies in each country. Simultaneously, most studies focus on small-scale samples, lack international comparisons and do not consider the combined effect of several variables that influence Internet use. This study aims to analyse possible differences between two countries that have different welfare systems and public policies, after controlling for the effects of the individual variables that have been identified in the literature as relevant for Internet use. The study focuses on a sample of 8639 individuals, aged 50 years and over, residing in Portugal and Estonia, who participated in the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). The results of the logistic regression analysis demonstrate that welfare systems and public policies have an impact on the likelihood of Internet use, thus reinforcing the importance of developing public policies to foster e-inclusion of senior citizens.

  2. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of children who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Severe anaemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries and could be managed by urgent blood transfusion to save life, though with its attendance risks like exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood borne infections. Objective: To ...

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics of street children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Majority of the street children (88.9%) were within the age group 15-17 years with more males (58.3%) than females (41.7%). Up to 64.7% had attained secondary level education while only 3.9% had no formal education. A high percentage, (61.4%) were still attending school and 15.8% had no work. Of those who ...

  4. Prevalence of depression and socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background information: Various studies across the world have shown that depression is of high prevalence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and that it has lots of adverse effects on them. Diagnosis of depression among this group of people is however still very low in sub-Sahara Africa, particularly at primary ...

  5. FAMILY AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC RISK FACTORS FOR PSYCHOPATHY AMONG PRISON INMATES

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    Juan A. Valdivia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.

  6. Psychological and socio-demographic data contributing to the resilience of holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stéphanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The authors provide a within-group study of 65 Former Hidden Children (FHC; i.e., Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe) evaluated by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL), the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOCS), the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The aim of the present article is to address the sensitization model of resilience (consisting in a reduction of resistance to additional stress due to previous exposure to trauma) and to identify the family, psychological, and socio-demographic characteristics that predict resilience among a group of FHC. The RSA score is negatively correlated with the number of post-war traumas and positively correlated with the SOCS score. FHC who have children present a higher RSA score than FHC who have no children. RSA global score negatively and significantly predicts HSCL score. In a global multivariate model, and in accordance with the sensitization model, the number of post-war traumas negatively predicts the RSA score. Moreover, the SOCS score and the number of children positively predict it. Therapeutic implications are discussed, limitations are considered, and further investigations are proposed.

  7. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in swimming amongst working residents of warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of research is to assess the correlation between socio-demographic factors and swimming activity among the working population of Warsaw. The questionnaire survey included 4405 randomly selected residents of Warsaw. The correlation between the swimming activity and the variables characterizing the socio-demographic structure of the respondents were assessed by log-linear modelling. The significance of the impact of factors included in the analysis was determined using the chi-square test. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents declared recreational swimming. Gender, age, BMI, education, occupation, and income were significantly related to the swimming activity. Women (33%) - compared to men (38%) - were almost 1.2 times less likely to participate in swimming; similarly, overweight people (33%, OR = 0.90) and obese people (33%, OR = 0.92). People from Warsaw from 20-29 years (43%), with higher education (40%), incomes above the national average (40%), and representing the profession of an actor (52%), swam relatively more often. The results of the study might help in developing marketing plans and market segmentation strategies, as well as in forecasting the development trends of the leisure activity.

  8. Socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults

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    Adilson Marques

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001 was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85. Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009 was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.

  9. Common Mental Disorders: socio-demographic and pharmacotherapy profile

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    Viviane Ferrari Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study reports an association between Common Mental Disorders and the socio-demographic and pharmacotherapy profiles of 106 patients cared for by a Primary Health Care unit in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach. Structured interviews and validated instruments were used to collect data. The Statistical Package for Social Science was used for analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 50%. An association was found between Common Mental Disorders and the variables occupation, family income, number of prescribed medications and number of pills taken a day. Greater therapy non-adherence was observed among those who tested positive for Common Mental Disorders. CONCLUSION: this study's results show the importance of health professionals working in PHC to be able to detect needs of a psychological nature among their patients and to support the implementation of actions to prevent the worsening of Common Mental Disorders.

  10. An investigation of the association between socio-demographic factors, dog-exercise requirements, and the amount of walking dogs receive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Burton, Lindsay; McCormack, Gavin R.

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors associated with canine obesity include the amount of walking a dog receives. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between canine exercise requirements, socio-demographic factors, and dog-walking behaviors in winter in Calgary. Dog owners, from a cross-sectional study which included a random sample of adults, were asked their household income, domicile type, gender, age, education level, number and breed(s) of dog(s) owned, and frequency and time spent dog-walking in a usual week. Canine exercise requirements were found to be significantly (P the minutes pet dogs were walked, as was the owner being a female. Moreover, dog walking frequency, but not minutes of dog walking, was significantly associated with residing in attached housing (i.e., apartments). Different types of dogs have different exercise requirements to maintain optimal health. Understanding the role of socio-demographic factors and dog-related characteristics such as exercise requirements on dog-walking behaviors is essential for helping veterinarians and owners develop effective strategies to prevent and manage canine obesity. Furthermore, encouraging regular dog-walking has the potential to improve the health of pet dogs, and that of their owners. PMID:23277705

  11. An investigation of the association between socio-demographic factors, dog-exercise requirements, and the amount of walking dogs receive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Burton, Lindsay; McCormack, Gavin R

    2012-07-01

    Risk factors associated with canine obesity include the amount of walking a dog receives. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between canine exercise requirements, socio-demographic factors, and dog-walking behaviors in winter in Calgary. Dog owners, from a cross-sectional study which included a random sample of adults, were asked their household income, domicile type, gender, age, education level, number and breed(s) of dog(s) owned, and frequency and time spent dog-walking in a usual week. Canine exercise requirements were found to be significantly (P dogs were walked, as was the owner being a female. Moreover, dog walking frequency, but not minutes of dog walking, was significantly associated with residing in attached housing (i.e., apartments). Different types of dogs have different exercise requirements to maintain optimal health. Understanding the role of socio-demographic factors and dog-related characteristics such as exercise requirements on dog-walking behaviors is essential for helping veterinarians and owners develop effective strategies to prevent and manage canine obesity. Furthermore, encouraging regular dog-walking has the potential to improve the health of pet dogs, and that of their owners.

  12. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics.

  13. Influence of socio-demographic factors on subjective well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the role played by socio-demographic factors in the determination of retirees\\' well-Being. The relationship between well- Being and socio- demographic factors – sex; year of retirement; present employment status; and no of retirees\\' dependants is negative but this does not imply causation. A total of ...

  14. Socio-demographic factors drive regional differences in participation in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program - An ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; March, Sonja; Ireland, Michael J; Crawford-Williams, Fiona; Goodwin, Belinda; Hyde, Melissa K; Chambers, Suzanne K; Aitken, Joanne F; Dunn, Jeff

    2018-02-01

    To examine if geographic variations in the participation rates in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) are related to population-level socio-demographic characteristics. Data reflecting participation in the NBCSP for 504 Local Government Areas (LGAs) between July 2011 and June 2013 were extracted from the Social Health Atlas of Australia. Logistic regression models were used to examine independent associations (odds ratios [ORs]) between participation, Remoteness Area (RA) and selected socio-demographic variables. Compared to the participation rate for major cities (33.4%), participation was significantly higher in inner regional areas (36.5%, OR=1.15), but was much lower in remote (27.9%, OR=0.77) or very remote areas (25.0%, OR=0.65). When controlling for study period, gender, proportion of persons aged 65 years and older, Indigenous status, cultural background and socioeconomic status, significantly higher rates were observed in all non-metropolitan areas than in major cities. Indigenous status was strongly related to the poorer participation in remote areas. Socio-demographic characteristics, particularly Indigenous status, cultural background and population ageing, seem to be more important drivers of regional disparities in NBCSP participation than geographic remoteness. Implications for public health: This study provides important evidence to understand the regional disparities in participating in the national screening program. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. The digital divide: Examining socio-demographic factors associated with health literacy, access and use of internet to seek health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.

  16. An Empirical Analysis of Economic and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Entrepreneurship Across German Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrożewski Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental for a country's economic development through its positive effect on innovation, productivity growth, and job creation. In entrepreneurial research, one of the most important problems is to define the factors that actually determine entrepreneurial action. This study analyzes that question in the case of Germany by taking an aggregated approach that focuses on socio-demographic and economic determinants of regional entrepreneurship. Based on a literature review of German and international regional-level research, six hypotheses are developed and empirically tested using the most recent available data on 385 German regions as units of analysis. The results are surprising. In the case of household income, unemployment, education and marital status the relationship is significant but contrary to earlier research. Only regional age structure seems to be a stable predictor of regional entrepreneurship. The results indicate that in recent years there was a major shift in the determinants and characteristics of entrepreneurship in Germany.

  17. Role of socio-demographical factors on tuberculosis outcome in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB is an infection disease caused by an organism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacilli. Tuberculosis remains the most common infection worldwide (Organization & World Health Organization, 2013. Yemen situated in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region and ranked as intermediate TB-burdened countries. TB considers as one of the main health problems; it ranks as the fourth in the priority of the public health issue (NTCP, 2010. The study was conducted to evaluate the Socio-Demographical variables on tuberculosis treatment outcome. Methods: A Prospective cohort multicenter study was carried out among Tuberculosis (TB patients, to find out the socio-demographic characteristics and factors affecting the treatment outcome. The study was conducted in two major prevalence TB cities in Yemen i.e. Alhodiah city and Taiz city. Questionnaires were given to the TB patient during their registration in TB health center after the confirmation of their TB diagnosis. All Patients were followed up until the end of their treatment. Result: A total of 413 smear positive, smear negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were involved in the study. The responses rate among overall TB patients at the beginning of treatment was 67%. Patients were followed up and were interviewed again at the end of intensive phase and end of treatment. Survey shows that majority of TB patient were smeared positive pulmonary (66.1 followed by Extra Pulmonary (27.6 and lowest were from Smear Negative Patient (6.3. Prevalence of TB diagnosis with respective to male and female were same. The majority of Tb cases were found in patient age 16–25 (41.9, urban residence (68.8, illiterate (59.8 unemployment (59.1, chewing khat (61.7, monthly income were less than 50dollars/month (67.3. No stigma (59.6 and good knowledge of TB patient (86.4 was found good in the-the majority of TB patient. Conclusion: By evaluating the socio-demographic risk factors, pharmacist

  18. Socio-demographic disparities in the uptake of prenatal screening and diagnosis in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; Brameld, Kate; Bower, Carol; Dickinson, Jan E; Goldblatt, Jack; Hadlow, Narelle; Hewitt, Bev; Murch, Ashleigh; Murphy, Anthony; Stock, Roseanne; O'Leary, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, prenatal screening using ultrasound and biochemical markers has been used to refine the risk of Down syndrome and other fetal anomalies prior to considering fetal karyotyping. The performance of prenatal screening is subject to ongoing monitoring in Western Australia. The collection of these data can also assist in the identification of any potential inequities of access to prenatal screening within the state-wide programme. Prenatal screening data (2005-2006) were collected from accredited ultrasound and pathology laboratories in Western Australia. Screening data were linked to diagnostic and pregnancy outcome data. Performance characteristics of screening and uptake by socio-demographic characteristics were analysed. Complete screening data were collected for 35,142 of the estimated 38,081 women screened during 2005 and 2006. There were 59,999 births related to this screening period. The lowest uptake of screening was among women who were Aboriginal (14.9%), living in remote areas (38.0%), under the age of 25 (40.2%), in the lowest quintile of the SEIFA index (41.6%) and with three or more children (48.4%). Logistic regression analysis showed all socio-demographic factors to be strongly associated with screening behaviour, with adjustment for ethnicity, socio-economic status, age, parity and area of residence. Our results have important implications for the delivery of prenatal screening services in Western Australia. While the screening programme meets international and national performance standards, the disparities in screening uptake suggest inequity in access to services, particularly for Aboriginal, remote and socio-economically disadvantaged women. © 2010 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Cross-cultural and socio-demographic correlates of homophobic attitude among university students in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, G; Niolu, C; Déttore, D; Antonelli, P; Conte, S; Tuziak, B; Limoncin, E; Mollaioli, D; Carosa, E; Gravina, G L; Di Sante, S; Di Lorenzo, G; Fisher, A D; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Siracusano, A; Jannini, E A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate homophobic attitudes in three European countries: Italy, Albania, and Ukraine. One thousand and forty-eight students were recruited in Italian (n = 766), Albanian (n = 180), and Ukrainian (n = 102) university centers. A socio-demographic questionnaire and Homophobia Scale (HS) were administered by our staff. Cross-cultural and significant differences among Italian, Albanian, and Ukrainian students were found on the Homophobia Scale (HS; Italy: mean = 22.26 ± 16.73; Albania: mean = 38.15 ± 17.28; Ukraine: mean = 59.18 ± 16.23). The analysis of socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the male gender emerged as main predictor of homophobic attitude in all the three countries, although also a conservative political orientation and the religious belief predict higher homophobia levels in Italy and Albania, particularly. This study revealed that in these European countries assessed, attitudes toward homosexuality are different. Ukrainians display higher levels of homophobia than Albanians and Italians, confirming the central role of cultural differences in homophobic attitudes. Nevertheless, some socio-demographic aspects such as identification as male have a similar influence on homophobic attitudes in all assessed populations.

  20. Interrelationships between nursing workers' state of nutrition, socio demographic factors, work and health habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Kali; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Costa, Aline; Melo, Enirtes; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus

    2015-06-01

    The interrelationships between professional nursing workers' state of nutrition, variables relating to their socio demographic relationships, their professional work, and health behavior, were examined based on a correspondence analysis technique. This is a sectional study carried out involving 917 nursing professionals in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The results show the formation of four groups, three of them grouped under BMI (body mass index) categories. The obese individuals group included poor health, current socio economic conditions, unfavorable past conditions, and former night shift workers. The low/adequate group showed the most favorable conditions, while the group of overweight individuals also included smoking, alcohol consumption, and current night shift work (up to five nights per two-week period). Specifically, among the interrelationships between the states of nutrition levels, we highlight those relating to current and previously evaluated socio economic conditions, and underscore the life-long importance of social indicators.

  1. Socio-demographic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Huruy; Belachew, Tefera; Negash, Legesse

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual's life. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socio Economic Status, age, sex and mothers' educational level are among the important determinants factors of nutritional status of adolescents. Younger adolescents tend to be more undernourished than older adolescents, and, contrary to expectations that boys are almost twice as undernourished as girls. In this study, we test the competing hypothesis about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. We report a total of 2084 adolescents from the second round of a 5-year longitudinal study in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Univariate and Multivariable linear regression were used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents in Jimma zone. Age, highest grade completed, job and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; and gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended and abdominal pain are associated with stunted. The findings reflect socio-demographic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting.

  2. Consumption of healthy foods and associated socio-demographic factors among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.

  3. Malnutrition and socio-demographic factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Timor and Rote Islands, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, E; Dolmans, W M V; van der Meer, J W M; van der Velden, K

    2009-06-01

    To identify nutritional and socio-demographic factors for the development of tuberculosis (TB) in Timor and Rote Island, Indonesia, so that intervention programmes can be developed to address these factors. In a case-control study, we enrolled new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients as cases, and neighbours matched for sex and age as controls. Data obtained included history of TB, socio-demographic factors and nutritional status. In the study, 121 TB patients and 371 controls participated. The mean age was 30 years: 56.3% were male and 43.7% female. Of the TB patients, 87% had malnutrition compared to 33% among controls. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (16.1 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2) vs. 19.4 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2)). Factors associated with the development of TB were BMI (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.6), family history of TB (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.6-6.4), living in an extended family (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5-4.8), being non-indigenous to Timor and Rote Islands (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.2-6.8) and being unemployed (OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.7-8.6). Among patients with active pulmonary TB, the prevalence of malnutrition was very high. Malnutrition, which is a general problem for the whole community and particularly among people not indigenous to Timor and Rote, should be addressed in the fight against TB.

  4. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mbawalla, Hawa S; Masalu, Joyce R; ?str?m, Anne N

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3) examine whether socio-demographic disp...

  5. Gender inequality on the example of socio-demographic structures of Belgrade population

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    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the number of born boys and girls, in migration characteristics and in the level of mortality. The male population is greater in the age group up to 20 years old, while the female population is more numerous among the middle-aged and older generations. Gender differences in marital structure, level of education and economic activities cannot be reduced only to demographic limits. A larger rate of married persons among the males in relation to female population is determined by the different behavior in view of remarriage in case of divorce or death of partner. Women are widowed or divorced more often than men, which can be interpreted as a less favorable position in everyday functioning, especially when the women have small or school-age children, as well as in the case of older women. Gender differences in the level of education of Belgrade population are not exceptionally pronounced and are a consequence of unfavorable positions of older women to a certain degree. Differences in economic activity, among other things, are determined by uneven utilization of female and male work force. The rate of economic activity is greater in the male population, and the coefficient of economic dependency in the female population. The gender difference in the rate of supported persons among the work capable population increases the unfavorable social position of women. The characteristics of socio-demographic structures of female and male population of the city of Belgrade vary

  6. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.

  7. Socio-demographic and health characteristics of elderly individuals: support for health services Características sociodemográficas y de salud de ancianos: contribuciones para los servicios de salud Características sociodemográficas e de saúde de idosos: contribuições para os serviços de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calíope Pilger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a sectional epidemiological study including a household survey. It describes the socio-demographic and health conditions of elderly individuals residing in Guarapuava, PR, Brazil. The study's sample consisted of 359 elderly individuals enrolled in primary health care units in the city. Interviews were conducted from January to April 2010 using sections I and II of the Brazil Old Age Schedule questionnaire. The results revealed that most interviewees were women (64.3%, health self-perception was considered 'good' by 54.6%, and the most prevalent diseases were hypertension (34.9%, diabetes mellitus (12,4% and arthritis/arthrosis (12.2%. Most elderly individuals use dental prostheses (74.4% and 56.5% wear glasses or contact lenses. The conclusion is that knowledge concerning the social, demographic, and health profiles of these individuals favors the implementation of actions specific to this age group by health providers, and helps managers to develop health indicators.Se trata de un estudio epidemiológico seccional con encuesta domiciliar con el objetivo de describir las características sociodemográficas y las condiciones de salud de ancianos del municipio de Guarapuava, PR, Brasil. La muestra del estudio fue compuesta por 359 ancianos inscritos en las UBS del municipio. Las entrevistas fueron realizadas de enero a abril de 2010 utilizando la sección I y II del cuestionario Brasil Old Age Schedule - BOAS. Los resultados demostraron que el sexo femenino fue prevalente (64,3%, la autopercepción de salud fue buena para 54,6% de los ancianos; las enfermedades más relatadas fueron hipertensión (34,9%, diabetes mellitus (12,4% y artritis/artrosis (12,2%. La mayoría de los ancianos utiliza prótesis dentaria (74,4%, 56,5% lentes o lente de contacto. Se concluye que el conocimiento del perfil sociodemográfico y de salud de estos ancianos favorece la implantación de acciones específicas, para este intervalo etario, por los profesionales

  8. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Methods Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1) all consultations (2) massage therapy (3) acupuncture, and (4) homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. Results In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. Conclusions The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to alternative care use. The paper

  9. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using χ2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (χ2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

  10. High-risk alcohol use and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection in three primary health care clinics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking

  11. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoorani, Hooman; Halabchi, Farzin

    2015-12-01

    The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse.

  12. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory profile of patients submitted to hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Trevizan Telles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterize the patients with Chronic Kidney Disease submitted to hemodialysis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, regarding the socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics. It is a cross-sectional study with 90 hemodialysis patients made in July and August 2013, through interviews. The results showed that 77.8% of the patients were male, with average age of 53.52 years and 66.7% were married. The average of schooling was 6.61 years; the Unified Health System assisted 86.7% of the cases. The average time of hemodialysis was 42.99 months. The most frequent etiology of the disease was systemic hypertension, 36.7%. The most used medicine were vitamins and minerals. Most laboratory exams were within the standards of reference. The data of the study can subside discussions among the health professionals involved in order to improve assistance and provide a better quality of life to the patient.

  13. Major depressive disorder during teenage pregnancy: socio-demographic, obstetric and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD during pregnancy in teenage mothers and to assess its association with socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history and psychosocial variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of pregnant teenagers enrolled in the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. MDD was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify physical abuse within the last 12 months and during pregnancy, and social support was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Forty-three (4.94% potential subjects refused to participate, resulting in 828 total participants. The prevalence of MDD was 17.8%, 9.2% reported they had been subjected to violence within the last 12 months, while 5.8% had suffered violence during pregnancy, and the mean (SD overall social support score was 87.40 (11.75. After adjustment, we found the highest incidence of MDD in adolescents with less than 8 years of education, followed by those with previous episodes of MDD and those with lower overall social support. CONCLUSIONS: MDD is a relatively common condition in pregnant teenagers and appears to be more prevalent in young mothers who are both socioeconomically and psychosocially underprivileged.

  14. Socio-demographic profile of child and adolescent users of oral health services in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.

  15. Learning Styles, Socio-Demographic Variables and Academic Performance of Building Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Alducin-Ochoa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives guiding this research were to determine the dominant learning style of the first year Building engineering students (University of Seville, the influence of the style on the grades in each school subject, and if learning style is influenced by socio-demographic variables. The sample was composed of 161 students, who completed the Honey-Alonso questionnaire (CHAEA and the CDAT. Descriptive and correlational methods were used. For the analysis of the data, a univariate (one-way ANOVA descriptive study was performed, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, both with a confidence level of 95% (σ=.05 were used. The results show the predominance of the reflective style, and the fact that grades as a function of styles vary depending on the school subject. No significant differences were found in the variables gender, university admission scores, type of school (private or public of the study centers attended previous to university. Significant differences were found for some styles in the variables age, type of university admission, and if a student had to work as well as to study. The conclusions highlight the need to develop teaching strategies that encompass all the styles to improve performance, as well as the need to modify the teaching practices for the students to develop the rest of the styles in a balanced manner. This latest aspect is important so that the students can freely operate professionally, as the Engineering profession requires having all four characteristic styles simultaneously.

  16. A cross-sectional study of socio-demographic factors associated with patient access to primary care in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar

    2015-04-21

    Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC

  17. House ownership, frequency of illness, fathers' education: the most significant socio-demographic determinants of poor nutritional status in adolescent girls from low income households of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fatima; Asim, Muhammad; Salim, Shafya; Humayun, Ayesha

    2017-07-11

    Socio demographic factors besides dietary factors play important role in determining the health status of an individual. Health and nutritional Intervention programs stand a greater chance of success if planned, keeping the socio demographic characteristics of a certain population in focus. The present study was conducted to identify those socio demographic determinants which have a significant association with poor nutritional status in adolescent girls belonging to economically deprived households of Lahore. A cross-sectional analytical study of 140 adolescent girls living in the peri urban communities of Lahore was conducted. Socioeconomic and demographic data of the participants was recorded through a pretested questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), a commonly used anthropometric measurement was taken as an indicator of nutritional status. Below normal (nutritional status with socio-demographic predictors. Stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was then run to identify the most significant determinants associated with poor nutritional status in the adolescents. P nutritional status. Interestingly, the participants who lived in joint families (AOR = 0.411; 95% CI = 0.145 to 1.168) and were more frequently food insecure (AOR = 0.431; 95% CI = 0.164 to 1.133) had lesser odds of having poor nutritional status than those who lived in nuclear families and were food secure. Frequency of illness, house ownership and fathers' education are the determinants positively associated with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. Food insecurity and joint family structure were negatively associated with poor nutritional status. The study will help in planning interventions for improving nutritional status of adolescent girls by targeting the significant socio demographic determinants of poor nutritional status among this group.

  18. Aspects of health, physical/leisure activities, work and socio-demographics associated with pet ownership in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Granström, Fredrik; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Tillgren, Per

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the work presented here was to explore differences between pet owners and non-pet-owners concerning aspects of health, physical/leisure activities, work and socio-demographics. The study was based on nationally representative data from the Swedish population (n = 43,589). Associations between pet ownership and background variables were investigated using logistic regression analysis. A total of 39,995 respondents were included in the analysis (non-pet-owners = 25,006; pet owners = 14,989). Pet ownership was associated with both positive and negative aspects of health, physical/leisure activities and socio-demographics. Pet owners had better general health but suffered more from mental health problems than non-pet-owners. Their leisure activities involved a greater interest in nature life and/or gardening than those of non-pet-owners. The logistic regression analysis showed that people who were self-employed, in the age range 35 to 49, of female sex, and suffering from pain in the head, neck and shoulders were more likely to own a pet than others. People physically active at a level sufficient to have a positive effect on their health more often owned a pet than people who were less active. Pet owners differ from non-pet-owners in aspects of socio-demographics, health, physical/leisure activities and work situation. This study, based on a general regional population in Sweden, showed differences of both a positive and a negative kind between non-pet-owners and pet owners concerning aspects of health, physical and leisure activities, and work situation.

  19. Corporal punishment in rural Colombian families: prevalence, family structure and socio-demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Martha Rocío; Trujillo, Angela; Pereda, Noemí

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the prevalence of corporal punishment in a rural area of Colombia and its correlates to family structure and other socio-demographic variables. A survey about childrearing and childcare was developed for this study, including a specific question about corporal punishment that was developed based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Family structure was categorized as follows, based on previous literature: 'nuclear family,' 'single parent' family, 'extended family,' 'simultaneous family' and 'composed family.' Forty-one percent of the parents surveyed admitted they had used corporal punishment of their children as a disciplinary strategy. The type of family structure, the number of children living at home, the age of the children, the gender of the parent who answered the survey, and the age and gender of the partner were significant predictors of corporal punishment. Family structure is an important variable in the understanding of corporal punishment, especially in regard to nuclear families that have a large number of children and parents who started their parental role early in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  1. Older prisoners: psychological distress and associations with mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidawi, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The growth among older prisoner populations, including in Australia, necessitates an understanding of this group in order to generate effective management strategies. One particular concern is the mental well-being of older prisoners. This study aimed to determine the level of psychological distress among sentenced prisoners aged 50 years and older, to compare this level to that seen among younger prisoners and older people in the community, and to investigate which mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice characteristics were associated with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey of 173 older (M = 63 years) and 60 younger prisoners (M = 34 years) in two Australian jurisdictions was conducted. The Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) scale was administered with prisoners and additional data were collected from interviews and participant health and corrections files. K10 scores were compared to community norms using data from the Australian Health Survey. Average K10 scores of the older prisoners were significantly lower than the younger prisoners' (p = 0.04), though the effect size was small (r = 0.1). Significantly, higher distress levels were observed in comparison to the general population (p prisoners being three times more likely to display very high levels of distress (12.3% vs. 3.7%). Higher psychological distress scores among older prisoners were significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.002) and a history of mental health issues (p = 0.002). While the levels of distress seen among older prisoners were significantly lower than that of younger prisoners, their higher levels of distress in comparison to community norms demonstrate a need for correctional services to be attuned to the mental health of the expanding older prisoner population.

  2. Correspondence between objective and perceived walking times to urban destinations: Influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewulf Bart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doing regular physical activity has positive effects on health. Several environmental factors are identified as important correlates of physical activity. However, there seems to be a difference between perceived and objective measures of the environment. This study examines the influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographic characteristics on the correspondence between self-reported and objectively measured walking time to urban destinations of adults in the city of Ghent (Belgium. Methods Previously collected survey data was used from 1164 respondents in the city of Ghent who reported walking times to various closest destinations in the neighbourhood of residence. These were compared with corresponding walking times that were objectively measured through geographical information systems. Physical activity was recorded over a 7-day period using accelerometers. Neighbourhood walkability was assessed on the basis of residential density, connectivity, and land-use mix. Results We observed a relatively poor agreement between objective and perceived walking times. Stronger agreements were noted amongst the most physically active group, while low-level walkers tended to overestimate walking time. Surprisingly, however, people residing in a low-walkable neighbourhood underestimated walking times more frequently relative to those in high-walkable neighbourhoods. Conclusions Researchers investigating the influence of environmental attributes on physical activity behavior should thus be cautious when using only self-reported environmental data, since these are a priori influenced by physical activity levels and various socio-demographic factors.

  3. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  4. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  5. Socio-Demographic Variables Associated With Aids Epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studied variables included size of population; population density; urbanization; ... association between AIDS-rate and life expectancy was only found for African males, while association with fertility, infant mortality, population density, and calorie intakes ... Communities of Muslims were less subject to the AIDS problem.

  6. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  7. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level Familial and Socio-Demographic Factors and Diagnosed Childhood Obesity: A Nationwide Multilevel Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio-demographic

  8. Neighbourhood deprivation, individual-level familial and socio-demographic factors and diagnosed childhood obesity: a nationwide multilevel study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Memarian, Ensieh; Sundquist, Jan; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.22-2.68). High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89). Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Quality attributes and socio-demographic factors affecting channel choices

    OpenAIRE

    Lupín, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.

    2012-01-01

    Potato is an important staple food and horticultural crop for Argentina and it is included in almost every meal prepared by households. The annual average per capita consumption of potatoes is 40 kg. Despite the rapid rise of supermarkets, small fruit and vegetable shops still dominate horticultural retail in Argentina. The fresh potato quality is a wide and subjective notion that deals with different kinds of attributes e.g., colour, flavor, nutritional contents, added substances during the ...

  10. Examination of socio-demographics and job satisfaction in Australian registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Carol; Hurst, Cameron; Anderson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The results of the few studies found investigating relationships between sociodemographic variables and job satisfaction in nurses are mixed. Nevertheless some evidence exists which indicates that some socio-demographic variables are related to nurses' job satisfaction. Moreover reports indicate that job satisfaction is Linked to the retention of nurses. Relationships between socio-demographics and job satisfaction of Australian nurses are examined in the current study. To examine relationships between socio-demographic factors and job satisfaction and identify if these factors predicted job satisfaction Levels in Australian nurses. A cross sectional survey was conducted of 2000 Australian registered nurses who were at the time members of an industrial and professional organisation. The nurses were randomised and stratified according to gender and were asked to answer questions on a socio-demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher. The majority of respondents showed positive job satisfaction scores. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) found the covariates age, years of experience and years in current job were all moderately to highly positively correlated with each other (all r > 0.40, p Job Satisfaction. Multivariable analysis found significant positive relationships existed between job satisfaction, specialty area and health sector. Specialty area and health sector showed significant associations with job satisfaction in nurses. These variables should be considered by governments, nursing, organisational leaders and policy makers when developing future policies and strategies aimed at retention. These variables should be investigated further in relation to nursing job satisfaction.

  11. Investigating Academic Self-Efficacy of University Students in Terms of Socio-Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Can, Gurhan

    2016-01-01

    In this study whether academic self-efficacy of university students differ in terms of various socio-demographic features has been investigated. The study was conducted on 1679 students who were attending Anadolu University. In the study, the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale and Personal Information Form were used as data collection tools. In the…

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Socio-Demographic Factors Predicting Birth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The low proportion of health facility delivery in developing countries is one of the main challenges in achieving the Millennium Development Goal of a global reduction of maternal deaths by 75% by 2015. There are several primary studies which identified socio-demographic and other predictors of birth in ...

  13. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  14. The influence of socio-demographic factors on the nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... monitor these trends, particularly the co-existence of stunting and overweight in children, since these are risk factors for diseases of lifestyle in adulthood.8,9. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as socio-demographic risk factors associated with childhood.

  15. The Effect of Socio-demographic Status of Mother s on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As such an understanding of the roles that socio-demographic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behavior is important for public health policy. Findings of this study will equip stakeholders with the necessary input for planning and implementation towards an effective child health care services delivery and ...

  16. POPULATION HEALTH AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETINESS OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizvanova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of threat to socio-demographic safetiness in Russia and in Bashkortostan comprising a necessity to improve the demographic situation, namely, to raise population size, birth rate, life expectancy, to decrease mortality rate. It makes a comparative calculation of a single criterion of population demography – a vitality coefficient for Russian Federation and Bashkortostan.

  17. Socio-Demographic Factors Relating to Perception and Use of Mobile Technologies in Tertiary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Smith, Lee

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, we investigated how socio-demographic factors such as gender, teaching disciplines, teaching experience and academic seniority were related to the perception and use of digital mobile technologies in learning and teaching of a group of university teachers from one research-intensive university in New Zealand. Three hundred and eight…

  18. Physical activity locations in Georgia: frequency of use by socio-demographic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J. M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Active outdoor recreation helps to mitigate health consequences associated with sedentary behavior. Enhanced understanding of socio-demographic differences in physical activity (PA) location preferences could therefore contribute to health promotion.This study examined frequency o fuse fo rvarious PA locations in Georgia,a state with historically high levels of...

  19. Socio-demographic risk factors for HIV infection in women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in women in Mangaung. Design and setting: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mangaung, Bloemfontein. Subjects and methods: A representative group of 500 black women (25–44 years) was randomly selected to participate.

  20. Explaining socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, R.G.; Kamphuis, C.B.M.; Empelen, P. van; Beenackers, M.A.; Brug, J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Oenema, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to identify risk groups for disengagement from sports during adolescence. In addition, it will be explored whether cognitive and environmental factors can explain socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports. METHODS: Data were

  1. Individualisation of Migration from the East? Comparison of Different Socio-Demographic Groups and their Migration Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Saar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on Eastern European migration argue that moving for self-development reasons is becoming increasingly common among this group. Furthermore, it is suggested that migration from the East is becoming individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Nevertheless, most such results rely on interviews conducted among certain social groups, such as the young and highly skilled. Hence, the comparison between different social groups and their motivations is rarely provided and, therefore, the claims about increased individualisation might be premature. This article uses the Estonian Household Module Survey, including responses from 620 Estonians intending to migrate, to evaluate if migration flows are indeed becoming more individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Using cluster analysis, three different groups — self-development, economic and life quality migrants — are formed, which are then tested using regression analysis to check for the influence of socio-demographic variables. The article concludes that socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, family status and socio-economic status are still relevant for migration intentions. Indeed, a new group of Eastern European migrants, mainly oriented towards self-development, is emerging; however, it is small and consists mostly of young, Estonian-speaking females. The results complicate the notions of free mobility and liquid migration from Eastern Europe and illustrate that there is a need to pay attention to the increasing group differences in these societies

  2. Socio-demographic and psychological determinants of exclusive breastfeeding after six months postpartum - a Polish case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Karolina Maria; Bidzan, Mariola; Świątkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Preis, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-demographic and psychological factors connected with exclusive breastfeeding after 6 months postpartum. A total of 251 women filled in questionnaires in the first week postpartum, then again after 3 and 6 months. The questionnaires included socio-demographic and medical questions, as well as psychological tools: the NEO-FFI Personality Inventory, the Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Further detailed questions concerning breastfeeding were relevant to this study. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding after 6 months was 39.68%. It was found that exclusive breastfeeding was most strongly connected with attending prenatal classes (ORa = 2.84, CI 1.18-6.87, p = 0.01), formula supplementation after 3 months (ORa = 0.01, CI 0.002-0.08, p subjective satisfaction with feeding the infant after 3 months (ORa = 1.44, CI 1.01-2.06, p = 0.04). No other psychological (as far as personality, social support or risk of postpar-tum depression are concerned), demographic or medical factors were significant. Only factors pertaining to breastfeeding were significant. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Poland is unsatisfactory. Women should have easy access to prenatal classes with the most up-to-date knowledge on lactation and be advised against supplementing with formula, whenever possible. This could lead to higher satisfaction with breastfeeding.

  3. Spatial prevalence of intellectual disability and related socio-demographic factors in Iran, using GWR: Case study (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.

  4. Prolonged sitting in cars: prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Merom, Dafna; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Corpuz, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Owen, Neville

    2012-10-01

    Prolonged sitting is detrimentally associated with health outcomes. However, the prevalence and characteristics of those who sit in cars for long periods are not well understood. This study examined the population prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends for prolonged sitting in cars among adults. Using the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Area Household Travel Survey, the prevalence of prolonged sitting time in cars (≥2 h/day) was calculated for four 3-year periods (1997-99, 2000-02, 2003-05, and 2006-08) for each population subgroup. Trends were calculated as the mean change in prevalence between adjacent survey periods. Cars were used for 66% of the total trips recorded (n=336,505). The prevalence of prolonged sitting time in cars was 16-18% in men, and 10-12% in women. Relatively higher prevalence rates were found among middle-age groups (men: 20-22%, women: 12-15%), full-time workers (men: 21-24%, women: 14-15%), those with higher income (men: 21-25%, women: 14-16%), couples with children (men: 20-21%, women: 12-14%), and those living in outer suburbs (men: 20-23%, women: 12-13%). Trends were stable in men, but increasing in women. Several subgroups (older age; living in regional suburbs) also showed increasing trends. These findings provide evidence to inform integrated approaches to measurement and policy development on prolonged car use among the public health, urban planning, and transport sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  6. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  7. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuku Ekwaro A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%; symptoms (46.8%, transmission (54.3%, prevention (34% and free treatment (35%. Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4 and cure (85.1 was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P = 0.004, unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P = 0.010 and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P  Conclusion This study revealed deficiencies in the public health knowledge about TB symptoms, diagnosis and treatment among urban-slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV.

  8. Socio-demographic Profile and Economic Burden of Treatment of Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Amita; Phadke, Shubha R

    2018-02-01

    To compile the socio-demographic profile and estimate the economic burden of transfusion dependent thalassemia. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in north India. Transfusion dependent thalassemia patients on regular blood transfusion for at least a year were selected. Thalassemia diagnosis was based on HPLC and/or mutation analysis results. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected from electronic health records. Information regarding socio-economic profile and costs incurred, including indirect costs were collected by interviewing patients' guardians. The data was analyzed as a whole cohort and also in subgroups based on age. The data of 261 patients with a median age of 127 mo was collected. The median age at diagnosis was 9.8 mo. The total treatment expenses of a patient per year ranged from US$ 629 (INR 41,514) to US$ 2300 (INR 151,800), in the different age groups, at an average of US$ 1135 (INR 74,948). More than half (53%) of this was spent on medications. On an average, 38.8% of the family income was spent on the treatment of a thalassemia patient annually. Only 19 of 262 cases had an average pre-BT Hb ≥ 9 g/dl and serum ferritin ≤1500 ng/dl. The treatment for transfusion dependent thalassemia is costly and mostly borne by the families in India. This study provides a realistic magnitude of this burden and will be useful in planning a thalassemia management program at the state or national level.

  9. Potential (mis)match?: Marriage Markets amidst Socio-Demographic Change in India, 2005–2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the impact of socio-demographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities – contemporary patterns by age, by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries – to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: i) female-deficit in sex ratios at birth; ii) declining birth cohort size; iii) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRB) in India’s population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India’s population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differentials and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to IIASA/VID multi-state population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today’s age patterns of marriage are viewed against age-sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women, particularly those with higher education experience a more salient rise in non-marriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns towards greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in non-marriage. PMID:25604846

  10. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyoán Colón-Ramos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1 fruits and vegetables, 2 tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3 fried foods, and 4 Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. RESULTS: Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12-15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI, whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption.

  11. Environmental policy implications of working from home: Modelling the impacts of land-use, infrastructure and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Miao; Andrew Kelly, J.; Peter Clinch, J.; King, Fearghal

    2012-01-01

    Working from home is generally perceived as an effective means of reducing energy use and associated pollution from commuter transport. In order to consider the merits of mechanisms and policies to support a change in behaviour that results in greater take-up of home working, this paper applies energy consumption per commute calculations and a logit model using a case study of Ireland. In marked contrast with larger countries, the energy consumption per commute is relatively low in Ireland. Nonetheless, the analysis indicates that, on average, at least an average net saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved where an individual converts to working from home, after deducting the home energy consumption associated with home working. We find that land use patterns, public transport networks, internet infrastructure, commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics can serve to influence rates of home working. Encouraging the higher and lower professional categories and those in the service sectors to work from home should be the highest priority in terms of energy and emissions reductions. Increased coverage of internet services and railway coverage will support higher rates of home working. Increased dispersion of residential, commercial and industrial areas serves to encourage greater home working. - Highlights: ► An average net energy saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved by an individual changing to working from home. ► Land use patterns, public transport and internet infrastructure influence rates of home working. ► Commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics influence the take-up of home working. ► Encouraging home-working by higher and lower professionals and the service sectors is the priority.

  12. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Milena Sia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108). Elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. The data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  13. Adult tribal malnutrition in India: an anthropometric and socio-demographic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status and socio-demographic profile of tribal people is an important issue in India due to their marginalization from main stream population with respect to varied facilities. However, data on their nutritional status and socio-demographic profile are limited. This review aims to give an overview of the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED using Body mass index (BMI and various demographic profile of Indian tribes based on studies published hitherto. In total 76 studies were reviewed for mean BMI based on the World Health Organization (WHO classification of the public health problem of low BMI, based on adult populations worldwide. The overall sex specific prevalence of CED showed that both the tribal females (52.0% and males (49.3% were passing through the critical situation with respect to nutritional status with females being more underprivileged.

  14. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  15. Environmental and socio-demographic individual, family and neighborhood factors associated with children intestinal parasitoses at Iguazú, in the subtropical northern border of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Maria Romina; De Angelo, Carlos; Nuñez, Pablo; Salas, Martín; Motta, Carlos E; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D; Liang, Song

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal parasitoses are a major concern for public health, especially in children from middle and low-income populations of tropical and subtropical areas. We examined the presence and co-infection of parasites in humans as well as parasitic environmental contamination in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We explored the environmental and socio-demographic characteristics of the persistence of parasites in children and their environment. This cross-section survey was conducted among children population comprised into the area of the public health care centers of Iguazú during June 2013 to May 2016. Copro-parasitological status of 483 asymptomatic children was assessed. Simultaneously, a design-based sampling of 744 soil samples and 530 dog feces was used for characterize the environmental contamination. The 71.5% of these sites were contaminated. Sixteen genera were detected in the environment being hookworms (62.0%) the main pathogens group detected followed by Toxocara spp (16.3%), Trichuris spp (15.2%) and Giardia (6.5%). Total children prevalence raised 58.8%, detecting twelve genera of parasite with Giardia intestinalis as the most prevalent pathogen (29.0%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (23.0%), Hymenolepis nana (12.4%) and hookworms (4.4%). Through questionnaires and census data, we characterized the socio-demographics conditions at an individual, family and neighborhood levels. A multi-level analysis including environmental contamination data showed that the ´presence of parasites´ was mostly determined by individual (e.g. age, playing habits, previous treatment) and household level (e.g. UBN, WASH, mother's literacy) determinants. Remarkably, to define the level of 'parasite co-infection', besides individual and household characteristics, environmental factors at a neighborhood level were important. Our work represents the major survey of intestinal parasites in human and environmental samples developed in the region. High prevalence was detected in

  16. Environmental and socio-demographic individual, family and neighborhood factors associated with children intestinal parasitoses at Iguazú, in the subtropical northern border of Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Romina Rivero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitoses are a major concern for public health, especially in children from middle and low-income populations of tropical and subtropical areas. We examined the presence and co-infection of parasites in humans as well as parasitic environmental contamination in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We explored the environmental and socio-demographic characteristics of the persistence of parasites in children and their environment.This cross-section survey was conducted among children population comprised into the area of the public health care centers of Iguazú during June 2013 to May 2016. Copro-parasitological status of 483 asymptomatic children was assessed. Simultaneously, a design-based sampling of 744 soil samples and 530 dog feces was used for characterize the environmental contamination. The 71.5% of these sites were contaminated. Sixteen genera were detected in the environment being hookworms (62.0% the main pathogens group detected followed by Toxocara spp (16.3%, Trichuris spp (15.2% and Giardia (6.5%. Total children prevalence raised 58.8%, detecting twelve genera of parasite with Giardia intestinalis as the most prevalent pathogen (29.0% followed by Enterobius vermicularis (23.0%, Hymenolepis nana (12.4% and hookworms (4.4%. Through questionnaires and census data, we characterized the socio-demographics conditions at an individual, family and neighborhood levels. A multi-level analysis including environmental contamination data showed that the ´presence of parasites´ was mostly determined by individual (e.g. age, playing habits, previous treatment and household level (e.g. UBN, WASH, mother's literacy determinants. Remarkably, to define the level of 'parasite co-infection', besides individual and household characteristics, environmental factors at a neighborhood level were important.Our work represents the major survey of intestinal parasites in human and environmental samples developed in the region. High prevalence was

  17. The effects of socio-demographic factors and work-life balance on employees’ emotional exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğsal, Türker

    2017-01-01

    The object of the research is observing the effects of socio-demographic factors and work-life balance on employees’ emotional exhaustion. The sample of the research consists of 261 participants in retailing, education, service, industry and logistics sectors. In line with the theoretical background, proper methods that are hierarchical regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are implemented. The contribution of the research to the existing literature is exploring the relationshi...

  18. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

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    Rokeya Akter

    Full Text Available Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0% were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%. Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2% during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%, households having rainwater tanks (33.9%, Indigenous population (27.2%, separate houses (26.5%, terrace house types (26.9% and economically advantage people (42.8% were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture. Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different

  19. Depression among Chinese University Students: Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Wang, Lin; Qiu, Xiao Hui; Yang, Xiu Xian; Qiao, Zheng Xue; Yang, Yan Jie; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16-35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or...

  20. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

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    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  1. Student, Home, and School Socio-Demographic Factors: Links to School, Home, and Community Arts Participation

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    Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…

  2. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

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    Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2017-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should

  3. Socio-demographic patterns of disability among older adult populations of low-income and middle-income countries: results from World Health Survey.

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    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Kowal, Paul; Officer, Alana; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to quantify disability prevalence among older adults of low- and middle-income countries, and measure socio-demographic distribution of disability. World Health Survey data included 53,447 adults aged 50 or older from 43 low- and middle-income countries. Disability was a binary classification, based on a composite score derived from self-reported functional difficulties. Socio-demographic variables included sex, age, marital status, area of residence, education level, and household economic status. A multivariate Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to assess associations between disability and socio-demographic variables. Overall, 33.3 % (95 % CI 32.2-34.4 %) of older adults reported disability. Disability was 1.5 times more common in females, and was positively associated with increasing age. Divorced/separated/widowed respondents reported higher disability rates in all but one study country, and education and wealth levels were inversely associated with disability rates. Urban residence tended to be advantageous over rural. Country-level datasets showed disparate patterns. Effective approaches aimed at disability prevention and improved disability management are warranted, including the inclusion of equity considerations in monitoring and evaluation activities.

  4. Living in the tide of change: Explaining Japanese subjective health from the socio-demographic

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    Hidefumi eHitokoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, countries around the world are caught in the tide of change towards Gesellshaft, or individualistic socio-demographic condition. Recent investigations in Japan have suggested negative impacts of change on emotional and motivational aspects of the Japanese self (Norasakkunkit, Uchida, and Toivonen, 2012; Ogihara and Uchida, 2014. Building on previous findings, in Study 1, we measured socio-demographic change towards individualistic societal condition during 1990 to 2010—two decades marked by great economic recession—at the levels of prefecture and city using archival data. In Study 2, we tested whether Japanese adults’ general health, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and perceived social support were negatively predicted by the change using social survey. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed small but unique negative effects of the change on several health measures, suggesting that this change had an impact on health, above and beyond individual personality traits and demographics. Additionally, interdependent happiness, the type of cultural happiness grounded in interdependence of the self (Hitokoto and Uchida, 2014, showed an independent positive relationship with all aspects of health examined. Implications for health studies in changing socio-demographic condition are discussed in the context of Japanese society after economic crisis.

  5. Living in the tide of change: explaining Japanese subjective health from the socio-demographic change.

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    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Today, countries around the world are caught in the tide of change toward Gesellshaft, or individualistic socio-demographic condition. Recent investigations in Japan have suggested negative impacts of change on emotional and motivational aspects of the Japanese self (Norasakkunkit et al., 2012; Ogihara and Uchida, 2014). Building on previous findings, in Study 1, we measured socio-demographic change toward individualistic societal condition during 1990-2010-two decades marked by great economic recession-at the levels of prefecture and city using archival data. In Study 2, we tested whether Japanese adults' general health, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and perceived social support were negatively predicted by the change using social survey. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed small but unique negative effects of the change on several health measures, suggesting that this change had an impact on health, above and beyond individual personality traits, and demographics. Additionally, interdependent happiness, the type of cultural happiness grounded in interdependence of the self (Hitokoto and Uchida, 2014), showed an independent positive relationship with all aspects of health examined. Implications for health studies in changing socio-demographic condition are discussed in the context of Japanese society after economic crisis.

  6. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors

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    ANGOORANI, Hooman; HALABCHI, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14–56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. PMID:26811817

  7. The water use of Indian diets and socio-demographic factors related to dietary blue water footprint.

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    Harris, Francesca; Green, Rosemary F; Joy, Edward J M; Kayatz, Benjamin; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D

    2017-06-01

    Agriculture accounts for ~90% of India's fresh water use, and there are concerns that future food production will be threatened by insufficient water supply of adequate quality. This study aimed to quantify the water required in the production of diets in India using the water footprint (WF) assessment method. The socio-demographic associations of dietary WFs were explored using mixed effects regression models with a particular focus on blue (irrigation) WF given the importance for Indian agriculture. Dietary data from ~7000 adults living in India were matched to India-specific WF data for food groups to quantify the blue and green (rainfall) WF of typical diets. The mean blue and green WF of diets was 737l/capita/day and 2531l/capita/day, respectively. Vegetables had the lowest WFs per unit mass of product, while roots/tubers had the lowest WFs per unit dietary energy. Poultry products had the greatest blue WFs. Wheat and rice contributed 31% and 19% of the dietary blue WF respectively. Vegetable oils were the highest contributor to dietary green WF. Regional variation in dietary choices meant large differences in dietary blue WFs, whereby northern diets had nearly 1.5 times greater blue WFs than southern diets. Urban diets had a higher blue WF than rural diets, and a higher standard of living was associated with larger dietary blue WFs. This study provides a novel perspective on the WF of diets in India using individual-level dietary data, and demonstrates important variability in WFs due to different food consumption patterns and socio-demographic characteristics. Future dietary shifts towards patterns currently consumed by individuals in higher income groups, would likely increase irrigation requirements putting substantial pressure on India's water resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy density in the diet of workers from São Paulo, Brazil, and associated socio-demographic factors.

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    Canella, Daniela Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the energy density (ED) of the diet of workers from the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, and the way this is associated with socio-demographic characteristics, as well as evaluating the relationship between ED and nutrient intake. A cross-sectional study evaluated the diet of 852 workers using the 24-hour dietary recall; one recall was applied to all individuals and a second one was applied to a sub-sample in order to adjust intrapersonal variability. The ED of the diet was calculated using three methods: inclusion of all solid foods and beverages, excluding water (ED 1); inclusion of all solid foods and beverages containing at least 5 kcal/100g (ED 2); and inclusion of all solid foods, excluding all beverages (ED 3). Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between ED and socio-demographic variables and the relationship between ED and nutrients was evaluated using Pearson coefficient correlation. Considering the workers' diet, the ED values observed were 1.18 kcal/g, 1.22 kcal/g and 1.73 kcal/g for the ED 1, ED 2, ED 3 methods, respectively. In the multiple regression models, only the age variable was maintained in the final model and showed an inverse association with all ED methods. ED 3 showed an increase in energy density for non-white individuals. Of all studied nutrients, protein was the only one that was not significantly correlated with ED 3 (p = 0.899). The young adults studied had a higher energy-density diet, representing a priority group for nutrition interventions. Regardless of the calculation method used, there is a correlation between ED and nutrients.

  9. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

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    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  10. Caracterización sociodemográfica del cuidador familiar de la persona mayor en una localidad de Bogotá-Colombia / Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Caregiver for Elderly People in a Location in Bogota-Colombia / Caracterização sociodemográfica do cuidador familiar da pessoa idosa numa região da cidade de Bogotá-Colômbia

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    Blanca Nieves Piratoba-Hernández, Enf., Esp., MSc.

    2015-07-01

    apoyo mínimo a los cuidadores. [Piratoba-Hernández BN, Rozo-Gutiérrez JN. Caracterización sociodemográfica del cuidador familiar de la persona mayor en una localidad de Bogotá-Colombia. MedUNAB 2015; 18 (1: 51-57] Introduction: A rise in the elderly population and also in the Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD has increased the demand of women providing permanent care. The recognition of socio-demographic characteristics allows to identify the situation caregivers go through. Objective: To identify special characteristics of family caregivers of dependent elderly people in order to contribute to the development of programs that provide assistance. Method: A quantitative cross sectional descriptive design from August 2010 to March 2011. Data collection was done through a face to face interview using the socio-demographic characterization survey. There was a practical sample with 91 caregivers. The SPSS version 15 statistics program was used to analyze the data. Results: It was learned that family caregivers’ age ranged from 36 to 59, and that 81% of them were women who attended only elementary school or did not finish high school 45%. 36% of them were married, 53% of them stayed home, and 87% of them had health insurance. Most of the caregivers were children taking care of parents who have done this job 24/7 for more than 37 months (87%. These caregivers do not have enough tools to face negative situations that could result when taking care of elderly people. Conclusions: Characteristics such as age, education level, time dedicated to the care, support network, occupation, and socioeconomic status make necessary the search for alternatives for caregivers who do not have resources to access to optimal levels of information. These results allow different sectors to implement actions and generate programs according to the needs that impact on the quality of life for caregivers. The existing regulations of the General Health System provide minimal support for

  11. Socio-economic and Socio-demographic Determinants of BNP values in children with Pneumonia In Benin City

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    Wilson Osa Osarogiagbon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The level of BNP is usually used as a guide to heart failure. However, there is need for the level of this peptide to be known in non-cardiac conditions that may cause inflammation and hypoxia. Aims To determine socio-demographic determinants of BNP in children with pneumonia. To determine the socio-economic determinants of BNP in children with pneumonia. Methods Over a year, consecutive children diagnosed radiologically with pneumonia were evaluated echocardiographically for CHD. Also, children with heart failure were excluded. Inclusion criteria included all those children with ongoing pneumonia without any evidence of any other co-morbidity whether acute or chronic. Biodata and sociodemographic variables of children with pneumonia that met the inclusion criteria were collected and studied. Results Of the 50 subjects recruited for the study, 26 (52 per cent were males. The mean age for males 14.27±13.33, females 12.03±11.83, mean height for males 74.00±3.46 and 72.00±0.00 for females, the mean weight range from 8.30±1.87 and 7.08±3.40 for males and females respectively. The mean BNP value for all subjects was 459.55±422.61, of which males had a mean value of 500.33±.399.93 and females 415.38±450.25 with a p value of 0.483. The mean brain natriuretic factor for weight range 1–5.9kg was 203.83±116.04 that of 6–10.9kg was 645.22±314.26, while that of 11–15.9kg was the lowest with 115.85±72.46. Conclusion Apart from congenital heart disease and several other morbidities both chronic and acute, sociodemographic characteristics of the patient and some clinical features may also affect BNP levels in the blood. Patients with pneumonia had higher mean values of BNP when compared with normal cut-off

  12. Risk of Dying from Cancer by Socio-demographic Indicators in the Slovak Republic.

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    Kubák, Matúš; Štefko, Róbert; Barták, Miroslav; Majerník, Jaroslav; Vagašová, Tatiana; Fedelešová, Michaela

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality distribution was investigated by detailed neoplasms groups, age, sex, marital status of deceased, and regions in the Slovak Republic, and examined how these determinants influence the odds of dying due to cancer. A retrospective analysis of cancer mortality statistics registered in the Slovak Republic during the years 1996-2014. For this time period, data was available only on the underlying subgroups of cancer deaths, place of death, age, year, sex, and marital status. Binary logistic regression was applied for odds of dying calculation influenced by these socio-demographic factors. The most common are deaths from malignant neoplasms of digestive organs in males as well as females. The biggest difference among both genders is recognized in malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, where deaths among males are on average 7.9 times higher in comparison to females. As for place of death the Bratislava region reports the highest level of cancer mortality stated at 25.22% of all deaths, on the contrary the Banská Bystrica region reports only 21.40% of all deaths. Age has a negative influence on odds of dying due to neoplasms compared to all other causes of death by 1.7%. In all regions compared to the reference Bratislava region, the odds of dying from neoplasms are lower. Being female diminishes the odds of dying due to neoplasms by 25.7% compared to males. Yearly the relative ratio of dying from neoplasms increases with respect to all other causes of death. When single people are set as the reference category, the relation of the probability of death from cancer to the probability of death due to other causes of death is higher for married, divorced and widowed persons. The results should be taken into account when comparing risk of dying due to cancer among people with the mentioned sociodemographic characteristics. Health policy makers should consider place of death and cancer types while planning hospital care units. Copyright© by the

  13. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

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    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bacteria, viruses. protozoa and fungi was positive in 425 (49.76%) cases. From this number the test on bacteria was positive in 248 (58.62%) cases, on viruses it was positive in 165 (39.0%), on protozoa in 9 (2.12%) cases and on fungi only one case. Rotavirus was the most frequent one in viral test, it was isolated in 142 (86.06%) cases, adenoviruses were found in 9 (5.45%) cases and noroviruses in only one case. The same feces sample that contained rotavirus and adenoviruses were isolated in five cases, whereas rotavirus with bacteria was isolated in the same feces sample in five cases. The biggest number of cases 62 (43.66%) were of the age 6-12 months, whereas the smallest number 10 (7.04%) cases were of the age 37-60 months. There were 76 (53.52%) of cases of male gender, from rural areas there were 81 (57.04%) cases and there were 58 (40.80%) cases during the summer period. Among the clinical symptoms the most prominent were diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature, whereas the different degree of dehydration were present in all cases (the most common one was moderate dehydration). The most frequent one was isonatremic dehydration in 91 (64.08%) cases, less frequent one was hypernatremic dehydration in 14 (9.85%) cases. The majority of cases (97.89%) had lower blood pH values, whereas 67 (47.17%) cases had pH values that varied from 7.16 -7.20 (curve peak), normal values were registered in only 3 (2.11%) cases. Urea values were increased in 45 (31.07%) cases (the maximum value

  14. Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition

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    Brayne Carol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms are associated with dementia, but are also present in a significant number of the older population without dementia. Here we explore the distribution of behavioural and psychological symptoms in the population without dementia, and their relationship with domains and severity of health and cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study is a two-phase longitudinal study of ageing representative of the population aged 65 and over of England and Wales. A subsample of 1781 participants without a study diagnosis of dementia was included in this study. Information on symptoms including depression, apathy, anxiety, feelings of persecution, hallucination, agitated behaviour, elation, irritability, sleep problems, wandering, confabulation and misidentification, cognitive function, health related factors and socio-demographic information was extracted from interviews with participants and knowledgeable informants. Participants were classified according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and by criteria for subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms and associations with cognitive function, health and socio-demographics was examined. Co-occurrence of symptoms was tested using factor analysis. Results Most symptoms were reported more frequently in those with more severe cognitive impairment. Subjective memory complaints were the strongest independent predictor of reported symptoms, and most were reported more often in those classified as having MCI than in those with cognitive impairments that did not meet the MCI criteria. The pattern of co-occurrence of symptoms is similar to that seen in dementia. Conclusions Our results highlight that behavioural and psychological symptoms are prevalent in the cognitively impaired older population, and partly explain the variation observed in previous

  15. Gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and non-communicable disease risk factors among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China

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    Youran Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors can co-exist with disability and cause a greater burden on the health status of adults with disabilities. A lack of egalitarian social policies in China may result in gender disparities in the NCD risk factors of adults with disabilities. However, little is known about the gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities in China; consequently, we examined this association among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China. Methods We used the health examination data of 44,896 adults with disabilities in Shanghai in 2014. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were conducted to estimate gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics, disability characteristics, and four selected NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities—including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood lipids, and being overweight. We estimated marginal effects (MEs on NCD risk factors between gender and other confounders. Results Women with disabilities were about 11.6 percentage points more likely to suffer from high blood lipids and less likely to develop the other three risk factors than men were. The association of age group, residence permit, education level, marital status, and disability type with health outcomes varied by gender among adults with disabilities. The difference in age effects between men and women was more pronounced in older age groups. Urban residence was associated with less risk of high blood pressure risk among women (ΔME =  − 0.035, p < 0.01, but no significant difference in other NCD risk factors. Education remained a major protective factor against high blood pressure, high blood glucose and being overweight among women with disabilities (MEs < 0, p < 0.05; however, this did not hold for men. The difference in marriage effects between men and women was observed in

  16. Socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours for climate change mitigation in urban China.

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    Emily Ying Yang Chan

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the patterns and socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours that support climate change mitigation in a densely populated Asian metropolis-Hong Kong.A population-based, stratified and cross-sectional random digit dialling telephone survey study was conducted between January and February 2016, among the Cantonese-speaking population aged 15 and above in Hong Kong. Socio-demographic data and the self-reported practice of 10 different co-benefit behaviours were solicited. Ethics approval and participant's verbal consent were sought.The study sample consisted of 1,017 respondents (response rate: 63.6% were comparable to the age, gender and geographical distributions of the Hong Kong population found in the latest 2011 Hong Kong Population Census. Among the co-benefit behaviours, using less packaging and disposable shopping bags were practiced in the highest frequency (70.1%. However, four behaviours were found to have never been practiced by more than half of the respondents, including bringing personal eating utensils when dining in restaurants or small eateries, showering less than five minutes, having one vegetarian meal a week, and buying more organic food. Results of multivariable logistic regression showed that frequency of practicing co-benefit behaviours were consistently associated with gender and age.Urban residents in Hong Kong do not engage in the practice of co-benefit behaviours in a uniform way. In general, females and older people are more likely to adopt co-benefit behaviours in their daily lives. Further research to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the population towards these co-benefit behaviours will provide support to relevant climate change mitigation policies and education programmes.

  17. Prevalence of common phobias and their socio-demographic correlates in children and adolescents in a traditional developing society.

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    Bener, A; Ghuloum, S; Dafeeah, E E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most common phobias in children and adolescents and to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and socio-demographic correlates of phobias. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at public and private schools from July 2009 to February 2009. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, extra-curricular activities and hobbies, behaviour at home and various phobic fears and it was distributed among children aged 6 to 18 years. Psychiatrists determined the definitive diagnosis for various phobias by checking and screening their symptoms. Of the studied subjects, 44% were males and 56% were females. The overall prevalence of phobia in children and adolescents was 19.7%. Among children with phobia, females had higher rates of phobias (62.4% vs 37.6%) than males. Nearly half of total sufferers were in the 12-15 year age group (46.3%). Social phobia (12.7%) was the commonest phobia found followed by agoraphobia (8.6%). Secondary school children were highly afflicted with social phobia (14.9%), agoraphobia (11.7%) and specific phobia (9.6%), while preparatory students (8.3%) were more likely to have 'medical' phobia (fear of physical illness, medical tests and procedures). A significant difference was observed between the age groups in children with agoraphobia (p=0.002). The overall prevalence of phobia in children and adolescents in Qatar was higher than rates found in other epidemiologic studies, with the most common phobias observed being social phobia, agoraphobia and specific phobia.

  18. Infant feeding in Sweden: Socio-demographic determinants and associations with adiposity in childhood and adolescence

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    Grjibovski Andrej M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reviews and meta-analyses conclude that breastfeeding constitutes a small but consistent protective effect against obesity or higher values of body mass index (BMI in children, though in some studies this effect was weakened after adjustment for potential confounders. The aim of this study was to explore the socio-demographic determinants of the duration of breastfeeding in Sweden and the associations between breastfeeding duration and adiposity in childhood and adolescence. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of Swedish children. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and the sum of five skin fold measurements were obtained in 1137 9- and 15-year old children. Breastfeeding data were retrospectively obtained from the medical records for 812 (71.4% children. Multiple ordinal logistic regression was applied to study individual effects of the maternal characteristics on the duration of breastfeeding. The relationship between children's anthropometric characteristics and duration of breastfeeding was studied by multiple linear regression. Associations between the odds of being overweight or obese and the duration of breastfeeding were studied by multiple logistic regression. Both linear and logistic models were adjusted for children's age, gender, birth weight, maternal education and parental BMI in 1998 as well as maternal age and smoking status at childbirth. Results Maternal education was positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding in both 1983 and 1989. Non-smoking mothers were more likely to breastfeed longer than smokers in 1989 (OR = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.3, 3.0. Fifteen-year old children breastfed for shorter than 2 months had 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.1, 2.4 higher BMI, 3.2 cm (95%CI: 0.2, 6.2 higher waist circumference and 10.6 mm (95%CI: 1.7, 19.6 higher sum of five skin fold measurements compared to those breastfed for 6 months or longer when adjusted for children's characteristics and

  19. Influence of socio-demographic factors on awareness of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi garment workers.

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    Hasan, Atm Hasibul; Hassan, Rashedul; Khan, Zillur Rahman; Nuzhat, Elham; Arefin, Uditi

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to assess the level of awareness on HIV/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and the Influence of different socio-demographic factors among the garment workers in Bangladesh. This cross sectional study was carried out among 303 workers in three selected garment factories in Dhaka city from July 2010 to June 1011. Data were collected by face to face interview through a predesigned questionnaire containing desired information. The majority of workers (76.6%) were within the 17-19 years age group. The female respondents predominated (55.1%). A considerable number of the sample population (39.3%) completed the primary education. But majority belonged to low income group (68.4%), followed by the very low income group (22.4%). Almost everyone (98.3%) except five of the respondents heard the word HIV/AIDS and most of them (90.6%) knew that the disease is transmissible from person to person and mainly by sexual intercourse (78.9%). Only 28.2% had some idea about the sign symptoms of HIV. About (64.4%) thought that persons having heterosexual partners (including prostitutes) are high-risk groups. Though many (74.2%) of the respondents thought that HIV/AIDS is preventable, only 45% said HIV/AIDS is not curable. But 70.5% answered that death is the ultimate fate. The main source of information was radio/TV, newspaper. Unfortunately, 76.9% of the respondents had poor awareness while only 10.6% had good awareness. The level of awareness increased with age (p = aware than the female, the relationship is not statistically significant (p= > 0.05). Awareness among S.S.C. passed and above is quite more than the awareness of illiterate (p = 0.05) of level of family income and living pattern with level of awareness. Even being a risk group the garment workers not much aware of HIV/AIDS. The level of awareness increased with age and literacy, which shows the window of opportunity for the policymakers that educational intervention program, may be effective

  20. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

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    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  1. Association between parental socio-demographic factors and declined linear growth of young children in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Gunardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.

  2. Socio-demographic, psychosocial and home-environmental attributes associated with adults' domestic screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; Owen, Neville; De Cocker, Katrien; Wijndaele, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-08-25

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting time) are associated with deleterious health consequences, independent of (lack of) physical activity. To inform interventions, correlates of prevalent sedentary behaviors need to be identified. We examined associations of socio-demographic, home-environmental and psychosocial factors with adults' TV viewing time and leisure-time Internet use; and whether psychosocial and environmental correlates differed according to gender, age and educational attainment. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium, between March and May 2010. Respondents to a mail-out survey (n = 419; 20-65 years; mean age 48.5 [12.1] years; 47.3% men) completed a questionnaire on sedentary behaviors and their potential socio-demographic, psychosocial and home environmental correlates. Statistical analyses were performed using multiple linear regression models. The independent variables explained 31% of the variance in TV viewing time and 38% of the variance in leisure-time Internet use. Higher education, greater perceived pros of and confidence about reducing TV time were negatively associated with TV viewing time; older age, higher body mass index, larger TV set size and greater perceived cons of reducing TV time showed positive associations. Perceived pros of and confidence about reducing Internet use were negatively associated with leisure-time Internet use; higher education, number of computers in the home, positive family social norms about Internet use and perceived cons of reducing Internet use showed positive associations. None of the socio-demographic factors moderated these associations. Educational level, age, self-efficacy and pros/cons were the most important correlates identified in this study. If further cross-sectional and longitudinal research can confirm these findings, tailored interventions focusing on both psychosocial and environmental factors in specific population subgroups might be most effective to reduce

  3. Socio-demographic, psychosocial and home-environmental attributes associated with adults' domestic screen time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Neville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting time are associated with deleterious health consequences, independent of (lack of physical activity. To inform interventions, correlates of prevalent sedentary behaviors need to be identified. We examined associations of socio-demographic, home-environmental and psychosocial factors with adults' TV viewing time and leisure-time Internet use; and whether psychosocial and environmental correlates differed according to gender, age and educational attainment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium, between March and May 2010. Respondents to a mail-out survey (n = 419; 20-65 years; mean age 48.5 [12.1] years; 47.3% men completed a questionnaire on sedentary behaviors and their potential socio-demographic, psychosocial and home environmental correlates. Statistical analyses were performed using multiple linear regression models. Results The independent variables explained 31% of the variance in TV viewing time and 38% of the variance in leisure-time Internet use. Higher education, greater perceived pros of and confidence about reducing TV time were negatively associated with TV viewing time; older age, higher body mass index, larger TV set size and greater perceived cons of reducing TV time showed positive associations. Perceived pros of and confidence about reducing Internet use were negatively associated with leisure-time Internet use; higher education, number of computers in the home, positive family social norms about Internet use and perceived cons of reducing Internet use showed positive associations. None of the socio-demographic factors moderated these associations. Conclusions Educational level, age, self-efficacy and pros/cons were the most important correlates identified in this study. If further cross-sectional and longitudinal research can confirm these findings, tailored interventions focusing on both psychosocial and environmental factors in

  4. Physical activity during work, transport and leisure in Germany--prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

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    Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed 1 to provide data estimates concerning overall moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA as well as MVPA during work, transport and leisure in Germany and 2 to investigate MVPA and possible associations with socio-demographic correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2248 representative participants in the age of 18-65 years (1077 men; 42.4 ± 13.4 years; body mass index: 25.3 ± 4.5 kg • m(-2 regarding their self-reported physical activity across Germany. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to investigate MVPA during work, transport and leisure and questions were answered concerning their demographics. MVPA was stratified by gender, age, body mass index, residential setting, educational and income level. To identify socio-demographic correlates of overall MVPA as well as in the domains, we used a series of linear regressions. RESULTS: 52.8% of the sample achieved physical activity recommendations (53.7% men/52.1% women. Overall MVPA was highest in the age group 18-29 years (p < .05, in participants with 10 years of education (p < .05 and in participants with lowest income levels < 1.500 € (p < .05. Regression analyses revealed that age, education and income were negatively associated with overall and work MVPA. Residential setting and education was positively correlated with transport MVPA, whereas income level was negatively associated with transport MVPA. Education was the only correlate for leisure MVPA with a positive association. CONCLUSIONS: The present data underlines the importance of a comprehensive view on physical activity engagement according to the different physical activity domains and discloses a need for future physical activity interventions that consider socio-demographic variables, residential setting as well as the physical activity domain in Germany.

  5. Socio-demographic Findings, Behavioral Problems and Developmental Levels among 0-6 Years Old Children in Erzurum Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Fidan T et al.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the socio-demographic findings and developmental levels of zero-six years old children in foster care and to compare with the children who lives with their parents. Method: In this study 46 children living in foster care zero-six years old unit and 46 children who live with their parents were enrolled. The socio-demographic findings, problem behaviors were examined with a form that is composed by the researche...

  6. Socio-demographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaya, Monique; Phung, Kieu; Atweh, Samir

    2018-01-01

    the knowledge gap. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2013 in Beirut and two districts of Mount Lebanon with 502 older adults (65 years and above) and their informants. Data was collected on CVDRF and socio-demographics using structured questionnaires and dementia was assessed using the 10....../66 Dementia Research Group validated tools. Multivariable analysis was done using a generalized estimating equation to account for cluster effect. Being older and perceiving personal income as insufficient significantly increased the odds of dementia [OR75-84 years = 4.00 (95%CI = 1.46, 10.95); OR85 + years...

  7. [Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle: family and socio-demographic determinants and their impact on adolescents' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Pineda-Aquino, Victoria; Jáuregui-Jiménez, Omar; Castillo-Trejo, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Estimating whether adolescents' sedentary behaviour and their lack of physical activity is determined by family characteristics or socio-cultural aspects and their impact on health and adiposity level. 932 adolescents were surveyed. Information regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, anthropometric index and family characteristics (structure, dynamics and functioning) was estimated by adolescents answering a questionnaire. The sample's average age was 16.07±1.09 years old, 56.3 % were female, 66.3 % had a low level of physical activity and 51.9 % were sedentary. A lack of physical activity occurred more frequently in females (56.8 % cf 41.5 %: p=0.000); family characteristics did not influence such risk behaviour. A relationship between physical activity and sedentary lifestyle with BMI could not be demonstrated, whilst waist circumference was associated with risky behaviour patterns. Teenagers in good health were more active (36.1 % cf 27 %) and less sedentary (49.3 % cf 59.4 %) than those for whom an unhealthy state was reported. Sedentary behaviour and a lack of physical activity were more determined by socio-demographic factors than family aspects, such behaviour pattern having a direct influence on the adolescents' health.

  8. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahina; Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Prakasam, C P

    2015-06-01

    Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.

  9. [Association between self-directed learning behaviors, socio-demographic and academic variables among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Pérez V, Cristhian; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus, Olga

    2013-09-01

    Medical education must encourage autonomous learning behaviors among students. However the great income profile disparity among university students may influence their capacity to acquire such skills. To assess the association between self-directed learning, socio-demographic and academic variables. The self-directed learning readiness scale was applied to 202 medical students aged between 17 and 25 years (64% males). Simultaneously information about each surveyed participant was obtained from the databases of the medical school. There is an association between socio-demographic and academic variables with the general scale of self-directed learning and the subscales learning planning and willingness to learn. Participants coming from municipal schools have a greater willingness to learn than their counterparts coming from subsidized and private schools. High school grades are related to self-directed learning and the subscales learning planning and self-assessment. Among the surveyed medical students, there is a relationship between self-directed learning behaviors, the type of school where they come from and the grades that they obtained during high school.

  10. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

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    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  11. Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Z; Kim, S K

    2001-01-01

    Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the social conditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently has dependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some these data to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographic conditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to those recently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, in order to place Cambodia within a regional context. On balance, living arrangements in Cambodia are similar to those in neighboring countries. Older adults are likely to be living with a child and in a variety of diverse arrangements involving different family members. We attempt to get at gender preference for coresident children indirectly by adjusting living arrangement patterns for Cambodia's unique sex and marital status structure. We find a predominance of elders living with never married children of either sex and a slight daughter preference. Older adults in Cambodia may face particular challenges due to the influences of the past decades of instability and violence. We conclude our paper with a discussion of how future research might assist in developing a national policy for older adults.

  12. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  13. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660 were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  14. [Association of overweight with socio-demographic variables and lifestyle among Brazilian university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini de; Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the association of overweight with socio-demographic variables and lifestyle among freshmen of a Brazilian public university. A total of 685 students were evaluated in April 2008. Overweight was determined based on body mass index. Lifestyle and socio-demographic variables were established using a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight was observed in 16% of the students and lifestyle was inadequate in 5.1%. The incidence of overweight was higher among male students (OR=2.69; 95%CI: 1.64-4.42), students aged ≥ 20 years (OR=2.01; 95%CI: 1.25-3.25), married students (OR=2.44; 95%CI: 1.11-5.40), and students who reported being more than 2 kg above healthy weight (OR=17.05; 95%CI: 7.73-37.63) and ingesting caffeine-containing beverages more than twice a day (OR= 1.66; 95%CI: 1.00-2.75). This study demonstrates the need for guidance of university students regarding a healthy lifestyle and for physical activity programs on the campus aimed at reducing excess weight, with special attention to male, older and married students.

  15. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Beck, Carmem Cristina; Ghedin, Karoliny Debiasi; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-04-01

    This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  16. Family quality of life among families with a child who has a severe neurodevelopmental disability: Impact of family and child socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Mitchell; Karni-Visel, Yael; Tamir, Ada; Genizi, Jacob; Roth, Dana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine family quality of life (FQOL) of Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability and its relation to socio-demographics. The cohort included caregivers of 70 children ages (mean ± standard deviation) 5.36 ± 3.53 years. Families were two-parent (85.7%), lived in the periphery (67.1%) and included Jews (60%), Muslims (18.6%), Druze (14.3%) and Christians (7.1%). Religiosity included: secular (38.6%), traditional (31.4%), religious (30%). Children's diagnosis included autistic spectrum disorder (41.4%), intellectual disability (21.4%), cerebral palsy (17.1%), genetic syndromes (17.1%) and sensorineural hearing loss (2.9%). Degree of support (1-minimal,5-greatest) required by the child was 3.67 ± 1.28 for physical and 3.49 ± 1.36 for communication. Primary caregivers completed the FQOL Survey. Domain scores were highest for family relations and lowest for financial well-being. Dimension scores were highest for importance and lowest for opportunities. Overall FQOL approximated average. Jewish families and residents of a major urban area reported higher and more religious families reported lower overall FQOL. Regression analysis found ethnicity contributing to overall FQOL and domain scores with residence contributing to support from services. Ethnicity and child dependence contributed to dimension scores. Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability report average FQOL scores. However, family and child dependence characteristics affect FQOL scores. Professionals working with these families should consider FQOL information when making recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of traditional contraceptive methods in India & its socio-demographic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Faujdar; Shekhar, Chander; Chowdhury, Biswabandita

    2014-11-01

    The high use of traditional contraceptive methods may have health repercussions on both partners. High failure rate, lack of protection from sexually transmitted diseases are some of the examples of these repercussions. The aim of this study was to understand the level, trends, pattern, volume and socio-demographic determinants of using traditional contraceptive methods in the Indian context. Percentages, per cent distribution, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out. The data from the three rounds of National Family Health survey (NFHS) were used. The unit level District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were mainly used to carry out the analysis in this paper. Marriage rates for States and Union Territories (UTs) were projected for the period of 2001-2011 to estimate the volume of traditional contraceptive users. These rates are required to get the number of eligible couples as on 2011 in the respective State/UT. The latest round of the District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) revealed that 6.7 per cent currently married women were using traditional contraceptive methods in India. More than half of the currently married women (56%) have ever used these methods. In terms of socio-demographic determinants, the odds ratios of using these methods were significantly higher for women aged 35 years and above, rural, Hindu, other than Scheduled Castes/Tribes (SCs/STs), secondary and above educated, non-poor, having two plus living children, and at least one surviving son in most of the states as well as at the national level. The northeastern region showed higher odds ratios (5 times) of women using traditional contraceptive methods than the southern region. A large number of currently married women have ever used the traditional contraceptive methods in India. On the basis of the findings from this study, the total size of those women who were using traditional methods and those who were having unmet need, and are required to

  18. Fear of crime in Belgrade: Testing a socio-demographic and social-psychological factors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to

  19. Original article Psychological and socio-demographic correlates of women’s decisions to give birth at home

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    Urszula Domańska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some women decide to give birth at home. They treat their home as a safe place to do so, are against medicalization of natural labour or value activity and autonomy during labour. They are also characterized by good knowledge of their own bodies and about labour in general (including labour at home. Psychological studies have revealed a correlation between labour (including the derived satisfaction and the levels of dispositional optimism, perception of efficacy, and coping with pain. Analysis of the available demographic data shows that the decision to give birth at home is correlated with a certain socio-demographic profile of women. Participants and procedures One hundred thirty five mothers took part in the study. Among them 72 had given birth at home and 63 in a hospital. The following were assumed as important psychological determinants: dispositional optimism, sense of self-efficacy, strategies for coping with pain and their effectiveness. The LOT-R Test, GSES Scale, CSQ Questionnaire as well as a demographic questionnaire were used in the study. Results Women who gave birth at home were characterised by significantly higher levels of optimism and sense of self-efficacy in comparison with the other women. Women giving birth at home reinterpreted the sensations of pain more frequently than the others, who were more likely to catastrophise and pray/hope. The level of conviction about having control over pain was much higher in the experimental group. The relationship between choice of place to give birth and the level of education, marital status, area of residence as well as age is weak. Correlations between the place of birth and income, number of children as well as membership of religious communities are moderate and statistically significant. Conclusions It is important to see and meet the different expectations of the two distinct groups of women. Today’s phenomenon of homebirth requires systematic interdisciplinary

  20. Psychological attributes and socio-demographic profile of hundred completed suicide victims in the state of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2013-07-01

    To describe socio-demographic characteristics, psycho-social factors, psychiatric co-morbidity in hundred completed suicide victims. A detailed interview was carried out with family members of suicide victims using psychological autopsy questionnaire. Males committed suicide significantly more often than females. The most common age group was 30-44 years, followed by 15-29 years. Most of them were married (68%) and majority (78%) had education less than 10(th) standard. Psychiatric morbidity was found in 94%, depression being the most common diagnosis (54%), followed by alcohol use disorders (42%). 40% of the victims had contact with mental health services and 50% with general health services in the 3 months preceding suicide. The rate of suicide is high in middle age and a very significant proportion of these suffer from diagnosable psychiatric disorders. Many of the suicide completers visit health services in the preceding few months of the event. In prevention of suicides, health professionals, both mental and general, can play a major role.

  1. Socio-demographic and clinical features of Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrete sub-group of iatrogenically-acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals exists in the Irish population on whom limited current research data is available. The aim of this study was to establish a current profile of the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C population and to determine factors predicting symptoms experienced. METHODS: An anonymous, national, cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore this populations\\' self-reported health and social attributes. Data were collected on 290 respondents. RESULTS: Mean time since infection was 26 years. Eighty-four percent (n = 237) of respondents were female (mean age = 55.9 +\\/- 9.6 years). Hepatic and extra-hepatic symptoms were common (62% and 99% respectively). Fatigue and pain were frequent complaints while 89% reported diagnosed co-morbid disease. On logistic regression, female gender, age and co-morbid disease emerged as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study describes the current status of the iatrogenically infected patient cohort in Ireland, adding to existing knowledge regarding the clinical course and consequences of HCV infection. Changing healthcare needs were shown by comparison with earlier surveys in this same population, in terms of disease progression, development of co-morbid disease and ageing.

  2. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders in a Rural District of Kenya, and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Association between common mental disorders (CMDs, equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population, were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs. Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.

  3. Prevalence of common mental disorders in a rural district of Kenya, and socio-demographic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kigamwa, Pius; Baraza, Makheti; Ayuyo, James; Singleton, Nicola; McManus, Sally; Kiima, David

    2012-05-01

    Association between common mental disorders (CMDs), equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population), were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.

  4. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING LEISURE ATTITUDE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AT A SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITY

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    Paul-Francois Muzindutsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of various socio-demographicfactors on leisure attitudeamong undergraduate students.A survey questionnairewas used to collect data from a sample of 430undergraduate students enrolled at aSouth African university during the first semester of 2014.Leisure attitude wasmeasured usingthe Leisure Attitude ScalebyRaghebandBeard(1982.Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression were used to analyse thedata. Results showed that factors such students’ expenditure, race, mode oftransport to and from campusage, and level of study have a significant influenceon leisure attitude among students. There was no statistical evidence supportingthe effect of placeof residence during school time, genderand field of study onleisure attitude status. This study concluded that socio-demographic factors do notonly influence leisure attitude but may also affect the level of participation inleisure activities.

  5. Regional differences, socio-demographics, and hidden population of HIV/AIDS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Suar, Damodar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in different regions of India, their socio-demographic indicators, and the presence of hidden population infected with HIV. Secondary data analyzed were obtained from national and international agencies. Considering the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in India, the low-prevalence regions in the last decade have shown a steady increase in recent years. Productive age, urbanization, male gender, lower level of education, minority religions, low income, and mobile occupations are associated with HIV pandemic. The hidden population vulnerable to HIV/AIDS are: street children, homeless population, and refugees. These observations can help map the high-risk behavior groups and formulate targeted strategies to curb the HIV menace.

  6. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

     Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...

  7. Overweight and Obesity in Italian Adolescents: Examined Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfo, Myriam; D'Addezio, Laura; Censi, Laura; Roccaldo, Romana; Martone, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity derived from measured data of weight and height in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents in the Italian region of Lazio and to analyse their association with different socio-demographic factors. The study was conducted in a representative sample of 15-16-year-old adolescents recruited in secondary schools between December 2011 and May 2012. 369 adolescents were investigated. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The BMI of each subject was calculated, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by age and sex using the IOTF reference values and WHO growth standards. Waist circumference/height ratio (WC/Ht) was calculated and the subjects were classified using the cut-off of 0.5: WC/Ht≥0.5 and WC/Htobesity were high, 15.4% and 7.9%, respectively, with significant difference between males and females (19.1% vs. 12.6% for overweight and 11.1% vs. 5.3% for obese) using the IOFT reference. The ratio WC/Ht≥0.5 was observed in 12.7% of the sample (all the obese and 29.8% of the overweight subjects). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, school municipality, mother's employment status, and family structure had a significant effect on ponderal status (overweight/obesity vs. normal weight). These findings show a high prevalence of body weight excess associated with socio-demographic factors in the Italian sample investigated, and the need for effective public health interventions to combact obesity with particular attention to disadvantaged adolescents. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  8. Association of Divorce with Socio-Demographic Covariates in China, 1955-1985

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    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a unique data set on the event history of marriage and divorce collected in the In-Depth Fertility Surveys conducted in Shanghai, Shaanxi, and Hebei in 1985 and a multivariate hazards model, this paper investigates the association between divorce risk and socio-demographic factors in China. Controlling for several other socio-demographic factors, we demonstrate that the risk of divorce for women who married before age 18 is twice as high as that of those married after age 20; the risk of divorce of arranged marriages is about 2.6 times as high as that of not-arranged ones. The number of children is highly and negatively correlated with risk of divorce; the traditional son preference does not seem having substantial effects on divorce among women who have one or two children; but the risk of divorce of women who have three or more daughters without a son was 2.2 times as high as that of those women who have three or more children with at least one son. The divorce level in urban areas is higher than that in rural areas. The greater proportion of arranged and early marriages plus some other special factors in a less developed region (Shaanxi contributes to its higher general divorce rate before 1985, in comparison with the advanced region (Shanghai. The divorce level in Shanghai after 1985 has become higher than that in Shaanxi. It seems that education level is positively related to divorce and labor force participation is negatively related to divorce, but the estimates are not statistically significant. Some explanations of these findings are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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    Shahina Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.

  10. Maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns: Associations with socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Walter, Amelia; Guan, Jane; Descallar, Joseph; Axelsson, Emma; Einfeld, Stewart; Eastwood, John; Murphy, Elisabeth; Beasley, Deborah; Silove, Natalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Woolfenden, Sue; Williams, Katrina; Jalaludin, Bin; The 'Watch Me Grow' Study Group

    2017-10-01

    To examine socio-demographic factors associated with maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns in a longitudinal birth cohort study. An understanding of these factors is critical to improving uptake of services to maximise early identification and intervention for developmental concerns. A birth cohort was recruited from the post-natal wards of two teaching hospitals and through community nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia, between November 2011 and April 2013. Of the 4047 mothers approached, 2025 consented to participate (response rate = 50%). Socio-demographic and service use information was collected after the child's birth and when the child was 18 months of age. Sources of help were divided into three categories (formal health services, other formal services and informal supports) and compound variables were created by summing the number of different sources identified by mothers. Significantly more sources of help were intended to be used and/or actually accessed by mothers born in Australia, whose primary language was English, with higher levels of education and annual household income, and among mothers of first-born children. Developmental concerns are known to increase with increased psychosocial adversity. Our findings of reduced intent to access and use of services by socio-economically disadvantaged families and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds suggests that an inverse care effect is in operation whereby those children with the greatest health needs may have the least access to services. Possible explanations for this, and recommendations for improving service accessibility for these populations through targeted and culturally appropriate services, are discussed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahina; Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Prakasam, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence. PMID:26205021

  12. Incidence of disability pension and associations with socio-demographic factors in a Swedish twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Åsa; Alexanderson, K; Ropponen, A; Lichtenstein, P; Svedberg, P

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of disability pension (DP), especially due to mental diagnoses, has increased in many countries, but knowledge of socio-demographic risk factors for DP is limited. Further, the influences of genetics and early-life factors (jointly called familial factors) on these associations remain to be studied. The aims were to study incidence of DP (due to all and mental diagnoses) and associations with socio-demographic factors, and also to establish whether associations differ with DP diagnosis and sex, and are influenced by familial factors. A prospective cohort study of all twins born in 1928-1958 (n = 52,609) in Sweden was conducted. The twins were followed from 1993 to 2008 regarding DP. Cox proportional hazard models were applied. The cumulative incidence of DP was 17 %. Of all the DP diagnoses 20 % were mental. Higher age (≥45 years), being a woman or unmarried, and/or living in a semi-urban area were risk factors for DP. Low education, being a blue-collar worker or being self-employed predicted either higher (all diagnoses) or lower (mental diagnoses) risk of DP. Rural areas were associated with DP due to mental diagnoses. The estimates varied for men and women. After adjustment for familial factors the associations of DP with education and marital status were attenuated and no longer significant. Similar results were apparent for DP due to mental diagnoses and socioeconomic status. Familial factors may select individuals into some of the established risk environments for DP. Studies investigating the causes of DP need to take such confounding into account.

  13. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CO-RELATES OF ADOLESCENT HYPERTENSION IN DISTRICT GHAZIABAD

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    Gajendra Kumar Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a chronic condition of concern due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other  complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardio-vascular mortality accounting for 20-50% of all deaths. Children with higher blood pressure tend to maintain those levels during adulthood also. Objectives:  Assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents (11-18 years, its risk factors and their socio-demographic co-relates. Material and Method:  Prevalence of adolescent hypertension in previous studies was 7% and the sample size accordingly came to be 1314 with a relative precision of 20%. Multistage sampling technique was used. Half each of the sample size was covered in urban and rural areas . Households in the selected colonies in the urban areas and villages were randomly selected and the adolescents interviewed and examined. Their responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and results drawn. Data were analysed using Epi-info and SPSS and chi-square test applied. Results:   Prevalence of adolescent hypertension was found to be 5.3% (72 out of 1340; significantly associated with type of family (P<0.001, educational status (P<0.001, occupation (P<0.001, BMI (P<0.01, and smoking habit (P<0.05. However, no relationship of hypertension was found with salt intake, type of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, stress and family history of hypertension. Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors certainly influence the prevalence and probability of occurrence of adolescent hypertension but the effect of established risk factors (for adult hypertension needs to be further evaluated for adolescent hypertension and more studies are required in this area.

  14. Socio demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism A cross sectional study of urban industrial employees

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    Suhash Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. Aim: To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at workplace during evaluation. Job stress was assessed using Professional Life Stress Scale (David Fontana. Those who scored more than 30 (n = 43 were taken up for the study after an informed consent. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to find socio-demographic and clinical profile. Employees who reported taking leave in last six months just to avoid work or workplace constitute the "absenteeism" group. The absenteeism group was compared to non-absenteeism group using Fisher exact/Chi-square test or independent t-test depending on type of variables. Results: Out of 43 subjects, 18 had absenteeism while 25 did not have absenteeism. Comparing the two groups, interstate migration, having more than one previous job, commuting time more than an hour, co-morbid anxiety/depression, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with absenteeism (P 0.05. Conclusion: In absenteeism research, one of the widely accepted models is Steer and Rhode′s "Process model of absenteeism." The model postulates job stress as one of the barriers for attendance. Thus, knowing the factors for absenteeism would help in preventing absenteeism.

  15. Revisión bibliográfica sobre características sociodemográficas y repercusiones de la depresión en el trabajador Literature review: socio-demographic characteristics and impact of depression in the worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Córdoba Coronel

    2011-06-01

    . Objectives: Identify the main sociodemographic characteristics in workers with depression. Identify the effects produced by depression in the workplace. Methodology: Bibliographic review in different databases in two phases: search/selection of articles and review of the 18 selected studies. Results: There is an increased risk of depression associated to women, low social support, workplace stress, job insecurity, job dissatisfaction, amongst others. Business women with low level of authority, employees of the industrial area or emotional high demand jobs, as well as men with high stress, high job insecurity and passive jobs are associated with the risk of depression. Depression causes absenteeism. It is estimated that poor performance at work causes the loss of 225 million work days and $36.6 billion dollars for productivity loss per year due to depression. Conclusions: There are gender differences in the association of depressive symptoms and psychosocial characteristics; these could be explained by the structure of occupations, the characteristics of work carried out by men and women or emerging causes not yet determined which deserve further research. The relationship between depression, associated factors and labor socioeconomic impacts, indicate the need for prevention and control policies at work.

  16. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  17. Participation in Social Activities and the Association with Socio-Demographic and Health-Related Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie-Tyndale, Douladel; Holder-Nevins, Desmalee; Mitchell-Fearon, Kathryn; James, Kenneth; Laws, Hazel; Waldron, Norman K; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2016-12-01

    Social participation is critical for maintaining independence and facilitating active ageing. The aim of this paper is to describe participation in social activities among older adults in Jamaica and to identify independently associated socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed data from a nationally representative, community-based survey of 2943 persons 60 years and older. Sixty-three percent of older adults attended religious services and 60 % were visited by friends at least once per month in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age was not independently associated with social participation. Persons with post-secondary level education were twice as likely as those with primary education or less, to be visited by friends and to attend meetings of formal organisations. Men, persons not in union, and those with less functional independence had reduced odds of attending meetings of formal organisations. These variables were however not independently associated with having visits with friends. Persons with a positive depression screen were between 42 % and 44 % less likely to be visited by friends. Persons who received an income through livestock/farming were more likely to visit or be visited by friends. The variables independently associated with social participation vary depending on the type of social activity considered. Where possible, health and social interventions should focus on prevention, delay and reversal of risk factors associated with reduced social participation. Social participation programmes should be prioritized and be informed by input from older adults. Future research should include other forms of social interactions and clarify older adults' perceptions of their quality.

  18. A Study on the Socio demographic Profile of the Attendees at the Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre of Institute of Medical Sciences BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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    Rashmi Kumari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV counseling and testing services are a key entry point to the prevention of HIV infection and to the treatment and care of the people who are infected with HIV. The Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre (ICTC services are a cost effective intervention in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.Aims: To study the socio demographic characteristics of the attendees at the ICTC centre.Material and Methods: Setting – ICTC of Institutes of Medical Sciences BHU, Varanasi, Study Design: A cross-sectional, record based study, Study duration: The study population included 41159 clients who attended the ICTC centres from January 2009 to December 2011.Results: An overall 12.85% of the ICTC attendees were HIV Seropositive subjects. During 2009 to 2011. i.e. during past 3 years total males tested for HIV at the ICTC were 23326, out of which 3202 were HIV+ve showing positivity rate of 13.7%, while total females tested were 16671 out of which 2063 were HIV+ve showing positivity rate of about 12.4%. Consecutively in the last three years maximum load of patients was from the age groups 35-49 years (19.13% followed by 25-34 years (15.4%.Conclusion: People’s attitudes towards HIV are changing after the introduction of the ICTC, which plays a major role in the primary and secondary prevention of HIV. There is a more urgent need for the introduction of interventional measures like sex education and preventive education among the general population

  19. [Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological features of a population discharged from forensic hospital and admitted to neuropsychiatric clinic, in scheme of restriction of freedom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Cataldo, Daniela; Colletti, Chiara; Di Falco, Rosanna; Centracchio, Irma; Del Nero, Paolo; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, in Italy there has been an intense debate that has focused on the function, and overcoming the limits of the institution Judicial Psychiatric Hospital (ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario - OPG). Although the contribution of legislative proposals, conferences and workshops on the OPG subject has received significant, the interest focused on the development and elaboration of criminological and epidemiological research on a national scale has been proportionately less impetum. In this study a survey aimed to explore the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological features of patients discharged from the OPG and admitted to neuropsychiatric clinic, under the restriction of freedom, has been performed. The information was gathered at the time of entry in the clinical management, by means of the first clinical interview and during subsequent interviews. During hospitalization, patients were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and K Axis (Axis V of Kennedy) questionaires. 23 patients from forensic hospitals of Aversa, Secondigliano and Castiglione delle Stiviere were included in the study. The main characteristics investigated delineate a profile of an individual with an average age of about 49 years, unmarried, from a low socio-economic context, unemployed at the time of internment. About the diagnosis, schizophrenic spectrum disorders prevail, there is history of substance abuse in 35% of cases, history of previous admission to psychiatric facilities in 87% of these subjects. The type of committed crimes regards crimes against the person. About 40% of individuals have exhausted the danger to society correlate at the time of admission. Despite the small sample size, the data from this study are consistent with those reported in few studies in the literature. The specificity of clinical care needs of mentally ill offenders requires greater definition that could be achieved through the development of this research area.

  20. Características sócio-demográficas, reprodutivas e médicas de mulheres admitidas por aborto em hospital da Região Sul do Brasil Socio-demographic, reproductive, and clinical characteristics of abortion patients hospitalized in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fonseca

    1998-04-01

    who were hospitalized for complications of induced abortion, the clinical characteristics suggest less severe complications than reported in previous studies. Recommendations are made as to the need for confirmatory studies, information regarding cultural perceptions and concepts of abortion, and reasons why low-income women fail to adopt available family planning methods.

  1. Características sociodemográficas, de salud y utilización de recursos sanitarios de cuidadores de ancianos atendidos en domicilio Socio-demographic characteristics of health and use of sanitary resources by elderly caregivers at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli González-Valentín

    2009-03-01

    general by a main caregiver, who supports the effects of it, physically and psychically. It's important to know the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the factors which determine the health condition, and the use of health care resources of these caregivers when attending elderly with high level of dependence at home. A cross-sectional study of these caregivers was undertaken. The sociodemographic and clinical variables were studied, in relation to the care, perception of the health condition, psychopathologic status, overload, and use of the health care resources. The demographic profile of a caregiver in our area is a woman, married, unemployed, daughter of the impaired old person, with Primary Education, with an average age of 56 years old -the majority is between 47 and 63 years old-. Factors as the perception of the health condition, the age, and the family relation to the patient were shown as determinant. It was also obtained a significant relation between the Index variables of Katz, Lawton and Brody with Zarit's scale punctuation. Concerning the use of the health care resources, the statistics revealed prevailing the medical diagnosis of depression with its variables of using the emergency services and medical consultation from the caregiver.

  2. A Pastoral da Criança em Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil: cobertura e características sócio-demográficas das famílias participantes The Children's Pastoral in Criciúma, Southern Brazil: coverage and socio-demographic characteristics of participating families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Neumann

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever as principais características sócio-econômicas, biológicas e demográficas das crianças e famílias que participam ou participaram da Pastoral da Criança em relação à população urbana do Município de Criciúma-SC , realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional, com uma amostra probabilística de 2.208 crianças menores de três anos. Verificou-se que 16,7% das mães estudadas afirmaram ter participado alguma vez da Pastoral; destas, 4,8% ainda o fazem, havendo as restantes abandonado o acompanhamento. Crianças com mais de 12 meses, negras, com dois ou mais irmãos mais velhos, tiveram maior freqüência de participação. Os principais fatores familiares associados à participação foram idade materna acima dos 25 anos, o fato de a mãe não trabalhar fora de casa, renda per capita baixa, menor escolaridade dos pais, tempo de moradia no bairro superior a quatro anos e morte de filho menor de cinco anos. A migração, a falta de tempo e a interrupção das atividades pela Pastoral foram os principais motivos alegados para o abandono. Concluiu-se que a Pastoral deveria priorizar os mais pobres dos pobres e adotar medidas para reduzir a taxa de abandono.This study describes the main social, economic, biological, and demographic characteristics of children and families who participate or have participated in the Children's Pastoral as compared to the overall urban population of Criciúma (Southern Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 2208 children under three years of age was conducted; 16.7% of the mothers confirmed having participated in the Pastoral at any given time, of whom 4.8% were currently participating, while the rest had dropped out. Black children and those over 12 months old or with two or more older siblings participated more frequently in the Pastoral. The main family factors associated with participation were mother's age (over 25, mother

  3. Who exhibits more energy-saving behavior in direct and indirect ways in china? The role of psychological factors and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the possibilities for further energy saving in households in the Chinese context by conducting of a survey on energy curtailment behaviors. We examine how people's demographic characteristics and psychological factors affect their direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors at home, as well as the different effects of these antecedents. Results suggest that people with high sense of environmental responsibility and curtailment attitude are more likely to engage in both direct and indirect energy curtailment actions. Generally, indirect energy curtailment behavior is more strongly related to psychological and socio-demographic factors than direct behavior, and these socio-demographic factors vary for direct and indirect behaviors. Interesting patterns emerged with respect to gender, age, family structure, family income, and level of education. Results indicate that strengthening publicity and education to increase environmental awareness among Chinese urban residents would be effective in reducing household energy consumption, especially when the said measures target a specific population and specific behaviors. - Highlights: •A survey is used to explore Chinese urban residents' energy curtailment behaviors. •Make a distinction between direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors. •Effects of demographic and psychological variables are different on two behaviors. •Policy should target at specific behaviors and specific population.

  4. Assessing Vulnerability to Urban Heat: A Study of Disproportionate Heat Exposure and Access to Refuge by Socio-Demographic Status in Portland, Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Voelkel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme urban heat is a powerful environmental stressor which poses a significant threat to human health and well-being. Exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, heat events are expected to become more intense and frequent as climate change progresses, though we have limited understanding of the impact of such events on vulnerable populations at a neighborhood or census block group level. Focusing on the City of Portland, Oregon, this study aimed to determine which socio-demographic populations experience disproportionate exposure to extreme heat, as well as the level of access to refuge in the form of public cooling centers or residential central air conditioning. During a 2014 heat wave, temperature data were recorded using a vehicle-traverse collection method, then extrapolated to determine average temperature at the census block group level. Socio-demographic factors including income, race, education, age, and English speaking ability were tested using statistical assessments to identify significant relationships with heat exposure and access to refuge from extreme heat. Results indicate that groups with limited adaptive capacity, including those in poverty and non-white populations, are at higher risk for heat exposure, suggesting an emerging concern of environmental justice as it relates to climate change. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of cultural sensitivity and inclusion, in combination with effectively distributing cooling centers in areas where the greatest burden befalls vulnerable populations.

  5. Leisure Time of Young Due to Some Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðuranovic, Marina; Opic, Siniša

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence of activities in leisure time of the young. A survey was conducted on 1062 students in 8 primary (n=505; 47,6%) and high schools (n=557; 52,4%) in Sisak - Moslavina County in the Republic of Croatia. The questionnaire of spending leisure time used was made up of 30 variables on a five-degree scale…

  6. Examining Linkages between Psychological Health Problems, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Workplace Stressors in Pakistan's Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…

  7. The Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Snorkeling Satisfaction in Pulau Payar Marine Park, Kedah

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbaidura Salim; Badaruddin Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Due to its popularity and lucrative business opportunity, snorkeling has become the predominant activity in many marine parks. Continuous growth in the number of tourists and mass tourism has resulted in uncontrolled number of tourists, sometimes to pass over the carrying capacity of the site. Due to the lack of control and enforcement, many tour boat operators are seen bringing snorkelers to small fragile sites at the same timeframe. Such situation has resulted in reduced quality of tourist ...

  8. Socio- Demographic Characteristics and Career Choice of Private Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramona S. Braza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the career choice of the high school students of the different private institutions in San Jose, Batangas as a basis for developing a career program guide to help the students in choosing their career.The descriptive method was used the study with the questionnaire and standardized test as the main data gathering instruments. Parents, students and teachers served as respondents of the study. The study revealed that most preferred career of the respondents is the academic track particularly the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM strand. The proposed program guide formulated focused on how to help the students decide on their future career. When properly given, it will benefit the students. The researchers recommended that the proposed career program guide that has been formulated may be shown to school heads for their suggestions; the students should be provided with effective orientation on what career is really all about. This could be done by the school guidance counselor or by the teachers and parents as well and there must be a close–up tie among the guidance personnel, teachers, students, and parents to promote a better understanding of the factors which influence the career choice of the students.

  9. Conicity index of adult Bangladeshi population and their socio-demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerjady Sabrina Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of acknowledged importance, no unified definition exists for central obesity. Several anthropometric indexes such as waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, conicity index etc, are being used. Cindex has been shown to correlate well with various cardiovascular risk factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in some population. Data were collected through interviewing and measuring 22,995 adult males and females of an urban (Mirpur, Dhaka City and rural area (Kaliganj sub-district in 2002 and 2003. Overall the mean (SD conicity index was 1.20 (0.10 and 40.8% of this sample had a high Cindex. Females, increasing age, urban residents, Christians, the better educated, married and farmers were more likely to have higher Cindex than their counterparts. There is a scarcity of data about the conicity index of Bangladeshis and this cross-sectional study is the first large-scale attempt. So it can be used as a baseline data for further research in this field. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(1: 1-8

  10. Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Causal relationship has been established between alcohol and more than 60 types of disease and injury. ... in polygamous marriages (P < 0.00001), had lower educational status (P < 0.0001), likely to be practitioners of the traditional religion (P < 0.0001), and more likely to be engaged in palm wine tapping.

  11. Predicting Students' Academic Performance Based on School and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Tamara; Singleton, Alexander; Pope, Daniel; Stanistreet, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Students' trajectories into university are often uniquely dependent on school qualifications though these alone are limited as predictors of academic potential. This study endorses this, examining associations between school grades, school type, school performance, socio-economic deprivation, neighbourhood participation, sex and academic…

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicat...

  13. Relationships Between Using Other Substances and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Opiate Dependents

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    Melike Nebioglu,Hacer Yalniz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine the variables that can be a risk factor for addiction like age, gender, education level, school cession, first using age, substance use period, frequency and using other addictive substances among people who have a diagnosis of opiate addiction. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study in AMBAUM ( Akdeniz University Alcohol and Substance Dependence Research and Practice Center between February 1,2010- April30, 2010. 84 inpatient and outpatient patients (60 men, 24 women between age 14-37, who have a diagnosis of opiate addiction according to DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria recruited in this study. All participating patients completed a standard questionaire and sociodemographic data form face to face. The results were analyzed with chi-squared test by using SPSS 16 statistics program. Results: In our patients nicotin addiction prevalance is 100%, alcohol using prevalance is 91.7%, cannabis using prevalance 86.9%, ecstasy using prevalance 54.8%, cocain using prevalance 48.8%, polysubstance using prevalance 47.6%, hallucinogen using prevalance 27.4%, addictive medical drug using prevalance 17.9%. Conclusions: This epidemiological study guide us in the monitoring and evalution of the opiate use and prevalance of other substance use with opiate addiction. Keywords: Prevalence, heroin, polysubstance dependence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 35-42

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... is seen in several communities as an emblem of male superiority.[18] Men also take alcohol to enhance sexual performance, for social acceptance, and to overcome societal stresses.[19] This study also recorded a high prevalence of female alcohol abusers at 35.51%, which is not consistent with the finding ...

  15. Cannabis use and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Besa, Chola; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Songolo, Peter; Kankiza, Njinga; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2013-02-15

    Cannabis dependence in adolescents predicts increased risks of using other illicit drugs, poor academic performance and reporting psychotic symptoms. The prevalence of cannabis use was estimated two decades ago in Zambia among secondary school students. There are no recent estimates of the extent of the problem; further, correlates for its use have not been documented in Zambia. The objective of study was to estimate the current prevalence of cannabis use and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents. We conducted secondary analysis of data that was obtained from the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with cannabis use. A total of 2,257 adolescents participated in the survey of which 53.9% were females. The overall prevalence of self reported ever-used cannabis was 37.2% (34.5% among males and 39.5% among females). In multivariate analysis, males were 8% (AOR = 0.92; 95% CI [0.89, 0.95]) less likely to have ever smoked cannabis. Compared to adolescents aged 16 years or older, adolescents aged 14 years were 45% (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI [1.37, 1.55]) more likely, and those aged 15 years were 44% (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI [0.53, 0.60]) less likely to report to have ever smoked cannabis. Other factors that were significantly associated with cannabis use were history of having engaged in sexual intercourse (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI [2.46, 2.64]), alcohol use (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI [4.24, 4.53]), and having been bullied (AOR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.71, 1.83]). Adolescents who reported being supervised by parents during free time were less likely to have smoked cannabis (AOR = 0.92; 95% CI [0.88, 0.95]). The use of cannabis is prevalent among Zambian in-school adolescents. Efforts to prevent adolescents' psychoactive drug use in Zambia should be designed considering the significant factors associated with drug use in the current study.

  16. Readers' Trust, Socio-Demographic, and Acuity Influences in Citizen Journalism Credibility for Disrupted Online Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Aaron Micah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to evaluate and determine if significant associations and linear correlations exist between reader socio-demographics, levels of trust and affinity in online citizen writer news story article content, brand loyalty, and acuity in newspaper organizations transitioning from print to online in a…

  17. Socio-Demographic Factors Affecting Levels of Cultural and Non-Cultural Prejudice: Comparing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…

  18. Psychological and Socio-Demographic Correlates of Academic Performance Distinguishing Completers and Non-Completers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Hagger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the findings of a study conducted on identifying the psychological and socio-demographic factors contributing in completers and non-completers of distance learning program. A sample of 232 distance learners ranging in age between 25-45 years old participated in this study. For psychological factors, the Perceived Competence…

  19. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  20. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

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    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  1. Depression among Chinese university students: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Wang, Lin; Qiu, Xiao Hui; Yang, Xiu Xian; Qiao, Zheng Xue; Yang, Yan Jie; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16-35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or higher were categorized as depressive for logistic regression analysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). 11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of depression when gender, ethnicity, and university classification were analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, study year, satisfaction with major, family income situation, parental relationship and mother's education were significantly associated with depression. Moderate depression is prevalent in Chinese university students. The students who were older, dissatisfied with their major, had a lower family income, poor parental relationships, and a lower level of mother's education were susceptible to depression.

  2. Chinese consumers and European beer: Associations between attribute importance, socio-demographics, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The demand for western alcoholic beverages in China has increased tremendously in recent years. However, there is still a lack of understanding with regard to the behaviour of Chinese consumers towards European beer, which is a common western alcoholic beverage. This study explores associations between beer attribute importance scores, socio-demographic factors, general beer consumption frequency and country associations of European beer, and the consumption of imported European beer in China. The data (n = 541) were collected in two Chinese cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Results of ordered logistic regression analyses show that the consumption of imported European beer is positively associated with importance attached to the product attributes Origin, Brand, Colour and Texture, and it is negatively associated with importance attached to Price and Alcoholic content. Furthermore, male gender, living in Shanghai city, a good financial situation, frequent beer consumption and a high-level employment position have a significantly positive influence on European beer consumption in China. In addition, about two thirds of the study participants associate imported European beer with 'Germany'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-Demographic and Economic Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Removable Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, İlgi; Ergün, Gülfem; Semiz, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between the socio-demographic and economic factors of patients and the reasons of admission, usage periods of the two types of clinics, frequencies of denture changes, satisfaction levels and preferences of prosthetic dental treatment. Materials and Methods 510 partially and/or totally edentulous patients were studied using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions; age, gender, education level, income status, problems with dentures, necessity for new dentures. Also asked was the place that the subjects would prefer to get their denture treatment, irrespective of their income level. In this study, Z-test was used to analyze two-sample proportions, T-test was used to determine two-sample means and Chi-square test was used to determine relationship between two classified variables. Results The number of male patients with complete dentures was more than the number of females, with an opposing trend for partial dentures. Irrespective of gender, each patient had had nearly two dentures by the time of questioning. It was also observed that the university clinics were generally preferred by patients from higher income levels with a higher educational level (x2=25.206, Pdenture treatment, regardless of cost, private practice was the preferred-choice. Conclusions With respect to dental condition and the acceptance of removable dentures, there were differences among gender, educational level and income status. PMID:19212485

  4. Socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of loyalty program participation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty programs are among the most frequently employed marketing tools used to minimize customer attrition rates. In this article, different aspects of consumer participation in loyalty programs for major product categories are analyzed with focus on generational differences. We use the time-proven segmentation of Baby boomers and generations X, Y and Z. Our analyses and findings are based on primary data (2016: the survey is formed by a representative sample of 585 respondents. A wide portfolio of statistical learning methods and tests is used for data analysis. The first segment of our analysis brings forward groups of product categories where consumers tend to use loyalty programs concurrently. This identifies opportunities and boundaries for establishing and managing co-branded loyalty programs. The second part of our quantitative analysis is based on generational, other socio-demographic and lifestyle factors influencing individual participation in loyalty programs. Here, the main focus is on four product categories where loyalty programs are used most often. Generational differences are well pronounced in fashion-related categories. On the other hand, loyalty program usage rates in product categories related to basic household operations show little generational differences.

  5. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  6. Street children and political violence: a socio-demographic analysis of street children in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Angela; Donà, Giorgia

    2003-03-01

    The aims were: (1) to examine the profile of African street children and to assess the link between street children in Africa and political violence; (2) to undertake a systematic examination of causal factors of street children in postgenocide Rwanda; and (3) to situate this analysis in the context of the socio-cultural and political impact of the genocide on Rwandan communities. Observational mapping examined the profile and activities of Rwandan street children. Structured interviews were carried out with 290 children in four regional towns to obtain information on socio-demographic, familial, educational background, causal factors surrounding street life involvement, psychological well-being, and relationship to the street. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews examined the relationship between street children and the broader Rwandan society. Street children in Rwanda were predominantly adolescent boys, almost half of whom were homeless (42%), with a high proportion of orphaned children or children who had lost at least one parent. Two variables predicted homelessness: child's guardian and reason for being in street. Qualitative accounts of children conveyed the impact of death of family members, repatriation, imprisonment of parents, and poverty on their lives. The analysis highlighted the need for community based support for children in alternative guardianship care and for policies to support the reintegration of male youths in postconflict welfare strategies as prevention strategies for street migration.

  7. Depression among Chinese University Students: Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao Hui; Yang, Xiu Xian; Qiao, Zheng Xue; Yang, Yan Jie; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16–35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or higher were categorized as depressive for logistic regression analysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). 11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of depression when gender, ethnicity, and university classification were analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, study year, satisfaction with major, family income situation, parental relationship and mother's education were significantly associated with depression. Moderate depression is prevalent in Chinese university students. The students who were older, dissatisfied with their major, had a lower family income, poor parental relationships, and a lower level of mother's education were susceptible to depression. PMID:23516468

  8. Socio-demographic factors affecting knowledge level of Tuberculosis patients in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, M N I; Nazrul, Hoque M; Chowdhury, M R K; Howard, J

    2014-12-01

    The Tuberculosis (TB) control program in Bangladesh is still unsatisfactory due to insufficient knowledge and stigma about TB. Patients with low knowledge may be at higher risk of experiencing delays in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The aims of this study were to identify the knowledge levels of TB and investigate the factors associated with knowledge level among the TB patients in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. A total of 384 TB patients were interviewed through a pretested, structured questionnaire using purposive sampling techniques. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of selected socio-demographic factors on TB knowledge level. The results revealed that pulmonary TB patients had greater knowledge than that of extra-pulmonary patients, and that sex, age, educational status and TB type were significantly associated with knowledge level. In general, males and young adults, ages 21-35, had greater awareness about transmission and prevention of TB than females and adults over 35. Individuals with higher education and urban area patients were comparatively better informed about TB infection. Patients with greater knowledge about TB were also less likely to experience delays in seeking treatment.

  9. Epilepsy and quality of life: socio-demographic and clinical aspects, and psychiatric co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria de Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study socio-demographic and clinical aspects, as well as psychiatric co-morbidity that influence the quality of life of adult epileptic patients. Methods One hundred and thirty-two individuals diagnosed with epilepsy were evaluated from neurological/clinical and psychiatric points of view and by the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31. Predictive factors for the QOLIE-31 scores were studied. Results The regression analyses indicated the existence of psychiatric co-morbidity (total score, seizure worry, emotional well-being, energy/fatigue, social function and cognitive function and a greater seizure frequency (total score, cognitive function and energy/fatigue as predictive factors for lower scores in the total QOLIE-31 score and in various dimensions. Abnormalities in the neurological exam and poly-therapy with anti-epileptic drugs were negative factors limited to one of the dimensions cognitive function and social function, respectively. Conclusion The presence of psychiatric co-morbidity and a greater seizure frequency were the main factors influencing the quality of life in epileptic patients as evaluated by QOLIE-31.

  10. [Socio-demographic and health factors associated with the institutionalization of dependent people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso Gutiérrez, Mercedes; Pozo Rubio, Raúl Del; Escribano Sotos, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the effect that different variables have in the probability that dependent people are institutionalized is a topic scantily studied in Spain. The aim of the work is to analyze as certain socio-demographic and health factors can influence probability of dependent person living in a residence. A cross-section study has been conducted from a representative sample of the dependent population in Cuenca (Spain) in February, 2009. We have obtained information for people with level II and III of dependence. A binary logit regression model has been estimated to identify those factors related to the institutionalization of dependent people. People with ages between 65-74 years old are six times more likely to be institutionalized than younger people (institutionalization of people who live in an urban area is three times the probability of people who live in a rural area. People who need pharmacological, psychotherapy or rehabilitation treatments have between two and four times more probability of being institutionalized that those who do not need those. Age, marital status, place of residence, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases and four times of medical treatment are the principal variables associated with the institutionalization of dependent people.

  11. Association between Eating Out and Socio-Demographic Factors of University Students in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2 Methods: We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3 Results: 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0% and improving diet (39.6%. Bistros (61.7% and hot-pot restaurants (41.1% were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%. (4 Conclusions: The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students’ perspectives.

  12. Association between Eating Out and Socio-Demographic Factors of University Students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lu; Zeng, Huan; Shi, Zu-Min; Sharma, Manoj; Xun, Lei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    (1) Objective : We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2) Methods : We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology) were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3) Results : 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0%) and improving diet (39.6%). Bistros (61.7%) and hot-pot restaurants (41.1%) were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%). (4) Conclusions : The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students' perspectives.

  13. [Insomnia and total sleep time in France: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors in a general population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Pinsomnia, 19.3 % of women and 11.9 % of men (Pinsomnia was stable with age among women, around 19 %, whereas it increased for men from 3 % in the 15-19-year age range to 18 % in the 45-54-year age range, before decreasing to 8 % beyond 65 years. Chronic insomnia was also found to be related to precarious situations and to several difficult events of life such as violence or chronic alcohol abuse, whereas the relationship observed with tobacco smoking was no longer found after logistic regression adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast cancer characteristics and survival differences between Maori, Pacific and other New Zealand women included in the Quality Audit program of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian; Scott, Nina; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Kollias, James; Walters, David; Taylor, Corey; Roder, David

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Audit (BQA) program of the Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand (NZ) collects data on early female breast cancer and its treatment. BQA data covered approximately half all early breast cancers diagnosed in NZ during roll-out of the BQA program in 1998-2010. Coverage increased progressively to about 80% by 2008. This is the biggest NZ breast cancer database outside the NZ Cancer Registry and it includes cancer and clinical management data not collected by the Registry. We used these BQA data to compare socio-demographic and cancer characteristics and survivals by ethnicity. BQA data for 1998-2010 diagnoses were linked to NZ death records using the National Health Index (NHI) for linking. Live cases were followed up to December 31st 2010. Socio-demographic and invasive cancer characteristics and disease-specific survivals were compared by ethnicity. Five-year survivals were 87% for Maori, 84% for Pacific, 91% for other NZ cases and 90% overall. This compared with the 86% survival reported for all female breast cases covered by the NZ Cancer Registry which also included more advanced stages. Patterns of survival by clinical risk factors accorded with patterns expected from the scientific literature. Compared with Other cases, Maori and Pacific women were younger, came from more deprived areas, and had larger cancers with more ductal and fewer lobular histology types. Their cancers were also less likely to have a triple negative phenotype. More of the Pacific women had vascular invasion. Maori women were more likely to reside in areas more remote from regional cancer centres, whereas Pacific women generally lived closer to these centres than Other NZ cases. NZ BQA data indicate previously unreported differences in breast cancer biology by ethnicity. Maori and Pacific women had reduced breast cancer survival compared with Other NZ women, after adjusting for socio-demographic and cancer characteristics. The potential contributions to survival

  15. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Socio-demographic association of multiple modifiable lifestyle risk factors and their clustering in a representative urban population of adults: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China

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    Wang Shengfeng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group

  17. [Socio-demographic Characterization of Psychosexual Development and Crime in Men Convicted of Sexual Crimes Imprisoned in the Manizales Penitentiary Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Adriana Arcila; Ramírez, Mauricio Castaño; Montoya, Dulcinea Osorio; Quiroz, Germán

    2013-03-01

    This article introduces the socio-demographic characteristics of psychosexual development and sexual crimes in men deprived of liberty for such crimes who are doing time in a Manizales prison (Colombia) in 2011. It also describes the differences between abusers of individuals under 12 years of age or who are 12 years old, and abusers of individuals over that age. This is a descriptive, retrospective study performed by simple random sampling. It consisted of semi-structured interviews in which socio-demographic characteristics, psychosexual development, characteristics of crime, and prevalence of mental disorders were analyzed in a sample of 80 inmates convicted of sexual offenses at the Medium-security Pentientiary center in the city of Manizales. Univariate and bivariate analysis were performed using the χ(2) test and the logistic regression analysis with variables showing statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. It was found that convicted sex offenders belong to lower socioeconomic levels, have low educational levels, and did not receive any sexual education. Such findings become more relevant when the crimes in questions are committed against 12-year-olders or children under this age. The lack of sexual education, low educational levels and lower socioeconomic levels are associated factors in the case of sexual offenses. It is important for society (particularly health-care institutions) to find additional measures for the criminalization of such behaviors in order to achieve a better control of the problem. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Twisk, Jos W R; Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-01-24

    Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult Australian women. Self-reported data from 11,676 participants (aged 22-27 years in 2000) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were collected over 9 years in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to examine univariable and multivariable associations of body mass index (BMI), country of birth, area of residence, education, marital status, number of children, occupational status, working hours, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and stress with week- and weekend-day sitting time. Compared with women in the respective referent categories, (1) women with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with less than University level education, doing white collar work, working 41-48 hours a week, current smokers, non, rare or risky/high risk drinkers and those being somewhat stressed had significantly higher sitting time; and (2) women living in rural and remote areas, partnered women, those with children, those without a paid job and blue collar workers, those working less than 34 hours a week, and active women had significantly lower sitting time. Among young adult Australian women, those with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with higher level occupations and long working hours, were most at risk of higher sitting time. These results can be used to identify at-risk groups and inform intervention development.

  19. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

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    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  20. Stability and change in alcohol habits of different socio-demographic subgroups--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydén, Lovisa; Wennberg, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-05-29

    Stability in alcohol habits varies over time and in subgroups, but there are few longitudinal studies assessing stability in alcohol habits by socio-demographic subgroups and potential predictors of stability and change. The aim was to study stability and change in alcohol habits by sex, age, and socio-economic position (SEP). Data derived from two longitudinal population based studies in Sweden; the PART study comprising 19 457 individuals aged 20-64 years in 1998-2000, and the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) with 50 067 individuals aged 18-84 years in 2002. Both cohorts were followed-up twice; PART 2000-2003 and 2010, and SPHC 2007 and 2010. Alcohol habits were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and with normal weekly alcohol consumption (NWAC). Stability in alcohol habits was measured with intraclass correlation. Odds ratios were estimated in multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict stability in alcohol habits. For the two drinking measures there were no consistent patterns of stability in alcohol habits by sex or educational level. The stability was higher for older age groups and self-employed women. To be a man aged 30-39 at baseline predicted both increase and decrease in alcohol habits. The findings illustrate higher stability in alcohol habits with increasing age and among self-employed women with risky alcohol habits. To be a man and the age 30-39 predicted change in alcohol habits. No conclusive pattern of socio-economic position as predictor of change in alcohol habits was found and other studies of potential predictors seem warranted.

  1. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

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    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  2. Attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia among care-dependent older adults (50+) in Austria: the role of socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress, and social isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Gasser-Steiner, Peter; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background Care-dependency constitutes an important issue with regard to the approval of end-of-life decisions, yet attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia are understudied among care-dependent older adults. We assessed attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia and tested empirical correlates, including socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress and social isolation. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional survey among older care allowance recipie...

  3. Exploring the socio-demographic differences on psychological career meta-capacities and retention-related dispositions

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    Rebecca Tladinyane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand socio-demographic differences of individuals in terms of their psychological career meta-capacities (measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and their retention related dispositions construct variables ((measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Organisation-Related Commitment Scale. A quantitative survey was conducted involving a non-probability purposive sample of predominantly black females employed at managerial and staff levels (N = 318 in the field of industrial and organisational psychology. An independent-samples t-test indicated significant differences between the various socio-demographic groups in regard to the measured variables. The findings contribute new knowledge that may be used to inform human resource career development practices concerned with the retention of particularly female employees in South African service industry

  4. The Use of Physiotherapy among Patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Impact of Sex, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, David H?yrup; Frost, Poul; Frich, Lars Henrik; Falla, Deborah; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy with exercises is generally recommended in the treatment of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS).OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the use of physiotherapy in patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings as part of initial non-surgical treatment and after SIS-related surgery and to evaluate to which extent sex, socio-demographic and clinical factors predict the use of physiotherapy.METHODS: Using national health registers, we identified 57,311 patie...

  5. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Bakir M Adel; Hammad Kholoud; Mohammad Loreen

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and pre...

  6. Weight, socio-demographics, and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in first year university students

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams. Methods: Anthropometrics of 101 first year university students were measured at both the beginning of the first (T1) and second (T2) s...

  7. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerdahl Sonja; Groholt Berit; Van Roy Betty; Clench-Aas Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disa...

  8. Moving to and dying in a nursing home depends not only on health - an analysis of socio-demographic determinants of place of death in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedinger, Damian; Braun, Julia; Zellweger, Ueli; Kaplan, Vladimir; Bopp, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries generally about 7 out of 10 deaths occur in institutions such as acute care hospitals or nursing homes. However, less is known about the influence of non-medical determinants of place of death. This study examines the influence of socio-demographic and regional factors on place of death in Switzerland. We linked individual data from hospitals and nursing homes with census and mortality records of the Swiss general population. We differentiated between those who died in a hospital after a length of stay ≤2 days or ≥3 days, those who died in nursing homes, and those who died at home. In gender-specific multinomial logistic regression models we analysed N = 85,129 individuals, born before 1942 (i.e., ≥65 years old) and deceased in 2007 or 2008. Almost 70% of all men and 80% of all women died in a hospital or nursing home. Regional density of nursing home beds, being single, divorced or widowed, or living in a single-person household were predictive of death in an institution, especially among women. Conversely, homeownership, high educational level and having children were associated with dying at home. Place of death substantially depends on socio-demographic determinants such as household characteristics and living conditions as well as on regional factors. Individuals with a lower socio-economic position, living alone or having no children are more prone to die in a nursing home. Health policy should empower these vulnerable groups to choose their place of death in accordance to needs and wishes.

  9. Predicting symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Croatian war veterans: the role of socio-demographics, war experiences and subjective quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Mladen; Plašć, Ivana Dijanić; Bunjevac, Tomislav; Hrabač, Pero; Jakšić, Nenad; Kozina, Slavica; Henigsberg, Neven; Sagud, Marina; Marčinko, Darko

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has documented multiple chains of risk in the development of PTSD among war veterans. However, existing studies were mostly carried out in the West, while they also did not analyze specific symptom clusters of PTSD. The aim of this study was to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics, war experiences and subjective quality of life in the prediction of three clusters of PTSD symptoms (i.e., avoidance, intrusion, hyperarousal). This study comprised 184 male participants who have survived war imprisonment during the Croatian Homeland War in the period from 1991 to 1995. The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: questionnaire on socio-demographic data, war experiences (Questionnaire on Traumatic Combat and War Experiences), subjective quality of life (WHO-Five Well-being Index), and PTSD symptoms (Impact of Events Scale - Revised). The level of three symptom clusters of PTSD was found to be moderate to high, as indicated by the scores on the IES-R. Results of the three hierarchical regression analyses showed the following: traumatic war experiences were significant predictors of avoidance symptoms; traumatic war experiences and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of hyperarousal symptoms; and traumatic war experiences, material status and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of intrusion symptoms. These findings support the widespread belief that the development of war-related PTSD is accounted for by multiple chains of risk, while traumatic war experiences seem to be the only predictor of all three symptom clusters. Future research should put more emphasis on specific PTSD symptom clusters when investigating the etiopathogenesis of this disorder among war-affected populations.

  10. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

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    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting ( Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4 children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5 children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P 10 years (P = 0.003, more siblings (P = 0.016 and crowded housing (P = 0.006. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted simultaneously for all factors, older age (aOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.89-6.88, urban area with low SES (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.15-5.81 and low-income neighborhoods (aOR 4.62, 95% CI 1.63-13.10 were associated with stunting while urban area with low SES (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.30 was associated with thinness. In linear regression analyses adjusted for all factors, low-income neighborhoods and older age were associated with lower height-for-age z-score while rural area with low/disadvantaged SES was associated with lower BMI-for-age z-score. Conclusions Relatively low prevalence of stunting and thinness depicted an improvement in the nutritional status of school-aged children in Pakistan. However, the inequities between the poorest and the

  11. Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Aaron M; Pungrassami, Petchawan; Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Sengupta, Sohini; Poole, Charles; Strauss, Ronald P; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Van Rie, Annelies

    2011-08-30

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive approach towards disease control that addresses social factors including stigma is now advocated. Patients with TB report fears of isolation and rejection that may lead to delays in seeking care and could affect treatment adherence. Qualitative studies have identified socio-demographic, TB knowledge, and clinical determinants of TB stigma, but only one prior study has quantified these associations using formally developed and validated stigma scales. The purpose of this study was to measure TB stigma and identify factors associated with TB stigma among patients and healthy community members. A cross-sectional study was performed in southern Thailand among two different groups of participants: 480 patients with TB and 300 healthy community members. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, TB knowledge, and clinical factors. Scales measuring perceived TB stigma, experienced/felt TB stigma, and perceived AIDS stigma were administered to patients with TB. Community members responded to a community TB stigma and community AIDS stigma scale, which contained the same items as the perceived stigma scales given to patients. Stigma scores could range from zero to 30, 33, or 36 depending on the scale. Three separate multivariable linear regressions were performed among patients with TB (perceived and experience/felt stigma) and community members (community stigma) to determine which factors were associated with higher mean TB stigma scores. Only low level of education, belief that TB increases the chance of getting AIDS, and AIDS stigma were associated with higher TB stigma scores in all three analyses. Co-infection with HIV was associated with higher TB stigma among patients. All differences in mean stigma scores between index and referent levels of each factor were less than two points, except for incorrectly believing that TB increases the chance of getting

  12. Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members

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    Strauss Ronald P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive approach towards disease control that addresses social factors including stigma is now advocated. Patients with TB report fears of isolation and rejection that may lead to delays in seeking care and could affect treatment adherence. Qualitative studies have identified socio-demographic, TB knowledge, and clinical determinants of TB stigma, but only one prior study has quantified these associations using formally developed and validated stigma scales. The purpose of this study was to measure TB stigma and identify factors associated with TB stigma among patients and healthy community members. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in southern Thailand among two different groups of participants: 480 patients with TB and 300 healthy community members. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, TB knowledge, and clinical factors. Scales measuring perceived TB stigma, experienced/felt TB stigma, and perceived AIDS stigma were administered to patients with TB. Community members responded to a community TB stigma and community AIDS stigma scale, which contained the same items as the perceived stigma scales given to patients. Stigma scores could range from zero to 30, 33, or 36 depending on the scale. Three separate multivariable linear regressions were performed among patients with TB (perceived and experience/felt stigma and community members (community stigma to determine which factors were associated with higher mean TB stigma scores. Results Only low level of education, belief that TB increases the chance of getting AIDS, and AIDS stigma were associated with higher TB stigma scores in all three analyses. Co-infection with HIV was associated with higher TB stigma among patients. All differences in mean stigma scores between index and referent levels of each factor were less than two points, except for

  13. Parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination in relation to their socio-demographics and religious beliefs: A cross-sectional study in Thailand.

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    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV. HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban and Bangkok (urban. Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease, severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for

  14. Socio-demographic differences in risk information seeking sources for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Au, David W; Miller, Michael J; Chen, Lang; Outman, Ryan C; Ray, Midge N; Saag, Kenneth G; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently prescribed for musculoskeletal pain and inflammatory conditions. A better understanding of patient information seeking behavior can help bridge the gap between patient knowledge and health care resources. This study examines the primary sources of NSAID risk information and the associations with patient socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional survey analysis of patients on prescription NSAIDs (n=220) seen by primary care physicians in Alabama. Bivariate and multivariable, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations among primary NSAID risk information sources used with patient socio-demographic factors. The primary patient source of information on NSAID risks was physician (57.3%), followed by internet (16.8%), pharmacist (16.4%), and other sources, such as nurses and family/friends (9.6%). Compared to people who use the internet as a primary source of NSAID risk information, patients who were Black/African-American (p=0.002) and 65 years of age or older (p=0.009) were more likely to use a physician. Older patients were also more likely to use a pharmacist (p=0.008) than the internet. In contrast, females (p=0.032) were less likely to use the pharmacist compared to the internet (p=0.032). Patients obtain information from a variety of sources, but primarily from health care providers. While the internet is a fast growing source of health information, socio-demographic disparities in internet use for seeking information exist. Health care providers should be aware of their patient preferences for information sources on medication risks to meet the age, race, and gender need differences of all patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

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    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  16. Socio-demographics, spirituality, and quality of life among community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Christian Albert F; Sarmiento, Winona D; Songco, Francis Justin G; Macindo, John Rey B; Conde, Alita R

    2016-01-01

    The increasing life expectancy of the population prompts an array of health conditions that impair an older adults' quality of life (QoL). Although demographics and spirituality have been associated with QoL, limited literature elucidated the exact mechanisms of their interactions, especially in a culturally-diverse country like Philippines. Hence, this study determined the relationship among socio-demographics, spirituality, and QoL of Filipino older adults in a community and institutional setting. A predictive-correlational study among 200 randomly-selected community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults was conducted, with a 99% power and a medium effect size. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire from September to November 2015. The questionnaire was composed of the robotfoto, Spirituality Assessment Scale, and modified Older People's Quality of Life which assessed socio-demographics, spirituality, and QoL. Analysis showed that institutionalization in a nursing home positively and negatively affected spirituality and QoL, generating an acceptable model (χ(2)/df=2.12, RMSEA=0.08, and CFI=0.95). The negative direct effect of institutionalization on social relationship, leisure, & social activities QoL (β=-0.42, pspirituality and QoL dimensions. The development of a structural model illustrating the interrelationship of socio-demographics, spirituality, and QoL helps healthcare professionals in predicting facets of spirituality and QoL that can be compromised by living in a nursing home. This understanding provides impetus in evaluating and refining geriatric healthcare programs, policies, and protocols to render individualized, holistic care in a socially-cohesive environment among older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2010-07-16

    Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall

  18. Socio-demographic predictors and average annual rates of caesarean section in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.

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    Md Nuruzzaman Khan

    Full Text Available Globally the rates of caesarean section (CS have steadily increased in recent decades. This rise is not fully accounted for by increases in clinical factors which indicate the need for CS. We investigated the socio-demographic predictors of CS and the average annual rates of CS in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.Data were derived from four waves of nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS conducted between 2004 and 2014. Rate of change analysis was used to calculate the average annual rate of increase in CS from 2004 to 2014, by socio-demographic categories. Multi-level logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic predictors of CS in a cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 BDHS data.CS rates increased from 3.5% in 2004 to 23% in 2014. The average annual rate of increase in CS was higher among women of advanced maternal age (≥35 years, urban areas, and relatively high socio-economic status; with higher education, and who regularly accessed antenatal services. The multi-level logistic regression model indicated that lower (≤19 and advanced maternal age (≥35, urban location, relatively high socio-economic status, higher education, birth of few children (≤2, antenatal healthcare visits, overweight or obese were the key factors associated with increased utilization of CS. Underweight was a protective factor for CS.The use of CS has increased considerably in Bangladesh over the survey years. This rising trend and the risk of having CS vary significantly across regions and socio-economic status. Very high use of CS among women of relatively high socio-economic status and substantial urban-rural difference call for public awareness and practice guideline enforcement aimed at optimizing the use of CS.

  19. Socio-demographic predictors and average annual rates of caesarean section in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Islam, M Mofizul; Shariff, Asma Ahmad; Alam, Md Mahmudul; Rahman, Md Mostafizur

    2017-01-01

    Globally the rates of caesarean section (CS) have steadily increased in recent decades. This rise is not fully accounted for by increases in clinical factors which indicate the need for CS. We investigated the socio-demographic predictors of CS and the average annual rates of CS in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014. Data were derived from four waves of nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted between 2004 and 2014. Rate of change analysis was used to calculate the average annual rate of increase in CS from 2004 to 2014, by socio-demographic categories. Multi-level logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic predictors of CS in a cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 BDHS data. CS rates increased from 3.5% in 2004 to 23% in 2014. The average annual rate of increase in CS was higher among women of advanced maternal age (≥35 years), urban areas, and relatively high socio-economic status; with higher education, and who regularly accessed antenatal services. The multi-level logistic regression model indicated that lower (≤19) and advanced maternal age (≥35), urban location, relatively high socio-economic status, higher education, birth of few children (≤2), antenatal healthcare visits, overweight or obese were the key factors associated with increased utilization of CS. Underweight was a protective factor for CS. The use of CS has increased considerably in Bangladesh over the survey years. This rising trend and the risk of having CS vary significantly across regions and socio-economic status. Very high use of CS among women of relatively high socio-economic status and substantial urban-rural difference call for public awareness and practice guideline enforcement aimed at optimizing the use of CS.

  20. Socio-demographic factors, reproductive history and risk of osteoarthritis in a cohort of 4.6 million Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M

    2011-01-01

    Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites.......Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites....

  1. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mesters, Ilse; Wahl, Stefanie; Van Keulen, Hilde M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods. A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45-70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by ...

  2. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  4. Socio-demographic and psychological determinants of political (intolerance: Hungary at the dawn of the 21st century

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    Todosijević Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a socio-psychological causal model of political intolerance in Hungary, on the basis of a national random sample survey data (N=1002. The research improves on the existing models in two directions: by constructing a more complete model through inclusion of a wider set of potentially relevant variables, and by using more reliable operationalisation of the examined concepts. The results indicate that political tolerance in Hungary, as defined by the 'content free' method, can only weakly be explained by an extensive set of socio-demographic, psychological and political variables. Contrary to the commonly reported results, socio-economic status variables displayed a rather complex and often direct pattern of influence on political tolerance, while psychological variables proved to be relatively weak predictors. In Hungary, psychological factors have a relatively strong role in determining the choice of target groups and socio-demographic variables have a stronger role in determining the degree of intolerance. In general, the findings suggest that intolerance of different groups is not uniformly related to social and psychological explanatory variables.

  5. Analyzing Influence Of Socio-Demographic Factors On Travel Behavior Of Employees A Case Study Of Kathmandu Metropolitan City Nepal

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    Ashim Ratna Bajracharya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kathmandu Metropolitan City KMC is the stage of rapid urbanization and its population is on steep rise with increase in economic activities. Many people are migrating to KMC from other parts of the country for job opportunities. In Urban mobility work trips have a dominant share and at present people are dependent more on private vehicles than public transport to go to their work places which is adding more to road congestion. This research investigates the travel behavior of employees living in KMC and its relation with four main variables related to Socio-demographic background of an employee i.e. age gender and income group and household vehicle ownership. Data was collected by household questionnaire survey of over 1000 households. Different descriptive analysis and inferential statistical analysis were carried and it shows that role of socio-demographic variables on travel behavior is quite significant in many aspects on choice of travel mode and trip length of employees. Finally the findings of the research were incorporated with the policy implications so as to increase the use of public transport for work trips.

  6. Assessing age stereotypes in the German population in 1996 and 2011: socio-demographic correlates and shift over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Strauss, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to extend the knowledge regarding dimensionality, socio-demographic correlates and shifts in age stereotypes over the past 15 years using a time-sequential design. In 1996 and 2011, we assessed age stereotypes in two independent samples of the German population aged ≥ 45 years ( N  = 970 in sample 1, N  = 1545 in sample 2). Three scales with six items each were assessed. Two scales cover negative (i.e., rigidity/isolation, burden), and one scale covers positive age stereotypes (wisdom/experience). Dimensionality of the scale, associations with socio-demographic variables and whether the stereotypes have shifted were tested using confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modeling and analyses of variances. Three dimensions were identified and replicated following an exploratory as well as a confirmatory approach. Age stereotypes did shift between 1996 and 2011 in the dimension burden (i.e., becoming more negative). Our results further underpin the finding that age stereotypes are multifaceted and suggest that dimensions do not change over time. Additionally, our data provide some evidence that societal age stereotypes partly change over time.

  7. Medical student selection criteria and socio-demographic factors as predictors of ultimately working rurally after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette; Playford, Denese E; Riley, Geoffrey J

    2015-04-14

    We have previously demonstrated that both coming from a rural background and spending a year-long clinical rotation in our Rural Clinical School (RCS) have independent and additive effects to increase the likelihood of medical students practicing rurally following graduation. The current study assesses the extent to which medical school selection criteria and/or the socio-demographic profile of medical students may further facilitate or hamper the selection of students ultimately destined for the rural medical workforce. The study comprised 729 students, admitted from secondary school since 1999 and having graduated by 2011, whose actual workplace location in 2014 was classified as either urban or rural using the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency database. Selection factors on entry (score from a standardised interview, percentile scores for the 3 components of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) and prior academic performance as assessed by the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank) together with socio-demographic factors (age, gender, decile for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD)), were examined in relation to ultimate rural destination of practice. In logistic regression, those practicing in a rural location in 2014 were more likely to have come from the lower 6 IRSAD deciles (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.44, 5.23, P = 0.002), to be older (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.09, 3.18, p = 0.023) and to have a lower UMAT-3 (Non-verbal communication) score (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99, P = 0.005). After further controlling for either rural background or RCS participation, only age and UMAT-3 remained as independent predictors of current rural practice. In terms of the socio-demographic profiles of those selected for medical school entry from secondary school, only older age weakly augmented the selection of graduates likely to ultimately work in a rural destination. Among the selection factors, having achieved

  8. Maternal and socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight (LBW: A community-based study in a rural block of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Borah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Low birth weight (LBW leads to high neonatal and infant deaths. There is also high prevalence of childhood morbidities and mortalities that are consequences of LBW. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of LBW babies among the study population and to find out the effect of certain maternal and socio-demographic characteristics on birth weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural block of Assam. Cluster sampling was done to choose 30 villages and 15 infants were selected randomly from each village to get a sample size of 450. Results: Prevalence of LBW was found to be 21.8%. Percentage of LBW babies was more among the teenage mothers (36% and primipara mothers (27%. Maternal anemia [odds ratio (OR 1.93; confidence interval (CI 1.3-2.9], short interpregnancy interval (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-7.13, and teenage pregnancy (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-6.45 were found to be the independent risk factors associated with LBW of the babies. Discussion: The study findings indicated the high prevalence of LBW babies in rural areas of Assam and illiterate teenage mothers, grand multipara, anemic mothers, and short interpregnancy intervals were the important risk factors for LBW.

  9. Gambling in a National U.S. Veteran Population: Prevalence, Socio-demographics, and Psychiatric Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; Potenza, Marc N; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between gambling level and clinically relevant measures, including psychiatric disorders and suicidality, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans. Data on 3157 U.S. veterans were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Chi square tests and analyses of variance were used to assess associations between gambling level, and demographic, military, and personality characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions using stepwise selection were used to identify independent correlates of recreational gambling and at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). A significant proportion of U.S. veterans engage in gambling activities, with 35.1% gambling recreationally and 2.2% screening positive for ARPG. ARPG was associated with greater prevalence of substance use, anxiety, and depressive disorders, as well as with a history of physical trauma or sexual trauma, having sought mental health treatment (particularly from the Veterans Administration), and minority group status. A similar pattern was found associated with recreational gambling, although the magnitudes of association were lower relative to ARPG. Younger age, self-identifying as black, being retired, and trauma burden were associated with increased odds of ARPG, whereas older age, being single, non-white Hispanic, being retired or not having a job, screening positive for alcohol- and drug-use disorders, and trauma burden were associated with increased odds of recreational gambling. More than a third of U.S. veterans gamble recreationally, with a significant minority (2.2%) screening positive for ARPG. Both recreational and ARPG were associated with elevated trauma burden and psychiatric comorbidities. These findings underscore the importance of routine screening and monitoring of gambling severity, and interventions for ARPG in this population.

  10. Governance of the R&D productivity at the research institution based on socio-demographic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philisiwe Charity Cele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been noted that DUT has seen a steady increase in its research outputs publication for the period 2010 until now. However, responsible for this increase is the contribution of a few researchers since not all academic staff is involved in research. The study aimed to examine the extent to which socio demographic factors impact academics from publishing accredited outputs. It also seeks to highlight the important role of research management as a highly professional and dynamic activity that must constantly adapt to the changing environment within which universities operate. The findings of the research revealed that males with masters and doctoral degrees are the most involved in research activities. The paper will benefit the institution by enhancing institutional research management systems and practices, ensuring relevant policies are in place. Enable research management to deploy the institution’s research resources optimally so as to curb over reliance on the limited institutional research budget

  11. [An association between forms of coping and the socio-demographic variables of people on chronic hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolin, Daniela Comelis; Pace, Ana Emilia; Kusumota, Luciana; Haas, Vanderlei

    2011-10-01

    This sectional study was performed with the objective to verify the association between the forms of coping used by people on chronic hemodialysis and their socio-demographic variables. A semi-structured instrument and the Folkman and Lazarus' Coping Strategies Inventory were used. The sample consisted of 107 adults, mostly male (62.4%), on ambulatory hemodialysis for over six months. The most commonly referred forms of coping were related to the positive reevaluation factor (coping centered on emotions); with the highest mean scores among women for all factors and for people who reported having a partner, living with their families and receiving support in their treatment, and the highest scores were common for the factors control, self-control, and social support. Knowing the forms of coping prepares nurses to reinforce or seek, with patients on hemodialysis, choosing positive forms of coping and propose actions that permit patients to develop adaptive mechanisms.

  12. The influence of socio-demographic indicators economic determinants and social recognition on sport participation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Kirstin; Breuer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses sport participation using a demographic-economic model which was extended by the construct 'social recognition'. Social recognition was integrated into the model on the understanding that it is the purpose of each individual to maximise his or her utility. A computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted in the city of Rheinberg, Germany, producing an overall sample of n=1934. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact of socio-demographic, economic determinants, and social recognition on sport participation. The results suggest that various socio-economic factors and social recognition are important determinants of sport participation on the one hand, and on sport frequency on the other. Social recognition plays a significant yet different role for both sport participation and sport frequency. While friends' involvement with sport influences one's sport participation, parents' involvement with sport influences one's sport frequency.

  13. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo

    2016-01-01

    -significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive...... distress in this patient group. Methods Women with breast cancer (n = 833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3 years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non...

  14. Health-related quality of life of latin-american immigrants and spanish-born attended in spanish primary health care: socio-demographic and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable "exposure to political violence" was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host society and

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  16. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection markers and socio-demographic risk factors in HIV-infected patients in Southern Brazil

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    Saulo Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are two of the world's most important infectious diseases. Our objective was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc prevalences among adult HIV-infected patients and identify the associations between socio-demographic variables and these HBV infection markers. Methods This study was performed from October 2012 to March 2013. Three hundred HIV-seropositive patients were monitored by the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Professor Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The blood tests included HBsAg, anti-HBc immunoglobulin M (IgM and total anti-HBc. Patients reported their HIV viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts using a questionnaire designed to collect sociodemographic data. Results The mean patient age was 44.6 years, the mean CD4 T-cell count was 525/mm3, the mean time since beginning antiretroviral therapy was 7.6 years, and the mean time since HIV diagnosis was 9.6 years. The overall prevalences of HBsAg and total anti-HBc were 2.3% and 29.3%, respectively. Among the individuals analyzed, 0.3% were positive for HBsAg, 27.3% were positive for total anti-HBc, and 2.0% were positive either for HBsAg or total anti-HBc and were classified as chronically HBV-infected. Furthermore, 70.3% of the patients were classified as never having been infected. Male gender, age >40 years and Caucasian ethnicity were associated with an anti-HBc positive test. Conclusions The results showed an intermediate prevalence of HBsAg among the studied patients. Moreover, the associations between the anti-HBc marker and socio-demographic factors suggest a need for HBV immunization among these HIV-positive individuals, who are likely to have HIV/HBV coinfection.

  17. Dietary and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs Levels in Pregnant Women in Tehran

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    Bita Eslami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the levels of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and Polybrominateddiphenyl ethers (PBDEs as persistent organic pollutants (POPs in serum of primiparous women at the third trimester of pregnancy and identify the main determinants of POPs levels such as socio-demographic, lifestyle, and diet in Tehran.Materials and methods: One- hundred eighty five serum samples from two simultaneous case-control studies were collected from September 2013 until August 2015.Ten most abundant PCB congeners (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC congeners 28, 52, 74, 99, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 and 187 as well as eight PBDE congeners (IUPAC congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to explain the relationship between total PCBs and total BPDEs and most detected congeners and some determinants, separately.Results: The mean (SD age of the participating women was 27.82 ± 5.24 years. The geometric mean (SD of total PCBs was 2.42 ± 2.26 and total PBDEs was 1.28 ± 1.41 ng/g lipid. Only the PCB 138, PCB 153 and PBDE 153 were detected in 100% of samples. We observed a significant relationship between the time of being indoors and total PBDEs (P = 0.03. Passive smoking was significantly associated with PCB 153 (P = 0.049. The results of the linear regression analysis showed the negative and weak association (P-value < 0.05 between diet (egg and fat and oil consumption and POPs in this population.Conclusion: It seems the most common route of exposure to PBDEs in our population is indoor pollutants. Meanwhile inhalation of smoke from environment is a route of exposure to PCB 153. Further study is needed to evaluate the effects of socio-demographics and especially dietary intake on POPs level.

  18. Food insecurity in Denmark-socio-demographic determinants and associations with eating- and health-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thomas B; Holm, Lotte; Tetens, Inge; Smed, Sinne; Nielsen, Annemette L

    2018-04-01

    Food insecurity and its consequences have not received much attention in the Nordic, social-democratic welfare states. This study reports the prevalence of low and very low food security in Denmark, identifies its socio-demographic determinants and examines its associations with eating-related and health-related outcomes. A cross-sectional survey with a mixed-mode response format (telephone interviewing or Internet). A disproportional stratified random sampling design was employed (N = 1877). Main measure was the 6-item gradient food security construct adapted from the US. Prevalence of low and very low food security was 6.0% (95% CI:5.4-8.5%) and 2.4% (95% CI:1.3-3.3%), respectively. Prevalence was highest in households with disposable income below OECD's poverty threshold, households receiving benefits or disability pensions, and single-parent households. After socio-demographic adjustment, adults from low/very low food secure households had a higher probability of eating an unhealthy diet (women: adj.RR 2.82 P food secure households had lower life satisfaction (women: adj.RR 0.49, P food secure women (RR 2.44 P Food insecurity in Denmark is associated with adverse factors such as unhealthy diet, obesity, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. It is important to widen food insecurity research to non-liberal welfare states since low/very low food security is negatively associated with unhealthy eating and other health indicators, even in a social-democratic welfare state.

  19. Individual and socio-demographic factors related to presenting problem and diagnostic impressions at a pediatric sleep clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Patrick, Kristina E; Williamson, Ariel A; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-09-01

    Individual and socio-demographic factors have been found to be associated with sleep disturbances in children. Few studies have examined these factors among children presenting for care at pediatric sleep clinics. This study examined individual and socio-demographic factors in association with presenting problems and diagnostic impressions for new patients at an interdisciplinary pediatric sleep clinic. Data were collected from electronic medical records of 207 consecutive patients (54% male, 59% White, Mean age  = 7.73, SD = 5.62). Older age, female gender, and White race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with difficulty falling asleep; younger age, male gender, and Black race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related concerns. Older age was associated with diagnostic impressions of inadequate sleep hygiene, insufficient sleep, circadian rhythm disorder/delayed sleep phase disorder, periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome, and insomnia, while younger age was associated with provisional OSA and behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC) diagnoses. Male gender was associated with provisional OSA. White race was associated with BIC. Age-based analyses were also conducted to further understand the findings within a developmental context. Age- and gender-related findings converged with prevalence literature on pediatric sleep disorders. Race was only associated with presenting concern and BIC, and one association for neighborhood disadvantage was found within the age-based analysis. Results suggest a potential service delivery gap, with racial/ethnic minority youth being less likely to present for sleep services, despite prevalence data on the increased likelihood of sleep disturbances among these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between problematic internet use, socio-demographic variables and obesity among European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis K; Andrie, Elisabeth K; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Tzavara, Chara K; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Bacopoulou, Flora; Richardson, Clive; Chrousos, George P; Tsolia, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Overweight of children and adolescents continues to be an important and alarming global public health problem. As the adolescent's time spent online has increased, problematic internet use (PIU) potentially leads to negative health consequences. This study aimed to examine the relation between PIU and overweight/obesity among adolescents in seven European countries and assess the effect of demographic and lifestyle factors recorded in the European Network for Adolescent Addictive Behaviour (EU NET ADB) survey (www.eunetadb.eu). A cross-sectional school-based survey of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries: Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Spain. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires included sociodemographic data, internet usage characteristics, school achievement, parental control and the Internet Addiction Test. Associations between overweight/obesity and potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analysis, allowing for the complex sample design. The study sample consisted of 10 287 adolescents aged 14-17 years. 12.4% were overweight/obese, and 14.1% presented with dysfunctional internet behavior. Greece had the highest percentage of overweight/obese adolescents (19.8%) and the Netherlands the lowest (6.8%). Male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95%CI: 2.46-3.38], heavier use of social networking sites (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09-1.46) and residence in Greece (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.79-2.99) or Germany (OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.12-1.96) were independently associated with higher risk of overweight/obesity. A greater number of siblings (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.64-0.97), higher school grades (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63-0.88), higher parental education (OR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.82-0.97) and residence in the Netherlands (OR = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.31-0.77) independently predicted lower risk of overweight/obesity. The results indicate an association of overweight/obesity with PIU and suggest the importance of

  1. Barriers and facilitators to enrollment and re-enrollment into the community health funds/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania: a cross-sectional inquiry on the effects of socio-demographic factors and social marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapologwe, Ntuli A; Kagaruki, Gibson B; Kalolo, Albino; Ally, Mariam; Shao, Amani; Meshack, Manoris; Stoermer, Manfred; Briet, Amena; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Hoffman, Axel

    2017-04-27

    Introduction of a health insurance scheme is one of the ways to enhance access to health care services and to protect individuals from catastrophic health expenditures. Little is known on the influence of socio-demographic and social marketing strategies on enrollment and re-enrollment in the Community Health Fund/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania. This cross-sectional study employed quantitative methods for data collection between November 2014 and March 2015 in Singida and Shinyanga regions. Relationship between variables was obtained through Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. We recruited 496 participants in the study. Majority (92.7%) of participants consented to participate, with 229 (49.8%) and 231 (50.2%) members and non members of CHF/TIKA respectively. Majority (90.9%) were aware of CHF/TIKA. Majority of CHF/TIKA members and non-members (90% and 68.3% respectively) reported health facility-based sensitization as the most common social marketing approach employed to market the CHF/TIKA. The most popular marketing strategies in the country including traditional dances, football games, radio, television, news papers, and mosques/church were reported by few CHF and non CHF members. Multivariate Logistic regression models revealed no significant association between social marketing strategies and enrollment, but only socio-demographics; including marital status (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and family size (household with ≥ 6 members) (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), were significant factors associated with enrollment/re-enrollment rate. This study indicated that low level of utilization of available social marketing strategies and socio-demographic factors are the barriers for attracting members to join the schemes. There is a need for applying various social marketing strategies and considering different facilitating and impending socio-demographic factors for the growth and sustainability of the scheme as we move towards

  2. Socio-Demographic profile of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the socio-economic profile of People Living with HIVIAIDS (PLWAs) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-economic characteristics of demographic information from recruited participants who were attendees of HIV adult ...

  3. Socio-demographics, Oral Health Behavior, and Physical Activity: Factors in Caries Experience among 19–59 Years Old Adults in a Malaysian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivyalosini Maykanathan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the common diseases that are attributed by many factors. Many from the adult population are afflicted with dental caries. This study aimed to determine the predictors of developing dental caries among adults. Three hundred and thirty four adults participated in this study. Information gathered includes their socio-demographic backgrounds, oral health behaviour, physical activity level, body mass index, body fat percentages, visceral fat level, and dental missing filled extracted teeth (DMFX index. All standard protocols were observed and DMFX was examined using the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Prevalence of dental caries was 87.4%, inclusive of 61.3% of female respondents with caries experience. Most of the study participants were overweight. Only the consumption of high sugar food (p=0.03 was found to be connected between dental caries and oral health behaviours. Regression analysis (p<0.001 showed that older age (p<0.001, regular visits to dental clinic per year (p=0.012, lower education level (p=0.025, and lower physical activity (p=0.008 were significant factors in developing dental caries among this study population. Older aged adults, frequent appointment with the dentist, lower education in oral health, and lower physical activity were possible factors for dental caries presence.

  4. Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG, especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1 year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2% and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.

  5. The influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Moa-Liberty Alausa Waheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a sample size of 300 National Youth Service Corp members were randomly selected in the five divisions of Lagos State with ages ranging from 18 to 30. Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and t-tests. The results show that there is a significant joint influence of sex, age, ethnicity and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions (r2 = 0.90; P <.01]; male participants are more susceptible to entrepreneurial intentions than their female counterparts [t = 26.46, P <.01] and that Youth Corp members with a high self-efficacy rate significantly higher on entrepreneurial intentions (t = 25.09, P <.01]. Based on these findings, the study recommended that a self-efficacy programme should be included in the school curriculum so as to enhance entrepreneurial intentions among fresh graduates and, by so doing, reducing the high rate of unemployment in society. It was also recommended that future studies should use a larger sample and explore experimental methods so as to see if a causal relationship can be established among variables.

  6. Assessment of Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Psychiatric Morbidity and Socio-Demographic Factors in the Patients of Chronic Renal Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Usama Bin; Butt, Batool

    2017-07-01

    To assess the subjective sleep quality and its relationship with the presence of psychiatric morbidity in the patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and undergoing the procedure of hemodialysis (HD); and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Nephrology Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Patients of CKD undergoing the HD were included in the final analysis. Quality of sleep was determined by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Psychiatric morbidity was determined by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Relationship of education, BMI, gender, age, duration of dialysis, dialysis count per week, marital status, level of family income, psychiatric morbidity, occupation, biochemical markers (urea, creatinine, BUN, albumin, calcium, phosphorous and hemoglobin), tobacco smoking, and use of naswar was determined with the sleep quality. One hundred and forty patients were screened through the PSQI; 44 (31.4%) had good quality of sleep while 96 (68.6%) had poor sleep quality. Statistical analysis revealed that presence of psychiatric morbidity, increasing age, female gender, being unmarried, low family income, and low frequency of dialysis had significant association with the poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was highly prevalent among the patients of CKD receiving the hemodialysis. The patients with low family income, more age, and with two or less dialysis sessions per week should be screened thoroughly for the sleep problems. Presence of psychiatric morbidity emerged as an independent factor responsible for the poor sleep quality in our target population.

  7. Prevalence of Heart Failure and Adherence to Process Indicators: Which Socio-Demographic Determinants are Involved?

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    Alessandra Buja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest in chronic conditions reflects their role as the first cause of death and disability in developed countries; improving the management of these conditions is a priority for health care services. The aim of this study was to establish which sociodemographic factors influence adherence to standards of care for chronic heart failure (CHF. A generalized multilevel structural equation model was developed and applied to a sample of patients with CHF obtained from administrative data flows in six Italian regions to ascertain any associations between adherence to standards of care for CHF and sociodemographic variables. Indicators of compliance were adherence to beta-blocker therapy (BB-A and Angiotensin Convertin Enzime inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker therapy (ACE-A, and creatinine and electrolyte testing (CNK-T. All indicators were computed over a one-year follow-up. Among a cohort of 24,997 patients, the BB-A rate was 40.4%, the ACE-A rate 61.1%, and the CNK-T rate 57.0%. Factors found associated with adherence were gender, age, and citizenship. Our study shows an inadequate adherence to standards of care for CHF, particularly associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics. This suggests the need to improve the role of primary care in managing this chronic condition. The measures considered only apply to patients with a reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, hence a limitation of this analysis is the lack of information on left ventricular ejection.

  8. clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinic in Nairobi. Methods:Clinical, with emphasis on musculoskeletal manifestations, treatment and selected comorbidities ... Persons at increased risk for osteoporosis in this set-up include post-menopausal women with debilitating chronic illness ... (ii) Diabetes, fractures and hypertension were as per the file diagnosis.

  9. The Assessment of Children’s Socio-Demographic Features at the Adolescent Outpatient Clinic

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    Y. Kenan Haspolat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we investigated socio-demo­graphic characteristics of adolescents living in our region. Methods: Were analyzed, retrospectively, patients admit­ted Dicle University Faculty of Medicine’ adolescent out­patient clinic. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI, medical history and family background, school status, academic achievement, habits, trauma and psychosocial status were recorded. Results: Of the 244 adolescents, 124/% were females. The average age of cases was 12.99 ± 1.89 years (10-18 years. 48.3% of adolescents were low BMI. The smoking rate of 32.4% (n=79 and was higher in men. In smok­ers, school performance was lower (p = 0.002, and the rate of suicidal idea was higher (p < 0.001. In those with family history of suicide, the rate of suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide was higher (p = 0.005, p = 0.022, re­spectively. Similarly, in cases exposed to physical vio­lence, the rates of attempted suicide or suicidal thoughts were higher (p=0.011, p=0.001, respectively. In addition, in cases exposed to psychological violence the rates of attempted suicide or suicidal thoughts were higher (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Adolescents, for they can complete this period in a healthy way, health-care services, education units, especially their parents, should be made aware of the adolescence period-specific problems. Additionally, special centers customized adolescents, should be cre­ated and supported by state and private institutions.

  10. HIV Infection among Young People in Northwest Tanzania: The Role of Biological, Behavioural and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors.

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    Francesca Lemme

    Full Text Available Young people are at high risk of HIV and developing appropriate prevention programmes requires an understanding of the risk factors for HIV in this age group. We investigated factors associated with HIV among participants aged 15-30 years in a 2007-8 cross-sectional survey nested within a community-randomised trial of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention in 20 rural communities in northwest Tanzania.We analysed data for 7259(53% males and 6476(47% females. Using a proximate-determinant conceptual framework and conditional logistic regression, we obtained sex-specific Odds Ratios (ORs for the association of HIV infection with socio-demographic, knowledge, behavioural and biological factors.HSV-2 infection was strongly associated with HIV infection (females: adjOR 4.4, 95%CI 3.2-6.1; males: adjOR 4.2, 95%CI 2.8-6.2. Several socio-demographic factors (such as age, marital status and mobility, behavioural factors (condom use, number and type of sexual partnerships and biological factors (blood transfusion, lifetime pregnancies, genital ulcers, Neisseria gonorrhoeae were also associated with HIV infection. Among females, lifetime sexual partners (linear trend, p<0.001, ≥2 partners in the past year (adjOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, ≥2 new partners in the past year (adjOR 1.9 95%CI 1.2, 3.3 and concurrent partners in the past year (adjOR 1.6 95%CI 1.1, 2.4 were all associated with HIV infection.Efforts must be intensified to find effective interventions to reduce HSV-2. Effective behavioural interventions focusing on reducing the number of sexual partnerships and risk behaviour within partnerships are also needed. An increase in risky sexual behaviour may occur following marriage dissolution or when a young woman travels outside of her community and interventions addressing the needs of these subgroups of vulnerable women may be important.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00248469.

  11. Socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral correlates of different modes of transportation to work among Norwegian parents

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    Oline Anita Bjørkelund

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode. The object of this study was to assess the associations between modes of commuting to the workplace among parental adults; taking socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral factors into account. Methods Data from a cross- sectional questionnaire were collected from a sample of 709 parents (23 % men and 77 % women of children aged 10–12 years-old in two Norwegian counties, Hedmark and Telemark. Commuting behavior, socio- demographic determinants, personal and environmental factors were ascertained using questionnaire data from the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks project (FVMM. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied. Results In total, 70 % of adults were categorized as car commuters to and from work, 12 % was categorized as a cyclist and 7 % as a walker. The multivariate analyses showed that active commuters were more likely to have a shorter distance to work and perceived the traffic as more safe. Moreover, those who actively commute to the workplace considered commuting as a way to obtain health benefits and a way to reduce CO2 emissions. Active commuters also considered weather to be an obstacle to active commuting. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study of parents living in sub-urban Norway, we found that active commuting to and from the workplace were associated with a shorter distance to work, traffic safety, environmental concern, health benefits and weather condition. In light of these

  12. Violence Tendencies of High School Students: An Examination in Terms of Exposure to Violence, Participation in Sports and Socio-Demographic Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagün, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the violence tendencies of young people studying in high school in terms of their participation in sports, status of exposure to violence and socio-demographic variables. It was also aimed to evaluate whether the identified violence tendency differed significantly by gender, grade, school success,…

  13. Digital Divides and Socio-Demographic Factors: A Longitudinal Quantitative Study of Internet Users in U.S. from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…

  14. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45-70 years): A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesters, I.; Wahl, S.; Keulen, H.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods. A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45-70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities

  15. Contraceptive use by the rural women of Uttar Pradesh - A socio-demographic study

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    Ambesh Chandra Rajpurohit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The single most important problem that developing countries like India are facing today is uncontrolled growth of population. It is important to study the dynamics of contraceptive use, to understand current contraceptive use, preference and problems of different methods as well as their intention to use contraceptive methods in the future. Objective: To assess the knowledge and perception about contraceptive methods as well as use of the different methods among ever married women in the rural area of north India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The married women residing for at least six months in the area was considered as a resident and included in the study.  The data was collected by using structured questionnaire. A total of 520 ever married women were included in this study. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis of the data. Results: All the women were aware at least one of the method of contraceptives.  The contraceptive use was observed to be 26.2%. The contraceptive use was higher among the women of age 41-50 years (34.4% (p=0.0001.  The percentage of contraceptive use was higher among literate women than illiterates. There was significant (p<0.05 association between education of women and husband with use of contraceptive methods. The contraceptive use was higher among OBC (33.5% compared with upper class (28.7% and SC (16.3% and this was statistically significant (p=0.01.  A significant (p<0.01 association was observed between contraceptive use with living number of children. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of women, education of women & husband and number of living children were found to be significant factors associated with the use of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that although the knowledge about contraceptive methods was universal, however its use over the years has not increased much.

  16. Socio-demographic determinants of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in migrant workers of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Walker, Martin; Lewis, John W; Noordin, Rahmah; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-05-15

    The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work. A total of 484 migrant workers originating from rural locations in neighbouring countries, namely, Indonesia (n = 247, 51.0%), Nepal (n = 99, 20.5%), Bangladesh (n = 72, 14.9%), India (n = 52, 10.7%) and Myanmar (n = 14, 2.9%) were included in this study. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 57.4% (n = 278; 95% CI: 52.7-61.8%) with 52.9% (n = 256; 95% CI: 48.4-57.2%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG only, 0.8% (n = 4; 95% CI: 0.2-1.7%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM only and 3.7% (n = 18; 95% CI: 2.1-5.4%) seropositive with both IgG and IgM antibodies. All positive samples with both IgG and IgM antibodies showed high avidity (> 40%), suggesting latent infection. Age (being older than 45 years), Nepalese nationality, manufacturing occupation, and being a newcomer in Malaysia (excepting domestic work) were positively and statistically significantly associated with seroprevalence (P Malaysia. Efforts should be made to encourage improved personal hygiene before consumption of food and fluids, thorough cooking of meat and better disposal of feline excreta from domestic pets.

  17. [Life satisfaction and related socio-demographic factors during female midlife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, José Luis; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo R; López-Baena, María Teresa; Cuadros-Celorrio, Angela M; Fernández-Alonso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between abortion and contraception: A comparative socio-demographic analysis of Czech and Slovak populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourkova, Jirina

    2016-01-01

    Before 1990, abortions were highly prevalent in Eastern Europe, including Czechoslovakia. After 1990, the Czech and Slovak populations experienced a significant decrease in the abortion rate. Because both states have complete statistics on abortion and identical histories of abortion legislation, trends in abortion rates between 1988 and 2008 can be compared in detail using standard and decomposition methods. Binary logistic regression with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the variables associated with changes in attitudes toward abortion between 1991 and 2008. First, a convergence in abortion rates was confirmed, although a higher abortion rate among unmarried Czech women remained in 2008. In contrast, a divergence in contraceptive practices was found; Slovaks have significantly lagged behind Czechs in the use of modern contraceptives. Differentials in attitudes toward abortion significantly increased (p abortion rate was achieved without legal restrictions to access to abortions, various factors were responsible for this outcome. In the Czech Republic, improvements in family planning and increasing awareness of reproductive health have played key roles in promoting responsible sexual behavior, whereas in Slovakia, the stronger influence of the Catholic Church has contributed to the prevention of abortions.

  19. Cognitive function in schizophrenia and its association with socio-demographics factors

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    Bharti T Talreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

  20. Socio Demographic Determinants of Delivery Practice in Rural Women of Bangladesh

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    Meherunnessa Begum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year, world wide, 200 million women become pregnant. The development of urban areas allowed women to receive more care and treatment. However, in rural areas such measures are not available to every woman. Data on delivery practice of rural woman may help the social and public health planners and decision makers to minimize and prevent maternal mortality and morbidity ensuring safe motherhood.Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the delivery practice of rural women of Bangladesh.Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected from Dhamrai upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh in April 2008. Total 159 women of reproductive age group at least having one child were selected purposively to elicit information on various demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and selected programmatic variables including maternal health care and delivery practices.Results: Among the respondents about 55% were literate. Majority (80% of the respondents delivered at home and most of the them (71% felt that home delivery was comfortable where as about 29% of the respondents were compelled to deliver at home due to family decision and financial constraint. Among the deliveries about 82% occurred normally and 18.2% were by cesarean section. A considerable percentage of deliveries (49% were attended by traditional birth attendants. Blade was used for cutting umbilical cord in majority of the cases (74% who delivered at home. Most of the respondents (90% took ante natal check up and about 74% were vaccinated by tetanus toxoid.Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that a lot of work is still to do for the policy makers and health planners to target, plan, develop and deliver maternal health services to the rural women of Bangladesh.

  1. Socio-demographic determinants of coinfections by HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in central Italian prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vito Elisabetta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coinfections HIV/HCV/HBV are an important health issue in penitentiary communities. The aim of the study was to examine HIV, HBV and HCV coinfections determinants amongst prisoners in the jails of Southern Lazio (Central Italy, in the period 1995–2000. Methods Diagnosis of seropositivities for HIV, HBV and HCV was made using ELISA method. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to verify the influence of socio-demographic factors on the HIV/HBV/HCV coinfections. Results HIV/HCV, HBV/HCV and HIV/HBV coinfections were detected in 42 (4%, 203 (17.9% and 31 (2.9% inmates, respectively. These coinfections are significantly associated with the status of drug addiction (OR = 16.02; p = 0.012; OR = 4.15; p Conclusion The prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV seropositivity in jails suggests that information and education programs for inmates could be useful to reduce the spread of such infections.

  2. Socio Demographic Factors Determining the Adequacy of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women Visiting Ekiti State Primary Health Centers

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    Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centers among pregnant women to elucidate adequacy of antenatal care across different socio demographic variables. Four hundred respondents were proportionately selected from 18 primary health centers using simple random sampling. Exit interviews were conducted using the adapted antenatal care exit interview form of the Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment package. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Adequacy of antenatal care in this study was measured by the single adequacy indicators which are duration of pregnancy at entry into antenatal care and number of antenatal visits; which are particularly suitable for developing countries. Age of respondents, means of transportation to the PHCs, occupation, location and level of education of the respondents were found to be determinants of whether the pregnant women attended their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, similarly, age of the respondents was a predictor of whether the women made up to four antenatal visits by their third trimester. Occupation and level of education were determinants of whether or not the pregnant women made their first antenatal visits at the first trimester. More respondents who were not working and those who were unskilled workers made their first antenatal visit at the first trimester compared to those who were skilled workers; work place policies and the fact that antenatal booking are made on weekdays and at work hours may hinder or be discouraging to the working class mothers.

  3. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

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    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  4. Health-related and socio-demographic factors associated with frailty in the elderly: a systematic literature review

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    Amanda de Carvalho Mello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.

  5. 'Organisation of contraceptive care' and attitudes among healthcare providers in two Swedish cities with different socio-demographic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Moa; Brynhildsen, Jan; Falk, Gabriella

    2015-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare contraceptive services provided by family planning clinics in Linköping and Norrköping in Östergötland County, Sweden. The two cities are of similar size but have different socio-demographic profiles. The abortion rate in Linköping (15.3 per 1000) is substantially lower than in Norrköping (21.1 per 1000). METHODS The study was performed in two steps. First, the clinics providing contraceptive services in the two cities were studied using ten pre-defined quality indicators. Thereafter, 11 healthcare providers were interviewed: six in Linköping and five in Norrköping. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS No differences were found in the organisation of contraceptive care in the two cities. Neither city met the criteria for five of the ten quality indicators. The analysis of the interviews generated four themes: 'Guidelines and electronic record template', 'Criteria for good contraceptive counselling', 'Availability of contraception', and 'Sexual health'. The interviews revealed that the clinical leadership in Norrköping was insufficient. CONCLUSION Clinics in the two cities are organised in the same way so that differences in abortion rates cannot be related to differences in organisation. The reasons for the differences in abortion rates in the two cities have yet to be determined.

  6. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF AN URBAN AREA OF DELHI, INDIA

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    Rajesh Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The problem of overweight and obesity is not confined only to developed countries. It may lead to adverse metabolic changes and increased risk of non communicable diseases. Most studies conducted in India are school based. The present community based study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its sociodemographic correlates among adolescents of an urban area of Delhi.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, community based study, using systematic random sampling was carried out during 2011 on 811 adolescents of both sexes from an urban area in South-West Delhi. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to collect information on socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Subjects were classified as overweight or obese on the basis of NCHS/CDC 2000 Age and Sex Specific Percentile Growth Charts.Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.1% and 7.2% respectively. When analyzed by gender, prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.4% and 7.7% among boys and 12.4% and 6.7% among girls respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was significantly higher among subjects studying in private schools (OR: 2.56; CI: 1.77 – 3.71Conclusion: Overnutrition is an emerging health problem in adolescent population which needs to be addressed with priority.

  7. Socio-Demographic Indicators, Intelligence, and Locus of Control as Predictors of Adult Financial Well-Being

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    Adrian Furnham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated a longitudinal data set of 4790 adults examining a set of socio-demographic and psychological factors that influence adult financial well-being. Parental social status (at birth, childhood intelligence and self-esteem (at age 10, locus of control (at age 16, psychological distress (age 30, educational qualifications (age 34, current occupation, weekly net income, house ownership status, and number of rooms (all measured at age 38 years were examined. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood intelligence, locus of control, education and occupation were all independent predictors of adult financial well-being for both men and women. Parental social status and psychological distress were also significant predictors of the outcome variable for men, but not for women. Whereas for women, in comparison to men, the effects of current occupation and childhood intelligence on the outcome variable appeared to be stronger. The strongest predictor of adult financial well-being was current occupational prestige, followed by educational achievement. The gender deferential of financial well-being indicators and its implications are discussed.

  8. Epidemiological profile of malaria among various socio-demographic groups in a western district of Odisha, India.

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    Pradhan, Nitika; Pradhan, Prakash; Pati, Sanghamitra; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2018-03-01

    A retrospective analysis of malaria incidence, patterns and trends in Bargarh, a western district of Odisha, India, over five consecutive years (2012 to 2016) among various socio-demographic components was established from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Bargarh, as well as from district survey reports. The increasing trend in malariometric indices such as the Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER), the Annual Parasite index (API) as well as the Total Positive Rate (TPR) reveals a better surveillance activity but an alarming situation for malaria. The trend for P. falciparum and P. vivax infection is found to be zigzagging or fluctuating for the five years in question, with the preponderance of P. falciparum infection. Malaria in Bargarh district is age-specific where there is a strong positive correlation between the age factor and malaria morbidity, but it is gender-blind. The incidence of malaria is increasing among deprived communities as well as pregnant women in the district. The community perception study reveals the knowledge level regarding cause, prevention and treatment for malaria, which is lower among deprived communities than more progressive communities. The overall epidemiological study highlights the dynamics of disease transmission among various demographic members in Bargarh district, whilst evaluating awareness of current malaria endemicity.

  9. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM VARANASI

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    Amit Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what factors are associated with malnutrition? Objective: To assess the nutritional status of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates of nutritional status. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were involved in the study. Results: Out of total 816 study subjects 429 or 52.6% (201 boys and 228 girls were underweight and 75 or 9.2% (39 boys and 36 girls were stunted. Educational status of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the nutritional status of school children Conclusion: As the literacy status of the parents has been revealed to be strongly associated with nutritional status of children, there is an increasing need to focus the efforts towards the parents to improve the nutritional status of primary school children.

  10. Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and its relation with socio-demographic variables and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudia de; Seleme, Maura; Cansi, Paula F; Consentino, Renata Fdc; Kumakura, Fernanda Y; Moreira, Gizelle A; Berghmans, Bary

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of urinary incontinency (UI) in pregnant women and its relationship with socio-demographic variables and quality of life. A descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted to investigate 495 women using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF). The survey was conducted on the same day of delivery, with the volunteers still in the maternity ward. Statistical analysis of the comparison between groups 1 (incontinence) and 2 (continent) was done using chi-square test for comparison of proportions of women with and without urinary incontinency and logistic regression analysis. From the total of 495 women studied, 352 (71%) reported having had UI during the last four weeks of pregnancy. Group 1 presented the ICIQ-SF median score of 11 (range 3-21), considered as severe impact in quality of life. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was a closer relation between the self-report of UI with the following variables: level of education below 8 years (OR: 2.99; p < 0.001), black women (OR: 2.32; p= 0.005), women with more than 3 children (OR: 4.93; p < 0.001), obese (OR: 4.22; p < 0.001) and normal vaginal delivery (OR: 2.59; p < 0.001). The majority of pregnant women have UI, negatively affecting the quality of their lives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreasing Obesity and Obesity Stigma: Socio-Demographic Differences in Beliefs about Causes of and Responsibility for Obesity

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    Christy Brady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a stigmatized condition, and research has shown that obesity stigma varies based on the perceived cause of obesity. It is important that public health professionals develop policy and campaigns that resonate with specific populations while avoiding an increase in harmful stigma. This study identifies socio-demographic differences in causal attributions of obesity and beliefs about responsibility for obesity. Using data from a survey of 923 people in the United States conducted by ABC New/Time Magazine, attributions of cause and responsibility are analyzed using Ordinary Least Squares regression. Beliefs about cause and responsibility fall on a continuum from primarily individual cause and personal responsibility to primarily societal cause and social responsibility. In general, women and minority racial groups are found to be more likely to identify causes over which individuals have little control and place responsibility on societal factors than men and Whites. People in higher income categories are found to be more likely to identify individual responsibility for obesity. Findings from this study can be used to shape information and public health policy to address obesity in ways that will not exacerbate obesity stigma as well as to create programs that will be customized for specific communities based on their existing beliefs.

  12. Socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-explosed but uninfected individuals, and in HIV-1-infected patients from a southern brasilian population Características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 (HIV-1 em indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados e em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, provenientes da população da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and progression of the disease is regulated by host and viral factors. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with HIV-1 infection in 1,061 subjects attended in Londrina and region, south of Brazil: 136 healthy individuals (Group 1, 147 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected individuals (Group 2, 161 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients (Group 3, and 617 patients with AIDS (Group 4. Data were obtained by a standardized questionnaire and serological tests. The age of the individuals ranged from 15.1 to 79.5 years, 54.0% and 56.1% of the Groups 3 and 4 patients, respectively, were men. The major features of groups 2, 3, and 4 were a predominance of education level up to secondary school (55.8%, 60.2% and 62.4%, respectively, sexual route of exposure (88.4%, 87.0% and 82.0%, respectively, heterosexual behavior (91.8%, 75.2% and 83.7%, respectively, and previous sexually transmitted diseases (20.4%, 32.5%, and 38.1%, respectively. The patients with AIDS showed the highest rates of seropositivity for syphilis (25.6%, of anti-HCV (22.3%, and anti-HTLV I/II obtained by two serological screening tests (6.2% and 6.8%, respectively. The results documenting the predominant characteristics for HIV-1 infection among residents of Londrina and region, could be useful for the improvement of current HIV-1 prevention, monitoring and therapeutic programs targeted at this population.Este estudo transversal descreve as principais características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo HIV-1 em 1.061 indivíduos atendidos em Londrina e região, Sul do Brasil: 136 indivíduos saudáveis (Grupo 1, 147 indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados (Grupo 2, 161 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 assintomáticos (Grupo 3 e 617 pacientes com aids (Grupo 4. Os dados foram obtidos pela aplicação de um

  13. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45-70 years): a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesters, Ilse; Wahl, Stefanie; Van Keulen, Hilde M

    2014-06-25

    Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45-70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45-70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was significantly associated with age, gender

  14. Socio-demographic disparity in oral health among the poor: a cross sectional study of early adolescents in Kilwa district, Tanzania

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    Astrom Anne N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of studies considering social disparity in oral health emanating from adolescents in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic disparities in clinical- and self reported oral health status and a number of oral health behaviors. The extent to which oral health related behaviors might account for socio-demographic disparities in oral health status was also examined. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilwa district in 2008. One thousand seven hundred and forty five schoolchildren completed an interview and a full mouth clinical examination. Caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria, whilst type of treatment need was categorized using the ART approach. Results The majority of students were caries free (79.8% and presented with a low need for dental treatment (89.3%. Compared to their counterparts in opposite groups, rural residents and those from less poor households presented more frequently with caries experience (DMT>0, high need for dental treatment and poor oral hygiene behavior, but were less likely to report poor oral health status. Stepwise logistic regressions revealed that social and behavioral variables varied systematically with caries experience, high need for dental treatment and poor self reported oral health. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes persisted after adjusting for oral health behaviors. Conclusions Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes and oral health behaviors do exist. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes were marginally accounted for by oral health behaviors. Developing policies and programs targeting both social and individual determinants of oral health should be an urgent public health strategy in Tanzania.

  15. [Socio-demographic determinants of self-assessed health status and health complaints in the population employed in a large institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Bogusław; Boczkowski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Health and safety at work is frequently perceived as a domain to be protected exclusively against occupational hazards without taking into account socio-demographic determinants and non-occupational factors dependent on work culture and quality of life. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of socio-demographic determinants on self-assessed health status and frequency of health complaints in workers employed in a large institution as well as the perception of the influence of working conditions on their health and the occurrence of selected diseases and health complaints. The study was carried out in the entire population of employees of a large institution. Information that remained anonymous was collected using a questionnaire completed by the employees themselves. The strength of relationship was analyzed between the following three groups of variables: (1) self-assessed health status; (2) objectivized (based on reported facts) evaluation of health status; and (3) socio-demographic determinants. The socio-demographic determinants have considerable impact on self-reported health status and frequency of health complaints and diseases linked and not-linked by respondents with working conditions. The frequency of responses indicating the relationship between work and health complaints were dependent on gender and duration of employment in the institution. The number of reported diseases and health complaints was influenced by gender, age, duration of employment and the respondents' level of education. Summing up, the following groups of respondents evaluated their health as worse than that of others: (1) persons aged over 50 years; (2) persons working 16 or more years in the institution, (3) persons with other than university education; (4) person with overweight. The results indicate that the health policy of institutions and enterprises should take into account socio-demographic determinants in the working population.

  16. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions for climate change: a path analysis with mediating effects of attitudinal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.

  17. Socio-demographic disparity in oral health among the poor: a cross sectional study of early adolescents in Kilwa district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Astrom, Anne N; Skeie, Marit S; Masalu, Joyce R

    2010-04-20

    There is a lack of studies considering social disparity in oral health emanating from adolescents in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic disparities in clinical- and self reported oral health status and a number of oral health behaviors. The extent to which oral health related behaviors might account for socio-demographic disparities in oral health status was also examined. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilwa district in 2008. One thousand seven hundred and forty five schoolchildren completed an interview and a full mouth clinical examination. Caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria, whilst type of treatment need was categorized using the ART approach. The majority of students were caries free (79.8%) and presented with a low need for dental treatment (89.3%). Compared to their counterparts in opposite groups, rural residents and those from less poor households presented more frequently with caries experience (DMT>0), high need for dental treatment and poor oral hygiene behavior, but were less likely to report poor oral health status. Stepwise logistic regressions revealed that social and behavioral variables varied systematically with caries experience, high need for dental treatment and poor self reported oral health. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes persisted after adjusting for oral health behaviors. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes and oral health behaviors do exist. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes were marginally accounted for by oral health behaviors. Developing policies and programs targeting both social and individual determinants of oral health should be an urgent public health strategy in Tanzania.

  18. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36. The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2 for men and 51.2 (17.9 for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.

  19. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson's ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A

    2012-06-21

    Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but

  20. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children

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    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    % CI 1.12-2.68 were significant independent predictors of eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week. Living in the rural area was independently associated (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.71-3.68 with physical activity > twice a week. Male gender (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95, urban area with low SES (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09, high-income neighborhoods (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.25, higher parental education (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.34 and fewer siblings (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.73 were independent predictors of sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day. Conclusions Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are independent predictors of overweight and higher BMI among Pakistani primary school children, and are significantly affected by the child's socio-demographic characteristics. These findings support the urgent need to develop a National strategy for diet and physical activity and to implement culturally relevant behavioral interventions in the resource-poor developing country settings.

  1. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2011-11-25

    independently associated (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.71-3.68) with physical activity>twice a week. Male gender (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95), urban area with low SES (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), high-income neighborhoods (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.25), higher parental education (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.34) and fewer siblings (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.73) were independent predictors of sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are independent predictors of overweight and higher BMI among Pakistani primary school children, and are significantly affected by the child's socio-demographic characteristics. These findings support the urgent need to develop a National strategy for diet and physical activity and to implement culturally relevant behavioral interventions in the resource-poor developing country settings.

  2. Maternal health behaviours during pregnancy in an Irish obstetric population and their associations with socio-demographic and infant characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and combined occurrence of peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplement use, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy in a sample of women in Dublin, and determine the factors associated with these health behaviours.

  3. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quant...

  4. Serum ferritin levels, socio-demographic factors and desferrioxamine therapy in multi-transfused thalassemia major patients at a government tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

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    Rehman Anis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. Findings The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2% were males while 33 (41.8% were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5 years with the dominant age group (46.2% being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8% cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2% cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. Conclusions The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients. Conflicts of Interest: None

  5. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

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    Giacomo Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391. Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19, DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway, while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs.

  6. Trend of Socio-Demographic Index and Mortality Estimates in Iran and its Neighbors, 1990-2015; Findings of the Global Burden of Diseases 2015 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Karimi, Seyed M; Khalili, Narjes; Djalalinia, Shirin; Karimkhani, Chante; Krohn, Kristopher; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Asayesh, Hamid; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Heydarpour, Pouria; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kasaeian, Amir; Rana, Saleem M; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Masoudifarid, Habib; Mohammadi, Alireza; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Safi, Sare; Salamati, Payman; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Vos, Theo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-07-01

    The Global burden of disease and injuries study (GBD 2015) reports expected measures for years of life lost (YLL) based on socio-demographic index (SDI) of countries, as well as the observed measures. In this extended GBD 2015 report, we reviewed total and cause-specific deaths and YLL for Iran and all its neighboring countries between 1990 and 2015. We extracted data from the GBD 2015 database. Observed YLL measures were calculated by multiplying the number of deaths by standard life expectancy at each age. SDI was a composite index, calculated based on income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. The GBD world population was used for age standardization. All-ages crude death rate in Iran reduced from 665.6 per 100,000 population (95% uncertainty interval: 599.3-731.6) in 1990 to 487.2 (414.9-566.1) in 2015. The ratio of observed to expected YLL (O/E ratio) for all-causes ranged between 0.54 (Turkey) and 1.95 (Russia) in 2015. For Iran, the all-causes O/E ratio was less than 1 in all years (1990-2015), except 2003. However, cause-specific O/E ratio was more than 1 for some causes, including the top leading causes of YLL (ischemic heart disease, road injuries, and cerebrovascular disorders). Ischemic heart disease was the first or second cause of YLL in all comparator countries except Afghanistan. The leading YLL causes with high O/E ratios should be prioritized in public health efforts. In addition to research evidence, countries with low O/E ratios should be scrutinized to find feasible innovative interventions.

  7. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

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    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs.

  8. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with HIV in South Africa and Associated Socio-demographic, Health Related and Psychosocial Factors.

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    Huis In 't Veld, Diana; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-02-27

    A high body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference are important health risk factors predisposing for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and certain cancers. Historically, underweight was a diagnostic criterion of HIV-infection. In a cross-sectional study the prevalence of BMI-categories and high waist circumference and its associated factors in patients visiting three outpatient HIV clinics in South Africa were measured with anthropometric measurements and structured questionnaires regarding socio-demographic information, quality of life (QoL), AIDS-related stigma, symptoms of depression, alcohol use, HIV related information and level of adherence to ART. The median age of the 2230 included patients was 37 years, 66.5% were women and 88.6% received antiretroviral therapy. The prevalences of overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were 29.2, 21.9 and 44.6% respectively in women and 12.4, 4.0 and 3.9% respectively in men. Underweight was found in 18.2% of men and 6.3% of women. In multinomial regression analysis compared to a normal BMI, both overweight and obesity were associated with female gender, with being married or cohabiting and with a higher QoL score. Underweight was associated with male gender and tobacco use and negatively associated with being married or cohabiting and the physical domain of the QoL measure. A high waist circumference in men was associated with higher age and negatively associated with tobacco use and stigma score. In women it was negatively associated with never being married. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed in HIV-clinics in South Africa, mainly in women. Since overweight and obesity are important health risk factors, effective weight reduction interventions are desirable.

  9. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

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    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  10. Socio-demographic differentiation of selected risk factors in a group of patients with respiratory system diseases

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    Agnieszka B. Bartoszek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Tobacco smoking is the major risk factor of respiratory system diseases. However, it is worth noticing other crucial factors increasing the risk of such diseases, such as alcohol consumption, obesity, excess fat tissue around the neck and throat, malnutrition, tranquilisers and soporifics, and previous respiratory system diseases. Aim of the research : To analyse the socio-demographic differentiation of selected respiratory system diseases risk factors in a group of pulmonological patients. Material and methods : The research covered 126 pulmonological patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, tuberculosis, or lung cancer. The study employed standardised research tools: the Fagerström test, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and a self-designed questionnaire. Neck circumference and body weight measurements were performed to calculate body mass index and waist-hip ratio. The significance level was established at p < 0.05. Results : Most patients smoked tobacco in the past or were active smokers. Over 50% reported occasional alcohol drinking and demonstrated malnutrition risk or abdominal obesity. Smoking was more often practised by men, people with lower education, and COPD and tuberculosis patients. Malnutrition risk was associated with tuberculosis and lung cancer. Tobacco consumption as a respiratory system diseases risk factor more often applied to men and people below 50 years of age. The use of soporifics increased with age and concerned lung cancer patients. Previous respiratory system diseases correlated with the respondents’ education. Conclusions : The most frequent respiratory system diseases risk factors are smoking, malnutrition, and abdominal obesity. Respiratory system diseases risk factors are significantly correlated with sex, age, place of residence, and previous respiratory system diseases.

  11. Physical activity patterns and socio-demographic correlates of physical activity among medical undergraduates in Sri Lanka: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medagama, Arjuna; Galgomuwa, Manoj; Silva, Chinthani De

    2018-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide and a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Medical undergraduates are a group of young adults expected to have a sound knowledge of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and have an active lifestyle. To quantifyPA levels among medical undergraduates of a Sri Lankan university and to determine the socio-demographic correlates of physical inactivity. Medical undergraduates in their third, fourth and fifth years of study were recruited for this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 421 students were recruited. Overall 41% were physically inactive. Females (47%) were more inactive than males (34%). The total mean weekly metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes was 1468.2±1873. Males (1676.2±1629) had a higher mean weekly MET minutes than females (1319±20102), p=0.05. 88% owned a portable internet device such as a smartphone or tablet. Students using health-related apps on their devices had significantly higherPA (p=0.01) and lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.04), than those who did not. Binary logistic regression revealed physical inactivity to be significantly associated with gender (p=0.01), not using a health-promoting app on their portable device (p=0.01) and the year of study (p=0.03). Physical inactivity is a significant problem among medical undergraduates. The use of health applications was associated with a higher PA and lower BMI. The reasons for inactivity and the discrepancy in activity levels between males and females needs to be explored in greater detail. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Use of Physiotherapy among Patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Impact of Sex, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Frost, Poul; Frich, Lars Henrik; Falla, Deborah; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy with exercises is generally recommended in the treatment of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Objective We aimed to investigate the use of physiotherapy in patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings as part of initial non-surgical treatment and after SIS-related surgery and to evaluate to which extent sex, socio-demographic and clinical factors predict the use of physiotherapy. Methods Using national health registers, we identified 57,311 patients who had a first hospital contact with a diagnosis of ICD-10, groups M75.1–75.9, 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2011. Records of physiotherapy were extracted within 52 weeks after first contact (or until surgery), and for surgically treated patients within 26 weeks after surgery. Predictors of the use of physiotherapy after first contact and after surgery were analysed as time-to-event. Results Within 52 weeks after first contact, 43% of the patients had physiotherapy and 30% underwent surgery. Within 26 weeks after surgery, 80% had a record of physiotherapy. After first contact and after surgery, exercise was part of physiotherapy in 65% and 84% of the patients, respectively. A public hospital contact, physiotherapy before hospital contact, administrative region, female sex, a diagnosis of other or unspecified disorders (M75.8-M75.9), and surgical procedure predicted higher use of physiotherapy. Low education level predicted slightly lower use of physiotherapy after first contact, but not after surgery. Conclusion In patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings, physiotherapy was more often used after surgery than as part of initial non-surgical treatment. The use of physiotherapy was less common among men than women, whereas unequal use of physiotherapy in relation to education level was not noticeable. The use of physiotherapy with exercises in initial non-surgical treatment was relatively limited. PMID:26954692

  13. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

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    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  14. Seroprevalence and Socio-demographic Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Dyspepsia in Kalibaru Primary Health Care North Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Nikko Darnindro; Ari F Syam; Achmad Fauzi; Cleopas M Rumende

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to identify the seroprevalence and its association with socio-demographic factors of Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed in 111 patients with dyspepsia (according to ROME III) who got treatment at Kalibaru Primary Health Care, North Jakarta from January to February 2015. Patients aged over 18 years and no history of gastrectomy were interviewed and 3 cc venous blood was drawn. Bioramps Laboratories’s Immunochromatography Diagnostic Test (Bio M Py...

  15. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF TRAUMATIC CATARACT IN WESTERN ODISHA: A STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Samarth Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM Ocular injuries are common in all age groups, be it from blunt trauma like cricket ball, bat, etc or penetrating injury from pen, pencil or stick with cataract being the most common complication. Other complications like corneal perforation with or without iris prolapse, total hyphema, lens subluxation with or without posterior capsular rupture, iridodialysis, uveitis, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detachment, etc. may occur. The aim of the study was to find out the various causes of traumatic cataract and associated socio-demographic profile in western Odisha, in a single tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective study was conducted on 76 patients who had traumatic cataract and were admitted to VSS Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (VIMSAR, Burla, Odisha from March 2014 to March 2016, a total period of 2 years. Data related to the type of injury, duration of presentation, age, sex, occupation and initial visual acuity were taken. B-scans were done for all cases. X-ray and CT scans were done wherever required. RESULTS Traumatic injuries were most common in children and young adults. 27 cases (35.52% were children in age group less than 10 years. The incidences decreased with increase in age and were less frequent in the elderly. The most common form of injury was penetrating injury with stick injury as the cause in 19 cases (25%, followed by pen (19.73% and pencil (14.47%. Males were injured more frequently (63.15% than females (36.84%. 59 patients presented within 24 hours of injury which comprised 77.63% in total. Though most had poor visual acuity at initial presentation, postoperative prognosis was found to be good in general, if not associated with any other complications. CONCLUSION Since traumatic cataract is common in childhood, parents should be vigilant and should prohibit the use of sharp instruments in children. Occupational workers should use protective eye gears to avoid untoward incident. Though

  16. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development

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    Sobkin V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the

  17. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

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    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2010-01-01

    just before death. This study finds that all four health indicators vary by socio-demographic characteristics. Hence, health intervention programmes should be targeted to those who suffer and are in the most need, the aged, female, single, uneducated and poor. PMID:20975960

  18. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

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    Abdur Razzaque

    2010-09-01

    advance rather than just before death. This study finds that all four health indicators vary by socio-demographic characteristics. Hence, health intervention programmes should be targeted to those who suffer and are in the most need, the aged, female, single, uneducated and poor.

  19. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana

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    Dickson A. Amugsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. Objectives: To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0–59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI, or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results: Children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44, 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90, and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87 increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0–5. Similarly, children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97, 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83, and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59 times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0–5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73 compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27. A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91, while a unit

  20. A study on socio-demographic profile and feasibility of DOTS provider registered under RNTCP in Varanasi district Uttar Pradesh

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    Mohd. Afzalul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is a major chronic disorder affecting the larger population more than any other disease in the country. DOTS was introduced in India in 1993 as part of the Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP following a review of India’s National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP a year earlier (1 .Patient satisfaction is an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. There is need to assess the health care provider regarding the consumer satisfaction as often as possible, this paper summarizes our experience about role of DOTS provider in the management of TB patient in rural population of Varanasi districts Utter Pradesh. Objective: (1 To assess the perception of registered tuberculosis patients regarding DOTS provider for the treatment of tuberculosis. (2 To assess the accessibility, acceptability & availability of community DOTS provider. Design: A longitudinal study. Setting: Three microscopic centre of Cholapur Tuberculosis unit of Varanasi districts. Methods: Registered patients were interviewed twice: once in the beginning and another at the completion of the treatment or after the permanent discontinuation of the treatment. Patients were interviewed for their socio-demographic profiles, opinion about DOTS and its providers. Side effects experienced and action taken etc. Data was collected on a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire. DOTS providers were interviewed and treatment cards analyzed for any interruption of treatment and action taken. Data was collected from 1st June 2004 to 31th June 2005 till the completion of the regimen. Results: Majority of DOTS providers were young males (82.7% of 26 years to 40 years, while the representation of females was only 5 (17.3%. Almost more than 80% of the patients started their treatment within 1-10 days. For majority of cases (83% the distance of DOTS provider from patient’s house was within 1 km. Mean time spent to go to DOTS provider was 27

  1. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sarker, Mohammad Habibur Rahman; Das, Jui; Ahmed, Shawnawaz; Shahunja, K M; Nahar, Shamsun; Gibbons, Nora; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Rahman, Mustafizur; J Fuchs, George; Al Mamun, Abdullah; John Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition) with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh. Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity). Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors. The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010). In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (p<0.001); 53%-21% (p<0.001) and 32%-22% (p<0.001) respectively over the same period. Mean ambient temperature increased from 25.76°C-26.62°C (p = 0.07); mean rainfall, sea level pressure and mean humidity decreased from 234.92-111.75 mm (p = 0.5), 1008.30-1006.61 mm of hg (p = 0.02) and 76.63%-70.26% (p<0.001), respectively. In the adjusted model, a decrease in monthly proportion of underweight [coef.: -0.189 (95% CI:-0.376, -0.003)] and wasting [-0.265 (-0.455, -0.075)] were significantly and inversely associated with rotavirus infection. However, an inverse but insignificant association was observed for stunting

  2. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

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    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh.Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors.The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010. In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (p<0.001; 53%-21% (p<0.001 and 32%-22% (p<0.001 respectively over the same period. Mean ambient temperature increased from 25.76°C-26.62°C (p = 0.07; mean rainfall, sea level pressure and mean humidity decreased from 234.92-111.75 mm (p = 0.5, 1008.30-1006.61 mm of hg (p = 0.02 and 76.63%-70.26% (p<0.001, respectively. In the adjusted model, a decrease in monthly proportion of underweight [coef.: -0.189 (95% CI:-0.376, -0.003] and wasting [-0.265 (-0.455, -0.075] were significantly and inversely associated with rotavirus infection. However, an inverse but insignificant association was observed for

  3. Effect of Maternal Socio-demographic Factors and Child Feeding Practice on Wasting Among Under Five Years Children in Slum Area of Rupandehi District in Nepal.

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    Gautam, S; Ruchal, S; Timalsina, B; Acharya, D; Khadka, B; Gautam, V; Singh, J K

    2017-01-01

    Childhood wasting although well studied elsewhere, it has not been well understood about in slum area of Nepal. This study aimed to assess effect of socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice in the determination of wasting among the children under five years of age in slum area of Nepal. A community based cross-sectional study was performed among 150 children under five years of age from the slum area of Nepal between 1st January and 28th February 2013 using simple random sampling techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with wasting controlling the potential confounders. In a total of 150 under five years children, the prevalence of wasting was 56 (37.33%). The current study demonstrated that children of mothers from dalit Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 11.5; 95% CI: 03.1 - 41.3), aadibasi/janajati (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 1.2 - 17.0), illiterate mothers (AOR 3.6; 95% CI: 1.1 - 13.6), laborer mothers (AOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-9.4), child age group 25-36 months (AOR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-5.3), multiple child birth order (AOR 10.0; 95% CI: 2.5-25.0), children who were not fed colostrums (AOR 15.0; 95% CI: 1.25-10.0) were more likely to develop wasting compared to their counterparts. As incremental childhood wasting is associated with maternal socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice, health promotion strategies should focus maternal socio-demographic factors, age of children and early initiation of breast feeding for the improved child nutrition in slum area of Nepal.

  4. Refined Probability of Differential Characteristics Including Dependency Between Multiple Rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Canteaut (Anne); E. Lambooij (Eran); S. Neves (Samuel); S. Rasoolzadeh (Shahram); Y. Sasaki (Yu); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe current paper studies the probability of differential characteristics for an unkeyed (or with a fixed key) construction. Most notably, it focuses on the gap between two probabilities of differential characteristics: probability with independent S-box assumption, p_ind, and exact

  5. Highlighting the Socio-Demographic Differences of the Key Determinants of Staff’s Satisfaction in Jordanian Hospitals. An Empirical Analysis Based on Warr-Cool-Wall Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana AnaMaria DAVIDESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the socio-demographic differences regarding the main determinants of employee satisfaction in Jordanian hospitals using a sample of 325 employees from six different hospitals in 2015. Therefore, it has been used Warr-Cook-Wall scale in order to assess job satisfaction according to four dimensions: extrinsic job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction, working conditions satisfaction, employee relations satisfaction. The socio-demographic differences on the job satisfaction factors were analyzed using t-test, Anova test and correlation coefficients. The empirical results pointed out that young and older employees express higher degrees of satisfaction comparative with other age group regarding the extrinsic satisfaction and employee relations and that administrative staff, helpers and doctors are more satisfied intrinsic satisfaction, extrinsic satisfaction, working conditions, employee relations and also on the overall level of satisfaction. Also individuals from horizontal structure exhibit higher levels of satisfaction regarding the job satisfaction factors than the ones from vertical structure.

  6. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan.

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    Nagata, Takashi; Takamori, Ayako; Berg, Hans-Yngve; Hasselberg, Marie

    2012-10-21

    The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

  7. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data.

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    Williams, Jill R; Schatz, Enid J; Clark, Benjamin D; Collinson, Mark A; Clark, Samuel J; Menken, Jane; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M

    2010-08-31

    Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  8. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  9. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

  10. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  11. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  12. [Prediction of upper limb recovery in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease: study design and socio-demographic profiles, medical profiles,and acute symptoms of participants at baseline].

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    Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Keiichi; Tsukada, Tetsu; Kaneda, Mariko; Hamaguchi, Toyohiro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to predict the recovery of upper limb function in patients in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease. Here, we describe the study design and patients' characteristics at baseline. Subjects were admitted to Takeda General Hospital with cerebrovascular disease, and were prescribed to undergo rehabilitation. The assessment was conducted between June 2010 and March 2011. The baseline survey assessed the following factors: socio-demographic profiles (age, sex, number of family members, key person, occupation, and activities in daily life), medical profiles (types of cerebrovascular disease, location of brain damage, and history of diseases), and acute symptoms (Japan Coma Scale score, the Barre arm sign, the Brunnstrom recovery stage, tendon reflex, sensation, pain, ataxia, range of motion, muscle tone, grip strength, agnosia, apraxia, aphasia, dysarthria, the Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised score, and the Barthel index). A total of 357 patients with cerebrovascular disease were analyzed on the basis of diagnosis [cerebral infarction (CI; 77.6%), cerebral hemorrhage (CH; 20.2%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; 2.2%)]. There was a significant difference in the average age between the types of cerebrovascular disease. In acute symptoms, sensation, grip strength, cognitive function, and activities of daily living were statistically significantly different between the types of cerebrovascular disease. In this report, we described the study design and characteristics of patients with cerebrovascular disease at baseline. In the future, this study could be used for predicting the recovery of upper limb function in these patients.

  13. The nutritional status of Grade 1 pupils, in Bloemfontein, South Africa and its association with socio-demographic data

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    Hanneke Brits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that UNICEF declared freedom from hunger and malnutrition abasic human right in 1948, more than 20 million children were severely malnourished in 2010 and a further 170 million were stunted. Malnutrition attributes to > 50% of child deaths by potentiating infectious diseases.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the extent of malnutrition in Grade 1 pupils in public sector schools in Bloemfontein. An objective of the study was to identify relationships between socio-economic parameters and malnutrition.Method: Grade 1 pupils from ten public schools in Bloemfontein, selected from a random table, were included in the study. Their parents/caregivers gave informed consent and completed a questionnaire regarding baseline characteristics and feeding practices at home.The children were then weighed and measured, and the 2007 WHO Growth Reference forschool-aged children and adolescents used as reference.Results: A total of 187 children were included in the study. The combination of underweight, wasting and stunting gave an 18% prevalence of malnutrition in this study. A BMI of less than the fifth percentile occurred in 27% of the pupils. Factors positively associated withmalnutrition included: Absence of a fridge and/or running water in the house and loweducation and/or unemployment of parents. Illness in the previous month was reported by 41% of the malnourished children.Conclusion: As socio-economic factors that contribute to malnutrition are now known, teachers will be able to identify and refer children with or at risk of malnutrition and indirectly decrease child mortality.

  14. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH: A cross-sectional study

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    Mbawalla Hawa S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract B